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G
M PROFIRANDUEVARISTUS. "Geography of Sub-Saharan Africa review of Aryeetey, S.(ed).". In: in the JOURNAL OF AFRICAN AND ASIAN STUDIES, Vol.32, No.4: 409-410. Kisipan, M.L.; 1998.
Moronge JM, Omoke KJ. "Geography of Resources." Faculty of Science, University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
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F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "The Geography of East Africa. Chapter 2 of ZAMANI: A Survey of East African History. New Edition. Chapter 2 of ZAMANI: A Survey of East African History. Eds. B.A. Ogot and J.A. Kieran.". In: Longman, pp.22-48, Nairobi. UN-HABITAT; 1974. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "The Geography of East Africa. Chapter 2 of ZAMANI: A Survey of East African History. Eds. B.A. Ogot and J.A. Kieran.". In: Longman, pp.22-48, Nairobi. UN-HABITAT; 1968. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
J.O O. A Geography of Africa for Beginners. Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau; 1979.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "GEOGRAPHY IN EDUCATION by N.J. Graces. A Review: in The Kenyan Geographer, Vol.2, No.2., Nairobi.". In: The Kenyan Geographer, Vol.5(Special Issue) pp.1-6). UN-HABITAT; 1976. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS. "Geoelectric structure below Eburru geothermal field, Rift Valley, Kenya,.". In: Proceedings of the regional seminar on geothermal energy in Eastern and southern Africa, 15-21 June, 1982, Nairobi, Kenya. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1982. Abstract
Barongo, J.O.,1982. Proceedings of the regional seminar on geothermal energy in Eastern and southern Africa, 15-21 June, 1982, Nairobi, Kenya.
O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW. "Geodetic models for monitoring crustal deformation along the African Rift System.". In: IASPEI/UNESCO/ICL Regional Seismological Assembly in Africa, Nairobi,. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; Submitted. Abstract
A model for the establishment of an integrated geodetic datum covering a region is treated. The integrated geodetic datum is understood here to comprise the geoid, the reference ellipsoid, and the positional coordinates. A comprehensive unified solution model including the three parameters comprising the datum is considered. The estimation model adopted rigorously incorporates determined prior information in the estimation of the datum parameters. Mathematical models together with the pertinent observation equations are presented, followed by a description of the procedure for the aetual setting up of the datum. The observational scheme is based on a system of modular traverses anchored on a trilateration of GPS baselines.
Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Geodata and Geoinformatics.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Understanding the characteristics of and possibilities in using geodata is premised on proper comprehension of the underlying concepts of space, time and scale, contextualized within the Earth’s framework. Although these concepts are used in everyday parlance, often without much afterthought, they are not trivial at all. For instance, looking back throughout the entire history of mankind, the concepts of space and time have been the subject of animated philosophical, religious and scientific debates. In this section, we attempt to present a background of each of these dimensions of geodata, both independently and collectively, as well as highlight their relevance in influencing the character of geodata.

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Geochemistry of the carbonatite complexes in East Africa in L.H. Arhens, Origin and Distribution of Elements.". In: Pergamon Press, Oxford. 533-539. Wiley Interscience; 1979. Abstract
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O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Geochemistry of the carbonatite complexes in East Africa in (Abstr.).". In: 2nd Symposium on the origin and distribution of elements. IAGC and UNESCO.102. Wiley Interscience; 1977. Abstract
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Odada EO. "Geochemistry of sediments from the Romanche Fracture Zone, equatorial Atlantic." Marine Geology. 1990;92 (3 - 4):291-312. Abstract

 A suite of sediment samples from the Romanche Fracture Zone in the equatorial Atlantic has been subjected to bulk and partition chemical and mineralogical analyses, together with radiometric dating, in order to study the main controls on composition and origin. The interelement relationships in the sediments revealed by geostatistical analysis indicate that (1) Ca, Sr and P, (2) Al, Fe, Ti, V, Zn, Li, Be and K, (3) Mn, Co, Ni and Cu and (4) Mg, Cr and Ni are associated. Partition chemical data suggest that these element associations represent respectively biogenic, terrigenous, igneous and hydrogenic phases of the sediment. Surface and downcore sediment data indicate that the distribution of the biogenic component of the sediment is influenced by water depth. The distribution of the igneous component is largely controlled by a contribution from ultramafic sources and shows the influence of subsea erosion on the surface sediments. The distribution of the hydrogenic component is influenced by contribution from the water column. Sediment accumulation rate data indicate that these sediments have accumulated fairly rapidly. Bottom topography and turbidity current activity are probably the main factors controlling their accumulation. Metal accumulation rate data indicate that there is no significant hydrothermal contribution to the deposits as has been suggested by other workers

.E.O O. "Geochemistry of sediments from the Romanche Fracture Zone, equatorial Atlantic." KJS SERIES. 1995;10(1 AND 2):12-30. AbstractKJS

ABSTRACT A suite of sediment samples from the Romanche Fracture Zone in the equatorial Atlantic has been subjected to bulk and partition chemical and mineralogical analyses, together with radiometric dating, in order to study the main controls on composition and origin.The interelement relationships in the sediments revealed by geostatistical analysis indicate that (1) Ca, Sr and P, (2) Al, Fe, Ti, V, Zn, Li, Be and K, (3) Mn, Co, Ni and Cu and (4) Mg, Cr and Ni are associated. Partition chemical data suggest that these element associations represent respectively biogenic, terrigenous, igneous and hydrogenic phases of the sediment.Surface and downcore sediment data indicate that the distribution of the biogenic component of the sediment is influenced by water depth. The distribution of the igneous component is largely controlled by a contribution from ultramafic sources and shows the influence of subsea erosion on the surface sediments. The distribution of the hydrogenic component is influenced by contribution from the water column. Sediment accumulation rate data indicate that these sediments have accumulated fairly rapidly. Bottom topography and turbidity current activity are probably the main factors controlling their accumulation. Metal accumulation rate data indicate that there is no significant hydrothermal contribution to the deposits as has been suggested by other workers.

MUNYAO DRNYAMAICHRISTOPHER, OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Geochemistry and Tectonomagmatic affinities of the Mozambique belt intrusive rocks in Matuu-Masinga area, central Kenya. Gondwana Research, Vol.2, pp. 387-399.". In: Ph.D Degree Thesis, University of Nairobi Kenya. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1999.
MUNYAO DRNYAMAICHRISTOPHER, OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Geochemistry and Tectonomagmatic affinities of the Mozambique belt intrusive rocks in Matuu-Masinga area, central Kenya. Gondwana Research, Vol.2, pp. 387-399.". In: Journal of African Earth Sciences Vol.29, Issue 2. pp 281-282. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 1999. Abstract
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OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Geochemistry and Petrogenesis of the Archaean Granites from the north of lake Victoria of the greenstone terrain in western Kenya (Abstract).". In: The 29th International Geological Congress, Kyoto, Japan. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 1992. Abstract
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OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT, OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT, OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Geochemical evidences for the tectono-magmatic emplacement of the Kenyan greenstone belt rocks from the Maseno area, western Kenya.". In: African Journal of Science and Technology, Vol.6 No.2 pp56 -63. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 1991. Abstract
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OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Geochemical evidences for the Emplacement of the Archaean greenstone volcanics from the area around Maseno, western Kenya.:.". In: African Journal of Science and Technology, Vol.6 No.2 pp56 -63. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 1992. Abstract
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Inyega HN, Inyega JO. Gentle gracing giraffes. Nairobi: ARK; 2016.
Gentle Graceful Giraffes. Nairobi: Association of Reading of Kenya; 2016.
OTIENO MROBUDHOELIAS. "GenStat 8th Edition for everyday use. ICRAF Nairobi, Kenya. 114 pp.". In: School of Journalism. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
Opanda SM, Wamunyokoli F, Khamadi S, Coldren R, Bulimo WD. "Genotyping of enteroviruses isolated in Kenya from pediatric patients using partial {VP}1 region." {SpringerPlus}. 2016;5. AbstractWebsite
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Opanda S, Wamunyokoli F, Khamadi S, Coldren R, Bulimo W. "Genotyping of enteroviruses isolated in Kenya from pediatric patients using partial VP1 region." SpringerPlus. 2016;5:158. Abstractopanda_et_al_2016.pdfWebsite

