Publications

Found 1513 results

Sort by: Author [ Title  (Desc)] Type Year
Filters: First Letter Of Title is G  [Clear All Filters]
A B C D E F [G] H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z   [Show ALL]
G
Keya SO;, Byalenbeka J. "Gene Pools Of Rhizobia Mircens."; 1979.
G DF, E L, D L, PP P, PP C, A O, G C, J N, W M, C B, M H, S P, P T, H S, A G, Leoncini L. "Gene expression analysis identifies novel RBL2/p130 target genes in endemic Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines and primary tumors." Blood.. 2007;110(4):1301-7.
Mwangi KW, Macharia RW, Bargul JL. "Gene co-expression network analysis of Trypanosoma brucei in tsetse fly vector." Parasit Vectors. 2021;14(1):74. Abstract

Trypanosoma brucei species are motile protozoan parasites that are cyclically transmitted by tsetse fly (genus Glossina) causing human sleeping sickness and nagana in livestock in sub-Saharan Africa. African trypanosomes display digenetic life cycle stages in the tsetse fly vector and in their mammalian host. Experimental work on insect-stage trypanosomes is challenging because of the difficulty in setting up successful in vitro cultures. Therefore, there is limited knowledge on the trypanosome biology during its development in the tsetse fly. Consequently, this limits the development of new strategies for blocking parasite transmission in the tsetse fly.

Nyamongo GB. "Gendered Silence: Sexual Violence against Women during ethnic Conflicts in Kenya." Asian Women . 2007;Vol. 23 (No.4):61-74.
"Gendered Analysis of the Demand for Poultry Feed in Kenya. ." Agricultural Economics Research, Policy and Practice in Southern Africa – Agrekon. 2020;(ISSN: 0303-1853 ).
Buttolph J, Inwani I, Agot K, Cleland CM, Cherutich P, Kiarie JN, Osoti A, Celum CL, Baeten JM, Ruth Nduati, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Hallett TB, Alsallaq R, Kurth AE. "Gender-Specific Combination HIV Prevention for Youth in High-Burden Settings: The MP3 Youth Observational Pilot Study Protocol." JMIR Res Protoc. 2017;6(3):e22. Abstract

Nearly three decades into the epidemic, sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains the region most heavily affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), with nearly 70% of the 34 million people living with HIV globally residing in the region. In SSA, female and male youth (15 to 24 years) are at a disproportionately high risk of HIV infection compared to adults. As such, there is a need to target HIV prevention strategies to youth and to tailor them to a gender-specific context. This protocol describes the process for the multi-staged approach in the design of the MP3 Youth pilot study, a gender-specific, combination, HIV prevention intervention for youth in Kenya.

Kiriti-Nganga TW. "Gender, Youth Sexuality and HIV/AIDS: A Kenya Experience.". In: International Journal of Women, Social Justice and Human Rights.; 2007.
GATHAARA NV;, NGUGI JN. Gender, soil and water conservation in Machakos district, Kenya.; 2009. AbstractWebsite

Gender mainstreaming is crucial in soil and water conservation initiatives. The existing technologies though, as designed, are expected to be gender neutral, lead to gender differences at the adoption stage. This was confirmed during a study conducte d in Kathekakai settlement scheme, Machakos district where despite both men and women participating in soil and water conservation initiatives, women’s efforts to adopt the recommended technologies were hampered by their limited access to authoritative infor ma- tion and lack of control over land. Women though playing major roles as farmers (64.6%), could not make key decisions on land u se. Previous reports indicate that the women in Machakos district contributed significantly to soil and water conservation efforts in the mid 1980’s leading to terracing of over 70% of the district. Gender mainstreaming efforts need to be enhanced for achievement o f sustainable and effective soil and water conservation for improved agricultural production and livelihoods

DOROTHY MRSOMOLLO. "Gender, Policy & HIV: Reproductive Rights. A paper presented at the 10th International Conference in STD / AIDS, Yokohama, Japan, August 1994.". In: J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1994. Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

NYAMBURA PROFKIMANIVIOLET. "Gender, perceptions and behaviour towards health risks associated with urban dairy farming in Dagoretti Division, Nairobi, Kenya. Kimani VN, Ngonde AM, Kang'ethe EK, Kiragu MW. East Afr Med J. 2007 Nov;84(11 Suppl):S57-64.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 Nov;84(11 Suppl):S57-64. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To determine the socio-cultural, economic and environmental factors that encourage urban dairy production and the factors which may predispose the producer, consumer and other handlers to risks associated with dairy farming. To assess the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of men and women towards health risks and benefits associated with urban dairy farming in smallholder dairy farming and their immediate non-dairy farming neighbour households. DESIGN: A cross sectional study and participatory urban appraisal (PUA. SETTING: Urban and peri-urban households in Dagoretti Division, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Three hundred dairy farming households, and 150 non-dairy farming neighbour households and six participatory urban appraisals, 58 males and 45 females. RESULTS: There were more females than males dairy farmers. Both women and men had equal access to resources and benefits obtained from dairy farming but the men had the greater control over the resources. Low levels of knowledge on the specific health risks related to urban dairy farming were observed. Less than half of the respondents believed they were at risk of being exposed to the health hazards, while 63% sensed they could protect themselves from the health risks. There was an association between knowledge levels, perceptions and behaviour of men and women toward risks associated with dairy farming. CONCLUSIONS: Apart from giving treatment to animals most men did less dairy farming activities. Women rated men lower in all dairy activities but when the men did the scoring for the same activities they rated themselves higher, arguing that their participation was indirect such as providing cash to buy the feed supplements and veterinary services. There were gender differences in all important tasks associated with dairy keeping. Farmers stated that older children, when not in school sometimes assisted but in general children did not show much enthusiasm in dairy work.
Kiriti-Nganga TW, Tisdell C, Tisdell CA, Sankar U, Srivastava M. "Gender, Marital Status, Farm Size and Other Influences on the Extent of Cash Cropping in Kenya: A Case Study.". In: Leading Economic Issues: Essays in Honour of Professor Chandra Srivastava. New Delhi: B. R. Publishing Corporation; 2003.
WAIRIMU PROFKIBERALUCY. ""Gender, Education and Occupational Prestige in Kenya".". In: UNESCO/UNITWIN CHAIRS STRATEGIC planning workshop at University of Nairobi- 15-17 July ,1997. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1997. Abstract
  
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. ""Gender, Education and Occupational Outcomes: Kenya.". In: Perspectives of Small Entrepreneurs and Farmers. Chapter in Foundation for Advanced Studies on International Development (FASID). JICA. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1990.
Elspeth P, Njeri MJ, Kamau N. Gender, Education and Development: Beyond Access Project Resource Pack for Teachers,. Nairobi, Kenya: DFID and Oxfam UK; 2004.
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Gender, Culture and environmental Conservation in Western Kenya Contextualizing community Participation and the Choice of Techniques.". In: Nordic Journal of African Studies. Vol. 9 No. 1 pp.31 - 48, 2000. European Psychiatric Journal; 2000. Abstract

Parts one and two of this paper deal with conceptual issues and focus on gender mainstreaming into investment activities for increased women's employment and poverty reduction. The central argument here is that the mainstreaming of a gender perspective into investment activities is necessarily a long-term process which involves the integration of gender issues in all national and sectoral policies and programmes. The key to gender mainstreaming is to make the process a collective responsibility. Some of the essential steps in this process are the production of gender disaggregated data, the establishment and strengthening of gender management systems, the commitment of senior management personnel to the goal of gender equality as a reflection of attitudinal and behaviour change at personal and institutional levels. The discussion in part three brings to the fore the issue of women's education and training. Available data show gender and regional disparities in education and training at primary, secondary and tertiary levels. These data indicate women's limited access to formal education and lower adult literacy rates which undermine their capacity to participate in the formal and informal labour market on an equal basis with men. Part four shows the link between women's education, employment and poverty reduction. The analysis of gender participation in different sectors of the economy revealed some important patterns and trends. These include the fact that female labour force participation in the modern sector has remained below 30% over the last several years compared to men who hold a disproportionately larger share of the modern sector jobs. The majority of women are employed in the education and informal sectors. Those who work in the agricultural sector are usually engaged as casuals. Women's overall lower level of education, limited skills, and access to productive, resources, heavy domestic workload, cultural attitudes and segregation of the labour market are some of the factors associated with their limited participation in the modern sector. Gender representation in the Kenyan civil service also shows gross under-representation of women in top management and policy-making positions. This gender disparity calls for an Affirmative and/or Positive Action to deal not only with increasing women's participation in public and private sector institutions at all levels but also address the twin issue of women's entitlements and cultural barriers which are at the root of their poverty and powerlessness. The low budgetary allocations to women's programmes also reflect lack of political will, improper targeting and non-involvement of women in priority setting.

