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Kivata MW, Mbuchi M, Eyase FL, Bulimo WD, Kyanya CK, Oundo V, Muriithi SW, Andagalu B, Mbinda WM, Soge OO, McClelland SR, Sang W, Mancuso JD. "gyrA and parC mutations in fluoroquinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Kenya." BMC Microbiol.. 2019;19(1):76. Abstractkivata_et_al-2019-bmc_microbiology.pdf

Phenotypic fluoroquinolone resistance was first reported in Western Kenya in 2009 and later in Coastal Kenya and Nairobi. Until recently gonococcal fluoroquinolone resistance mechanisms in Kenya had not been elucidated. The aim of this paper is to analyze mutations in both gyrA and parC responsible for elevated fluoroquinolone Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) isolated from heterosexual individuals from different locations in Kenya between 2013 and 2017.

Lwande W, Ndakala AJ, A H, Moreka L, Nyandat E, Ndungu M, Amiani H, Gitu PM, Malonza MM, Punyua DK. "Gynandropsis gynandra Essential Oil and Its Constituents as Tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ) Repellents." Phytochemistry. 1999;50:401-405. AbstractWebsite

 
 
 
 

MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER. "Gynadropsis gynandra essential oil and its constituents as tick (Rhippicephalus appendiculatus) repellents.". In: Phytochemistry, 50, 401 - 405. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1999. Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.
Guyton A, Hall J. Guyton {Textbook} {Of} {Medical} {Physiology} 11th {Edition}. 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Elsevier Inc.; 2006. AbstractWebsite

guyton

W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "Guy Mergeai, Paul Kimani, Agnes Mwang.". In: in . J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 2001. Abstract
Genetic diversity of 50 Phaeoisariopsis griseola isolates collected from different agro ecological zones in Kenya were studied using group specific primers and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Group-specific primers differentiated the isolates into Andean and Mesoamerican groups, corresponding to the two common-bean gene pools. Significant polymorphisms were observed with all the AFLP primer combinations used, reflecting a wide genetic diversity in the P. griseola population. A total of 207 finger prints was generated, of which 178 were polymorphic. Cluster analysis of the polymorphic bands also separated the isolates into the two groups defined by group specific primers. All the isolates examined were grouped into three virulence populations; Andean, Afro-Andean and Mesoamerican, and their genetic diversity measured. On average, greater diversity (91%) was detected within populations than between populations (9%). The genetic distance between Andean and Mesoamerican populations was higher (D = 0.0269) than between Andean and Afro-Andean (D = 0.0095). The wide genetic diversity reported here has significant implications in breeding for resistance -to angular leaf spot and should be taken into consideration when screening and deploying resistant bean genotypes.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W: Management of patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in a dental practice. Medicus: 2(8): 3-8, 1992.". In: Lancet. Vol. 340:1476 -1477. Elsevier; 1992. Abstract
S.W. Guthua* and D.L. Mwaniki** Afr. Dental Journal 1992, 6: 30-33 SUMMARY: Analysis of 110 records of patients who presented with impacted mandibular 3 rd molars was carried out to determine the frequency of occurrence of unilateral and bilateral impactions and their characteristics. 68.2% of the patients had bilaterial impactions. Among the patients with bilateral impactions, 72% had mesioangular impaction occurring either bilaterally or in combination with other types of impaction. Furthermore, 38.7% mesioangular impactions were observed on the right and left sides in the patients with bilateral impactions. Among the patients with unilateral impactions, 40.2% presented with mesioangular impaction, while 25.7% presented with distoangular impactions. While these observations support the general consensus regarding aetiology of mandibular 3 rd molar impactions as being tooth-tissue discrepancy, the possible influence of other factors is suggested.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W: Is there a need for a Kenya Dental Association Journal? KDA Newsletter, 3(2):2,1985.". In: Trop. Dent. J: Vol VIII, 2:81-85. Elsevier; 1985. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W.Priorities in the management of emergency faciomaxillary injuries. Kenya Society of Anaesthesiologist (KSA), Nairobi, Kenya, July 1995.". In: Kenya Society of Anaesthesiologist (KSA), Nairobi, Kenya, July 1995. Elsevier; 1995. Abstract
FG Macigo, DL Mwaniki and SW Guthua East Afr. Med. Journal 1995, 72: 778 - 782 SUMMARY: The prevalence of oral leukoplakia and related lesions in a Kenyan rural population was determined in a systematic house to house survey of individuals aged 15 years and above. Among the 803 individual examined, the following prevalence of lesions was observed: leukoedema (26%), melanosis (12.7%), leukoplakia (10.6%), palatal keratosis (6.4%), frictional keratosis (5.5%), pre-leukoplakia (4.1%), borderline leukoplakia (2.4%), cheek/lip biting (1.3%), and snuff dippers lesion (0.4%), 48.6% of the subjects had at least one of these lesions. Statistically significant preponderance was demonstrated for oral leukoplakia, palatal keratosis, leukoedema and frictional keratosis among males and melanosis among females. With regard to clinical classification of oral leukoplakia, the prevalence was 10% for homogeneous and 0.6% for non-homogeneous lesions. On the basis of aetiological classification, the prevalence was 8.3% for tobacco associated and 2.2% for idiopathic leukoplakia, 22.5% of leukoplakia lesions biopsied had evidence of epithelial dysplasia. In view of the premalignant potential of oral leukoplakia, our findings suggest a need for greater attention towards prevention and control of this lesion in the study community.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W.: Protection against AIDS. KDA Newsletter. 3(1):13-15, 1985.". In: Trop. Dent. J: Vol VIII, 2:81-85. Elsevier; 1985. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W.: Les SIDA Concerne-t-ic le dentiste? Dent.pour. ent. Journal, Quebec, Vol 10:10-7, 1986.". In: Dent.pour. ent. Journal, Quebec, Vol 10:10-7. Elsevier; 1986. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W.: Complex maxillofacial trauma caused by Wild Animals in Kenya; Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. Suppl. No1. 28, 81, 1999 (Abs).". In: Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. Suppl. No1. 28, 81. Elsevier; 1999. Abstract

Purpose:

Although the incidence of maxillofacial injuries caused by wildlife in Kenya is not known, it is estimated to be 2 to 5%. In Kenya, the tourism industry is the main source of foreign revenue. Therefore, the country invests a substantial amount of money in promoting tourism and improvement of the country's parks/game reserves. On rare occasions, some of the wild animals will leave their natural habitat, within the confines of the national parks, and pose a threat to the people living in the neighbourhood. The animals particularly implicated include lions, buffalos, hippopotamus, leopards and hyenas.

Material and method:

Within a period of 4 years, seven patients aged between 22 and 35 years, mean age 28 years, were referred for management of overwhelming maxillofacial injuries caused by wild animals. The injuries involved the upper face, midface and lower face. The midface was more involved than the rest of the face. The most common injuries diagnosed were crushing and mutilation types of injuries. Apart from the oro-maxillofacial region, upper extremities were commonly involved.

Results:

The duration before presentation ranged from 6 hours to 6 days. One of the patients, Female aged 35 years, was evacuated late and presented with severe tissue necrosis and irreversible damage of the right eyeball. Management comprised of surgical toilet, debridement and primary repair or crushing injuries. Mutilated injuries required repeated debridement and staged reconstruction of the defects. The latter injuries were particularly caused by lions and leopards and secondarily hyenas. Tetanus toxoid was administered to all the patients, whereas antirabies vaccination was given only to patients with mutilation injuries.

Conclusions:

In assessment of patients with severe maxillofacial injuries caused by wild animals, a similar approach to that of patients with multiple injuries caused by motor vehicle accidents should be employed. Meticulous examination, life support measures and relevant surgical procedures should be instituted immediately to minimize morbidity and mortality arising from these injuries.

W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W., STEVENS, S.: Child to child dental health education in school children in Kenya. KDA, 1983 (Abs).". In: KDA. Elsevier; 1983. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W., Prevention of Sub-acute bacterial endocarditic in dental surgery. NUDSA Journal of Dentistry; 4:18-22, 1990.". In: NUDSA Journal of Dentistry; 4:18-22. Elsevier; 1990. Abstract
There is no uniformity in the role of different aetiologic factors in mandibular fractures in different cities of the world. Cultural and socioeconomic factors appear to have important contribution to the aetiologies. The condyle and the angle-body regions are most commonly fractured. There is no obvious relationship between aetiology and the site of fracture. Structural considerations suggest that differences between dentate (open section structure) and non dentate (closed section structure) regions are important determinants of fracture sites. Some modifications of standard teaching materials are recommended.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W., Nurses' role in the management of maxillofacial injuries. Nairobi Hospital, Kenya.16th March, 1994.". In: Nairobi Hospital, Kenya.16th March, 1994. Elsevier; 1994. Abstract
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis is a distressing affliction that denies the victim the benefit of normal diet, careers that require normal speech and causes severe facial disfigurement that aggravates psychological stress. Opinions in current literature portray controversy in its management. Hurried clinicians take shortcuts and partially treat symptoms and often make the condition worse. Others ignore shortcomings and erroneously prescribe their preferred techniques as absolute indication to the peril of the affected children. Gap arthroplasty if applied in a growing maxillofacial skeleton as in children, causes iatrogenic arrest of facial growth. The intended correction of facial disfigurement is therefore not achieved. Early detection and immediate psychological support by excision and reconstruction of ankylosed TMJ with a costochondral graft, improves patient comfort and rehabilitation when used as a planned part of a comprehensive therapy. This paper questions prior varied opinions and discusses scientific baseline considerations in management of long standing TMJ ankylosis in children in relatively affordable circumstances.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W., MWANIKI, D.L., MAINA, D.M. Replacement rehabilitation Therapy utilizing auto-transplanted wisdom teeth. East Afr. Med. J; 71(1):35-38, 1994.". In: East Afr. Med. J; 71(1):35-38, 1994East Afr. Med. J; 71(1):35-38, 1994. Elsevier; 1994. Abstract
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis is a distressing affliction that denies the victim the benefit of normal diet, careers that require normal speech and causes severe facial disfigurement that aggravates psychological stress. Opinions in current literature portray controversy in its management. Hurried clinicians take shortcuts and partially treat symptoms and often make the condition worse. Others ignore shortcomings and erroneously prescribe their preferred techniques as absolute indication to the peril of the affected children. Gap arthroplasty if applied in a growing maxillofacial skeleton as in children, causes iatrogenic arrest of facial growth. The intended correction of facial disfigurement is therefore not achieved. Early detection and immediate psychological support by excision and reconstruction of ankylosed TMJ with a costochondral graft, improves patient comfort and rehabilitation when used as a planned part of a comprehensive therapy. This paper questions prior varied opinions and discusses scientific baseline considerations in management of long standing TMJ ankylosis in children in relatively affordable circumstances.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W., MWANIKI, D.L. Coping with embedded mandibular wisdom teeth in developing countries. East Afr. Med. J; 69(1): 47-49, 1992.". In: East Afr. Med. J; 69(1): 47-49. Elsevier; 1992. Abstract
S.W. Guthua* and D.L. Mwaniki** Afr. Dental Journal 1992, 6: 30-33 SUMMARY: Analysis of 110 records of patients who presented with impacted mandibular 3 rd molars was carried out to determine the frequency of occurrence of unilateral and bilateral impactions and their characteristics. 68.2% of the patients had bilaterial impactions. Among the patients with bilateral impactions, 72% had mesioangular impaction occurring either bilaterally or in combination with other types of impaction. Furthermore, 38.7% mesioangular impactions were observed on the right and left sides in the patients with bilateral impactions. Among the patients with unilateral impactions, 40.2% presented with mesioangular impaction, while 25.7% presented with distoangular impactions. While these observations support the general consensus regarding aetiology of mandibular 3 rd molar impactions as being tooth-tissue discrepancy, the possible influence of other factors is suggested.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W., MWANIKI, D.L. and MACIGO, F.G. Management of cervicofacial Keloids in black population; A preliminary study. J.Dent. Res.78(5), 1093, 1999, (Abs).". In: J.Dent. Res.78(5), 1093. Elsevier; 1999. Abstract
S.W. Guthua , D.L. Mwaniki and F.G. Macigo. Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi , Kenya J. of Dental Research 1999, Vol. 78 Keloids are soft tissues growths which develop as a complication in later stages of wound healing. They occur more commonly in blacks in comparison to other racial groups. Although hereditary factors are implicated in individual selection and pathogenesis of keloids, the aetiology is unknown. The individuals who succumb to this disfiguring condition are usually psychologically traumatized thereby influencing their self-esteem. The management of these lesions is challenging and surgery alone without adjuvant radiotherapy shows high recurrence rate. 10 patients with keloids in the cervicofacial region are presented. The patients were divided in two categories. Category I patients (N=5) were managed with surgery and local steroid therapy. Category II patients (N=5) Received adjuvant superficial radiotherapy treatment (SXRT) after surgery. In two of the patients, in Category I, there was recurrence whereas in Category II, there was none. Complications observed in category I patients included; hypopigmentation and lipotrophy while in Category II patients, localized dermatitis, sloughing of the skin and local tissue necrosis (N=1) were observed. The complications related to SXRT improved and no invasive intervention was required. SXRT if meticulously fractionated and monitored seems to be the most favourable adjuvant modality in the management of keloids among the black population .
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W., MWANIKI, D.L. A review of some policy issues in the management of impacted mandibular third molar. IADR conference, Nairobi, 1990.". In: IADR conference, Nairobi, 1990. Elsevier; 1990. Abstract
There is no uniformity in the role of different aetiologic factors in mandibular fractures in different cities of the world. Cultural and socioeconomic factors appear to have important contribution to the aetiologies. The condyle and the angle-body regions are most commonly fractured. There is no obvious relationship between aetiology and the site of fracture. Structural considerations suggest that differences between dentate (open section structure) and non dentate (closed section structure) regions are important determinants of fracture sites. Some modifications of standard teaching materials are recommended.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W., MWANIKI, D.L. A retrospective Study of impacted wisdom teeth in 110 patients treated in Nairobi, Kenya. Afr. Dent. J; 6: 30-33,1992.". In: Afr. Dent. J; 6: 30-33. Elsevier; 1992. Abstract
S.W. Guthua* and D.L. Mwaniki** Afr. Dental Journal 1992, 6: 30-33 SUMMARY: Analysis of 110 records of patients who presented with impacted mandibular 3 rd molars was carried out to determine the frequency of occurrence of unilateral and bilateral impactions and their characteristics. 68.2% of the patients had bilaterial impactions. Among the patients with bilateral impactions, 72% had mesioangular impaction occurring either bilaterally or in combination with other types of impaction. Furthermore, 38.7% mesioangular impactions were observed on the right and left sides in the patients with bilateral impactions. Among the patients with unilateral impactions, 40.2% presented with mesioangular impaction, while 25.7% presented with distoangular impactions. While these observations support the general consensus regarding aetiology of mandibular 3 rd molar impactions as being tooth-tissue discrepancy, the possible influence of other factors is suggested.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W., MWANIKI D.L., CHINDIA, M.L. Reliability of clincal criteria in Diagnosing HIV: An experience from a developing country, Kenya. 2nd International Conference on Oral Manifestations of HIV infection. San Francisco, California, U.S.A. February, .". In: San Francisco, California, U.S.A. February, 1993. Elsevier; 1993. Abstract