Enteroviruses (EV) are responsible for a wide range of clinical diseases in humans. Though studied broadly in several regions of the world, the genetic diversity of human enteroviruses (HEV) circulating in the sub-Saharan Africa remains under-documented. In the current study, we molecularly typed 61 HEV strains isolated in Kenya between 2008 and 2011 targeting the 3'-end of the VP1 gene. Viral RNA was extracted from the archived isolates and part of the VP1 gene amplified by RT-PCR, followed by sequence analysis. Twenty-two different EV types were detected. Majority (72.0%) of these belonged to Enterovirus B species followed by Enterovirus D (21.3%) and Enterovirus A (6.5%). The most frequently detected types were Enterovirus-D68 (EV-D68), followed by Coxsackievirus B2 (CV-B2), CV-B1, CV-B4 and CV-B3. Phylogenetic analyses of these viruses revealed that Kenyan CV-B1 isolates were segregated among sequences of global CV-B1 strains. Conversely, the Kenyan CV-B2, CV-B3, CV-B4 and EV-D68 strains generally grouped together with those detected from other countries. Notably, the Kenyan EV-D68 strains largely clustered with sequences of global strains obtained between 2008 and 2010 than those circulating in recent years. Overall, our results indicate that HEV strains belonging to Enterovirus D and Enterovirus B species pre-dominantly circulated and played a significant role in pediatric respiratory infection in Kenya, during the study period. The Kenyan CV-B1 strains were genetically divergent from those circulating in other countries. Phylogenetic clustering of Kenyan EV-D68 strains with sequences of global strains circulating between 2008 and 2010 than those obtained in recent years suggests a high genomic variability associated with the surface protein encoding VP1 gene in these enteroviruses.

Githaka N, Konnai S, Skilton R, Kariuki E, Kanduma E, Murata S, Ohashi K. "Genotypic variations in field isolates of Theileria species infecting giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi and Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) in Kenya." Parasitology international. 2013;62:448-453. Abstract
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Wangui J, Bulimo W, Nokes J, Wurapa E, Nyaigoti C, Otieno J, Opot B, Achilla R, Coldren R. Genotypic Diversity of HRSV-A in out-patients with Acute Respiratory Infections in Kenya 2007-2010. Hilton Hotel; Nairobi, Kenya; 2014. Abstract

Introduction: Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus is the leading viral cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children and infants. Amongst adults, the elderly and the immuno-compromised are also at risk of severe RSV. RSV is classified into two genetically distinct groups: RSV A and RSV B. In the case of RSV A, 11 genotypes have been reported to date. Amongst these are three new variants (NA1, NA2 and ON1). Appearance of new genotypes has been accompanied by rapid spread and near replacement of existing variants. There is need to constantly re-examine the nature of genotypic changes amongst circulating viruses. Objective: To assess the geographic distribution and genotypic diversity of RSV A in outpatients presenting with Influenza-Like-Illness from 2007 and 2010 across Kenya.Methods: Nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs were obtained from subjects ≥2 months of age presenting with fever ≥38ºC and cough or sore throat at district hospitals under surveillance across 5 regions of Kenya. RNA was extracted from the NP samples and screened using multiplex real-time RT-PCR. A 490bp fragment of the RSVA G-gene was amplified by nested RT-PCR and nucleotide sequencing carried out using the Sanger dideoxy termination method. The sequences were analyzed using a suite of bioinformatics software. Results: 159 NP samples were positive for RSV A, of which, 130 were genotyped; 21 (16%) were GA5, 39 (30%) GA2, 66 (50%) NA1, 1 GA1 and 3 (2%) GA2 variants closely related to NA2. GA2 and NA1 genotypes were identified in the highlands from 2007 – 2010. In 2009, NA1 was highest in Nairobi and Coast regions (11; 17%). GA2 genotype was highest in Northeastern (8; 21%) and was most prevalent in 2009 (44%). The Western region had the highest prevalence of GA5 in 2008 (6; 29%). Conclusion: Five genotypes were in circulation across the country in 2007 and of these NA1 genotype increased dominance year by year and spread to all the regions by 2009. These data provide insight into the dynamics of persistence of RSV strains within a national geographical area.

Wangui J, Bulimo W, Nokes J, Wurapa E, Otieno J, Opot B, Achilla R, Coldren R. "Genotypic Diversity of HRSV-A in out-patients with Acute Respiratory Infections in Kenya 2007-2010.". 2014. Abstract
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Wadegu. M, Bulimo. WD, Achilla. RA, Majanja. J, Mukunzi. S, Osuna. F, Wangui J, Njiri. J, Opot. B, Schnabel. DC, Wurapa. EK. Genotypic characterization of Resistance to Neuraminidase Inhibitors amongst Influenza A viruses that circulated in Kenya from 2008 to 2011.. Sarova Panafric Hotel Nairobi Kenya; 2012. Abstract
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Wadegu. M, Bulimo. WD, Achilla. RA, Majanja. J, Mukunzi. S, Osuna. F, Wangui. J, Mitei. K, Ocholla. S, Nyambura. J, Mwangi. J, Njiri. J, Opot. B, Schnabel. DC, Wurapa. EK. Genotypic characterization of Oseltamivir susceptibility of Influenza A viruses isolated in Kenya from 2008 to 2011.. Bangkok Thailand; 2012. Abstract
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Wadegu M, Bulimo W, Achilla R, Majanja J, Mukunzi S, Osuna F, Wangui J, Opot B, Njiri J, Mitei K, Nyambura J, Mwangi J, Schnabel D, Wurapa E. "Genotypic characterization of antiviral susceptibility of Influenza A viruses isolated in Kenya from 2008 to 2011." Int J Infect Dis. 2012;16:E437-E438. AbstractWebsite
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Wangui J, Opot B, Njiri J, Mitei K, Wadegu M, Osuna F, Bulimo W, Mukunzi S, Achilla R, Majanja J, et al. "Genotypic characterization of antiviral susceptibility of Influenza A viruses isolated in Kenya from 2008 to 2011." International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2012;16:e437-e438. AbstractWebsite
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M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Genotype by environment interactions in bean improvement.". In: Presented at Pan-African Bean breeders. EAMJ; 2005. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Bishop R, Geysen D, Skilton R, Odongo D, Nene V, Allsopp B, Mbogo S, Spooner P, Morzaria S. "Genomic Polymorphism, Sexual Recombination and Molecular Epidemiology of Theileria parva.". In: Theileria. The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Press; 2002.
Amato R, Miotto O, Woodrow C, Almagro-Garcia J, Sinha I, Campino S, Mead D, Drury E, Kekre M, Sanders M, Amambua-Ngwa A, Amaratunga C, Amenga-Etego L, Anderson TJC, Andrianaranjaka V, Apinjoh T, Ashley E, Auburn S, Awandare GA, Baraka V, Barry A, Boni MF, Borrmann S, Teun Bousema, Branch O, Bull PC, Chotivanich K, Conway DJ, Craig A, Day NP, Djimdé A, Dolecek C, Dondorp AM, Drakeley C, Duffy P, Echeverri-Garcia DF, Egwang TG, Fairhurst RM, Faiz MA, Fanello CI, Hien TT, Hodgson A, Imwong M, Ishengoma D, Lim P, Lon C, Marfurt J, Marsh K, Mayxay M, Mobegi V, Mokuolu O, Montgomery J, Mueller I, Kyaw MP, Newton PN, Nosten F, Noviyanti R, Nzila A, Ocholla H, Oduro A, Onyamboko M, Ouedraogo J-B, Phyo AP, Plowe CV, Price RN, Pukrittayakamee S, Randrianarivelojosia M, Ringwald P, Ruiz L, Saunders D, Shayo A, Siba P, Takala-Harrison S, Thanh T-NN, Thathy V, Verra F, White NJ, Htut Y, Cornelius VJ, Giacomantonio R, Muddyman D, Henrichs C, Malangone C, Jyothi D, Pearson RD, Rayner JC, McVean G, Rockett K, Miles A, Vauterin P, Jeffery B, Manske M, Stalker J, MacInnis B, Kwiatkowski DP,, J.N Kiiru. "Genomic epidemiology of the current wave of artemisinin resistant malaria." bioRxiv. 2015. AbstractWebsite