Mungai EN, Ogot M. "Gender, culture and entrepreneurship in Kenya." International Business Research. 2012;5:175. Abstract

n/a

PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "'Gender, Conflict and Regional Security' in Makumi Mwagiru ed., African Regional Security in the Age of Globalisation, Heinrich Boell Foundation, Nairobi.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2004. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
Barrientos, S; Opondo SM; S. "Gender Work and Vulnerability in African Horticulture.". 2005.Website
Tasokwa K;, Nyariki D;, Mkwambisi D;, Kogi-Makau W. "Gender vulnerability to climate variability and household food insecurity."; 2011. Abstract

Climate variability presents different challenges for men and for women in their efforts to ensure household food security. However, despite their central role, gender issues have received only cursory attention in adaptation studies. This article looks at causes of gender vulnerability to climate variability and household food insecurity in one sub-Saharan African country: Malawi. Data were collected through a household questionnaire survey, focus group discussions and key informants' interviews in Chikhwawa and Ntcheu districts, located in the southern and central areas of Malawi. Results revealed that exposure and sensitivity to climate risks vary between men and women; therefore, each gender responds differently to climate risks, with men having more opportunities than women. The results highlight the need for policies and interventions to empower women in the access to resources that can strengthen households' resilience to climate variability.

Tasokwa K;, Nyariki D;, Mkwambisi D;, Kogi-Makau W. "Gender vulnerability to climate variability and household food insecurity."; 2011. Abstract

Climate variability presents different challenges for men and for women in their efforts to ensure household food security. However, despite their central role, gender issues have received only cursory attention in adaptation studies. This article looks at causes of gender vulnerability to climate variability and household food insecurity in one sub-Saharan African country: Malawi. Data were collected through a household questionnaire survey, focus group discussions and key informants' interviews in Chikhwawa and Ntcheu districts, located in the southern and central areas of Malawi. Results revealed that exposure and sensitivity to climate risks vary between men and women; therefore, each gender responds differently to climate risks, with men having more opportunities than women. The results highlight the need for policies and interventions to empower women in the access to resources that can strengthen households' resilience to climate variability.

AMOLO DROGADAPENINA. "Gender Violence Knows no Cultural, Class or Educational Boundaries, presented at Gender and Diversity Brown Bag Series.". In: Paper Submitted for review, Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2002. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
Subbo W, et al. Gender Training Manual. Nairobi: Catholic Secretariat; 2005.training_manual.pdf
Subbo W. Gender training in and resource manual.; 2002. AbstractWebsite

Why a Christian Gender Manual The Church plays a pivotal role in contributing to a world where justice, peace, truth, freedom and solidarity prevail, a world where God reigns. Thus the Church is committed to protecting the dignity of women like any other human being. These include elimination of gender-based discrimination, exclusion and violence among others. Addressing gender is translating the Christian message of love of neighbor into action. This manual will guide users to address gender imbalances in the light of Christian virtues-the Social Teaching of the Church and to plan for active peace-building that will bridge the Gender Gaps and harmonise relations between women and men of God. It will assist development workers of the Kenya Episcopal Conference – Catholic Secretariat in particular and Church Organisations in general, to plan for interventions that will correct gender imbalances and lead to more equitable and sustainable human development. This manual is primarily meant for Catholic Development Workers and Trainers. It is envisaged that this manual: • Provide a comprehensive training for gender trainers that also takes into account vital African and theological perspectives. • Help promote gender awareness thus increasing he empowerment of the Family of God – both women and men.

NZOMO PROFMARIA. "Gender Studies in Africa at Crossroads? ."; 1993.
Kaviti LK. "Gender Stereotypes in Kenyan Newspaper Cartoons." An Academic Journal of Daystar University. 2006;1:51-73.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""Gender Socialization in the Maragoli Circumcision Ceremony." In Contesting Social Death. Eds. Wanjiku M.Kabira et al. Nairobi: Kenya Oral Literature Association.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1997. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
WAMUYU MSNGECHUMARYELLEN. ""Gender Sensitive Communication Research among rural male and female farmers", a chapter in Boafo and George "Communication Research in Africa" (1992).". In: A chapter in Boafo and George "Communication Research in Africa" (1992). Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1992. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

M. MF. "GENDER ROLE-PLAY REPRESENTATION IN KENYAN CLASSICAL KISWAHILI LITERATURE ." Afrikannistiche Arbeitspapiere - Swahili Frum; Submitted. Abstract
n/a
Obare F, Otieno AAT, Magadi M. "Gender role attitudes, Self Efficacy and Reproductive Health Communication among female adolescents in South Nyanza, Kenya." African Population studies. 2006; 21(1):37-54. AbstractWebsite

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

Mwanzi HOA. "Gender Relations in Marginalized Communities: A Case Study of Women in Maasai Oral Literature.". In: Narrating Nomadism: Tales of Recovery and Resistance. New Delhi and London: Routledge; 2013.
Poonamjeet L, Ongeti K, Pulei A, Ogengo J, Mandela P. "Gender Related Patterns In The Shape And Dimensions Of The Foramen Magnum In An Adult Kenyan Population." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2013;2(2):138-141. Abstract

Foramen magnum is a useful landmark in the base of the skull. Its shape and dimensions show ethnic and gender differences. This data is useful in forensic medicine and anthropology but are unknown among Kenyans. Two hundred and two dry adult skulls from the Osteology Department at the National Museums of Kenya, were studied. The shape of the foramen magnum was oval, circular and polygonal in 13%, 24% and 63% of the cases respectively. The foramen magnum does not show sexual dimorphism in shape among Africans. The shape of foramen magnum cannot be used in solitude to ascertain the gender of skulls.

Loyal P, ONGETI K, Mandela P, Ogeng’o J. "Gender related patterns in the shape and dimensions of the foramen magnum in an adult Kenyan population." Anat J Afr . 2013;2 (2):138-141.
Otieno SB, Were F, EW K, Waza K. "GENDER RELATED EFFECTS OF YEAST SELENIUM ON WEIGHT FOR AGE Z SCORE OF ASYMPTOMATIC HIV TYPE 1 POSITIVE CHILDREN AT NYAMASARIA IN KISUMU KENYA." International Journal of Current Advanced. 2015;4(7):194-199. Abstractgender_related_effects_of_yeast_selenium_on_weight_for_age_z_score_of.pdf

Background: Selenoprotein Iodothyronine 5’Deiodonases activates pro-T3 to 3,3’- 5T3(Tri-iodothyronine) which is involved in growth through a gene mediated protein metabolism. Oestradiol (E2) enhances activity of selenoproteins in adult pre-menopausal women taking selenium supliments, however the effect of selenium supplementation on weight change of different gender of asymptomatic HIV positive pre-puberty children is still unknown.
Methods: In this study of 25 Females and 25 Males randomly chosen asymptomatic HIV positive children 3 – 16 years old, 25 of the children were given, a fixed dose of 50μg yeast selenium while a matched control of 25 were put on placebo. Weight of children were taken at 3 months intervals up to 6 months, using electronic personal scale (model 10010), the resultant data was analyzed by Epi Info version 6,and SPSS version 16.
Results: No significant difference in mean weight of children was observed at baseline between the controls and children on test . Children on selenium had weight increase of 2.5Kg at six months .The weight for age Z score increased above -2SDs cut off point at six months amongst the children on selenium, in all age categories, 3-5 years 1.20 ± 2.45, 6-8years 0.19 ± 0.880, 9-15 years 0.97 ± 1.22, while there was a decrease in all the age categories in matched controls to below -2SDs at six months , 3-5 years -2.218 ± 1.46, 6-8 years -2.95. ± 3.10, 9-15 -2.30 ± 1.240. There was a significant WAZ difference between controls and selenium group at six months {F (5,12) = =5.758, P=0.006}. Prevalence of underweight in control was 48% compared to the test group at 9% at six months. Female children on selenium initially had a decrease and then sharp increase in WAZ (Tick Phenomenon), compared to the males who had a steady increase in WAZ.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that intake of yeast Selenium led to significant improvement in weight for age Z score at six months and further that there is gender related differences in weight change between HIV positive asymptomatic female and male children taking selenium as a supplement

Kamunyu R, Ndungo C. "Gender Preference of Counsellors among University Students Seeking Counselling Services." IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS). 2020;25(2):20-28.
W. PROFNZOMOMARIA. "Gender Policy Interventions in the 7th Parliament.". In: Paper presented at the workshop on the Dynamics of Multi-Party Parliament in Kenya, 1993 and Beyond, Unfungamano House, Nairobi, 25th January.; 1993. Abstract

Journal of Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies

"Gender Policy as a Management Strategy in Education.". 2012. Abstractbibliographic_details_of_masculinity_as_a_gender_dimension_in_the_education_of_boys.doc

Gender policies should be people centered and should respond to needs of women, men, boys and girls. Policies affect men and women differently which means all policies should contribute to gender equality.