Loss of 1st and 2nd molars among adolescents due to dental caries is not uncommon in developing countries. Whilst their replacement is indicated, conventional methods of treatment, namely, bridging and dentures are in most cases inaccessible because of prohibitive cost. Given that it is in the same age group that diagnosis of unfavourably embedded wisdom teeth becomes feasible, autotransplantation of the latter to replace the unsalvageable 1st and 2nd molars could be an alternative treatment. Available literature suggests a success rate of over 82% based on follow-up studies of over ten years. Observations at the Dental School Clinic of the University of Nairobi, Kenya, indicate that the time it takes the transplant to 'take' and assume its functional position is 4 to 8 weeks and 2.5 to 3.5 months respectively. Since the method is relatively straightforward, we are of the view that training undergraduates and practising dental surgeons in this technique should enhance utilisation of otherwise "useless" teeth to replace the lost 1st and 2nd molars in occlusal rehabilitation.

J PROFCHINDIAMARK, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W., MWANIKI D.L., CHINDIA M.L.: Orofacial lesions as indicators of HIV/AIDS among dental patients in Kenya. E. Afri. Med. J. 72(2): 135-138, 1994.". In: E. Afri. Med. J. 72(2): 135-138. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1994. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 7621750 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W., MWANIKI D.L., CHINDIA M.L.: Orofacial lesions as indicators of HIV/AIDS among dental patients in Kenya. E. Afri. Med. J. 72(2): 135-138, 1994.". In: E. Afri. Med. J. 72(2): 135-138. Elsevier; 1994. Abstract
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis is a distressing affliction that denies the victim the benefit of normal diet, careers that require normal speech and causes severe facial disfigurement that aggravates psychological stress. Opinions in current literature portray controversy in its management. Hurried clinicians take shortcuts and partially treat symptoms and often make the condition worse. Others ignore shortcomings and erroneously prescribe their preferred techniques as absolute indication to the peril of the affected children. Gap arthroplasty if applied in a growing maxillofacial skeleton as in children, causes iatrogenic arrest of facial growth. The intended correction of facial disfigurement is therefore not achieved. Early detection and immediate psychological support by excision and reconstruction of ankylosed TMJ with a costochondral graft, improves patient comfort and rehabilitation when used as a planned part of a comprehensive therapy. This paper questions prior varied opinions and discusses scientific baseline considerations in management of long standing TMJ ankylosis in children in relatively affordable circumstances.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W., MAINA D.M., KAHUGU M., Management of Post-traumatic temporomandibular joint ankylosis in children: Case Report. East. Afr. Med. Jr; 72(7): 471-475, 1995.". In: East. Afr. Med. Jr; 72(7): 471-475. Elsevier; 1995. Abstract
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis is a distressing affliction that denies the victim the benefit of normal diet, careers that require normal speech and causes severe facial disfigurement that aggravates psychological stress.  Opinions in current literature portray controversy in its management.  Hurried clinicians take shortcuts and partially treat symptoms and often make the condition worse.  Others ignore shortcomings and erroneously prescribe their preferred techniques as absolute indication to the peril of the affected children.  Gap arthroplasty if applied in a growing maxillofacial skeleton as in children, causes iatrogenic arrest of facial growth.  The intended correction of facial disfigurement is therefore not achieved.  Early detection and immediate psychological support by excision and reconstruction of ankylosed TMJ with a costochondral graft, improves patient comfort and rehabilitation when used as a planned part of a comprehensive therapy.  This paper questions prior varied opinions and discusses scientific baseline considerations in management of long standing TMJ ankylosis in children in relatively affordable circumstances.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W., M.MED.Sc. Thesis at Harvard School of Dental medicine Can the prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma be predicted using computer-assisted Morphometric Image Analysis? Accepted and published, March 1988 (Harvard Countway Library, Harvard M.". In: Harvard Countway Library, Harvard Medical School. Elsevier; 1988. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W., KIMARO, S.S., MWANIKI, D.L., Combined Modality Approach in the management of Circumoral Haemangiomas. IADR Conference, Harare,Zimbabwe, Dec. 1992.". In: IADR Conference, Harare,Zimbabwe, Dec. 1992. Elsevier; 1992. Abstract
S.W. Guthua* and D.L. Mwaniki** Afr. Dental Journal 1992, 6: 30-33 SUMMARY: Analysis of 110 records of patients who presented with impacted mandibular 3 rd molars was carried out to determine the frequency of occurrence of unilateral and bilateral impactions and their characteristics. 68.2% of the patients had bilaterial impactions. Among the patients with bilateral impactions, 72% had mesioangular impaction occurring either bilaterally or in combination with other types of impaction. Furthermore, 38.7% mesioangular impactions were observed on the right and left sides in the patients with bilateral impactions. Among the patients with unilateral impactions, 40.2% presented with mesioangular impaction, while 25.7% presented with distoangular impactions. While these observations support the general consensus regarding aetiology of mandibular 3 rd molar impactions as being tooth-tissue discrepancy, the possible influence of other factors is suggested.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W., KIMARO S.S., MWANIKI D.K.: Combined modality approach in the management of Circumoral Haemangiomas. IADR, Dec, 1992 (Abs).". In: IADR, Dec, 1992 (Abs). Elsevier; 1992. Abstract
S.W. Guthua* and D.L. Mwaniki** Afr. Dental Journal 1992, 6: 30-33 SUMMARY: Analysis of 110 records of patients who presented with impacted mandibular 3 rd molars was carried out to determine the frequency of occurrence of unilateral and bilateral impactions and their characteristics. 68.2% of the patients had bilaterial impactions. Among the patients with bilateral impactions, 72% had mesioangular impaction occurring either bilaterally or in combination with other types of impaction. Furthermore, 38.7% mesioangular impactions were observed on the right and left sides in the patients with bilateral impactions. Among the patients with unilateral impactions, 40.2% presented with mesioangular impaction, while 25.7% presented with distoangular impactions. While these observations support the general consensus regarding aetiology of mandibular 3 rd molar impactions as being tooth-tissue discrepancy, the possible influence of other factors is suggested.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W., CHINDIA, M.L., Challenges of managing gunshot injuries in developing countries. IADR, November, 1993 - (Abs).". In: IADR, November, 1993 - (Abs). Elsevier; 1993. Abstract

Loss of 1st and 2nd molars among adolescents due to dental caries is not uncommon in developing countries. Whilst their replacement is indicated, conventional methods of treatment, namely, bridging and dentures are in most cases inaccessible because of prohibitive cost. Given that it is in the same age group that diagnosis of unfavourably embedded wisdom teeth becomes feasible, autotransplantation of the latter to replace the unsalvageable 1st and 2nd molars could be an alternative treatment. Available literature suggests a success rate of over 82% based on follow-up studies of over ten years. Observations at the Dental School Clinic of the University of Nairobi, Kenya, indicate that the time it takes the transplant to 'take' and assume its functional position is 4 to 8 weeks and 2.5 to 3.5 months respectively. Since the method is relatively straightforward, we are of the view that training undergraduates and practising dental surgeons in this technique should enhance utilisation of otherwise "useless" teeth to replace the lost 1st and 2nd molars in occlusal rehabilitation.

W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W., CHINDIA, M.L. Potential Protocol for the Management of Maxillomandibular Osteogenic Sarcoma. IADR Conference, Harare, Zimbabwe, Dec. 1992.". In: IADR Conference, Harare, Zimbabwe, Dec. 1992. Elsevier; 1992. Abstract
S.W. Guthua* and D.L. Mwaniki** Afr. Dental Journal 1992, 6: 30-33 SUMMARY: Analysis of 110 records of patients who presented with impacted mandibular 3 rd molars was carried out to determine the frequency of occurrence of unilateral and bilateral impactions and their characteristics. 68.2% of the patients had bilaterial impactions. Among the patients with bilateral impactions, 72% had mesioangular impaction occurring either bilaterally or in combination with other types of impaction. Furthermore, 38.7% mesioangular impactions were observed on the right and left sides in the patients with bilateral impactions. Among the patients with unilateral impactions, 40.2% presented with mesioangular impaction, while 25.7% presented with distoangular impactions. While these observations support the general consensus regarding aetiology of mandibular 3 rd molar impactions as being tooth-tissue discrepancy, the possible influence of other factors is suggested.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W., CHINDIA, M.L. Appropriate Management of Oral Primary Malignant Melanoma and Osteogenic Sarcoma. Kenya Association of Clinical pathologists (KACP) Conference. Intercontinental Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya. 18th September, 1993.". In: Intercontinental Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya. 18th September, 1993. Elsevier; 1993. Abstract

Loss of 1st and 2nd molars among adolescents due to dental caries is not uncommon in developing countries. Whilst their replacement is indicated, conventional methods of treatment, namely, bridging and dentures are in most cases inaccessible because of prohibitive cost. Given that it is in the same age group that diagnosis of unfavourably embedded wisdom teeth becomes feasible, autotransplantation of the latter to replace the unsalvageable 1st and 2nd molars could be an alternative treatment. Available literature suggests a success rate of over 82% based on follow-up studies of over ten years. Observations at the Dental School Clinic of the University of Nairobi, Kenya, indicate that the time it takes the transplant to 'take' and assume its functional position is 4 to 8 weeks and 2.5 to 3.5 months respectively. Since the method is relatively straightforward, we are of the view that training undergraduates and practising dental surgeons in this technique should enhance utilisation of otherwise "useless" teeth to replace the lost 1st and 2nd molars in occlusal rehabilitation.