Artemisinin resistant Plasmodium falciparum is advancing across Southeast Asia in a soft selective sweep involving at least 20 independent kelch13 mutations. In a large global survey, we find that kelch13 mutations which cause resistance in Southeast Asia are present at low frequency in Africa. We show that African kelch13 mutations have originated locally, and that kelch13 shows a normal variation pattern relative to other genes in Africa, whereas in Southeast Asia there is a great excess of non‐synonymous mutations, many of which cause radical amino‐acid changes. Thus, kelch13 is not currently undergoing strong selection in Africa, despite a deep reservoir of standing variation that could potentially allow resistance to emerge rapidly. The practical implications are that public health surveillance for artemisinin resistance should not rely on kelch13 data alone, and interventions to prevent resistance must account for local evolutionary conditions, shown by genomic epidemiology to differ greatly between geographical regions.

MalariaGEN Plasmodium falciparum Community Project. "Genomic epidemiology of artemisinin resistant malaria." Elife. 2016;5. Abstract

The current epidemic of artemisinin resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Southeast Asia is the result of a soft selective sweep involving at least 20 independent kelch13 mutations. In a large global survey, we find that kelch13 mutations which cause resistance in Southeast Asia are present at low frequency in Africa. We show that African kelch13 mutations have originated locally, and that kelch13 shows a normal variation pattern relative to other genes in Africa, whereas in Southeast Asia there is a great excess of non-synonymous mutations, many of which cause radical amino-acid changes. Thus, kelch13 is not currently undergoing strong selection in Africa, despite a deep reservoir of variations that could potentially allow resistance to emerge rapidly. The practical implications are that public health surveillance for artemisinin resistance should not rely on kelch13 data alone, and interventions to prevent resistance must account for local evolutionary conditions, shown by genomic epidemiology to differ greatly between geographical regions.

Ogali IN, Okumu PO, Mungube EO, Lichoti, J. K., Ogada S, Moraa GK, Ommeh SC. "Genomic and Pathogenic Characteristics of Virulent Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from Chicken in Live Bird Markets and Backyard Flocks in Kenya." . International journal of microbiology. 2020;2020:1-11.
Lingappa JR, Petrovski S, Kahle E, Fellay J, Shianna K, McElrath JM, Thomas KK, Baeten JM, Celum C, Wald A, de Bruyn G, Mullins JI, Nakku-Joloba E, Farquhar C, Max Essex, iDidier K. Ekouevi, Donnell D, Kiarie J, Haynes B, Goldstein D. "Genomewide association study for determinants of HIV-1 acquisition and viral set point in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples with quantified virus exposure." PLoS ONE. 2011;6(12):e28632. Abstract

Host genetic factors may be important determinants of HIV-1 sexual acquisition. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for host genetic variants modifying HIV-1 acquisition and viral control in the context of a cohort of African HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples. To minimize misclassification of HIV-1 risk, we quantified HIV-1 exposure, using data including plasma HIV-1 concentrations, gender, and condom use.

Lingappa JR, Petrovski S, Kahle E, Fellay J, Shianna K, McElrath JM, Thomas KK, Baeten JM, Celum C, Wald A, de Bruyn G, Mullins JI, Nakku-Joloba E, Farquhar C, Max Essex, iDidier K. Ekouevi, Donnell D, Kiarie J, Haynes B, Goldstein D. "Genomewide association study for determinants of HIV-1 acquisition and viral set point in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples with quantified virus exposure." PLoS ONE. 2011;6(12):e28632. Abstract

Host genetic factors may be important determinants of HIV-1 sexual acquisition. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for host genetic variants modifying HIV-1 acquisition and viral control in the context of a cohort of African HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples. To minimize misclassification of HIV-1 risk, we quantified HIV-1 exposure, using data including plasma HIV-1 concentrations, gender, and condom use.

Norling M, Bishop RP, Pelle R, Qi W, Henson S, Drábek EF, Tretina K, Odongo D, Mwaura S, Njoroge T, Bongcam-Rudloff E, Daubenberger CA, Silva JC. "The genomes of three stocks comprising the most widely utilized live sporozoite Theileria parva vaccine exhibit very different degrees and patterns of sequence divergence." BMC Genomics. 2015;16:729. Abstract

There are no commercially available vaccines against human protozoan parasitic diseases, despite the success of vaccination-induced long-term protection against infectious diseases. East Coast fever, caused by the protist Theileria parva, kills one million cattle each year in sub-Saharan Africa, and contributes significantly to hunger and poverty in the region. A highly effective, live, multi-isolate vaccine against T. parva exists, but its component isolates have not been characterized. Here we sequence and compare the three component T. parva stocks within this vaccine, the Muguga Cocktail, namely Muguga, Kiambu5 and Serengeti-transformed, aiming to identify genomic features that contribute to vaccine efficacy.