Purpose
The aim of this paper was to examine gender responsiveness of gender policies to teacher education and challenges faced in the implementation of these policies in universities. The study outlined and tracked official responses to gender with regard to teacher training programs.

Approach
The study was carried out through document desk review of relevant research literature, policy documents and curricula of teacher education programs of selected higher education institutions in Kenya. Data was analyzed using social relations approach which is a framework used for institutional analysis. Resultant information was integrated with content to analyze gender in the context of teacher education and management.
Findings
This paper reveals that there are gender disparities and that the government and its partners have developed strategies and initiatives to address gender and education. The Gender policies understudy proposed gender balanced entry into teacher education, increased participation and gender equity in university processes.
Value

Education is a vehicle of development which can be achieved through equal participation of males and females, reduction of gender inequalities in access and control of resources, gender awareness and gender responsiveness. This paper views human well being as concerning survival, security and autonomy (Anderson &Woodrow 1989), which can be enhanced through gender equality and responsiveness through teacher education. The paper proposes focus on inculcation of gender values to populations through education to avoid gender disparities in systems of development. This can be done through teacher education and engendering the curriculum at all levels of education. The proposition will be beneficial to educationists, policy makers and communities.

Otieno-Omutoko L, Mwaura P. "Gender Policy as a Management Strategy in Education.". In: Governance and Transformations of Universities in Africa: A. Global Perspective International higher education. Information Age Pub; 2014.
Wasamba P. Gender Perspectives in the Creative Works of Marjorie Oludhe Macgoye.. Chesaina PC, Wendo DS, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2002.abstract.pdf
Shah PS, Moronge JM. "Gender Perspective in Water Conservation in Schools in Kenya: The Case of a Junior School in Nairobi, Kenya." Hekima Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Nairobi. 2014;VI(1):42-51.
Shah P, mwaura F, Moronge JM. "Gender Perspective in Water Conservation in Schools in Kenya: The case of a Junior School in Kenya." Hekima. 2014;Volume VI(Issue No. 1):pp 42-51.
Mbeche F. "Gender Milestones in Education in Developing Countries.". In: Association of Common Universities/University of Nairobi; University of Nairobi on Beyond 2015. Nairobi, Kenya; 2014.
Otieno-Omutoko L, Mwenda M. "Gender Mainstreaming Strategies in Upgrading of Rural Projects in Karatina, Nyeri County, Kenya." African Journal of Project Planning and Management. 2015;1(1):29-50.
Mary N, Nancy K, Gordon P, Diana L-S, Michael P. "Gender mainstreaming in organisational culture and agricultural research processes.". 2011. Abstract

Despite increased attention to gender issues in the international development arena since the rise of feminism in the 1970s, few agricultural research organisations have integrated gender in their problem diagnosis and technology development. Gender mainstreaming can significantly enhance the impact of research and technology development. Entrenching gender mainstreaming in organisations and their research agendas remains a challenge. To overcome it requires political will, accountability, a change in organisational culture, and technical capacity within an organisation. This article presents an illustration of gender-mainstreaming practice in the institutional culture and agricultural research processes by Urban Harvest and the International Potato Centre (CIP).

J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Gender Issues in the reporting and Management of Lymphatic Filariasis in Kwale District, Kenya. TDR, World Health Organization.". In: Gender Concerns in Sustainable Community Development: A Research Agenda (Paper presented for publication to UNESCO/UNITWIN, University of Nairobi). Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1996. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Gender Issues in the Prevention and Control of Visceral Leishmaniasis (Kala-azar) and Malaria. in Wijeyaratne, P., Roberts, J.H., and Kitts, J. (Eds). Gender Health and Sustainable Development, International Development Research Centre, Ottawa.". In: Towards a Sustainable Health status. In Environmental Development in Kenya,Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1994. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
Dorothy McCormick. "Gender Issues in Small Enterprise Development in Kenya.". In: Studies in Economic Development with Reference to East Africa and India. New Delhi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2001. Abstract

n/a

WAIRIMU PROFKIBERALUCY. "Gender Issues in Publishing: Content Analysis of Children's Fiction Books. .". In: Kenya Publishers Association Workshop on Gender Issues in Publishing held at Kenyatta International Conference Centre, Nairobi,: 26th to 27th May,1997. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1997. Abstract
  
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Gender Issues in Higher Education : What are the Challenges".". In: African Universities Day Seminar Association of Africa Universities (AAU) Kenyatta University 13th and 14th November 1995. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1995. Abstract
   
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Gender Issues in Higher Education : What are the Challenges".". In: African Universities Day Seminar Association of Africa Universities (AAU) Kenyatta University 13th and 14th November 1995. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1995. Abstract

 

 

Otieno-Omutoko L. Gender Issues in Development. Nairobi, Kenya: CODL; 2011.
Nzainga H, Olale P. "Gender Issues and Environmental Protection and Management.". In: UNCRD Workshop on Environmental Protection and Capacity Building for Conflict Prevention .; 2013.
Kiriti-Nganga TW, Tisdell C. "Gender Inequality, Poverty and Human D evelopment in Kenya." Indian Journal of Social and Economic Policy. 2005;1(2):255-281.
Kiriti-Nganga TW, Njuguna P. "Gender Inequality in Rural Kenya: Evidence from Muranga District in Central Kenya.". In: Gender Inequality in Developing Countries / edited by Siddhartha Sarkar and Tabitha Kiriti - Nganga. New Delhi: Ar ise Publications and Distributors; 2008.
KIRITI DRNG'ANG'ATABITHAWAGITHI. "Gender Inequality in Kenya: Gender Inequality in Agricultural Households in Kenya: An Economic Analyis.". In: Regional Development Studies, Vol. 14, pp. 29-44. Lambert Academic Publishing; 2010.
KIRITI DRNG'ANG'ATABITHAWAGITHI. "Gender Inequality in Developing Countries.". In: Regional Development Studies, Vol. 14, pp. 29-44. Arise Publishes and Distributors; 2008.
Sarkar S, Kiriti-Nganga TW. Gender Inequality in Developing Countries. New Delhi: Arise Publications and Distributors .; 2008.
Kiriti-Nganga TW, Tisdell C. Gender Inequality in Agricultural Households in Kenya: Economic Analysis . Germany: Lambert Academic Publishers; 2010.
Kiriti-Nganga TW. "Gender Inequality and Agricultural Commercialisation: Results from a Case Study in Kenya.". In: Gender and Development: An Afr o - Indian Study , Edited by Siddhartha Sarkar and John V. Mensah, . New Delhi: Arise Publications and Distributors; 2008.
Mwega FM. "Gender Inequalities, Economic Growth and Pove rty in Kenya.". In: GRE Consult.; 2003.
kariuki james gichuru. "The gender implications of men’s shift from cash-crop farming to dairy farming in Central Kenya." International Journal of Social Sciences and Entrepreneurship. 2013;1(5):631-646.
Miriti P, Otieno DJ, Chimoita E, Bikketi E, Njuguna E, Ojiewo CO. "Gender gaps in sorghum productivity: evidence from male- and female-managed plots in Uganda." Development in Practice. 2022;(https://www.tandfonline.com/action/showCitFormats?doi=10.1080/09614524.2022.2069228).gender_gaps_in_sorghum_productivity_evidence_from_male_and_female_managed_plots_in_uganda.pdf
Miriti P, Otieno DJ, Chimoita E, Bikketi E, Njuguna E, Ojiewo C. "Gender gaps in sorghum productivity: Evidence from male- and female-managed plots in Uganda." Development in Practice. 2022.
Asiema JK. "Gender Equity, Gender Equality and the Legal Process: The Kenyan Experience”." Journal of the University of Iowa College of Law, Volume 10, Number 2, Fall 2000. 2000.
Njeri KM, Munguti, Kaendi. "Gender Equity in Micro and small enterprises in Kenya .". In: Micro and small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment. Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth; 2000.
Kibui AW, Logan A, Mwaniki B. "Gender Equity in Education Development in Kenya and the New Constitution for Vision 2030." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2014;1(2):1-13.
Kibui AW, Logan A, Mwaniki B. "Gender Equity in Education Development in Kenya and the New Constitution for Vision 2030." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2014;1(2):1-13.
WAIRIMU PROFKIBERALUCY. ""Gender Equity and Education. The Situation of Kenya". Adult Educator, The Journal of the Kenya Adult Education Association. Vol. 2 Number 1.". In: Adult Educator, The Journal of the Kenya Adult Education Association. Vol. 2 Number 1. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1995. Abstract
  