W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W., CHINDIA M.L.: Potential protocol for the management of maxillofacial osteogenic sarcoma. IADR, Dec. 1992 (Abs).". In: Potential protocol for the management of maxillofacial osteogenic sarcoma. IADR. Elsevier; 1992. Abstract
S.W. Guthua* and D.L. Mwaniki** Afr. Dental Journal 1992, 6: 30-33 SUMMARY: Analysis of 110 records of patients who presented with impacted mandibular 3 rd molars was carried out to determine the frequency of occurrence of unilateral and bilateral impactions and their characteristics. 68.2% of the patients had bilaterial impactions. Among the patients with bilateral impactions, 72% had mesioangular impaction occurring either bilaterally or in combination with other types of impaction. Furthermore, 38.7% mesioangular impactions were observed on the right and left sides in the patients with bilateral impactions. Among the patients with unilateral impactions, 40.2% presented with mesioangular impaction, while 25.7% presented with distoangular impactions. While these observations support the general consensus regarding aetiology of mandibular 3 rd molar impactions as being tooth-tissue discrepancy, the possible influence of other factors is suggested.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W., Challenges of Reconstructing Acquired mandibular defects. Journal of Surgeons of Eastern Africa. Proceedings of the 50th Scientific Conference of A.S.E.A. December 1999 (Abs).". In: Conference of A.S.E.A. December 1999 (Abs). Elsevier; 1999. Abstract
S.W. Guthua , D.L. Mwaniki and F.G. Macigo. Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi , Kenya J. of Dental Research 1999, Vol. 78 Keloids are soft tissues growths which develop as a complication in later stages of wound healing. They occur more commonly in blacks in comparison to other racial groups. Although hereditary factors are implicated in individual selection and pathogenesis of keloids, the aetiology is unknown. The individuals who succumb to this disfiguring condition are usually psychologically traumatized thereby influencing their self-esteem. The management of these lesions is challenging and surgery alone without adjuvant radiotherapy shows high recurrence rate. 10 patients with keloids in the cervicofacial region are presented. The patients were divided in two categories. Category I patients (N=5) were managed with surgery and local steroid therapy. Category II patients (N=5) Received adjuvant superficial radiotherapy treatment (SXRT) after surgery. In two of the patients, in Category I, there was recurrence whereas in Category II, there was none. Complications observed in category I patients included; hypopigmentation and lipotrophy while in Category II patients, localized dermatitis, sloughing of the skin and local tissue necrosis (N=1) were observed. The complications related to SXRT improved and no invasive intervention was required. SXRT if meticulously fractionated and monitored seems to be the most favourable adjuvant modality in the management of keloids among the black population .
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W., AIDS - Is it a dentist's concern? Trop. Dent. J: Vol VIII, 2:81-85, 1985.". In: Trop. Dent. J: Vol VIII, 2:81-85. Elsevier; 1985. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W. Understanding emergencies in Oral and Maxillofacial injuries - a simplified approach. Staff Education Department, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. August, 1992.". In: Staff Education Department, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. August, 1992. Elsevier; 1992. Abstract
S.W. Guthua* and D.L. Mwaniki** Afr. Dental Journal 1992, 6: 30-33 SUMMARY: Analysis of 110 records of patients who presented with impacted mandibular 3 rd molars was carried out to determine the frequency of occurrence of unilateral and bilateral impactions and their characteristics. 68.2% of the patients had bilaterial impactions. Among the patients with bilateral impactions, 72% had mesioangular impaction occurring either bilaterally or in combination with other types of impaction. Furthermore, 38.7% mesioangular impactions were observed on the right and left sides in the patients with bilateral impactions. Among the patients with unilateral impactions, 40.2% presented with mesioangular impaction, while 25.7% presented with distoangular impactions. While these observations support the general consensus regarding aetiology of mandibular 3 rd molar impactions as being tooth-tissue discrepancy, the possible influence of other factors is suggested.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W. Trends in repair of Oral and Maxillofacial injuries in Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya. 14th June, 1996.". In: Nairobi, Kenya. 14th June, 199. Elsevier; 1996.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W. Stage-wise reconstruction of mandible following radical resection of advanced benign tumours affecting the mandible (Case presentation) Davos, Switzerland, Dec. 1995.". In: (Case presentation) Davos, Switzerland, Dec. 1995. Elsevier; 1995. Abstract
FG Macigo, DL Mwaniki and SW Guthua East Afr. Med. Journal 1995, 72: 778 - 782 SUMMARY: The prevalence of oral leukoplakia and related lesions in a Kenyan rural population was determined in a systematic house to house survey of individuals aged 15 years and above. Among the 803 individual examined, the following prevalence of lesions was observed: leukoedema (26%), melanosis (12.7%), leukoplakia (10.6%), palatal keratosis (6.4%), frictional keratosis (5.5%), pre-leukoplakia (4.1%), borderline leukoplakia (2.4%), cheek/lip biting (1.3%), and snuff dippers lesion (0.4%), 48.6% of the subjects had at least one of these lesions. Statistically significant preponderance was demonstrated for oral leukoplakia, palatal keratosis, leukoedema and frictional keratosis among males and melanosis among females. With regard to clinical classification of oral leukoplakia, the prevalence was 10% for homogeneous and 0.6% for non-homogeneous lesions. On the basis of aetiological classification, the prevalence was 8.3% for tobacco associated and 2.2% for idiopathic leukoplakia, 22.5% of leukoplakia lesions biopsied had evidence of epithelial dysplasia. In view of the premalignant potential of oral leukoplakia, our findings suggest a need for greater attention towards prevention and control of this lesion in the study community.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W. Priorities in the management of Emergency Faciomaxillary injuries; Proceedings of Scientific Conference, Kenya Society of Anaesthesiologists (KSA), July, 1995 (Abs).". In: Proceedings of Scientific Conference, Kenya Society of Anaesthesiologists (KSA), July. Elsevier; 1995. Abstract
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis is a distressing affliction that denies the victim the benefit of normal diet, careers that require normal speech and causes severe facial disfigurement that aggravates psychological stress.  Opinions in current literature portray controversy in its management.  Hurried clinicians take shortcuts and partially treat symptoms and often make the condition worse.  Others ignore shortcomings and erroneously prescribe their preferred techniques as absolute indication to the peril of the affected children.  Gap arthroplasty if applied in a growing maxillofacial skeleton as in children, causes iatrogenic arrest of facial growth.  The intended correction of facial disfigurement is therefore not achieved.  Early detection and immediate psychological support by excision and reconstruction of ankylosed TMJ with a costochondral graft, improves patient comfort and rehabilitation when used as a planned part of a comprehensive therapy.  This paper questions prior varied opinions and discusses scientific baseline considerations in management of long standing TMJ ankylosis in children in relatively affordable circumstances.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W. Practical experience in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Chief Resident Report: Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, U.S.A, 1987.". In: Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, U.S.A, 1987. Elsevier; 1987. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W. Overview of Maxillofacial injuries in Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya, 14th June, 1996.". In: Nairobi, Kenya, 14th June, 1996. Elsevier; 1996.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W. Multi-disciplinary approach in the management of traumatized patients, ABCDE of trauma. Nairobi, Kenya, 27th July, 1994.". In: Nairobi, Kenya, 27th July, 1994. Elsevier; 1994. Abstract
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis is a distressing affliction that denies the victim the benefit of normal diet, careers that require normal speech and causes severe facial disfigurement that aggravates psychological stress. Opinions in current literature portray controversy in its management. Hurried clinicians take shortcuts and partially treat symptoms and often make the condition worse. Others ignore shortcomings and erroneously prescribe their preferred techniques as absolute indication to the peril of the affected children. Gap arthroplasty if applied in a growing maxillofacial skeleton as in children, causes iatrogenic arrest of facial growth. The intended correction of facial disfigurement is therefore not achieved. Early detection and immediate psychological support by excision and reconstruction of ankylosed TMJ with a costochondral graft, improves patient comfort and rehabilitation when used as a planned part of a comprehensive therapy. This paper questions prior varied opinions and discusses scientific baseline considerations in management of long standing TMJ ankylosis in children in relatively affordable circumstances.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W. Maxillofacial Injuries caused by Wild Animals - Human and Wildlife conflict. World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) Nairobi, Kenya. July 2nd, 2003.". In: World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) Nairobi, Kenya. July 2nd, 2003. Elsevier; 2003.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W. Maxillofacial Injuries caused by Road Traffic Accidents in Kenya. International Conference, Africa Chapter, The 25th Medic Africa Conference, Nairobi. Kenya. October 17th, 2003.". In: International Conference, Africa Chapter, The 25th Medic Africa Conference, Nairobi. Kenya. October 17th, 2003. Elsevier; 2003.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W. Management of Severe facio-maxillary injuries in Kenya. Presented at Kenya Surgeons/Physicians meeting, Nairobi Kenya. 20th September, 1994.". In: Kenya Surgeons/Physicians meeting, Nairobi Kenya. 20th September, 1994. Elsevier; 1994. Abstract
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis is a distressing affliction that denies the victim the benefit of normal diet, careers that require normal speech and causes severe facial disfigurement that aggravates psychological stress. Opinions in current literature portray controversy in its management. Hurried clinicians take shortcuts and partially treat symptoms and often make the condition worse. Others ignore shortcomings and erroneously prescribe their preferred techniques as absolute indication to the peril of the affected children. Gap arthroplasty if applied in a growing maxillofacial skeleton as in children, causes iatrogenic arrest of facial growth. The intended correction of facial disfigurement is therefore not achieved. Early detection and immediate psychological support by excision and reconstruction of ankylosed TMJ with a costochondral graft, improves patient comfort and rehabilitation when used as a planned part of a comprehensive therapy. This paper questions prior varied opinions and discusses scientific baseline considerations in management of long standing TMJ ankylosis in children in relatively affordable circumstances.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W. Management of maxillofacial injuries at the primary health centres in developing countries. Conference of Association of surgeons of East and Central Africa (ASEA), Nakuru, February 1995.". In: Conference of Association of surgeons of East and Central Africa (ASEA), Nakuru, February 1995. Elsevier; 1995. Abstract
FG Macigo, DL Mwaniki and SW Guthua East Afr. Med. Journal 1995, 72: 778 - 782 SUMMARY: The prevalence of oral leukoplakia and related lesions in a Kenyan rural population was determined in a systematic house to house survey of individuals aged 15 years and above. Among the 803 individual examined, the following prevalence of lesions was observed: leukoedema (26%), melanosis (12.7%), leukoplakia (10.6%), palatal keratosis (6.4%), frictional keratosis (5.5%), pre-leukoplakia (4.1%), borderline leukoplakia (2.4%), cheek/lip biting (1.3%), and snuff dippers lesion (0.4%), 48.6% of the subjects had at least one of these lesions. Statistically significant preponderance was demonstrated for oral leukoplakia, palatal keratosis, leukoedema and frictional keratosis among males and melanosis among females. With regard to clinical classification of oral leukoplakia, the prevalence was 10% for homogeneous and 0.6% for non-homogeneous lesions. On the basis of aetiological classification, the prevalence was 8.3% for tobacco associated and 2.2% for idiopathic leukoplakia, 22.5% of leukoplakia lesions biopsied had evidence of epithelial dysplasia. In view of the premalignant potential of oral leukoplakia, our findings suggest a need for greater attention towards prevention and control of this lesion in the study community.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W. Management of Maxillofacial injuries at Primary Health Care Centers in Kenya. Proceedings of Scientific Conference of East and Central African Surgeons, Feb. 1995 (Abs).". In: Proceedings of Scientific Conference of East and Central African Surgeons, Feb. Elsevier; 1995. Abstract
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis is a distressing affliction that denies the victim the benefit of normal diet, careers that require normal speech and causes severe facial disfigurement that aggravates psychological stress.  Opinions in current literature portray controversy in its management.  Hurried clinicians take shortcuts and partially treat symptoms and often make the condition worse.  Others ignore shortcomings and erroneously prescribe their preferred techniques as absolute indication to the peril of the affected children.  Gap arthroplasty if applied in a growing maxillofacial skeleton as in children, causes iatrogenic arrest of facial growth.  The intended correction of facial disfigurement is therefore not achieved.  Early detection and immediate psychological support by excision and reconstruction of ankylosed TMJ with a costochondral graft, improves patient comfort and rehabilitation when used as a planned part of a comprehensive therapy.  This paper questions prior varied opinions and discusses scientific baseline considerations in management of long standing TMJ ankylosis in children in relatively affordable circumstances.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W. Management of Complex Oral and Maxillofacial injuries in Developing Countries. Medical/Dental Conference of SDA, Eastern Africa Division. Nairobi, Kenya. 15th October 1996.". In: Medical/Dental Conference of SDA, Eastern Africa Division. Nairobi, Kenya. 15th October 1996. Elsevier; 1996.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W. Guest Speaker: Pan African Seventh-day Adventist Dentists' Conference (PASDAD). Golden Beach Hotel, Mombasa, Kenya. October 23rd to 31st, 1992.". In: Golden Beach Hotel, Mombasa, Kenya. October 23rd to 31st, 1992. Elsevier; 1992. Abstract
S.W. Guthua* and D.L. Mwaniki** Afr. Dental Journal 1992, 6: 30-33 SUMMARY: Analysis of 110 records of patients who presented with impacted mandibular 3 rd molars was carried out to determine the frequency of occurrence of unilateral and bilateral impactions and their characteristics. 68.2% of the patients had bilaterial impactions. Among the patients with bilateral impactions, 72% had mesioangular impaction occurring either bilaterally or in combination with other types of impaction. Furthermore, 38.7% mesioangular impactions were observed on the right and left sides in the patients with bilateral impactions. Among the patients with unilateral impactions, 40.2% presented with mesioangular impaction, while 25.7% presented with distoangular impactions. While these observations support the general consensus regarding aetiology of mandibular 3 rd molar impactions as being tooth-tissue discrepancy, the possible influence of other factors is suggested.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W. Essentials of anatomy and physiology of jaws for nurses. Nairobi Hospital, Kenya.1st July 1994.". In: Nairobi Hospital, Kenya.1st July 1994. Elsevier; 1994. Abstract
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis is a distressing affliction that denies the victim the benefit of normal diet, careers that require normal speech and causes severe facial disfigurement that aggravates psychological stress. Opinions in current literature portray controversy in its management. Hurried clinicians take shortcuts and partially treat symptoms and often make the condition worse. Others ignore shortcomings and erroneously prescribe their preferred techniques as absolute indication to the peril of the affected children. Gap arthroplasty if applied in a growing maxillofacial skeleton as in children, causes iatrogenic arrest of facial growth. The intended correction of facial disfigurement is therefore not achieved. Early detection and immediate psychological support by excision and reconstruction of ankylosed TMJ with a costochondral graft, improves patient comfort and rehabilitation when used as a planned part of a comprehensive therapy. This paper questions prior varied opinions and discusses scientific baseline considerations in management of long standing TMJ ankylosis in children in relatively affordable circumstances.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W. Diagnosis and Management of oral and maxillofacial infections. State-of-the art. KDA Seminar, September 1990.". In: KDA Seminar, September 1990. Elsevier; 1990. Abstract
There is no uniformity in the role of different aetiologic factors in mandibular fractures in different cities of the world. Cultural and socioeconomic factors appear to have important contribution to the aetiologies. The condyle and the angle-body regions are most commonly fractured. There is no obvious relationship between aetiology and the site of fracture. Structural considerations suggest that differences between dentate (open section structure) and non dentate (closed section structure) regions are important determinants of fracture sites. Some modifications of standard teaching materials are recommended.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W. Child -to-child Dental Health Education to School Children in Kenya. KDA Seminar. October, 1983.". In: KDA Seminar. October, 1983. Elsevier; 1983. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W. Assessment and initial management of faciomaxillary injuries in Emergency Room. Symposium on Emergency Medical care. Nairobi, Kenya. 3rd May 1997.". In: Symposium on Emergency Medical care. Nairobi, Kenya. 3rd May 1997. Elsevier; 1997. Abstract
Osteosarcoma (OS) is a highly malignant tumour and is the most common primary neoplasm of bone; although rare, especially in the maxillofacial skeleton. This article presents 14 Kenyan cases of OS of the maxillofacial bones seen between January 1991 and July 1997: 11 in the mandible, two in the maxilla and one in the right zygomatic arch. Patients ranged in age from one week to 50 years (Mean = 29.7), with an equal gender distribution. While pain and rapid swelling were the commonest clinical features, the radiographic and histopathological characteristics were as varied as has been described elsewhere. Generally, effective management of most of the cases was poor due to late presentation for treatment.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W Can the progress of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma be predicted using computer-assisted morphometric image analysis? Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA, 1988.". In: Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA, 1988. Elsevier; 1988. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Guthua SW, Mwaniki DL.A retrospective study of characteristics of impacted mandibular wisdom teeth in 110 patients treated in Nairobi, Kenya.Afr Dent J. 1992;6:30-3.". In: Afr Dent J. 1992;6:30-3. Elsevier; 1992. Abstract
Analysis of 110 records of patients who presented with impacted mandibular 3rd molars was carried out to determine the frequency of occurrence of unilateral and bilateral impactions and their characteristics. 68.2% of the patients had bilateral impactions. Among the patients with bilateral impactions, 72% had mesioangular impaction occurring either bilaterally or in combination with other types of impaction. Furthermore, 38.7% mesioangular impactions were observed on the right and left sides in the patients with bilateral impactions. Among the patients with unilateral impactions 40.2% presented with mesioangular impaction, while 25.7% presented with distoangular impactions. While these observations support the general consensus regarding aetiology of mandibular 3rd molar impactions as being tooth-tissue discrepancy, the possible influence of other factors is suggested.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Guthua SW, Mwaniki DL, Maina DM.Replacement therapy utilising autotransplanted wisdom teeth.East Afr Med J. 1994 Jan;71(1):35-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Jan;71(1):35-8. Elsevier; 1994. Abstract