Macharia R, Mireji P, Murungi E, Murilla G, Christoffels A, Aksoy S, Masiga D. "Genome-Wide Comparative Analysis of Chemosensory Gene Families in Five Tsetse Fly Species." PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016;10(2):e0004421. Abstract

For decades, odour-baited traps have been used for control of tsetse flies (Diptera; Glossinidae), vectors of African trypanosomes. However, differential responses to known attractants have been reported in different Glossina species, hindering establishment of a universal vector control tool. Availability of full genome sequences of five Glossina species offers an opportunity to compare their chemosensory repertoire and enhance our understanding of their biology in relation to chemosensation. Here, we identified and annotated the major chemosensory gene families in Glossina. We identified a total of 118, 115, 124, and 123 chemosensory genes in Glossina austeni, G. brevipalpis, G. f. fuscipes, G. pallidipes, respectively, relative to 127 reported in G. m. morsitans. Our results show that tsetse fly genomes have fewer chemosensory genes when compared to other dipterans such as Musca domestica (n>393), Drosophila melanogaster (n = 246) and Anopheles gambiae (n>247). We also found that Glossina chemosensory genes are dispersed across distantly located scaffolds in their respective genomes, in contrast to other insects like D. melanogaster whose genes occur in clusters. Further, Glossina appears to be devoid of sugar receptors and to have expanded CO2 associated receptors, potentially reflecting Glossina's obligate hematophagy and the need to detect hosts that may be out of sight. We also identified, in all species, homologs of Ir84a; a Drosophila-specific ionotropic receptor that promotes male courtship suggesting that this is a conserved trait in tsetse flies. Notably, our selection analysis revealed that a total of four gene loci (Gr21a, GluRIIA, Gr28b, and Obp83a) were under positive selection, which confers fitness advantage to species. These findings provide a platform for studies to further define the language of communication of tsetse with their environment, and influence development of novel approaches for control.

Astère Bararyenya, Bode A. Olukolu, Phinehas Tukamuhabwa, Wolfgang J. Grüneberg, Ekaya W, Jan Low, Mildred Ochwo-Ssemakula TOL. "Genome-wide association study identified candidate genes controlling continuous storage root formation and bulking in hexaploid sweetpotato." BMC Plant Biology . 2020;20(1):1-16.
Mobegi VA, Duffy CW, Amambua-Ngwa A, Loua KM, Laman E, Nwakanma DC, MacInnis B, Aspeling-Jones H, Murray L, Clark TG, Kwiatkowski DP, Conway DJ. "Genome-wide analysis of selection on the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in West African populations of differing infection endemicity." Mol. Biol. Evol.. 2014;31:1490-1499. Abstract

Locally varying selection on pathogens may be due to differences in drug pressure, host immunity, transmission opportunities between hosts, or the intensity of between-genotype competition within hosts. Highly recombining populations of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum throughout West Africa are closely related, as gene flow is relatively unrestricted in this endemic region, but markedly varying ecology and transmission intensity should cause distinct local selective pressures. Genome-wide analysis of sequence variation was undertaken on a sample of 100 P. falciparum clinical isolates from a highly endemic region of the Republic of Guinea where transmission occurs for most of each year and compared with data from 52 clinical isolates from a previously sampled population from The Gambia, where there is relatively limited seasonal malaria transmission. Paired-end short-read sequences were mapped against the 3D7 P. falciparum reference genome sequence, and data on 136,144 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were obtained. Within-population analyses identifying loci showing evidence of recent positive directional selection and balancing selection confirm that antimalarial drugs and host immunity have been major selective agents. Many of the signatures of recent directional selection reflected by standardized integrated haplotype scores were population specific, including differences at drug resistance loci due to historically different antimalarial use between the countries. In contrast, both populations showed a similar set of loci likely to be under balancing selection as indicated by very high Tajima's D values, including a significant overrepresentation of genes expressed at the merozoite stage that invades erythrocytes and several previously validated targets of acquired immunity. Between-population FST analysis identified exceptional differentiation of allele frequencies at a small number of loci, most markedly for five SNPs covering a 15-kb region within and flanking the gdv1 gene that regulates the early stages of gametocyte development, which is likely related to the extreme differences in mosquito vector abundance and seasonality that determine the transmission opportunities for the sexual stage of the parasite.

"Genome sequence of the tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans): vector of African trypanosomiasis." Science. 2014;344(6182):380-6. Abstract

Tsetse flies are the sole vectors of human African trypanosomiasis throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Both sexes of adult tsetse feed exclusively on blood and contribute to disease transmission. Notable differences between tsetse and other disease vectors include obligate microbial symbioses, viviparous reproduction, and lactation. Here, we describe the sequence and annotation of the 366-megabase Glossina morsitans morsitans genome. Analysis of the genome and the 12,308 predicted protein-encoding genes led to multiple discoveries, including chromosomal integrations of bacterial (Wolbachia) genome sequences, a family of lactation-specific proteins, reduced complement of host pathogen recognition proteins, and reduced olfaction/chemosensory associated genes. These genome data provide a foundation for research into trypanosomiasis prevention and yield important insights with broad implications for multiple aspects of tsetse biology.

JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Genital shedding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA during pregnancy: association with immunosuppression, abnormal cervical or vaginal discharge, and severe vitamin A deficiency. John GC; Nduati RW; Mbori-Ngacha D; Overbaugh J; Welch M; Richardson.". In: J Infect Dis. 1997 Jan; 175(1):57-62. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1997. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVE: To establish a cohort of high-risk individuals suitable for HIV-prevention trials, and to measure changes in sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted disease (STD) incidence after a behavioural intervention. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study in trucking company depots in Mombasa, Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 556 male HIV-seronegative employees of trucking companies. INTERVENTIONS: HIV serological testing, individual counselling, condom promotion, STD diagnosis and management. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sexual risk behaviour and symptomatic STD incidence. RESULTS: Using time-trend modelling, significant declines in self-reported high-risk sexual behaviour were demonstrated during a 1-year follow-up. The percentage of men reporting any extramarital sex during the 3-month period prior to a follow-up visit decreased from 49% durig the first quarter of follow-up to 36% during the last quarter (P < 0.001). The decline in reported female sex worker contact was from 12% to 6% (P = 0.001). Approximately 30% of men reported consistent condom use during extramarital sex and this percentage remained unchanged during the study period. The incidence of STD declined from 34 per 100 person years (PY) during the first quarter to 10 per 100 PY during the last quarter (P = 0.001). Significant reductions in gonorrhoea (15 to five cases per 100 PY
MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH. "Genital shedding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA during pregnancy: association with immunosuppression, abnormal cervical or vaginal discharge, and severe vitamin A deficiency. J Infect Dis. 1997 Jan;175(1):57-62. John GC, Nduati RW, Mbori-Ngach.". In: J Infect Dis. 1997 Jan;175(1):57-62. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1997. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of growth and development of institutionalised infants and to compare the outcome with that of infants living with their biological mothers. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Seven children's homes; Kenyatta National Hospital's New Born Unit and Well Baby Clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-two abandoned babies who fulfilled the selection criteria were recruited and for each abandoned baby two mothered babies matched for age and sex were selected from the well baby clinics. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Anthropometric measures of weight, length, head circumference and left mid arm circumference (LUMAC) were taken and the mean values and Z scores determined to demonstrate growth pattern and nutritional status of the babies. The Revised Denver Development Screening Test (RDDST) was used to assess the development pattern of infants. RESULTS: Seventy per cent of infants were below six months old and 73% were abandoned within the first week of life. Abandoned babies were significantly thinner with the mean LUMAC of 10.8 cm versus 12.3 cm (p = 0.02) Institutionalised babies were significantly wasted (p = 0.00001) and stunted (p = 0.00001). Abandoned babies were significantly delayed in development (p < 0.0001). In all the four sectors tested for, institutionalised babies showed significant delay, p < 0.0001 in each sector. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that infants under institutional care have poorer growth and development compared to mothered infants. PIP: This cross-sectional study examined the pattern of growth and development of infants in some of the baby institutions in Nairobi and compared the outcome with that of infants living with their biological mothers. The participating institutions included the Kenyatta National Hospital and 7 children's homes within the city. The study recruited 82 abandoned babies aged 1-18 months who had been abandoned for at least 2 weeks. Each abandoned baby was paired with 2 mothered babies matched for age and sex. Anthropometric measures of weight, length, head circumference, and left mid arm circumference (LUMAC) were taken. The mean values and Z scores were determined to assess growth pattern and nutritional status of the babies. The results showed that abandoned babies were significantly thinner, with a mean LUMAC of 10.8 cm vs. 12.3 cm. Moreover, abandoned babies were significantly wasted (p = 0.00001), stunted (p = 0.00001), and delayed in development (p 0.0001). These findings indicate that institutionalized infants have poorer growth and development compared to mothered infants.

MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH. "Genital shedding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA during pregnancy: association with immunosuppression, abnormal cervical or vaginal discharge, and severe vitamin A deficiency. J Infect Dis. 1997 Jan;175(1):57-62. John GC, Nduati RW, Mbori-Ngach.". In: J Infect Dis. 1997 Jan;175(1):57-62. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1997. Abstract
In sub-Saharan Africa, where the effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) have been most devastating, there are multiple subtypes of this virus. The distribution of different subtypes within African populations is generally not linked to particular risk behaviors. Thus, Africa is an ideal setting in which to examine the diversity and mixing of viruses from different subtypes on a population basis. In this setting, it is also possible to address whether infection with a particular subtype is associated with differences in disease stage. To address these questions, we analyzed the HIV-1 subtype, plasma viral loads, and CD4 lymphocyte levels in 320 women from Nairobi, Kenya. Subtype was determined by a combination of heteroduplex mobility assays and sequence analyses of envelope genes, using geographically diverse subtype reference sequences as well as envelope sequences of known subtype from Kenya. The distribution of subtypes in this population was as follows: subtype A, 225 (70.3%); subtype D, 65 (20.5%); subtype C, 22 (6.9%); and subtype G, 1 (0.3%). Intersubtype recombinant envelope genes were detected in 2.2% of the sequences analyzed. Given that the sequences analyzed represented only a small fraction of the proviral genome, this suggests that intersubtype recombinant viral genomes may be very common in Kenya and in other parts of Africa where there are multiple subtypes. The plasma viral RNA levels were highest in women infected with subtype C virus, and women infected with subtype C virus had significantly lower CD4 lymphocyte levels than women infected with the other subtypes. Together, these data suggest that women in Kenya who are infected with subtype C viruses are at more advanced stages of immunosuppression than women infected with subtype A or D. There are at least two models to explain the data from this cross-sectional study; one is that infection with subtype C is associated with a more rapid disease progression, and the second is that subtype C represents an older epidemic in Kenya. Discriminating between these possibilities in a longitudinal study will be important for increasing our understanding of the role of specific subtypes in the transmission and pathogenesis of HIV-1.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK. "Genital prolapse as a problem in rural community. East Afr Med J. 1995.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1995. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of chloroquine in pregnant women with Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia at therapeutic doses of 25 mg/kg body weight divided over 3 days. <br>METHODS: Three-hundred pregnant women in Kilifi Hospital at the coast of Kenya were screened for malaria parasitemia using Giemsa stained thick blood smears. In vivo and in vitro parasite sensitivity to chloroquine was determined. <br>RESULTS: P. falciparum infections were present in 65 (22%) of 300 pregnant women. The in vivo tests showed that 46% of all the P. falciparum infections were resistant to chloroquine predominantly at RI and RII levels. The in vitro tests showed a resistance rate of 35%. <br>CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of pregnant women with malaria do not respond to chloroquine therapy and alternative drugs are required.
Baeten JM, Kahle E, Lingappa JR, Coombs RW, Delany-Moretlwe S, Nakku-Joloba E, Mugo NR, Wald A, Corey L, Donnell D, Campbell MS, Mullins JI, Celum C. "Genital HIV-1 RNA predicts risk of heterosexual HIV-1 transmission." Sci Transl Med. 2011;3(77):77ra29. Abstract

High plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations are associated with an increased risk of HIV-1 transmission. Although plasma and genital HIV-1 RNA concentrations are correlated, no study has evaluated the relationship between genital HIV-1 RNA and the risk of heterosexual HIV-1 transmission. In a prospective study of 2521 African HIV-1 serodiscordant couples, we assessed genital HIV-1 RNA quantity and HIV-1 transmission risk. HIV-1 transmission linkage was established within the partnership by viral sequence analysis. We tested endocervical samples from 1805 women, including 46 who transmitted HIV-1 to their partner, and semen samples from 716 men, including 32 who transmitted HIV-1 to their partner. There was a correlation between genital and plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations: For endocervical swabs, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient ρ was 0.56, and for semen, ρ was 0.55. Each 1.0 log(10) increase in genital HIV-1 RNA was associated with a 2.20-fold (for endocervical swabs: 95% confidence interval, 1.60 to 3.04) and a 1.79-fold (for semen: 95% confidence interval, 1.30 to 2.47) increased risk of HIV-1 transmission. Genital HIV-1 RNA independently predicted HIV-1 transmission risk after adjusting for plasma HIV-1 quantity (hazard ratio, 1.67 for endocervical swabs and 1.68 for semen). Seven female-to-male and four male-to-female HIV-1 transmissions (incidence <1% per year) occurred from persons with undetectable genital HIV-1 RNA, but in all 11 cases, plasma HIV-1 RNA was detected. Thus, higher genital HIV-1 RNA concentrations are associated with greater risk of heterosexual HIV-1 transmission, and this effect was independent of plasma HIV-1 concentrations. These data suggest that HIV-1 RNA in genital secretions could be used as a marker of HIV-1 sexual transmission risk.

T.K M. "Genetics: The science of life." POST Magazine . 1980;5:11-13.
S.S.Lekerpes, J.O.Jung'a, Badamana MS, D.I.Rubenstein. "Genetics polymorphism of beta-lactoglobulin in Kenyan small East Africa goat breed using PCR-RFLP and sequencing. ." Scientific Journal of Animal Science . 2014;3 (8):233-239.
M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Genetics of resistance to Aphis craccivora in cowpea. Euphytica 89: 371-376.". In: Paper presented in the International Conference on Integrated pest Management for Sub-saharan Africa, 8-12 Sept 2002, Kampala, Uganda. EAMJ; 1996. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Mburu J, Ongecha-Owuor F, Gakinya B, editor Ndetei, D.M. "Genetics of Mental Disorders."; 2006.
DR. JUMBA MIRIAMM. "Genetically Modified Organisms .". In: The Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 3223 . ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2009. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
Asaala EO. "Genetically Modified Foods; a panacea or a health hazard to the food crisis in Africa." University of Nairobi Law Journal . 2005;2.
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Genetically modified foods: Potential, Fate and Future in Developing Countries.". In: Science and Society. 4: 93-97. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2005. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
Mutiga ER. "Genetically Modified animals."; 2000.
Chebon LJ, Ngalah BS, Ingasia LA, Juma DW, Muiruri P, Cheruiyot J, Opot B, Mbuba E, Imbuga M, Akala HM, Bulimo W, Andagalu B, Kamau E. "Genetically Determined Response to Artemisinin Treatment in Western Kenyan Plasmodium falciparum Parasites." PLoS ONE. 2016;11:1-19. Abstractchebon_et_al_2016.pdfWebsite