Mandala N, Kaijage E, Aduda J, Iraya C. "Gender Diversity of Boards, Board Composition and Firm Performance." European Scientific Journal. 2017;13(34):pages62-79,.
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Gender Disparities in the Kenyan Labour Market: Implications for Poverty Reduction.". In: Nordic Journal of African Studies. Vol. 11:3, pp. 301, 2002. European Psychiatric Journal; 2002. Abstract

Conflict results from a combination of factors, which are intertwined and often deeply rooted in cultural traditions both within and between nations. Poverty is one of the underlying causes of conflict and also one of its consequences. The pastoralists in Isiolo struggle to survive on a fragile ecosystem, which is ravaged by drought, poverty, insecurity and seemingly endless conflict over resources. Given its deleterious effects on development, conflict in Isiolo continues to undermine the underlying resource base for sustainable production systems and the pastoralists' capacity to broaden their livelihoods thereby exacerbating rural poverty. All the actors involved in the Isiolo conflict prevention and resolution and poverty reduction strategies at different levels will underpin their efforts by strengthening governance and helping the local communities to diversify their livelihoods. To be sustainable, the various peace initiatives must be accompanied by a broad range of preventive development strategies, which promote increased access to productive resources by vulnerable groups, recognize the role of women in peace building and encourage peaceful settlement of disputes

Migosi JA. "Gender Disparities at Higher Education Level in Kenya: A Case of Moi University." IRA International Journal of Education and Multidisciplinary Studies. 2018;12(2):30-39.
W. PROFNZOMOMARIA. "The Gender Dimentions of Democratization in Kenya: Political participation.". In: Paper presented at the AAWORD Seminar on Women and Democratization in Kenya 31 January, 1st February, Milimani Hotel, Nairobi.; 1992. Abstract

Journal of Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies

(ed.) NM. "The Gender Dimensions of the NEPAD,." NEPAD and Mobilization of International Resources: the Gender Dimension; 2008. Abstract
n/a
KAMAU MRMUBUUPETERSON. "Gender Dimensions of Politics, law and violence. A research report(WLEA).". In: Nairobi, Exscape printers. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2001. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
2001 K., M OWMKKMSOWN. Gender Dimensions of Politics, Law and Violence. . Nairobi: Women and Law in East Africa-(WLEA)Kenya; 2001.
OKECH MROWITIMAURICED. "Gender Dimensions of Politics, Law and Violence in Kenya (ed, with Jane Mbugua, Kamau Mubuu and Njeri Karuru) (WLEA(K)).". In: Victoria Walter and Debbie Betts (eds), Safeguarding Human Rights in Eastern Africa (FES, Kampala), 77. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 2001. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
K. M, Owiti O, Winnie Mitullah, Kiai W, Karuru N, Mbugua J, Sihanya B, P.K. M. Gender Dimensions of Politics, Law and Violenc e.; 2001.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Gender Dimensions of Law Colonialism and Inheritance in East Africa: Kenyan Women's Experiences, (VRU-Verfassung und Recht in Ubersee - Law and Politics in Africa, Asia and Latin America.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2002. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
Nzomo M, Oketch E, Maluki P, Ramadhan S. The Gender Dimensions of International Terrorism. Nairobi: Heinroch Boll; 2013.
K. M, P.K. M. Gender Dimension s of Witch Burning and Women’ s Property Rights in Kisii County, Kenya. Nairobi: Coalition on Violence Against Women (COVAW); 2012.
W. PROFNZOMOMARIA. "The Gender Dimension of Democratization in Kenya: Some International Linkages.". In: Alternatives: social transformation and human governance, vol.18, No. 1 Winter.; 1993. Abstract

Journal of Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies

Wanjiku J;, Manyengo JU;, Oluoch-Kosura W;. Gender differentiation in the analysis of alternative farm mechanization choices on small farms in Kenya.; 2007. AbstractWebsite

Using multinomial logit we analyze factors that influence the choice of mechanization technologies in Nyanza Province. The results show that farmers are aware of the attributes of the mechanization technologies, and that animal traction is the most commonly used. Gender, formal and informal training of the household head, and technology attributes influence the choice of mechanization technology. This study recommends increased formal and informal training, extension, credit, and tractor hire services to facilitate knowledge transfer, credit, and tractor availability. The study also recommends enactment of laws that increase women's access and control of productive resources.

Oluoch-Kosura W;, Manyengo JU;, Wanjiku J;, Karugia JT. Gender differentiation in the analysis of alternative farm mechanization choices on small farms in Kenya.; 2007. AbstractWebsite

Using multinomial logit we analyze factors that influence the choice of mechanization technologies in Nyanza Province. The results show that farmers are aware of the attributes of the mechanization technologies, and that animal traction is the most commonly used. Gender, formal and informal training of the household head, and technology attributes influence the choice of mechanization technology. This study recommends increased formal and informal training, extension, credit, and tractor hire services to facilitate knowledge transfer, credit, and tractor availability. The study also recommends enactment of laws that increase women's access and control of productive resources.

ADHIAMBO DRNYIKALROSE. "A gender differentiated analysis of the profitability and constraints in use of Improved Fallow in Western Kenya. CURRENT RESEARCH sponsored by ECAPAPA (just concluded).". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 2006. Abstract
No abstract available.
Kosgei RJ, Sitienei JK, Kipruto H, Kimenye K, Gathara D, Odawa FX, P G, Callens S, Temmerman M, Sitienei JC, AB K. "Gender differences in treatment outcomes among 15–49 year olds with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Kenya." Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. . 2015;19(10):1176-81.
Ochola EA. "Gender Differences In The Perception Of The Levels And Potential Effects Of Violence In Popular Music: A Case of University of Nairobi Students." International Journal of Innovation Education and Research,. Submitted;4(10):81-90.
Migosi JA. "Gender differences in publication productivity: Narrowing the gap." Int. J.Education Economics and Development. 2013;4(2):133-146.
Stuart-Shor EM, Wellenius GA, DelloIacono DM, Mittleman MA. "Gender differences in presenting and prodromal stroke symptoms." Stroke. 2009;40:1121-1126. Abstract
n/a
Kariuki PW, Mwamwenda TS. "Gender Differences in HIV/AIDS Knowledge/Awareness among University Students in Kenya." International Journal of Sciences and Research. 2016;72(5): 70-82.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB, N MRMAINGIELIUD. "Gender differences in health care-seeking behavior for sexually transmitted diseases: a population-based study in Nairobi, Kenya. Voeten HA, O'hara HB, Kusimba J, Otido JM, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo JJ, Varkevisser CM, Habbema JD. Sex Transm Dis. 2004 May;3.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 2004 May;31(5):265-72. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2004. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB, N MRMAINGIELIUD. "Gender differences in health care-seeking behavior for sexually transmitted diseases: a population-based study in Nairobi, Kenya. Voeten HA, O'hara HB, Kusimba J, Otido JM, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo JJ, Varkevisser CM, Habbema JD. Sex Transm Dis. 2004 May;3.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 2004 May;31(5):265-72. Kisipan, M.L.; 2004. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

M. DROTIDOJULIUS. "Gender differences in health care-seeking behavior for sexually transmitted diseases: a population-based study in Nairobi, Kenya. Voeten HA, O'hara HB, Kusimba J, Otido JM, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo JJ, Varkevisser CM, Habbema JD. Sex Transm Dis. 2004 May;3.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 2004 May;31(5):265-72. The Kenya Medical Association; 2004. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Health care-seeking behavior for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is important in STD/HIV control. GOAL: The goal of this study was to describe the proportion seeking care, patient delay, and choice of provider among men and women with STD-related complaints in Nairobi, Kenya. STUDY DESIGN: A population-based questionnaire was administered in 7 randomly selected clusters (small geographic areas covering approximately 150 households each). RESULTS: Of the 291 respondents reporting complaints, 20% of men versus 35% of women did not seek care, mainly because symptoms were not considered severe, symptoms had disappeared, or as a result of lack of money. Of those who sought care, women waited longer than men (41 vs. 16 days). Most men and women went to the private sector (72% and 57%, respectively), whereas the informal sector was rarely visited (13% and 16%, respectively). Relatively more women visited the government sector (28% vs. 15%). Because women were mostly monogamous, they did not relate their complaints to sexual intercourse, which hampered prompt care-seeking. CONCLUSION: Women should be convinced to seek care promptly, eg, through health education in communities.
Kurth AE, Inwani I, Wangombe A, Ruth Nduati, Owuor M, Njiri F, Akinyi P, Cherutich P, Osoti A, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Chhun N, Kiarie J. "The Gender Context of HIV Risk and Pregnancy Goals in Western Kenya." East Afr Med J. 2015;92(4):163-169. Abstract

Intentional childbearing may place heterosexual couples at risk of HIV infection in resource-limited settings with high HIV prevalence areas where society places great value on having children.