Loss of 1st and 2nd molars among adolescents due to dental caries is not uncommon in developing countries. Whilst their replacement is indicated, conventional methods of treatment, namely, bridging and dentures are in most cases inaccessible because of prohibitive cost. Given that it is in the same age group that diagnosis of unfavourably embedded wisdom teeth becomes feasible, autotransplantation of the latter to replace the unsalvageable 1st and 2nd molars could be an alternative treatment. Available literature suggests a success rate of over 82% based on follow-up studies of over ten years. Observations at the Dental School Clinic of the University of Nairobi, Kenya, indicate that the time it takes the transplant to 'take' and assume its functional position is 4 to 8 weeks and 2.5 to 3.5 months respectively. Since the method is relatively straightforward, we are of the view that training undergraduates and practising dental surgeons in this technique should enhance utilisation of otherwise "useless" teeth to replace the lost 1st and 2nd molars in occlusal rehabilitation.

W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Guthua SW, Maina DM, Kahugu M.Management of post-traumatic temporomandibular joint ankylosis in children: case report.East Afr Med J. 1995 Jul;72(7):471-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Jul;72(7):471-5. Elsevier; 1995. Abstract
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis is a distressing affliction that denies the victim the benefit of normal diet, careers that require normal speech and causes severe facial disfigurement that aggravates psychological stress. Opinions in current literature portray controversy in its management. Hurried clinicians take shortcuts and partially treat symptoms and often make the condition worse. Others ignore shortcomings and erroneously prescribe their preferred techniques as absolute indication to the peril of the affected children. Gap arthroplasty if applied in a growing maxillofacial skeleton as in children, causes iatrogenic arrest of facial growth. The intended correction of facial disfigurement is therefore not achieved. Early detection and immediate psychological support by excision and reconstruction of ankylosed TMJ with a costochondral graft, improves patient comfort and rehabilitation when used as a planned part of a comprehensive therapy. This paper questions prior varied opinions and discusses scientific baseline considerations in management of long standing TMJ ankylosis in children in relatively affordable circumstances.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Guthua SW, Amwayi P.Alternative technique of constructing bilateral cleft palate in late childhood: a case report and literature review.East Afr Med J. 1994 Oct;71(10):687-92. Review.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Oct;71(10):687-92. Review. Elsevier; 1994. Abstract
Although great advances in treatment of oro-facial clefts have been made over the past 50 years; in developing countries, due to social stigmas and unavailability of specialised medical facilities and personnel to the majority of the population, there is an increasing incidence of patients coming late for repair of oro-facial clefts. This presents a challenge to both plastic, oral surgeons and associated specialists. The aim of the present article is to demonstrate, in the form of a case report, an alternative surgical technique that has be successful in 8 cases for the late repair of severe bilateral cleft palate utilizing locally available and affordable materials. The objective of managing patients with cleft palate in developing countries is to provide the best repair and rehabilitation with as few operations and in-patient care as possible due to limited financial resources experienced by the majority of in-patients. A multidisciplinary approach to the management of oro-facial clefts is emphasised.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA S.W.: Improved patient care. The right to know (Editorial) Medicus; 2(8): 1-2, 1992.". In: Lancet. Vol. 340:1476 -1477. Elsevier; 1992. Abstract
S.W. Guthua* and D.L. Mwaniki** Afr. Dental Journal 1992, 6: 30-33 SUMMARY: Analysis of 110 records of patients who presented with impacted mandibular 3 rd molars was carried out to determine the frequency of occurrence of unilateral and bilateral impactions and their characteristics. 68.2% of the patients had bilaterial impactions. Among the patients with bilateral impactions, 72% had mesioangular impaction occurring either bilaterally or in combination with other types of impaction. Furthermore, 38.7% mesioangular impactions were observed on the right and left sides in the patients with bilateral impactions. Among the patients with unilateral impactions, 40.2% presented with mesioangular impaction, while 25.7% presented with distoangular impactions. While these observations support the general consensus regarding aetiology of mandibular 3 rd molar impactions as being tooth-tissue discrepancy, the possible influence of other factors is suggested.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA S.W., SOUTHERN J.F., DOMANOWSKI G.F. PETO C.A., DONOFF R.B.: Can the prognosis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma be predicted using computer assisted morphometric image analysis? International Acad. of Pathol. 364, 1989 (Abs).". In: International Acad. of Pathol. 364, 1989 (Abs). Elsevier; 1989. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA S.W., MWANIKI, D.L., CHINDIA, M.L.: Reliability of clinical criterial in diagnosing HIV: An experience from a developing country, Kenya. Proceedings of 2nd International Workshop on the Oral manifestations of HIV Infection, San Francisco, Californi.". In: Proceedings of 2nd International Workshop on the Oral manifestations of HIV Infection, San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Elsevier; 1993. Abstract

Loss of 1st and 2nd molars among adolescents due to dental caries is not uncommon in developing countries. Whilst their replacement is indicated, conventional methods of treatment, namely, bridging and dentures are in most cases inaccessible because of prohibitive cost. Given that it is in the same age group that diagnosis of unfavourably embedded wisdom teeth becomes feasible, autotransplantation of the latter to replace the unsalvageable 1st and 2nd molars could be an alternative treatment. Available literature suggests a success rate of over 82% based on follow-up studies of over ten years. Observations at the Dental School Clinic of the University of Nairobi, Kenya, indicate that the time it takes the transplant to 'take' and assume its functional position is 4 to 8 weeks and 2.5 to 3.5 months respectively. Since the method is relatively straightforward, we are of the view that training undergraduates and practising dental surgeons in this technique should enhance utilisation of otherwise "useless" teeth to replace the lost 1st and 2nd molars in occlusal rehabilitation.