Genetically determined artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum has been described in Southeast Asia. The relevance of recently described Kelch 13-propeller mutations for artemisinin resistance in Sub-Saharan Africa parasites is still unknown. Southeast Asia parasites have low genetic diversity compared to Sub-Saharan Africa, where parasites are highly genetically diverse. This study attempted to elucidate whether genetics provides a basis for discovering molecular markers in response to artemisinin drug treatment in P. falciparum in Kenya. The genetic diversity of parasites collected pre- and post- introduction of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) in western Kenya was determined. A panel of 12 microsatellites and 91 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed across the P. falciparum genome were genotyped. Parasite clearance rates were obtained for the post-ACT parasites. The 12 microsatellites were highly polymorphic with post-ACT parasites being significantly more diverse compared to pre-ACT (p < 0.0001). The median clearance half-life was 2.55 hours for the post-ACT parasites. Based on SNP analysis, 15 of 90 post-ACT parasites were single-clone infections. Analysis revealed 3 SNPs that might have some causal association with parasite clearance rates. Further, genetic analysis using Bayesian tree revealed parasites with similar clearance phenotypes were more closely genetically related. With further studies, SNPs described here and genetically determined response to artemisinin treatment might be useful in tracking artemisinin resistance in Kenya.

Chebon LJ, Ngalah BS, Ingasia LA, Juma DW, Muiruri P, Cheruiyot J, Opot B, Mbuba E, Imbuga M, Akala HM, Bulimo W, Andagalu B, Kamau E. "Genetically Determined Response to Artemisinin Treatment in Western Kenyan Plasmodium falciparum Parasites." PLoS ONE. 2016;11:1-19. AbstractWebsite

Genetically determined artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum has been described in Southeast Asia. The relevance of recently described Kelch 13-propeller mutations for artemisinin resistance in Sub-Saharan Africa parasites is still unknown. Southeast Asia parasites have low genetic diversity compared to Sub-Saharan Africa, where parasites are highly genetically diverse. This study attempted to elucidate whether genetics provides a basis for discovering molecular markers in response to artemisinin drug treatment in P. falciparum in Kenya. The genetic diversity of parasites collected pre- and post- introduction of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) in western Kenya was determined. A panel of 12 microsatellites and 91 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed across the P. falciparum genome were genotyped. Parasite clearance rates were obtained for the post-ACT parasites. The 12 microsatellites were highly polymorphic with post-ACT parasites being significantly more diverse compared to pre-ACT (p < 0.0001). The median clearance half-life was 2.55 hours for the post-ACT parasites. Based on SNP analysis, 15 of 90 post-ACT parasites were single-clone infections. Analysis revealed 3 SNPs that might have some causal association with parasite clearance rates. Further, genetic analysis using Bayesian tree revealed parasites with similar clearance phenotypes were more closely genetically related. With further studies, SNPs described here and genetically determined response to artemisinin treatment might be useful in tracking artemisinin resistance in Kenya.

Ochieng JW, Shepherd M, Baverstock PR, Nikles G, Lee D, Henry RJ. "Genetic variation within two sympatric spotted gum eucalypts exceeds between species variation." Silvae Genetica. 2008;57:249-256.2008_ochieng_et_al_silgen.pdf
Muchugi A, Kindt R, Muluvi GM, Muge E, Kipruto H, Jamnadass RH. "Genetic Variation of Kenyan Populations of Warburgia ugandensis, an Important East African Highlands Medicinal Tree Species." Journal of Life Sciences. 2012;4(2):97-105.
Muchugi A, Kindt R, Muluvi GM, Muge E, Kipruto H, Jamnadass RH. "Genetic variation of Kenyan populations of Warburgia ugandensis, an important East African highlands medicinal tree species." Journal of life sciences. 2012;4:97-105. Abstract
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M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Genetic variation in pigeonpea response to successive cycles of water stress. Plant and Soil ,158: 193 - 203.". In: Paper presented in the International Conference on Integrated pest Management for Sub-saharan Africa, 8-12 Sept 2002, Kampala, Uganda. EAMJ; 1994. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Mukunzi S, Bulimo W, Achilla R, Wadegu M, Majanja J, Opot B, Osuna F, Muthoni J, Njiri J, Mwangi J, Kibet K, Ochola S, Wurapa E. "Genetic variants of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus circulating in Kenya, 2010 to 2011.". In: Options for the control of influenza VII. Capetown, South Africa; 2013. Abstract

Background: Since the emergence followed by rapid global spread to cause the 2009 pandemic, influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 viruses remained predominant among human influenza viruses that circulated in Kenya during the 2010-2011 season. In this study we sought to determine genetic variation amongst influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 viruses isolated in Kenya during the postpandemic period with reference to prototype influenza A/California/7/2009 strain and others obtained elsewhere during the same period. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 isolates obtained from nasopharyngeal specimens (NP) and received from USAMRU-K’s sentinel surveillance network covering the whole of Kenya were analyzed. Virus HA1 subunit of hemagglutinin gene segment was amplified by RT-PCR and nucleotide sequences determined followed by conversion of the sequences to amino acid code before performing phylogenetic analyses. Results: The study showed all Kenyan isolates had 6 parallel amino acid substitutions when compared with the prototype A/California/07/2009 vaccine reference strain. These included P83S, D97N, S185T, S203T, I321V, and E374K. Additionally, there were further mutations that occurred stochastically in individual isolates. Most of these changes, however, did not affect virus antigenic sites; except the P83S amino acid substitution at site Cb and a few other changes at sites Ca1, Sa, and Sb in individual isolates.

Cheserek JJ, Ngugi K, Muthomi JW, Omondi CO. "Genetic variability, heritability and correlation of quantitative traits for Arabusta coffee (C. arabica L. X Tetraploid C. canephora Pierre)." Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Science. 2020;12(1):50-57.
Okoth S. "Genetic variability and population structure of Plasmodium falciparum parasite populations from different malaria ecological regions of Kenya." Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 2016;39:372-380. Abstractingasia2016.pdfingasia2016.pdfWebsite

Transmission intensity, movement of human and vector hosts, biogeographical features, and malaria control measures are some of the important factors that determine Plasmodium falciparum parasite genetic variability and population structure. Kenya has different malaria ecologies which might require different disease intervention methods. Refined parasite population genetic studies are critical for informing malaria control and elimination strategies. This study describes the genetic diversity and population structure of P. falciparum parasites from the different malaria ecological zones in Kenya. Twelve multi-locus microsatellite (MS) loci previously described were genotyped in 225 P. falciparum isolates collected between 2012 and 2013 from five sites; three in lowland endemic regions (Kisumu, Kombewa, and Malindi) and two in highland, epidemic regions (Kisii and Kericho). Parasites from the lowland endemic and highland epidemic regions of western Kenya had high genetic diversity compared to coastal lowland endemic region of Kenya [Malindi]. The Kenyan parasites had a mean genetic differentiation index (FST) of 0.072 (p = 0.011). The multi-locus genetic analysis of the 12 MS revealed all the parasites had unique haplotypes. Significant linkage disequilibrium (LD) was observed in all the five parasite populations. Kisumu had the most significant index of association values (0.16; p < 0.0001) whereas Kisii had the least significant index of association values (0.03; p < 0.0001). Our data suggest high genetic diversity in Kenyan parasite population with the exception of parasite from Malindi where malaria has been on the decline. The presence of significant LD suggests that there is occurrence of inbreeding in the parasite population. Parasite populations from Kisii showed the strongest evidence for epidemic population structure whereas the rest of the regions showed panmixia. Defining the genetic diversity of the parasites in different ecological regions of Kenya after introduction of the artemether–lumefantrine is important in refining the spread of drug resistant strains and malaria transmission for more effective control and eventual elimination of malaria in Kenya.