AE Kurth, I Inwani WNONACOKCKARMF. "The Gender Context of HIV Risk and Pregnancy Goals in Western Kenya.". 2015.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Gender Considerations in Constitution-Making: Engendering Women's Rights in the Legal Process in University of Nairobi Law.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2003. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
Njeri KM, Munguti, Kaendi. "Gender Concerns in Sustainable Community Development: A Research Agenda for the UNESCO Chair.". In: Basic Education, Community Health and Sustainable Development. Nairobi: UNESCO; 2002.
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Gender Concerns in Micro-Enterprise Development Policies in Kenya. Published in Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, International Center for Economic Growth (ICEG), Mullei E. and Bokea C. (ed), 1999.". In: Institute of Physics CMMP `94, Warwick, U.K., 19-21 December 1994, Paper 1.4ss.11, p. 157. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1999. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
JAMES DRMWAURA. "Gender based violence; A legitimate health concern.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal volume 35. National Nurses Association of Kenya; Submitted.
JAMES DRMWAURA. "Gender based violence; A legitimate health concern.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal volume 35. National Nurses Association of Kenya; Submitted.
Owiti L. "Gender Based Violence in Relation to Power and Resources.". In: YWCA and CFC Seminar. Limuru; 2010.
Thenya S, Gichangi P, Kiama L. "Gender based violence and sexual violence: three years experience of Nairobi Womens Hospital." J. Obstet. Gynaecol. East. Cent. Afr. 2006.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "Gender Aspects in HIV/AIDS Infection and Control in Kenya. Enos H.N. Njeru, Peter Mwangi & Mary N. Nguli. 42p.". In: Discussion Paper No. DP057/2004. IPAR Discussion Paper Series. ISBN 9966-948-77-5. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract

Men are expected to be physically strong, robust, and daring, the world over.
Some of these expectations translate into attitudes and behaviours that become
unhelpful or lethal with the advent of AIDS. Others, to the contrary, represent
valuable potential that could be gainfully tapped by AIDS programmes for
enhanced effectiveness. Extra challenges for HIV prevention therefore arise
from societal expectations that allow men to take risks; have frequent sexual
intercourse (often with more than one partner) and exercise authority over
women. These expectations among others encourage men to force sex on
unwilling female partners and to reject condom use among other risky behaviours
regarding HIVIAIDS infection and prevention. Changing the commonly held
attitudes and behaviours should be part and parcel of the efforts to curb the
AIDS pandemic. On the other hand, due to their lack of social and economic
power, many women and girls are unable to negotiate relationships based on
abstinence, faithfulness and use of condoms. This paper points out these
inequalities and offers policy options that could reduce vulnerability of both men
and women to HIV/AIDS.
The data used in this presentation was obtained largely through desk review,
with limited primary data collected to supplement the secondary sources. The
study confirms the continuous spread of HIV/AIDS despite the government's
efforts to combat the pandemic and attributes the trends of prevalence and
infection to, among others: increase in cases of violence against women; negative
attitudes and socio-cultural practices; and power imbalances between men and
women. The study recommends: transformation of gender roles through gender
mainstrearning; policy shift primarily targeting men as the dominant sex in sexual
relations; law on prostitution to be enforced; those found guilty of crimes of
sexual violence to face very stiff penalties; laws should be enacted to facilitate
women's ownership ofland and other property; generate comprehensive gender
disaggregated data to help design better policies for addressing the gender gap.

M. PROFKABIRAWANJIKU. "Gender and Social Mythology in Delusions: Essays on Social Construction of Gender; Ed. Kabira W. Masheti M. Mbugua W. African Womens Communication and Development Network, Nairobi.". In: East African Medical Journal 68(9): 714-9. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1993. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
MARTIN DROGUTU. "Gender and Prejudicial Perception of the leadership of a Manager: A Cognitive Categorization Perspective (Ph.D. Dissertation,).". In: Journal of Vocational Behaviour. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1994. Abstract
Summing multipliers is an important class of operators in the geometric theory of general Banach spaces. They are particularly useful in the study of the structure of the classical spaces. The work done by Grothendieck and Pietsch provides a good basis for the study of this class of operators. The topic of this study is Aspects on (p,q)-summing multipliers. (p,q)-summing multipliers are sequences of bounded linear operators mapping weakly p-summable sequences into strongly q-summable sequences. This study is concerned with using the concepts of absolute and p-summing multipliers to characterize the space of all (p,q)-summing multipliers. In particular we show that the space of all (p, q)-summing multipliers is complete. This is accomplished through a detailed study of the concepts of the summing operators and absolute and p-summing multipliers
WAIRIMU PROFKIBERALUCY. ""Gender and Politics in Kenya".". In: College of Education and External Studies, University of Nairobi, Kenya- November, 1997. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1997. Abstract
  
omoni DG. "Gender And Policy Analysis Tools For The Health Sector In Vision 2030.". In: Gender And Policy Analysis Tools. Nairobi: University Press; 2012.
"Muasya JN". "Gender and Pedagogy in Higher Education.". In: Training Manual in Pedagogy. Nairobi, Kenya: Centre for Open and Distance Learning, University of Nairobi; 2014.
"Gender and Macroeconomic Strategies in Africa: An Overview of Approaches to Gender equality in Development strategy.". In: Gender Responsive Economic Policy Management. United Nations African Institute for Economic Development and Planning - Dakar; 2011.
KAMAU MRMUBUUPETERSON. "Gender and land rights in Kenya: The role of civil society sector in policy advocacy:.". In: A paper presented in gender and land rights in East Africa regional workshop at Sheraton Hotel Kampala Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2002. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
and(Eds.) THEC. "Gender and International Environmental Governance.". In: University of Eastern Finland- UNEP Course Series 9. Joensuu, Finland: University of Eastern Finland; 2010.
M. PROFKABIRAWANJIKU. "Gender and Ideology: in Democratic Change in Africa Ed. Kabira Oudoul and Nzomo. AAWORD/Acts Publication.". In: East African Medical Journal 68(9): 714-9. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1993. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
KYALO DN. "Gender and HIV/AIDS: Women can make a difference’ .". In: HIV Awareness Conference . CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY OF EASTERN AFRICA; 2005.
Penninah Ogada A. "Gender and Governance: Kenya." UNIFEM/RECESSPA High Profile Seminar, Holiday Inn, Nairobi; 2008. Abstract
n/a
Kabira WMet.al.(eds.). "Gender and Governance in Kenya: Women’s Journey Beyond Numbers.". In: Changing the Mainstream: Celebrating Women’s Resilience. Center for African Women Studies; 2019.
Opondo, M; Dolan WKCS; S;. "Gender and Employment .". 2007.Website
WAIRIMU PROFKIBERALUCY. ""Gender and Education in Kenya".". In: All Africa Conference in Nairobi, Kenya s sponsored by Kenya Comparative Education Society -14 th - 17 th June,1994. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1994. Abstract
  