W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA S.W., MWANIKI D.L.: A review of policy issues in management of impacted mandibular third molars. IADR 1990 (Abs).". In: IADR 1990 (Abs). Elsevier; 1990. Abstract
There is no uniformity in the role of different aetiologic factors in mandibular fractures in different cities of the world. Cultural and socioeconomic factors appear to have important contribution to the aetiologies. The condyle and the angle-body regions are most commonly fractured. There is no obvious relationship between aetiology and the site of fracture. Structural considerations suggest that differences between dentate (open section structure) and non dentate (closed section structure) regions are important determinants of fracture sites. Some modifications of standard teaching materials are recommended.
MBURU DRJOHNIRUNGU. "Guthiga P., J. Mburu and K. Holm-Mueller (2008). Factors Influencing Local Communities.". In: Environmental Management 41:696. Ogutu J.O; 2008. Abstract
The vision of the Government of Kenya is to facilitate ICT as a universal tool for education and training. In order to achieve this vision every educational institution, teacher, learner and the respective community should be equipped with appropriate ICT infrastructure, competencies and policies for usage and progress. It calls for recognition of the fact that ICT provides capabilities and skills needed for a knowledge-based economy. It also calls for transforming teaching and learning to incorporate new pedagogies that are appropriate for the 21st  century. The Ministry of Education�s (MOE) mission is to facilitate effective use of ICT to improve access, learning and administration in delivery education programmes and services. The principal objective will be to integrate ICT in the delivery of education and training curricula. XML:NAMESPACE PREFIX = O />  Although not exhaustive, the range of ICT that have been used in the delivery of education to improve access, teaching, learning, and administration includes: Electric Board, Audio Cassette, Radio for Interactive Radio Instructions (IRI), Video/TV-Learning, Computer, Integrated ICT infrastructure and Support Application Systems (SAS).These systems are in use, at various degrees, in most parts of Africa (Charp, 1998). This plan envisages use ofthese digital components to improve access and quality in the delivery of education in Kenya.  The major challenge in respect to this component is limited digital equipment at virtually all levels of education. While the average access rate is one computer to 15 students in most of the developed countries, the access rate in Kenya is approximately one computer to 150 students (EMIS, 2005). Whereas most secondary schools in Kenya have some computer equipment, only a small fraction is equipped with basic ICT infrastructure. In most cases equipment of schools with ICT infrastructure has been through initiatives supported by the parents, government, development agencies and the private sector, including the NEPAD E-Schools programme. Attempts to set up basic ICT infrastructure in primary schools are almost negligible.  According to ICTs in Education Options Paper, one of the main problems is limited penetration of the physical telecommunication infrastructure into rural and low-income areas. Specifically, the main challenge is limited access to dedicated phone lines and high-speed systems or connectivity to access e-mail and Internet resources. The EMIS Survey (2003/2004) indicated that over 70% of secondary schools and a much larger proportion of primary schools require functional telephones. Indeed, many parts of Kenya cannot easily get Internet services because of the poor telephone networks. About 90% of secondary schools need to establish standard Local Area Networks (LANs) in order to improve sharing of learning resources.  Alternative and appropriate technologies for access to Internet resources, including wireless systems remain quite expensive. Indeed, a small proportion of schools have direct access, through Internet Service Providers (ISPs), to high-speed data and communication systems. Furthermore, very few schools in the rural areas use wireless technology such as VSAT to access e-mail and Internet resources. Nearly all of the 6 NEPAD e-Schools are in rural areas and are expected to enjoy internet connectivity through VSAT technology.  While other countries have reported up to 41% of integration of ICT to teaching and learning, the proportion remains substantially low in Africa, Kenya included. Integration aims at the use ICT to support teaching and learning in the delivery of the various curricula to achieve improved education outcomes. Because ICT is interactive media, it facilitates students to develop diversified skills needed for industrialization and a knowledge-based economy. It also allows teachers and learners to proceed at different paces depending on the prevailing circumstances. As a first step, the Ministry of Education has initiated a major ICT project in Secondary schools meant to equip over 200 secondary schools with ICT infrastructure for integration of ICT in teaching/learning process ( KESSP, 2004). Three schools have been chosen in every district of Kenya.
Makanya AN, Self TJ, Warui CN, Mwangi DK. "Gut morphology and morphometry in the epauletted Wahlberg's fruit bat (Epomophorus wahlbergi, Sundevall, 1846)." Acta. Biol. Hung.. 2001;52(1):75-89. Abstract

The morphological adaptations of the fruit bat small intestine to which the high functional efficiency could be related and the possible landmarks delineating the various parts of the gut were examined. The stomach was the carnivorous type with large rugae spanning the entire luminal aspect down to the pyloric sphincter, which was reflected internally as a prominent fold. Externally, the intestine was a continuous tube uninterrupted by any structures. The cranial fifth of the small gut had long, branching and anastomosing villi, which caudally turned to finger-like discrete structures that became rather short and stumpy and diminished at the beginning of the colon. The colon had longitudinal folds that were macroscopically discernible from the mucosal aspect of the opened intestine and that continued into the rectum. The small gut formed 94% of the whole intestinal length, the colon and the rectum taking 4 and 2%, respectively. Ultrastructurally, the enterocyte showed a prominent brush border and the lateral membranes were modified into numerous tortuous interdigitating processes. Adjacent enterocytes were joined by these processes through desmosomes. The processes also participated in pinocytotic fluid uptake from the intercellular spaces with resultant numerous intracellular vacuoles of varied sizes. Solutes absorbed into the cells were probably first passed into the intercellular compartment to create a concentration gradient thus enhancing further absorption into the cell. We conclude that the uniquely elaborate ultrastructure of the enteric epithelium coupled with the vast microvillous surface areas reported elsewhere are partly responsible for the very high absorption rates reported in the fruit bat small intestine.

WANGUI DRGITAURUTH. "The gut microbiota and lipid metabolism: implications for human health and coronary heart disease. Fava F, Lovegrove JA, Gitau R, Jackson KG, Tuohy KM.Curr Med Chem. 2006;13(25):3005-21.". In: Curr Med Chem. 2006;13(25):3005-21. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2006. Abstract

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of mortality in Western societies, affecting about one third of the population before their seventieth year. Over the past decades modifiable risk factors of CHD have been identified, including smoking and diet. These factors when altered can have a significant impact on an individuals' risk of developing CHD, their overall health and quality of life. There is strong evidence suggesting that dietary intake of plant foods rich in fibre and polyphenolic compounds, effectively lowers the risk of developing CHD. However, the efficacy of these foods often appears to be greater than the sum of their recognised biologically active parts. Here we discuss the hypothesis that beneficial metabolic and vascular effects of dietary fibre and plant polyphenols are due to an up regulation of the colon-systemic metabolic axis by these compounds. Fibres and many polyphenols are converted into biologically active compounds by the colonic microbiota. This microbiota imparts great metabolic versatility and dynamism, with many of their reductive or hydrolytic activities appearing complementary to oxidative or conjugative human metabolism. Understanding these microbial activities is central to determining the role of different dietary components in preventing or beneficially impacting on the impaired lipid metabolism and vascular dysfunction that typifies CHD and type II diabetes. This approach lays the foundation for rational selection of health promoting foods, rational target driven design of functional foods, and provides an essential thus-far, overlooked, dynamic to our understanding of how foods recognised as "healthy" impact on the human metabonome.

Ombongi KS, Rutton M, Mazrui A, Grignon F. "The Gusii Electoral Politics." Out for the count: Democracy in Kenya, 2001.. 2001.
SOLOMON PROFMONYENYE. "Gusii Circumcision Ceremonies.". In: J. S. Akama and R. Maxon (eds.), Vanishing Cultural Heritage and Ethnography of an African Community: The Gusii of Western Kenya (New York, The Edwin Mellen Press). Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 2006.
NGUGI MRTHIMBADAVID. "Gupta, V.k and D. Thimba, 1992. Grain Amaranth: A crop with high potential for marginal areas of Kenya. Food reviews International, S(1), 51-69.". In: Proceedings of workshop on . RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1992. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FRANK DRODUORIMOSES. "GUPTA, C. P. and M. F. ODUORI (1992). Design of the revolving knife-type sugar cane basecutter. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers 35(6). CAB Agricultural Engineering Abstracts No. 2259.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kenya Journal of Mechanical Engineering; 1992. Abstract
Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated. PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Gupta H, Irshad M, Joshi YK, Acharya SK, Tandon BN.Hepatitis C virus antibody in acute and chronic liver diseases in India.Scand J Infect Dis. 1990;22(5):627.". In: Scand J Infect Dis. 1990;22(5):627. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1990. Abstract
One hundred and seventy five subjects with chronic liver diseases which included patients with chronic active hepatitis (90), liver cirrhosis (31) and asymptomatic hepatitis B carriers (54), were included in the study. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) specific DNA-polymerase activity and HBe-markers were tested as markers of HBV-multiplication. In HBsAg positive samples, DNA-P activity was positive in 44.4% of the HBV carriers, 52.9% of the patients with chronic active hepatitis and 81.8% of the patients with liver cirrhosis. The corresponding figures for the presence of HBeAg in these groups were 18.5, 26.5 and 45.5% respectively. Virus multiplication was also observed in 41.1 and 44.4% patients with chronic active hepatitis and liver cirrhosis respectively, in the absence of HBsAg. The results of the present study show that hepatitis B virus is the most important etiological factor of chronic liver diseases in India. Most of our patients of chronic liver diseases seems to have contacted HBV infection as young adults and the mode of transmission is likely to be horizontal rather than vertical. The virus replicating markers correlate well with the severity of the liver injury and decreased with the age. DNA-P activity is a more sensitive marker of viral multiplication than HBeAg. Viral multiplication was also found to occur in the absence of the usual HBV markers. Continued viral multiplication in patients with chronic active hepatitis and liver cirrhosis is implicated in continued liver injury and progressive liver disease.
KINYUA DRNGUUEDWARD. "Gunzl, A., Ullu, E., Dorner, M., Fragoso, S. P., Hoffmann, K. F., Milner, J. D., Morita, Y., Nguu, E. K., Vanacova, S., Wunsch, S., Dare, A. O., Kwon, H. and Tschudi, C. (1997). Transcription of the Trypanosoma brucei spliced leader RNA gene is dependent .". In: Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 85, 67-76. Kisipan, M.L.; 1997. Abstract

The spliced leader (SL) RNA plays a key role in mRNA maturation in trypanosomatid protozoa by providing the SL sequence, which is joined to the 5' end of every mRNA. As a first step towards a better understanding of the biogenesis and function of the SL RNA, we expressed a tagged SL RNA gene in a cell-free system of procyclic Trypanosoma brucei cells. Transcription initiates at + 1 can be detected as early as 1 min after addition of extract. Transcription of the SL RNA gene in vitro, as well as in permeable cells, is mediated by an alpha-amanitin/tagetitoxin resistant complex, suggesting a promoter that is intermediate between a classical RNA polymerase II and RNA polymerase III promoter. An analysis of the promoter architecture of the SL RNA gene revealed that regulatory elements are located upstream of the coding region and that the SL sequence, in contrast to the nematode SL sequence, is not required for T. brucei SL RNA gene transcription.

Guthua SW, Odhiambo WA. "Gunshot Injuries in Maxillofacial Region.". 2008.
WANDAYI PROFOKOTHMICHAEL. "GUMBE, L.O. AND OKOTH, M.W. Co-products in the Sugar Industry. The 16th Annual International Conference of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers, Nairobi, 9 .". In: The 16th Annual International Conference of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers, Nairobi, 9 . University of Nairobi.; 2004. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

WANDAYI PROFOKOTHMICHAEL. "GUMBE, L.O. AND OKOTH, M.W. Co-products in the Sugar Industry. The 16th Annual International Conference of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers, Nairobi, 9 .". In: The 16th Annual International Conference of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers, Nairobi, 9 .; 2004. Abstract
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WANDAYI PROFOKOTHMICHAEL. "GUMBE, L.O. AND OKOTH, M.W. Co-generation in the Sugar Industry. The 16th Annual International Conference of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers, Nairobi, 9 .". In: The 16th Annual International Conference of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers, Nairobi, 9 . University of Nairobi.; 2004. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

WANDAYI PROFOKOTHMICHAEL. "GUMBE, L.O. AND OKOTH, M.W. Co-generation in the Sugar Industry. The 16th Annual International Conference of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers, Nairobi, 9 .". In: The 16th Annual International Conference of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers, Nairobi, 9 .; 2004. Abstract
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.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Gumbe, L.O. 2003. Engineering and the Future. American Society of Civil Engineers. Virtual World Congress for Civil Engineering, www.ceworld.org.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2003. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
Pretorius B, Ambuko J, Papargyropoulou E, Schönfeldt HC. "Guiding Nutritious Food Choices and Diets along Food Systems." Sustainability. 2021;13:9501. Abstract
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K PROFNDELEJOHNSON. "Guidelines torational drug use Edited by Fr. Von. Massow, J.K. Ndele and R. Korte MacMillan Education Ltd., Publishers, 1997.". In: MacMillan Education Ltd., Publishers, 1997. University of Nairobi Press; 1997. Abstract
Texbook:
Kibera LW, Kibera FN. "Guidelines for Writing Academic Research Projects.". 2009.
Elsayed HM, Wadee S, Zaki MS, Were AJO, Ashuntantang GE, Bamgboye EL, Davids MR, Hafez MH, Mahamat M, Naicker S, Niang A, Seck SM, Swanepoel CR, Tannor EK, Twahir A, Yao HK. "Guidelines for the prevention, detection and management of the renal complications of COVID-19 in Africa." African Journal of Nephrology. 2020;98(5):S117-S134.Website
ODUNDO DRAMOLLOHPAUL. "Guidelines for the Establishment and Development of the District Stakeholders Forum.". In: The Fountain Journal Vol. IV No. 2. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2004.
Parmeejet A. "Guidelines for the Classification & Equivalence of Foreign Degrees and Diplomas.". In: Public Service Commission, Government of the Republic of Kenya. Nairobi; 1985.
N M, M G, Gichuhi S, G K, N N, L M, M B. Guidelines For Screening And Management of Diabetic Retinopathy. Nairobi: Ministry of Health Kenya; 2017.
O PROFORINDADA. "Guidelines for Quality Assurance and Total Quality Management in Laboratory Medicine.M. J. N. Mbiti and D.A.O. Orinda C.C.A.K. Publication First Edition 1995.". In: C.C.A.K. Publication First Edition 1995. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1995. Abstract