Nzuve F. "Genetic Variability and Correlation Studies of Grain Yield and Related." Journal of Agricultural Science;. 2014;6 (9):166-176.
M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Genetic variability among Fusarium udum isolates from pigeonpea.". In: Proceedings of the Sixth Afr. Crop Science Conference, 12-17 Oct 2003, Nairobi, Kenya. EAMJ; 2003. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Okeyo AM;, Inyangala BOA;, Githigia SM;, Maingi NE;, Githigia SM;, Munyua SJM;, Wanyoike MM;, Gachuiri C. "Genetic Studies Of Galla And Small East African Goats And Their Correlated Growth A."; 1994.
Okeyo AM;, Inyangala BOA;, Githigia SM;, Maingi NE;, Githigia SM;, Munyua SJM;, Wanyoike MM;, Gachuiri C. "Genetic Studies Of Galla And Small East African Goats And Their Correlated Growth A."; 1994.
Okeyo AM;, Inyangala BOA, Munyua SJM;, Maingi NE;, Munyuaingi NE;, Wanyoike MM;, Gachuiri C, Githigia SM;. "Genetic Studies Of Galla And Small East African Goats And Their Correlated Growth A."; 1994.
Okeyo AM;, Inyangala BOA;, Githigia SM;, Maingi NE;, Githigia SM;, Munyua SJM;, Wanyoike MM;, Gachuiri C. "Genetic Studies Of Galla And Small East African Goats And Their Correlated Growth A."; 1994.
Okeyo AM;, Inyangala BOA;, Githigia SM;, Maingi NE;, Munyua SJM;, Wanyoike MM;, Gachuiri C. "Genetic Studies Of Galla And Small East African Goats And Their Correlated Growth A."; 1994.
Okeyo AM;, Inyangala BOA;, Githigia SM;, Maingi NE;, Munyua SJM;, Wanyoike MM;, Gachuiri C, Kinuthia RN;, Okomo. M;, Osolo K. "Genetic Studies Of Galla And Small East African Goats And Their Correlated Growth A."; 1994.
Shepherd M, Kasem S, Ablett G, Ochieng JW, Crawford A. "Genetic structuring in the spotted gum complex (genus Corymbia, section Politaria)." Australian Systematic Botany . 2008;21:1-11.2008_shepherd_et_al_asb.pdf
Ouma C, Roca AL, were T, Raballah EO, Oguge NO, Jura WGZO, Ochieng JW, Hanotte O, Georgiadis N. "Genetic structure of hartebeest populations Straddling a transition zone between Morphotypes." J. Basic & Appl. Sci. Res. 2011;1(3):131-149.2011_ouma_et_al_jbasr.pdf
Collins Ouma, Alfred L. Roca TWERNOWJJOOHOOGZ, Georgiadis N. "Genetic Structure of Hartebeest Populations Straddling a Transition Zone between Morphotypes." J. Basic. Appl. Sci. Res. 1(3): 131-149; 2011. Abstract
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Osena G, Amugune NO, Nyaboga EN. "Genetic Stability of Cassava Plants Regenerated Through Organogenesis Using Microsatellite Markers." Journal of Plant Sciences. 2017;5(1):19-28.
PROF. SIBOE GEORGEM. "Genetic similarity among Cercospora apii-group species detected by PCR/RFLP analyses of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS).". In: . Gen. Appl. Microbiol., Vol. 46(2) , 69-78. Taylor & Francis; 2000. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
T.K. M, Narang S., J.A.Seawright. "A genetic sexing strain of Anopheles albimnus." Proc.XV Intl.Congr.Genet.Abstr. 1983;2:727.
JAMES PROFODEK. "Genetic Resources Policy Making in Kenya by Dr. Otieno-Odek with Dr. John Mugabe (ACTS).". In: Paper presented at the WIPO High Level Forum on IP Policy and Strategy, Tokyo . Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 1999. Abstract
J. O. Midiwo, A. Yenesew, B. F. Juma, S. Dereses, J. A. Ayoo, A. Aluoch and S. Guchu There are several described medicinal plants in Kenya from a flora of approximately 10,000 members. Strong cross-medical information from the 42 ethnic groups points to the high potential of some of these species. The Myrsinaceae are well established ethno-anthelmintics and anti-bacterials. They are harbingers of long alkyl side chain benzoquinones which clearly have a protective function from their histochemical disposition. The main benzoquinone in the sub-family Myrsinodae is embelin while for the Maesodae it is maesaquinone together with its 5-acetyl derivative; the distribution of these benzoquinones by their alkyl side chain length or the presence/absence of a 6-methyl group is in accord with morphological sub-family de-limitation. The benzoquinones showed anti-feedant, anti-microbial, phytotoxic, acaricidal, insecticidal and nematicidal activity. Many other benzoquinones of medium and minor concentration were also isolated and characterised. Some plants belonging to the Polygonaceae which are widely used as ethno-anthelmintics have been studied. The common anthelmintic anthraquinones were obtained from all five Rumex species while the naphthalenic acetogenin derivative, nepodin was more selectively distributed. The leaf of Polygonum senegalense is up to 17% surface exudate; about thirteen non polar flavonoid derivatives (chalcones, dihydrochalcones, flavanones and a flavone) have been isolated from it. From the internal aerial tissues of this plant, the major flavonoids were common flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin and their glycosides. The only unique compound isolated from this plant was 2prime-glucosyl-6prime-hydroxy-4prime-methoxydihydrochalcone whose aglycone, uvangolatin is part of the exudate mixture. Other leaf exudate plants studied include the stomach-ache medicine, Psiadia punctulata (Compositae) from which novel methylated flavonoids, kaurene and trachyloban diterpenes have been found
Maina PK, Okoth S, Njoroge CN, Monda E. "Genetic relatedness among Fusarium species isolated from Taita Taveta region, Kenya.". 2009;(11):337-345. Abstract

Genetic relatedness among twenty six Fusarium species isolated from soils in six different Land Use Types (LUTs) across a land use gradient was evaluated using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay. The six LUTs were horticulture, maize, napier grass, fallow/shrub land, planted forests as well as indigenous forests. Six primers were used in this assay. Amplification products were examined and presence or absence of each size class of bands was scored as 1 and 0, respectively. The resulting matrix was used to compute Jaccard’s similarity coefficients and Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arthmetic mean (UPGMA) cluster analysis using computer package NTSYS-pc. Jaccard’s similarity coefficients ranged from 0.257 to 0.583 among the Fusarium species studied indicating high genetic diversity. The UPGMA cluster analysis grouped the 26 Fusarium species into two main clusters with the first cluster comprising of 17 species with genetic similarity values ranging from 26.2 to 58.3 %. The second cluster comprised of 9 species with genetic similarity values ranging from 29.5 to 56.34 %. Fusarium avenaceum and F. nygamai depicted the highest genetic similarity of 58.3 %.