Nganga TWK. "Gender and Economic Growth .". 2007.Website
AMOLO DROGADAPENINA. "Gender and Diversity Institute's Models for Change Collaboration with Institutions in Kenya and Costa Rica, Conference Paper AAUW International Symposium, Washington D.C.". In: Paper Submitted for review, Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2002. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
Bahemuka MJ. "Gender and Development, A Human Rights approach to monitoring and evaluation.". In: Gender and Evaluation Association. Fairview Hotel, Nairobi; 2010.
"Gender and Development Module." University of Nairobi; 2010. Abstract
n/a
Ngesa PN. "Gender and Culture: Some Reminiscences of Sulmena Adek Otula from Childhood in a Rural Set up to Residence in Post - colonial Nairobi, 1949 - 2006." International Journal of Humanities and Social Studies (IJHSS). 2014; 2( Issue 11 ): 278-285.
Wasamba P, Wanjiku K. Gender and Constitution: Academicians’ Perspectives. Nairobi: CCGD; 2002.
Roeder LW. "Gender and climate change outlining policy recommendations to mainstream gender and climate change.". In: Climate Change Threats: An NGO Framework for Action Report. NewYork: United Nations; 2008.
WAMBUI JANE. "A Gender Analysis of the Effects of the Structural Adjustment Programme in Africa.". Seminar Paper presented at the Centre for Women and gender, Warwick University; 1997. Abstract
n/a
Siundu G. "Gender Affirmation or Racial Loyalties? Women and the Domestication of History in Neera Kapur-Dromson’s From Jhelum to Tana.". In: Rethinking Eastern African Literary and Intellectual Landscapes. New Jersey: Africa World Press; 2012.
"Gender -Specific Constraints Affecting Technology use and Household Food Security in Western Province of Kenya." Gender -Specific Constraints Affecting Technology use and Household Food Security in Western Province of Kenya.. 2010;AJFAND 4 (10):2324-2343.
Kiplagat S. "Gender - Differences in Direction - Giving: Innate or the Result of Experience?". In: The Inter - University Postgraduate and U ndergraduate Psychology Conference. Southampton, UK; 1996.
Penninah Ogada A. "Gender & Diversity Institute." Conference paper AAUW International Symposium, Washington D.C; 2002. Abstract
n/a
MBURU DRJOHNIRUNGU. "Gemill-Herren B., C. Eardley, J. Mburu, W. Kinuthia, D. Martins (2007). Pollinators: Biodiversity and Ecosystem Management in Ecoagriculture. In: Scherr S. J. and J. A. McNeely, eds. Farming with Nature: the Science and Practice of Ecoagriculture, Island .". In: Farming with Nature: the Science and Practice of Ecoagriculture, Island Press, Washington, D.C. (ISBN-10:1-59726-128-9). Ogutu J.O; 2007. Abstract
The vision of the Government of Kenya is to facilitate ICT as a universal tool for education and training. In order to achieve this vision every educational institution, teacher, learner and the respective community should be equipped with appropriate ICT infrastructure, competencies and policies for usage and progress. It calls for recognition of the fact that ICT provides capabilities and skills needed for a knowledge-based economy. It also calls for transforming teaching and learning to incorporate new pedagogies that are appropriate for the 21st  century. The Ministry of Education�s (MOE) mission is to facilitate effective use of ICT to improve access, learning and administration in delivery education programmes and services. The principal objective will be to integrate ICT in the delivery of education and training curricula. XML:NAMESPACE PREFIX = O />  Although not exhaustive, the range of ICT that have been used in the delivery of education to improve access, teaching, learning, and administration includes: Electric Board, Audio Cassette, Radio for Interactive Radio Instructions (IRI), Video/TV-Learning, Computer, Integrated ICT infrastructure and Support Application Systems (SAS).These systems are in use, at various degrees, in most parts of Africa (Charp, 1998). This plan envisages use ofthese digital components to improve access and quality in the delivery of education in Kenya.  The major challenge in respect to this component is limited digital equipment at virtually all levels of education. While the average access rate is one computer to 15 students in most of the developed countries, the access rate in Kenya is approximately one computer to 150 students (EMIS, 2005). Whereas most secondary schools in Kenya have some computer equipment, only a small fraction is equipped with basic ICT infrastructure. In most cases equipment of schools with ICT infrastructure has been through initiatives supported by the parents, government, development agencies and the private sector, including the NEPAD E-Schools programme. Attempts to set up basic ICT infrastructure in primary schools are almost negligible.  According to ICTs in Education Options Paper, one of the main problems is limited penetration of the physical telecommunication infrastructure into rural and low-income areas. Specifically, the main challenge is limited access to dedicated phone lines and high-speed systems or connectivity to access e-mail and Internet resources. The EMIS Survey (2003/2004) indicated that over 70% of secondary schools and a much larger proportion of primary schools require functional telephones. Indeed, many parts of Kenya cannot easily get Internet services because of the poor telephone networks. About 90% of secondary schools need to establish standard Local Area Networks (LANs) in order to improve sharing of learning resources.  Alternative and appropriate technologies for access to Internet resources, including wireless systems remain quite expensive. Indeed, a small proportion of schools have direct access, through Internet Service Providers (ISPs), to high-speed data and communication systems. Furthermore, very few schools in the rural areas use wireless technology such as VSAT to access e-mail and Internet resources. Nearly all of the 6 NEPAD e-Schools are in rural areas and are expected to enjoy internet connectivity through VSAT technology.  While other countries have reported up to 41% of integration of ICT to teaching and learning, the proportion remains substantially low in Africa, Kenya included. Integration aims at the use ICT to support teaching and learning in the delivery of the various curricula to achieve improved education outcomes. Because ICT is interactive media, it facilitates students to develop diversified skills needed for industrialization and a knowledge-based economy. It also allows teachers and learners to proceed at different paces depending on the prevailing circumstances. As a first step, the Ministry of Education has initiated a major ICT project in Secondary schools meant to equip over 200 secondary schools with ICT infrastructure for integration of ICT in teaching/learning process ( KESSP, 2004). Three schools have been chosen in every district of Kenya.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Gelaw Y, Kollmann M, Irungu NM, Ilako DR. The Influence of Central Corneal Thickness on Intraocular Pressure Measured by Goldmann Applanation Tonometry Among Selected Ethiopian Communities. J Glaucoma. 2010 Feb 15. [Epub ahead of print].". In: PMID: 20164797. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2010. Abstract

{
BACKGROUND: Estimates of intraocular pressure (IOP) are influenced directly by the central corneal thickness (CCT). We assume and apply a single value for CCT (520 mum) in applanation tonometry estimates, although there is compelling evidence that CCT varies between individuals.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of CCT and other factors on IOP among Ethiopians.
METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted among 300 sampled individuals from June to July 2006. The CCT was measured using OcuScan(R) RxP Ophthalmic Ultrasound and readings of IOP were made with Goldmann applanation tonometer. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 12 and S-Plus 2000 of statistical packages.
RESULTS: Out of 300 individuals, 184 (61.3%) were males. The mean age was 42.57 years (SD+/-16.71), mean IOP 13.39 mm Hg (SD+/-2.81), and mean CCT 518.68 mum (SD+/-32.92). There was statistically significant relationship between CCT and IOP (r=0.199, P<0.001) and a borderline statistically significant detectable change of CCT with age (r=0.012

MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Gelaw Y, Kollmann M, Irungu NM, Ilako DR. The Influence of Central Corneal Thickness on Intraocular Pressure Measured by Goldmann Applanation Tonometry Among Selected Ethiopian Communities. J Glaucoma. 2010 Feb 15. [Epub ahead of print].". In: PMID: 20164797. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2010. Abstract
{ BACKGROUND: Estimates of intraocular pressure (IOP) are influenced directly by the central corneal thickness (CCT). We assume and apply a single value for CCT (520 mum) in applanation tonometry estimates, although there is compelling evidence that CCT varies between individuals. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of CCT and other factors on IOP among Ethiopians. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted among 300 sampled individuals from June to July 2006. The CCT was measured using OcuScan(R) RxP Ophthalmic Ultrasound and readings of IOP were made with Goldmann applanation tonometer. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 12 and S-Plus 2000 of statistical packages. RESULTS: Out of 300 individuals, 184 (61.3%) were males. The mean age was 42.57 years (SD+/-16.71), mean IOP 13.39 mm Hg (SD+/-2.81), and mean CCT 518.68 mum (SD+/-32.92). There was statistically significant relationship between CCT and IOP (r=0.199, P<0.001) and a borderline statistically significant detectable change of CCT with age (r=0.012
K PROFMUSUVAJEREMIAH. "Gekonde, H.O., Musuva, J.K. and Chege, J.K. "The Effects of Magnesium on the toughness and Microstructure of Spheroidal -Graphite Cast Irons" Proceedings of the International Conference on Mechanics of Solids and Structures held in Singapore from 11th - 1.". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1991. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "GEHR, P., MWANGI, D.K., AMMAN, A., MALOIY, G.M.O., TAYLOR, C.R. and WEIBEL, E.R.(1981) Design of the mammalian respiratory system V. Scaling morphometric pulmonary diffusing capacity to body mass: wild and domestic mammals. Respiration Physiology 44, 61-8.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1981. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
Ikobwa JML. Gedächtnis und Genozid im zeitgenössischen historischen Afrikaroman. Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch; 2013.
M PROFNYARIKIDICKSON. "Gebremichael, M., Kironchi, G., Nyariki, D. & Biamah, E. (2002). .". In: Geology, Geochemistry and Economic Mineral Potential. Ph.D. Thesis, McGill University, Montreal, 147 pp. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2002. Abstract
.
GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Gebremichael, M., G. Kironchi, D.M. Nyariki and E.K. Biamah, E.K. 2002. Soil and water conservation. p. 83-93. In: Managing Dryland Resource in Eastern and Southern Africa, International Institute of Rural Reconstruction (IIRR), Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2002. Abstract
This book provides an overview of selected problems and issues in dryland agriculture in eartern and southern Africa, and the various attempts by individuals, communities and development organizations to overcome these problems. It provides specific examples of technologies and approaches, as well as selected experiences of individual farmers, organizations and communities
M. DROLUBAYOFLORENCE. "Gchu S. M., Muthomi J. W, Narla R. D., Nderitu J. H. Olubayo F. M, Wagacha J. M. Management of thrips (Thrips tabaci) in bulb onion by use of vegetable intercrops.". In: International Journal of AgriScience Vol. 2(5): 393-402, May 2012. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 2012. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Field experiments were conducted between July 2008 and May 2009 to evaluate the effectiveness of intercropping carrot (Daucus carata), spider plant (Cleome gynandra) and French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) with onion in the management of thrips (Thrips tabaci) in onion. Each of the three onion varieties, Bombay Red, Red Creole and Orient F 1 were intercropped with each of the vegetables and insecticide imidacloprid was used as a standard check. Thrips damage incidence and severity were determined every 7 days with damage severity being estimated on a scale of 1-5. Total and marketable bulb yield were determined at physiological maturity. Intercropping onion with spider plant and carrot significantly (p S; 0.05) reduced thrips population by up to 45.2% and 21.6%, respectively but French bean had no significant effect. The three vegetable intercrops significantly (p S; 0.05) reduced thrips damage severity, with spider plant having the greatest reduction of up to 15.7%. Inter cropping onion with carrot and spider plant significantly (p S; 0.05) reduced onion bulb yield while the effect of French bean and imidacloprid on yield was not significant (p S; 0.05). This study showed that spider plant and carrot can be utilized in the management of onion thrips. However, further investigations should be undertaken on their optimal spatial arrangement in an intercropping system to avoid reduction in bulb yield and, therefore, achieve optimum onion productivity. Keywords: Allium cepa, Daunts carota, Cleome gynandra, intercropping, Phaseolus vulgaris. Thrips tabaci  
Gatumu HN. GCD-015: Research Methods in Guidance counseling. Nairobi: Kenyatta University press; 2002.
and Murila KP RJAIJM. "Gaucher’s Disease at a National Referral Hospital." East African Medical Journal . 2008;85(9):455-458.
Murila F, Rajab JA, JM. I. "Gaucher's disease at a national referral hospital." East Afr Med J. 2008 Sep;85(9):455-8.. 2008. Abstract

Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
To determine the prevalence and to characterise Gaucher's disease in terms of socio-demographic data, clinical presentation, and management as seen at Kenyatta National Hospital.
DESIGN:
A retrospective record based study.
SETTING:
Kenyatta National Hospital, a referral and teaching hospital.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
Prevalence (number of cases seen a year), of Gaucher's disease, sociodemographic data, clinical presentation, mode of diagnosis and treatment modalities of Gauchers disease.
RESULTS:
Nine patients were studied, four males and five females giving a prevalence of 0.9 cases seen a year and a M:F ratio of about 1:1. The most common presentation was splenomegaly in nine (100%) cases and hepatomegaly in seven (78%) patients, neurological and bone symptoms were rare, in one (11%) cases and in two (22%) cases respectively. Diagnosis was mainly on basis of presence of Gaucher cells in bone marrow and splenic aspirate as enzyme assay was unavailable. Management was mainly supportive and enzyme therapy was only available for two (22%) patients. Anaemia was the most common complication with seven (78%) patients and one death occurred due to osteomyelitis. Only four (44%) patients were followed up for a period of four years.
CONCLUSIONS:
Gaucher's disease is a rare condition at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). The presentation of most patients is organomegaly, (hepatosplenomegaly) and best fits the type 1 or non-neuronopathic Gaucher's disease. Neurological manifestations are rare. Management of this condition at the KNH is mainly supportive and enzyme therapy still remains out of reach for most patients.