Department of Paediatrics, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Sodium and potassium levels were measured weekly in mothers' milk and in serum and urine of 41 supplemented and 25 unsupplemented very-low-birth-weight infants whose mean birth weights were 1390g and 1332g, respectively (mean gestational age, 31 weeks). Sodium intake was 5.95mmol/kg/day for the supplemented group and 2.75mmol/kg/day for controls. None of the infants in either group was hyponatremic during the 6-week period of study. Urinary sodium in the supplemented group was 15.7mmol/L as compared with 7.5mmol/L in controls. Human milk sodium was significantly lower than reported elsewhere. Growth in the supplemented group was greater than in the unsupplemented group. Since no episode of hyponatremia occurred, it was concluded that routine sodium supplementation was unnecessary.

Boniface; Makau, F; Wellington, N; Ekaya J;, Gathuma M. Guidelines For Emergency Livestock Off -take Handbook.; 2005. AbstractWebsite

Kenya’s agricultural sector accounts for 20–30% of the gross domestic product (GDP). Of this, the livestock sector alone makes a contribution of about 50%. Thus, livestock contributes heavily to the GDP and food security of its population. It also provides the necessary thrust for other forms of development in the country. Recent statistics indicate that currently over 50% of the country’s livestock population is based in the arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs), which form about 80% of the country’s land area. However, comparative international statistics show that livestock contributes 88% of the total agricultural output in Botswana even though the country has half Kenya’s livestock population and is of less agricultural potential. Thus, there is a huge potential contribution that livestock can make to the Kenyan national economy. Unfortunately, this sector receives only 10% of the government’s agricultural expenditure and less than one per cent of total spending, yet it is estimated that Kenya’s potential to export livestock products if adequately exploited would earn more than the earnings from tea and coffee combined. This then calls for new thinking about livestock development strategies to harness the arid landsThe livestock sector accounts for 90% of employment and more than 95% of household incomes in the ASALs. Most of the livestock slaughtered in major urban centres originates in these areas, with an annual slaughter of about 1.6 million Tropical Livestock Units. Kenya’s livestock from the ASALs is worth Kshs 60 billion (US$800 million). The internal livestock trade in trade in thepastoral areas alone nets in about 6 billion shillings (US$80 million )a yearIn the arid areas of the ASALs, arable crop production is not possible without some form of irrigation; while in semi-arid areas rainfall may be sufficient for certain types of crops, requiring special management techniques. Therefore, except for the areaunder cropping, the rest of the arid areas is used for livestock.......

Wellington, N; Ekaya, Joseph; Gathuma M, Boniface; Makau F;, Dickson, M; Nyariki. Guidelines For Emergency Livestock Off -take Handbook.; 2005. AbstractWebsite

Kenya’s agricultural sector accounts for 20–30% of the gross domestic product (GDP). Of this, the livestock sector alone makes a contribution of about 50%. Thus, livestock contributes heavily to the GDP and food security of its population. It also provides the necessary thrust for other forms of development in the country. Recent statistics indicate that currently over 50% of the country’s livestock population is based in the arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs), which form about 80% of the country’s land area. However, comparative international statistics show that livestock contributes 88% of the total agricultural output in Botswana even though the country has half Kenya’s livestock population and is of less agricultural potential. Thus, there is a huge potential contribution that livestock can make to the Kenyan national economy. Unfortunately, this sector receives only 10% of the government’s agricultural expenditure and less than one per cent of total spending, yet it is estimated that Kenya’s potential to export livestock products if adequately exploited would earn more than the earnings from tea and coffee combined. This then calls for new thinking about livestock development strategies to harness the arid landsThe livestock sector accounts for 90% of employment and more than 95% of household incomes in the ASALs. Most of the livestock slaughtered in major urban centres originates in these areas, with an annual slaughter of about 1.6 million Tropical Livestock Units. Kenya’s livestock from the ASALs is worth Kshs 60 billion (US$800 million). The internal livestock trade in trade in thepastoral areas alone nets in about 6 billion shillings (US$80 million )a yearIn the arid areas of the ASALs, arable crop production is not possible without some form of irrigation; while in semi-arid areas rainfall may be sufficient for certain types of crops, requiring special management techniques. Therefore, except for the areaunder cropping, the rest of the arid areas is used for livestock......

Joseph; Gathuma M, Dickson, M; Nyariki, Wellington, N; Ekaya, Boniface; Makau F;. Guidelines For Emergency Livestock Off -take Handbook.; 2005. AbstractWebsite

Kenya’s agricultural sector accounts for 20–30% of the gross domestic product (GDP). Of this, the livestock sector alone makes a contribution of about 50%. Thus, livestock contributes heavily to the GDP and food security of its population. It also provides the necessary thrust for other forms of development in the country. Recent statistics indicate that currently over 50% of the country’s livestock population is based in the arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs), which form about 80% of the country’s land area. However, comparative international statistics show that livestock contributes 88% of the total agricultural output in Botswana even though the country has half Kenya’s livestock population and is of less agricultural potential. Thus, there is a huge potential contribution that livestock can make to the Kenyan national economy. Unfortunately, this sector receives only 10% of the government’s agricultural expenditure and less than one per cent of total spending, yet it is estimated that Kenya’s potential to export livestock products if adequately exploited would earn more than the earnings from tea and coffee combined. This then calls for new thinking about livestock development strategies to harness the arid landsThe livestock sector accounts for 90% of employment and more than 95% of household incomes in the ASALs. Most of the livestock slaughtered in major urban centres originates in these areas, with an annual slaughter of about 1.6 million Tropical Livestock Units. Kenya’s livestock from the ASALs is worth Kshs 60 billion (US$800 million). The internal livestock trade in trade in thepastoral areas alone nets in about 6 billion shillings (US$80 million )a yearIn the arid areas of the ASALs, arable crop production is not possible without some form of irrigation; while in semi-arid areas rainfall may be sufficient for certain types of crops, requiring special management techniques. Therefore, except for the areaunder cropping, the rest of the arid areas is used for livestock.......

Søren M, Lars S;. Guidelines for distribution of tree seed in small bags: small quantities and high quality.; 2007. AbstractWebsite

It has been assessed that the majority of trees planted in developing countries are planted by farmers. On-farm tree planting is likely to gain importance in the future as access to natural forests and trees is getting more and more difficult. On-farm tree planting, however, often suffers from lack of access to a diversity of high quality tree planting material. Quality tree seed are normally sold from major seed producers (national tree seed organisations) in a centralised manner, with only 1-3 outlets within the country, and often only in large quantities. Small holders cannot afford to travel long distances and need only small amounts of seed. Therefore the seed will have to be brought to the farmer

Søren M;, Lars S;. Guidelines for distribution of tree seed in small bags: small quantities and high quality.; 2007. AbstractWebsite

It has been assessed that the majority of trees planted in developing countries are planted by farmers. On-farm tree planting is likely to gain importance in the future as access to natural forests and trees is getting more and more difficult. On-farm tree planting, however, often suffers from lack of access to a diversity of high quality tree planting material. Quality tree seed are normally sold from major seed producers (national tree seed organisations) in a centralised manner, with only 1-3 outlets within the country, and often only in large quantities. Small holders cannot afford to travel long distances and need only small amounts of seed. Therefore the seed will have to be brought to the farmers

J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Guidelines for Developing Information, Education and Communication Materials for behavior change in malaria control. World Health Organization, Regional Office for Africa.". In: Institute of Physics CMMP `94, Warwick, U.K., 19-21 December 1994, Paper 1.4ss.11, p. 157. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2001. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
W DRGACHUKIDAVID. "A guide to the PTA Treaty. Report prepared for the PTA Secretariat, Lusaka, July.". In: J. Social Med. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1989. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
Nyasani PJ. Guide to Philosophy Series 6 - Legal Philosophy Jurispudence.. Nairobi: Consolata Institute of Philosophy Press; 2010.
Nyasani PJ. Guide to Philosophy Series 18 - Cosmology: The Philosophy of Nature. Nairobi: Consolata Institute of Philosophy Press; 2012.
Akanga, J; Kariuki SKFW; MOE; NE; B; A. "A Guide to Periodicals Section .". 1991.Website
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. "A Guide to Nikolai Gogol's "The Government Inspector." Nairobi: The Jomo Kenyatta Foundation.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1995. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
H. DRMULEKAJOSEPH. "A Guide to Half a Day and Other Stories. Published by Macmillan Publishers.". In: Published by KOLA. uon; 2005.
H. DRMULEKAJOSEPH. "A Guide to Half a Day and Other Stories. Published by Macmillan Publishers.". In: Published by KOLA. uon; 2005. Abstract
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H. DRMULEKAJOSEPH. "A Guide to Encounters from Africa.Published by Kenya Literature Bureau.". In: Published by KOLA. uon; 2003.
H. DRMULEKAJOSEPH. "A Guide to Encounters from Africa.Published by Kenya Literature Bureau.". In: Published by KOLA. uon; 2003. Abstract
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HM M, OL O, LC A. Guide to Clinical and Practical Laboratory Procedures in Theriogenology. Ibadan: Scholarship Books; 2019.
Kopf A, Patel NB. Guide it Pain Management in Low Resource Settings. International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP); 2009.
ALUOCH DRAUSTINOCHIENG. "Guide for the Selection of Biological Agent Detection Equipment for Emergency First Responder 2nd Edition,.". In: Department of Homeland Security, Guide 101-06 , 2nd Edition (June 2007). Homeland Security, USA; 2007. Abstract
A. A. Fatah, R. D. Arcilesi, T. Chekol, C. H. Lattin, O. A. Sadik, A. Aluoch, The primary purpose of the Guide for the Selection of Biological Agent Detection Equipment for Emergency First Responders is to provide emergency first responders with information to aid them in the selection and utilization of BA detection equipment. The guide is intended to be more practical than technical and provides information on a variety of factors to be considered when purchasing detection equipment, including, but not limited to, sensitivity, specificity, startup and response times, power requirements, cost, durability, and portability
. AAA. Guidance and Counseling .Educational, Career and Special Cases counseling. Nairobi: Kaswanga Printers and Press Consultancy Ltd; 2012.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "Guest Editor for Africa, Regional Development Dialogue (RDD), Vol. 24, No. 2, Autumn 2003.". In: On the Theme: . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""Guarding Against the Fallacy of Constitutionalism in Constitution Making." In Negotiating Co-existence and Governance Structures: Essays on Gender and Constitution Making. Eds. Wanjiku Kabira and Peter Wasamba. Nairobi: Collaborative Centre for Gender an.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2001. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
K PROFMAITAICHARLES, N PROFGUANTAIA. "Guantai AN, Maitai CK.Relative distribution of cathinone and D-norpseudoephedrine in Catha edulis (Miraa) growing in Kenya.East Afr Med J. 1982 Jun;59(6):394-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Jun;59(6):394-8. A. N. GUANTAI, J. W. MWANG1, G1CHURU MURIUKI and K. A. M. KURIA; 1982. Abstract
Cathinone, a potent psychostimulant isolated from young shoots of Catha edulis was given to four human volunteers. Examination of urine collected from the volunteers at predetermined intervals showed the presence of unchanged cathinone, d-norpseudoephedrine, and two unidentified basic substances. The observed biotransformation of cathinone to the less potent psychostimulant, d-norpseudoephedrine involves reduction of a ketone group to alcohol, a common metabolic pathway in humans.
K PROFMAITAICHARLES, N PROFGUANTAIA. "Guantai AN, Maitai CK. Metabolism of cathinone to d-norpseudoephedrine in humans.J Pharm Sci. 1983 Oct;72(10):1217-8.". In: J Pharm Sci. 1983 Oct;72(10):1217-8. African Crop Science Society; 1983. Abstract
Cathinone, a potent psychostimulant isolated from young shoots of Catha edulis was given to four human volunteers. Examination of urine collected from the volunteers at predetermined intervals showed the presence of unchanged cathinone, d-norpseudoephedrine, and two unidentified basic substances. The observed biotransformation of cathinone to the less potent psychostimulant, d-norpseudoephedrine involves reduction of a ketone group to alcohol, a common metabolic pathway in humans.
K PROFMAITAICHARLES, N PROFGUANTAIA. "Guantai AN, Maitai CK. Metabolism of cathinone to d-norpseudoephedrine in humans.J Pharm Sci. 1983 Oct;72(10):1217-8.". In: J Pharm Sci. 1983 Oct;72(10):1217-8. A. N. GUANTAI, J. W. MWANG1, G1CHURU MURIUKI and K. A. M. KURIA; 1983. Abstract
Cathinone, a potent psychostimulant isolated from young shoots of Catha edulis was given to four human volunteers. Examination of urine collected from the volunteers at predetermined intervals showed the presence of unchanged cathinone, d-norpseudoephedrine, and two unidentified basic substances. The observed biotransformation of cathinone to the less potent psychostimulant, d-norpseudoephedrine involves reduction of a ketone group to alcohol, a common metabolic pathway in humans.
N PROFGUANTAIA. "Guantai A.N., Addae-Mensah I.,. Njoroge D.K.. Chloroquine Drug Interactions. Part I Interaction with drugs on the neuromuscular junction. The East and /central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol. 1 (3)-50-53 Dec. 1998.". In: The East and /central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol. 1 (3)-50-53 Dec. 1998. F.A. OKALEBO*, H.A. RABAHI, A.N. GUANTAII, C.K. MALTA', I.0. K1BWAGE, J.W. MWANGI AND W. MASENGO; 1998. Abstract