CIUMWARI DRGATUMUJANE. "Gatumu J,C(2005).". In: Kenya Adult Education Association. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2005. Abstract
Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates neurotransmitters, hormones and drugs such as levodopa. COMT activity is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and individuals with low activity have thermolabile COMT protein. A low activity allele has been demonstrated at codon 108/158 of the soluble and membrane bound COMT protein, respectively, whereby a G to A transition results in a valine to methionine substitution, rendering the protein more thermolabile. As ethnic differences in erythrocyte COMT activity have been previously demonstrated, the frequency of low activity alleles were investigated in 265 British Caucasian, 99 British South-west Asian and 102 Kenyan individuals. Genotyping of COMT codon 108/158 was performed using a minisequencing method. Erythrocyte COMT activity was measured in 60 British Caucasian individuals by radiochemical assay. The frequency of low activity alleles was 0.54 in Caucasians, 0.49 in South-west Asians, and 0.32 in Kenyans. There was a much lower frequency of individuals with homozygous low activity allele in the Kenyan population (9%) than in Caucasians (31%) or South-west Asians (27%). Erythrocyte COMT activity was lower and less thermostable in individuals with homozygous low activity alleles. The data provide molecular evidence that low COMT is less common in African individuals than the Caucasian population. PMID: 9682265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
CIUMWARI DRGATUMUJANE. "Gatumu J,C(2005).". In: The Fountain Journal of the Faculty of Education. No. 2 pp29-42. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2005. Abstract
Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates neurotransmitters, hormones and drugs such as levodopa. COMT activity is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and individuals with low activity have thermolabile COMT protein. A low activity allele has been demonstrated at codon 108/158 of the soluble and membrane bound COMT protein, respectively, whereby a G to A transition results in a valine to methionine substitution, rendering the protein more thermolabile. As ethnic differences in erythrocyte COMT activity have been previously demonstrated, the frequency of low activity alleles were investigated in 265 British Caucasian, 99 British South-west Asian and 102 Kenyan individuals. Genotyping of COMT codon 108/158 was performed using a minisequencing method. Erythrocyte COMT activity was measured in 60 British Caucasian individuals by radiochemical assay. The frequency of low activity alleles was 0.54 in Caucasians, 0.49 in South-west Asians, and 0.32 in Kenyans. There was a much lower frequency of individuals with homozygous low activity allele in the Kenyan population (9%) than in Caucasians (31%) or South-west Asians (27%). Erythrocyte COMT activity was lower and less thermostable in individuals with homozygous low activity alleles. The data provide molecular evidence that low COMT is less common in African individuals than the Caucasian population. PMID: 9682265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
CIUMWARI DRGATUMUJANE. "Gatumu J,C(2003).". In: The Fountain Journal of the faculty of Education No. 1 pp25-36. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2003. Abstract
Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates neurotransmitters, hormones and drugs such as levodopa. COMT activity is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and individuals with low activity have thermolabile COMT protein. A low activity allele has been demonstrated at codon 108/158 of the soluble and membrane bound COMT protein, respectively, whereby a G to A transition results in a valine to methionine substitution, rendering the protein more thermolabile. As ethnic differences in erythrocyte COMT activity have been previously demonstrated, the frequency of low activity alleles were investigated in 265 British Caucasian, 99 British South-west Asian and 102 Kenyan individuals. Genotyping of COMT codon 108/158 was performed using a minisequencing method. Erythrocyte COMT activity was measured in 60 British Caucasian individuals by radiochemical assay. The frequency of low activity alleles was 0.54 in Caucasians, 0.49 in South-west Asians, and 0.32 in Kenyans. There was a much lower frequency of individuals with homozygous low activity allele in the Kenyan population (9%) than in Caucasians (31%) or South-west Asians (27%). Erythrocyte COMT activity was lower and less thermostable in individuals with homozygous low activity alleles. The data provide molecular evidence that low COMT is less common in African individuals than the Caucasian population. PMID: 9682265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
CIUMWARI DRGATUMUJANE. "Gatumu J,C(2002)Milestones in child growth and development.". In: Conference Report on quality, viable and sustainable early childhood development service for the African Child pp 37-38. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2002. Abstract
Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates neurotransmitters, hormones and drugs such as levodopa. COMT activity is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and individuals with low activity have thermolabile COMT protein. A low activity allele has been demonstrated at codon 108/158 of the soluble and membrane bound COMT protein, respectively, whereby a G to A transition results in a valine to methionine substitution, rendering the protein more thermolabile. As ethnic differences in erythrocyte COMT activity have been previously demonstrated, the frequency of low activity alleles were investigated in 265 British Caucasian, 99 British South-west Asian and 102 Kenyan individuals. Genotyping of COMT codon 108/158 was performed using a minisequencing method. Erythrocyte COMT activity was measured in 60 British Caucasian individuals by radiochemical assay. The frequency of low activity alleles was 0.54 in Caucasians, 0.49 in South-west Asians, and 0.32 in Kenyans. There was a much lower frequency of individuals with homozygous low activity allele in the Kenyan population (9%) than in Caucasians (31%) or South-west Asians (27%). Erythrocyte COMT activity was lower and less thermostable in individuals with homozygous low activity alleles. The data provide molecular evidence that low COMT is less common in African individuals than the Caucasian population. PMID: 9682265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
CIUMWARI DRGATUMUJANE. "Gatumu J,C(2001)Philosophical and Psychological issues in transition.". In: National workshop on transition from preschool to primary on 5th April 2001 at Kenya Institute of Education Nairobi. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2001. Abstract
Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates neurotransmitters, hormones and drugs such as levodopa. COMT activity is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and individuals with low activity have thermolabile COMT protein. A low activity allele has been demonstrated at codon 108/158 of the soluble and membrane bound COMT protein, respectively, whereby a G to A transition results in a valine to methionine substitution, rendering the protein more thermolabile. As ethnic differences in erythrocyte COMT activity have been previously demonstrated, the frequency of low activity alleles were investigated in 265 British Caucasian, 99 British South-west Asian and 102 Kenyan individuals. Genotyping of COMT codon 108/158 was performed using a minisequencing method. Erythrocyte COMT activity was measured in 60 British Caucasian individuals by radiochemical assay. The frequency of low activity alleles was 0.54 in Caucasians, 0.49 in South-west Asians, and 0.32 in Kenyans. There was a much lower frequency of individuals with homozygous low activity allele in the Kenyan population (9%) than in Caucasians (31%) or South-west Asians (27%). Erythrocyte COMT activity was lower and less thermostable in individuals with homozygous low activity alleles. The data provide molecular evidence that low COMT is less common in African individuals than the Caucasian population. PMID: 9682265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
CIUMWARI DRGATUMUJANE. "Gatumu J,C(1998)'Development of an attitude scale for Kenya secondary Christian Religious Education Teachers and Students' in Ife PsychologIA Vol. 6 No 2. p. 94-115.". In: Ife PsychologIA Vol. 6 No 2. p. 94-115. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1998. Abstract
Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates neurotransmitters, hormones and drugs such as levodopa. COMT activity is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and individuals with low activity have thermolabile COMT protein. A low activity allele has been demonstrated at codon 108/158 of the soluble and membrane bound COMT protein, respectively, whereby a G to A transition results in a valine to methionine substitution, rendering the protein more thermolabile. As ethnic differences in erythrocyte COMT activity have been previously demonstrated, the frequency of low activity alleles were investigated in 265 British Caucasian, 99 British South-west Asian and 102 Kenyan individuals. Genotyping of COMT codon 108/158 was performed using a minisequencing method. Erythrocyte COMT activity was measured in 60 British Caucasian individuals by radiochemical assay. The frequency of low activity alleles was 0.54 in Caucasians, 0.49 in South-west Asians, and 0.32 in Kenyans. There was a much lower frequency of individuals with homozygous low activity allele in the Kenyan population (9%) than in Caucasians (31%) or South-west Asians (27%). Erythrocyte COMT activity was lower and less thermostable in individuals with homozygous low activity alleles. The data provide molecular evidence that low COMT is less common in African individuals than the Caucasian population. PMID: 9682265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
CIUMWARI DRGATUMUJANE. "Gatumu J,C(1997)Kenya Secondary School Christian Religious Education: quantitative and qualitative investigation of teachers and students attitudes-Phd. Thesis:.". In: Unpublished Phd. Thesis. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1997. Abstract
Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates neurotransmitters, hormones and drugs such as levodopa. COMT activity is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and individuals with low activity have thermolabile COMT protein. A low activity allele has been demonstrated at codon 108/158 of the soluble and membrane bound COMT protein, respectively, whereby a G to A transition results in a valine to methionine substitution, rendering the protein more thermolabile. As ethnic differences in erythrocyte COMT activity have been previously demonstrated, the frequency of low activity alleles were investigated in 265 British Caucasian, 99 British South-west Asian and 102 Kenyan individuals. Genotyping of COMT codon 108/158 was performed using a minisequencing method. Erythrocyte COMT activity was measured in 60 British Caucasian individuals by radiochemical assay. The frequency of low activity alleles was 0.54 in Caucasians, 0.49 in South-west Asians, and 0.32 in Kenyans. There was a much lower frequency of individuals with homozygous low activity allele in the Kenyan population (9%) than in Caucasians (31%) or South-west Asians (27%). Erythrocyte COMT activity was lower and less thermostable in individuals with homozygous low activity alleles. The data provide molecular evidence that low COMT is less common in African individuals than the Caucasian population. PMID: 9682265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
C GJ. "Gatumu J,C(1983)Attitudes of head teachers towards Christian Religious Education in Runyenjes, Embu.". In: M.Ed Research Thesis. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1983. Abstract

Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates neurotransmitters, hormones and drugs such as levodopa. COMT activity is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and individuals with low activity have thermolabile COMT protein. A low activity allele has been demonstrated at codon 108/158 of the soluble and membrane bound COMT protein, respectively, whereby a G to A transition results in a valine to methionine substitution, rendering the protein more thermolabile. As ethnic differences in erythrocyte COMT activity have been previously demonstrated, the frequency of low activity alleles were investigated in 265 British Caucasian, 99 British South-west Asian and 102 Kenyan individuals. Genotyping of COMT codon 108/158 was performed using a minisequencing method. Erythrocyte COMT activity was measured in 60 British Caucasian individuals by radiochemical assay. The frequency of low activity alleles was 0.54 in Caucasians, 0.49 in South-west Asians, and 0.32 in Kenyans. There was a much lower frequency of individuals with homozygous low activity allele in the Kenyan population (9%) than in Caucasians (31%) or South-west Asians (27%). Erythrocyte COMT activity was lower and less thermostable in individuals with homozygous low activity alleles. The data provide molecular evidence that low COMT is less common in African individuals than the Caucasian population. PMID: 9682265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Gatongi, P.M., Scott, M.E., Ranjan, S., Gathuma, J.M., Munyua, W.K., Cheruiyot, H. and Prichard R.K. (1997). Effects of three nematode anthelmintic treatment regines on flock performance of sheep and goats under extensive management in semi-arid Kenya. Ve.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1997. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Gatongi, P.M., Richard, R.K., Ranjan, S., Gathuma, J.M., Munyua, W.K., Cheruiyot, H. and Scoot, M.E. (1998). Hypobiosis of Haemonclus contortus in 13 natural infections of sheep and goats in a semi-arid area of Kenya. Vet. Parasit. 77, 49 .". In: journal. FARA; 1998. Abstract
Objectives: To determine the occurrence of food borne disease outbreaks in Kenya and the efforts employed to combat them. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Forty two districts in Kenya between 1970 and 1993. Study subjects: Food-borne disease outbreak episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, chemicals, aflatoxins, plant and animal poisons. Outcome measures: Number and aetiological causes of food-borne disease outbreaks reported in the study period. Results: Thirty seven food poisoning outbreaks were reported to the Ministry of Health from various parts of the country in the study period 1970 to 1993, and only 13 of these involving a total of 926 people were confirmed to be due to particular aetiological agents. Foods that were involved included milk and milk products, meat and meat products, maize flour, bread scones and other wheat products, vegetables and lemon pie pudding. A high number of food poisoning cases were treated as outpatients in various health facilities. Conclusions: Under-reporting, inadequate investigation of outbreaks and inadequate diagnostic facilities suggest that food-borne disease outbreaks are more that is recorded by the Ministry of Health.
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Gatongi, P.M., Prichard, R.K., Ranjan, S., Gathuma, J.M., Munyua, W.K., Cheruiyot, H. and Scott, M.E. (1998). Hypobiosis of Haemonchus contortus in natural infections of sheep and goats in a semi-arid area of Kenya. Vet. Parasitol. 77: 49-61.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Gatongi, P.M., Prichard, R.K., Ranjan, S., Gathuma, J.M. Munyua, W.K., Cheruiyot, H., and Scott, M.E. (1998). Hypobiosis of Haemonchus contortus in natural infections of sheep and goats in a semi-arid area of Kenya. Vet. Parasitol. 77, 49 .". In: journal. FARA; 1988. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Gatongi, P.M., Gathuma, J.M. and Munyua, W.K. (1988). Influence of weather on population dynamics of infective larvae of cattle nematodes in Nyeri, Kenya. Bull. Anim. Prod. Afr., 36, 148 .". In: journal. FARA; 1996. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.

UoN Websites Search