The in vitro antimalarial activity of the root extract in partly supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria. Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders. Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats. Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity. The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against the inulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 jig/nil). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity. The leaf, stein and root extracts had no bacterial or fungal inhibitory effects even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The Lll50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 jig/ml, respectively. Key Words: Clematis brachiata, Ranuneulaceae, antimalarial, antibacterial, antifungal, brine shrimp.

N PROFGUANTAIA. "Guantai A.N and Addae-Mensah I.Chloroquine Drug Interactions Part 1I. Interactions with diuretics. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol (3. No.3, 31-35 (2000).". In: East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol (3. No.3, 31-35 (2000). F.A. OKALEBO*, H.A. RABAHI, A.N. GUANTAII, C.K. MALTA', I.0. K1BWAGE, J.W. MWANGI AND W. MASENGO; 2000. Abstract

The in vitro antimalarial activity of the root extract in partly supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria. Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders. Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats. Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity. The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against the inulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 jig/nil). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity. The leaf, stein and root extracts had no bacterial or fungal inhibitory effects even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The Lll50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 jig/ml, respectively. Key Words: Clematis brachiata, Ranuneulaceae, antimalarial, antibacterial, antifungal, brine shrimp.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Gruessner S, Omwandho C.A.O, Klingm.". In: In Proceedings of the 28th combined congress of German, Swiss and Austrian Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine, 6 .; 2004. Abstract

Recurrent pregnancy loss has been associated with autoimmune responses to membrane phospholipids and alloimmune reactions against paternally derived molecules on the trophoblast. The problem is psychologically and economically stressful as it undermines the capacity of some couples to reproduce and participate effectively in the day-to-day economic activities. This article reviews the adoption of intravenous immunoglobulin as a form of therapy for the clinical management of recurrent pregnancy loss and of selected autoimmune disorders. Side effects, contraindications and safety of use are discussed.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Gruessner S, Omwandho C, Klingnueller V, Tinneberg HR. Partielle unde komplette Reduktion de uterinen Perfusion beim Schaffeten .". In: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Sept 2004, Vol 270 (Suppl 1): S10.; 2004. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To study re-association pattern of human placental eluate immunoglobulins with acid treated isologous and third party trophoblast derived placental microvesicles. DESIGN: Laboratory based experimentation. SETTING: Biological Sciences Department and Discipline for Reproductive Medicine University of Newcastle, Australia and the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, Kenya. RESULTS: Placental eluate immunoglobulins re-associated with isologous and third party acidified microvesicles in three distinct patterns. I: eluate immunoglobulins re-associated more strongly with isologous and third party acid treated placental microvesicles, II: eluate immunoglobulins re-associated strongly with isologous but weakly with third party acid treated placental microvesicles, III: eluate immunoglobulins did not show preferential re-association with isologous and third party acid treated placental microvesicles. CONCLUSION: Two types of antigenic epitopes I and II may be expressed on the human placentae. Type I antigens may be present on all human placentae while type II epitopes may be paternally derived hence unique to each pregnancy. Also, immunoglobulins produced to placental microvesicle antigens may be directed to some but not all antigenic epitopes expressed on the human placental trophoblast.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Gruessner S, Omwandho C, Klingm.". In: In Proceedings of 55th Congress of German Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics: 14-17 Sept 2004, Hamburg, Germany.; 2004. Abstract

Recurrent pregnancy loss has been associated with autoimmune responses to membrane phospholipids and alloimmune reactions against paternally derived molecules on the trophoblast. The problem is psychologically and economically stressful as it undermines the capacity of some couples to reproduce and participate effectively in the day-to-day economic activities. This article reviews the adoption of intravenous immunoglobulin as a form of therapy for the clinical management of recurrent pregnancy loss and of selected autoimmune disorders. Side effects, contraindications and safety of use are discussed.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Gruessner S 1, Omwandho C. A. O. 1, V. Klingmueller 2, Bohle R. 3, Tinneberg H.R 1. 2D .". In: Ultrasound in Medicine 2004 Okt; Vol 25 (Suppl 1).; 2004. Abstract

1 Universit

Kamanu JK, Chemining'wa GN, Nderitu JH, Ambuko J, others. "Growth, yield and quality response of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants to different inorganic fertilizers applications in central Kenya." Journal of Applied Biosciences. 2012;55:3944-3952. Abstract
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Gateri M.W., R. Nyankanga, Ambuko J, Muriuki AW. "Growth, Yield and Quality of Onion (Allium cepa L.) as Influenced by Nitrogen and Time of Topdressing. ." International Journal of Plant & Soil Science . 2018;23(32)( DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/42135):1-13.Growth, Yield and Quality of Onion (Allium cepa L.) as Influenced by Nitrogen and Time of Topdressing. .pdf
Gateri MW, Nyankanga R, Ambuko J, Muriuki AW. "Growth, yield and quality of onion (Allium cepa L.) as influenced by nitrogen and time of topdressing." International Journal of Plant & Soil Science. 2018:1-13. Abstract
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Micheni, A.N. KGANPT. "Growth, production potentials and compatibility of maize – bean intercrops: Results from on-station trials in Embu, Kenya." Advanced Agricultural Research and Technology Journal. 2018;Vol II (2):213-219.
Gor SO. "Growth, Poverty and Policy in Kenya .". In: Institute of Research and Post Graduate Studies of Maseno University.; 2005.
Wambugu A, Onsomu E, Munga B. "Growth, Poverty and Income Inequality in Kenya: Suggested Policy Options." National Economic and Soci al Council (NESC) Paper No. 2/2010. 2010.
Inyangala BAO;, Rege JEO;, Itulya S. "Growth traits of the Dorper sheep. I. Factors influencing growth traits."; 1992. Abstract

Presents results of a study carried out to analyse growth traits of the Dorper sheep. Data on 969 lambs collected over a 10-year period (1978 to 1987) at Magogo, Kenya were used in the study. Lamb traits studied were weights from birth to yearling and absolute growth rates between adjacent stages of growth. All the fixed effects studied influenced growth in one way or another.

and CRM, Kinyamario JI. "Growth response of woody species to elephant foraging in Mwea National Reserve, Kenya." Afr. J. Ecol.. 2009;47:598-605.
Odada E. "Growth rates of ferromanganese encrustations on rocks from the Romanche Fracture Zone, Equatorial Atlantic." Deep Sea Research Part A. Oceanographic Research Papers. 1992;39(2):235-244. AbstractSCIENCE DIRECT

Based on radiochemical techniques, ferromanganese oxide crusts from the Romanche Fracture Zone (RFZ) have accretion rates ranging between 1.4 and 2.8 mm/106 years. In comparison with other ferromanganese deposits, the accretion rates for the RFZ crusts are close to the growth rates for typical hydrogenetic deposits formed on elevations and exposed rock surfaces in the Pacific Ocean. This would suggest that the RFZ crusts are formed by slow accumulation of metal hydroxides from the water column, probably in a manner analogous to the Pacific seamount crusts.

Bwana MO, Njagi LW, Nyaga PN, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, Wahome MW, Mutinda WU, Kitala PM. "Growth promotive effects of neem and stinging nettle in indigenous chickens in Kenya." Ruforum working Document Series (ISSN 1607-9345). 2016;14(1):833-838.
Serem JK, Wahome RG, D.W. Gakuya, S.G.Kiama, G.C.Gitao, D, W O. "Growth performance, feed conversion efficiency and blood characteristics of growing pigs fed on different levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal health . 2017;9(11):327-333.serem_et_al_2017.pdf
Serem JK, G WR, DW G, SG K, G GC, DW O. "Growth performance, feed conversion efficiency and blood characteristics of growing pigs fed on different levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health. 2017;9(11):327-333.serem_et_al_2017.pdf
Serem JK, John M. Kimani, Raphael G. Wahome, Daniel W. Gakuya, G.Kiama S, Onyango DW, Mbuthia PG. "Growth performance, feed conversion efficiency and 3 blood characteristics of growing pigs fed on different levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal diets. J. Vet. Med. Anim. Health, .". 2017;19(1):478-486,.
Serem, J.K., Wahome, R.G., Gakuya, F., Kiama, S.G. Growth Performance and Feed Conversion Efficiency of Pigs Supplemented with Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal (MOLM). Bibliotheca, Alexandria, Egypt: TWAS; 2016.
PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Growth patterns of the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera L. in Gazi Bay, Kenya.". In: African Journal of Marine Science 27(3). Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2005. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
K.M.Mavuti &, E.N.Kimani, T.Mukiama. "Growth patterns of the pearl oyster Pinctada margarifera in Gazi Bay, Kenya." African Journal of Marine Sciences . 2005;27:567-575.
WANJIRU DRNGUGIROSE. "Growth of the NSE primary market: what can we learn? KIPPRA Discussion Paper # 47." The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2005.
L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "The Growth of a Literary Tradition, in Criticism and Ideology, edited by Kirsten Petersen [Uppsala: The Institute of African Studies, 1988] 67-80; also in Journal of Eastern African Research and Development 2.". In: In Criticism and Ideology, edited by Kirsten Petersen [Uppsala: The Institute of African Studies, 1988] 67-80; also in Journal of Eastern African Research and Development (1981), 2.; 1988. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

Jitta, Jessica &RN. "Growth monitoring and promotion during early childhood development.". In: Primary health care: A manual for medical students and other health workers (2nd ed.). UNICEF. ; 1995.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Growth linkages between Agriculture and industry in Kenya Journal of Eastern african Research and Development with K.L Sharma.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1984. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "Growth inhibition of the predacious mite, Amblyseius brazilli by a synthetic juvenile hormone under laboratory conditions. Entomophaga, 24: 429 .". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1977. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
Hayashi, H., K. Fujiwara, S. Meguro, S. K. Kiboi, P. C. Mutiso, Kage SK, Mutiso DC. "Growth dynamics of indigenous seedlings planted by a dense and mixed method in the Nairobi city, Kenya. ." Eco-Habitat. 2017;24(1):35-51.
Samuel KL, John KW, Dora KC, Cecilia OM. "Growth and yield response of selected species of African leafy vegetables infested with root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita)." Global Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Health Sciences . 2014;3(4):1-6.
Dorothy McCormick, Ongile G, Kinyanjui N. "Growth and the Organisation of Production: Case Studies from Nairobi's Garment Industry.". In: Financing, Human Resources, Environment, and Markets of African Small Enterprise: A Literature Review. Nairobi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1993. Abstract

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Waithaka K. "Growth And Runner Production Of Everbearing Strawberries In Kenya."; 1985. Abstract

Strawberry production in the tropics is hampered by lack of enough propagative material. Propagation in Kenya is mainly by crown division because the continuous short day condition in the tropics does not favour enough runner production. Physical manipulation of the parent plants proved a little beneficial in runner production in two everbearing cultivars. Defoliation of the older leaves promoted runner production in Turft and Tioga. This resulted in an increase of daughter plants for propagation. Defoliation had no influence in all cultivars used in the study. Deblossoming promoted runner production in Turft, but failed in Tioga and Aiko. Defoliation and deblossoming or a combination of the two treatments failed to promote runner production in Aiko.

Bigsten A, Manda DK, Mwabu G, Wambugu A. "Growth and Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa.". In: Growth and Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa 343.; 2016.
PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Growth and moulting of captive Panulirus homarus homarus in Kenya, western Indian Ocean.". In: New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, Vol. 39: 539-549. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2005. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH, N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Growth and development of abandoned babies in institutional care in Nairobi. Otieno PA, Nduati RW, Musoke RN, Wasunna AO.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Aug;76(8):430-5. Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1999. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of growth and development of institutionalised infants and to compare the outcome with that of infants living with their biological mothers. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Seven children's homes; Kenyatta National Hospital's New Born Unit and Well Baby Clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-two abandoned babies who fulfilled the selection criteria were recruited and for each abandoned baby two mothered babies matched for age and sex were selected from the well baby clinics. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Anthropometric measures of weight, length, head circumference and left mid arm circumference (LUMAC) were taken and the mean values and Z scores determined to demonstrate growth pattern and nutritional status of the babies. The Revised Denver Development Screening Test (RDDST) was used to assess the development pattern of infants. RESULTS: Seventy per cent of infants were below six months old and 73% were abandoned within the first week of life. Abandoned babies were significantly thinner with the mean LUMAC of 10.8 cm versus 12.3 cm (p = 0.02) Institutionalised babies were significantly wasted (p = 0.00001) and stunted (p = 0.00001). Abandoned babies were significantly delayed in development (p < 0.0001). In all the four sectors tested for, institutionalised babies showed significant delay, p < 0.0001 in each sector. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that infants under institutional care have poorer growth and development compared to mothered infants. PIP: This cross-sectional study examined the pattern of growth and development of infants in some of the baby institutions in Nairobi and compared the outcome with that of infants living with their biological mothers. The participating institutions included the Kenyatta National Hospital and 7 children's homes within the city. The study recruited 82 abandoned babies aged 1-18 months who had been abandoned for at least 2 weeks. Each abandoned baby was paired with 2 mothered babies matched for age and sex. Anthropometric measures of weight, length, head circumference, and left mid arm circumference (LUMAC) were taken. The mean values and Z scores were determined to assess growth pattern and nutritional status of the babies. The results showed that abandoned babies were significantly thinner, with a mean LUMAC of 10.8 cm vs. 12.3 cm. Moreover, abandoned babies were significantly wasted (p = 0.00001), stunted (p = 0.00001), and delayed in development (p 0.0001). These findings indicate that institutionalized infants have poorer growth and development compared to mothered infants.

O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH, N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Growth and development of abandoned babies in institutional care in Nairobi. Otieno PA, Nduati RW, Musoke RN, Wasunna AO.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Aug;76(8):430-5. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1999. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of growth and development of institutionalised infants and to compare the outcome with that of infants living with their biological mothers. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Seven children's homes; Kenyatta National Hospital's New Born Unit and Well Baby Clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-two abandoned babies who fulfilled the selection criteria were recruited and for each abandoned baby two mothered babies matched for age and sex were selected from the well baby clinics. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Anthropometric measures of weight, length, head circumference and left mid arm circumference (LUMAC) were taken and the mean values and Z scores determined to demonstrate growth pattern and nutritional status of the babies. The Revised Denver Development Screening Test (RDDST) was used to assess the development pattern of infants. RESULTS: Seventy per cent of infants were below six months old and 73% were abandoned within the first week of life. Abandoned babies were significantly thinner with the mean LUMAC of 10.8 cm versus 12.3 cm (p = 0.02) Institutionalised babies were significantly wasted (p = 0.00001) and stunted (p = 0.00001). Abandoned babies were significantly delayed in development (p < 0.0001). In all the four sectors tested for, institutionalised babies showed significant delay, p < 0.0001 in each sector. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that infants under institutional care have poorer growth and development compared to mothered infants. PIP: This cross-sectional study examined the pattern of growth and development of infants in some of the baby institutions in Nairobi and compared the outcome with that of infants living with their biological mothers. The participating institutions included the Kenyatta National Hospital and 7 children's homes within the city. The study recruited 82 abandoned babies aged 1-18 months who had been abandoned for at least 2 weeks. Each abandoned baby was paired with 2 mothered babies matched for age and sex. Anthropometric measures of weight, length, head circumference, and left mid arm circumference (LUMAC) were taken. The mean values and Z scores were determined to assess growth pattern and nutritional status of the babies. The results showed that abandoned babies were significantly thinner, with a mean LUMAC of 10.8 cm vs. 12.3 cm. Moreover, abandoned babies were significantly wasted (p = 0.00001), stunted (p = 0.00001), and delayed in development (p 0.0001). These findings indicate that institutionalized infants have poorer growth and development compared to mothered infants.

O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH, N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Growth and development of abandoned babies in institutional care in Nairobi. Otieno PA, Nduati RW, Musoke RN, Wasunna AO.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Aug;76(8):430-5. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1999. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of growth and development of institutionalised infants and to compare the outcome with that of infants living with their biological mothers. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Seven children's homes; Kenyatta National Hospital's New Born Unit and Well Baby Clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-two abandoned babies who fulfilled the selection criteria were recruited and for each abandoned baby two mothered babies matched for age and sex were selected from the well baby clinics. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Anthropometric measures of weight, length, head circumference and left mid arm circumference (LUMAC) were taken and the mean values and Z scores determined to demonstrate growth pattern and nutritional status of the babies. The Revised Denver Development Screening Test (RDDST) was used to assess the development pattern of infants. RESULTS: Seventy per cent of infants were below six months old and 73% were abandoned within the first week of life. Abandoned babies were significantly thinner with the mean LUMAC of 10.8 cm versus 12.3 cm (p = 0.02) Institutionalised babies were significantly wasted (p = 0.00001) and stunted (p = 0.00001). Abandoned babies were significantly delayed in development (p < 0.0001). In all the four sectors tested for, institutionalised babies showed significant delay, p < 0.0001 in each sector. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that infants under institutional care have poorer growth and development compared to mothered infants. PIP: This cross-sectional study examined the pattern of growth and development of infants in some of the baby institutions in Nairobi and compared the outcome with that of infants living with their biological mothers. The participating institutions included the Kenyatta National Hospital and 7 children's homes within the city. The study recruited 82 abandoned babies aged 1-18 months who had been abandoned for at least 2 weeks. Each abandoned baby was paired with 2 mothered babies matched for age and sex. Anthropometric measures of weight, length, head circumference, and left mid arm circumference (LUMAC) were taken. The mean values and Z scores were determined to assess growth pattern and nutritional status of the babies. The results showed that abandoned babies were significantly thinner, with a mean LUMAC of 10.8 cm vs. 12.3 cm. Moreover, abandoned babies were significantly wasted (p = 0.00001), stunted (p = 0.00001), and delayed in development (p 0.0001). These findings indicate that institutionalized infants have poorer growth and development compared to mothered infants.

Otieno PA, R W Nduati, Musoke RN, Wasunna AO. "Growth and development of abandoned babies in institutional care in Nairobi." East Afr Med J. 1999;76(8):430-5. Abstract

To determine the pattern of growth and development of institutionalised infants and to compare the outcome with that of infants living with their biological mothers.

Mwangi W, Kinuthia J. "Growth and Challenges Facing Serviced apartments’ Sub-sector in Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of Creative Research and studies. 2019;3(5).
Dorothy McCormick. ""Growth and Barriers to Growth Among Nairobi's Small and Medium-Sized Garment Producers." Co-authored with Mary Njeri Kinyanjui and Grace Ongile. World Development 25(7): 1095-1110.". In: "Growth and Barriers to Growth Among Nairobi's Small and Medium-Sized Garment Producers."World Development 25(7): 1095-1110. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1997. Abstract

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Gor SO. "Growth - Poverty Nexus in Eastern Africa.". In: Great Lakes Colleges Association Annual Symposium. Nairobi; 2002.
Kurji, Parin; McDermott B; SD; SR. The Growing Role Of Computers For Teaching Statistics In Kenya.; 2010. Abstract

Until recently, the teaching of statistics in East Africa has been a traditional chalk-and-talk affair. In the last few years computers have become more widely accessible. At the same time many statistical resources of the highest quality are freely available for Africa, including Computer- Assisted Statistics Textbooks (CAST), an electronic textbook, GenStat Discovery Edition, (a statistics package), and training resources such as the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Training Pack DVD prepared by Statistics Services Centre (SSC) , Reading University. This means that change is not only possible but is within reach of lecturers all over Africa. Experiences at two Kenyan universities are described. Initiatives for undergraduates and postgraduates in both service teaching and specialist teaching of statistics are discussed.

and Karuku CGNJA. Growing Onions booklet. . Edited by Mary Ngechu, The University of Nairobi; 1992.
Otysula, R. M., and Nderitu, J. H., Buruchara RA. "Growing of climbing beans(Maharagwe Tambarizi) in Kenya. .". In: African Highland Initiative-CIAT, KARI, RRC-Kakamega,. Kakamega; 1997.
Bulimo W, MC J, RL B, KG V, M F, JA P, SK S, DC S, S T, JA T, JM M, DJ F, MR D, MJ C, JL S, DL B, Group AFHSC-GEISORW, S W, T D, R G, S I, J R, R B, R J, IK Y, G S, V O, R C, W B, R S, D O, B O, D M, M K, G B, M W, C Y, RV B, G P, C M, P K, DE B, D M, A H, P B, M E, R C, V M, K B, E M, T P, K J. "A growing global network{'}s role in outbreak response: AFHSC-GEIS 2008-2009.". 2011. AbstractWebsite
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Johns MC, Burke RL, Vest KG, Fukuda M, Pavlin JA, Shrestha SK, Schnabel DC, Tobias S, Tjaden JA, Montgomery JM, Faix DJ, Duffy MR, Cooper MJ, Sanchez JL, Blazes DL, Wangchuk S, Dorji T, Gibbons R, Iamsirithaworn S, Richardson J, Buathong R, Jarman R, Yoon IK, Shakya G, Ofula V, Coldren R, Bulimo W, Sang R, Omariba D, Obura B, Mwala D, Kasper M, Brice G, Williams M, Yasuda C, Barthel RV, Pimentel G, Meyers C, Kammerer P, Baynes DE, Metzgar D, Hawksworth A, Blair P, Ellorin M, Coon R, Macintosh V, Burwell K, Macias E, Palys T, Jerke K. "A growing global network's role in outbreak response: AFHSC-GEIS 2008-2009." BMC Public Health. 2011;11 Suppl 2:S3. AbstractWebsite

A cornerstone of effective disease surveillance programs comprises the early identification of infectious threats and the subsequent rapid response to prevent further spread. Effectively identifying, tracking and responding to these threats is often difficult and requires international cooperation due to the rapidity with which diseases cross national borders and spread throughout the global community as a result of travel and migration by humans and animals. From Oct.1, 2008 to Sept. 30, 2009, the United States Department of Defense's (DoD) Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) identified 76 outbreaks in 53 countries. Emerging infectious disease outbreaks were identified by the global network and included a wide spectrum of support activities in collaboration with host country partners, several of which were in direct support of the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005). The network also supported military forces around the world affected by the novel influenza A/H1N1 pandemic of 2009. With IHR (2005) as the guiding framework for action, the AFHSC-GEIS network of international partners and overseas research laboratories continues to develop into a far-reaching system for identifying, analyzing and responding to emerging disease threats.

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