Wagaiyu, Evelyn G, Bulimo WD, Wanzala, Peter N, Kaimenyi, Jacob T. "Genetic polymorphisms in IL-1A and IL-1B isoforms and their associations with chronic periodontitis in the Swahili people of Kenya." IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences. 2014;13:07-15 . Abstractb0131120715.pdfWebsite

Genetic polymorphisms in interleukin-1 (IL-1A and IL-1B) isoforms have been associated with Chronic Periodontitis (CP) in Caucasians, Asians and Arabs but little is known about their role in Africans. Therefore, this study was to resolve the association between genetic polymorphisms in IL-1A and IL-1B isoforms and chronic periodontitis in a Kenyan community. Methods: This was a case-control study. After informed consent, a clinical examination was conducted. Buccal swab samples were then obtained. Deoxyribonucleic acid was isolated from the swabs using QIAamp DNA purification protocol followed by polymerase chain reaction amplification using specific primers to IL-1A (loci -889 & +4845) and IL-1B (loci -511 & +3954). The amplicons were digested using Nco1, Fnu4H1, Ava1 and Taq1 respectively. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) were recorded. Association analyses of the RFLP and clinical data were carried out. Results: After screening 523 Swahili participants from old town Mombasa, 100 cases and 100 controls were included in the study. There was more plaque present in cases than controls with OR = 9.2 (95%CI = 3.7-23.1), p<0.001. Mild Chronic Periodontitis was present in 9(9%) participants, moderate CP in 35(35%) and the severe form of CP in 56(56%). Carriage of allele 1 at IL-1A-889 amongst the Swahili participants was associated with Chronic Periodontitis (OR = 3.16, 95%CI=1.644-6.083, p<0.001). Allele 1 at locus IL-1A-889 was associated with mild, (OR=5.2, 95%CI=1.445-18.71, p=0.005), moderate (OR=4.51, 95%CI = 2.08-9.79, p<0.001) and severe disease (OR=2.19, 95%CI=1.013-4.738, p=0.042). Furthermore, plaque level was an effect modifier in the association between IL-1B-511 polymorphism and CP. Conclusions: Increased susceptibility to Chronic Periodontitis was found in Swahili participants with allele 1 at IL-1A-889.

S.S.Lekerpes, J.O.Junga, M.S.Badamana, D.I.Rubenstein. "Genetic polymorphism of beta-lactoglobulin in Kenyan Small East African goat breed using PCR-RFLP and sequencing." Scientific Journal of Animal Science. 2014:233-239.
Rege JEO;, Wakhungu JW;, Lomole MA. "Genetic parameters and trends in production and reproductive traits at the Kenya Sahiwal Stud."; 1990. Abstract

Presents results of a trial conducted in Kenya Sahiwal Stud from the period 1964 through 1988 to estimate genetic parameters and trends in production traits by analysing milk yield, birth weight of calves, service period, number of services per conception and calving interval.

Ojango, JMK; Audho JO; MAG; ZPOAME; J;. Genetic improvement of sheep under changing environmental conditions.; 2013.
O. O’C, Mosi R, O. AJ, K. M, O. M. "Genetic evaluation of a Kenyan Boran herd for the relative performance of embryo donor cows based on growth and fertility traits." Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, 2010. 2010;7(1):783-791.
Mungai GW, Owino W, Ambuko J, Giovannoni JJ, Nyende AB, Michuki G. "Genetic diversity within African tomato using next generation sequencing." Plant Genetic Resources. 2018;16:296-305. Abstract
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Alfred Mitema. Genetic Diversity of the Deadly Kenyan Aspergillus flavus Population. Germany: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing; 2019.
Melaku G, Haileselassie T, Feyissa T, Kiboi S. "Genetic diversity of the African wild rice (Oryza longistaminata Chev. et Roehr) from Ethiopia as revealed by SSR markers." Genetic resources and crop evolution. 2013;60(3):1047-1056.
W. DRKIMENJUJOHN. "Genetic diversity of Phaeoisariopsis griseola in Kenya as revealed by AFLP and group-specific primers. Journal of Phytopathology 152:235-242.". In: Socio-economic Studies on Rural Development Vol. 130. Wissenschaftsverlag Vauk Kiel KG, Kiel, Germany (ISSN 0175-2464; ISBN 3-8175- 0371-5). Ogutu J.O; 2004. Abstract
The vision of the Government of Kenya is to facilitate ICT as a universal tool for education and training. In order to achieve this vision every educational institution, teacher, learner and the respective community should be equipped with appropriate ICT infrastructure, competencies and policies for usage and progress. It calls for recognition of the fact that ICT provides capabilities and skills needed for a knowledge-based economy. It also calls for transforming teaching and learning to incorporate new pedagogies that are appropriate for the 21st  century. The Ministry of Education�s (MOE) mission is to facilitate effective use of ICT to improve access, learning and administration in delivery education programmes and services. The principal objective will be to integrate ICT in the delivery of education and training curricula. XML:NAMESPACE PREFIX = O />  Although not exhaustive, the range of ICT that have been used in the delivery of education to improve access, teaching, learning, and administration includes: Electric Board, Audio Cassette, Radio for Interactive Radio Instructions (IRI), Video/TV-Learning, Computer, Integrated ICT infrastructure and Support Application Systems (SAS).These systems are in use, at various degrees, in most parts of Africa (Charp, 1998). This plan envisages use ofthese digital components to improve access and quality in the delivery of education in Kenya.  The major challenge in respect to this component is limited digital equipment at virtually all levels of education. While the average access rate is one computer to 15 students in most of the developed countries, the access rate in Kenya is approximately one computer to 150 students (EMIS, 2005). Whereas most secondary schools in Kenya have some computer equipment, only a small fraction is equipped with basic ICT infrastructure. In most cases equipment of schools with ICT infrastructure has been through initiatives supported by the parents, government, development agencies and the private sector, including the NEPAD E-Schools programme. Attempts to set up basic ICT infrastructure in primary schools are almost negligible.  According to ICTs in Education Options Paper, one of the main problems is limited penetration of the physical telecommunication infrastructure into rural and low-income areas. Specifically, the main challenge is limited access to dedicated phone lines and high-speed systems or connectivity to access e-mail and Internet resources. The EMIS Survey (2003/2004) indicated that over 70% of secondary schools and a much larger proportion of primary schools require functional telephones. Indeed, many parts of Kenya cannot easily get Internet services because of the poor telephone networks. About 90% of secondary schools need to establish standard Local Area Networks (LANs) in order to improve sharing of learning resources.  Alternative and appropriate technologies for access to Internet resources, including wireless systems remain quite expensive. Indeed, a small proportion of schools have direct access, through Internet Service Providers (ISPs), to high-speed data and communication systems. Furthermore, very few schools in the rural areas use wireless technology such as VSAT to access e-mail and Internet resources. Nearly all of the 6 NEPAD e-Schools are in rural areas and are expected to enjoy internet connectivity through VSAT technology.  While other countries have reported up to 41% of integration of ICT to teaching and learning, the proportion remains substantially low in Africa, Kenya included. Integration aims at the use ICT to support teaching and learning in the delivery of the various curricula to achieve improved education outcomes. Because ICT is interactive media, it facilitates students to develop diversified skills needed for industrialization and a knowledge-based economy. It also allows teachers and learners to proceed at different paces depending on the prevailing circumstances. As a first step, the Ministry of Education has initiated a major ICT project in Secondary schools meant to equip over 200 secondary schools with ICT infrastructure for integration of ICT in teaching/learning process ( KESSP, 2004). Three schools have been chosen in every district of Kenya.
C. L’aho, G. C’wa, Y. F, M. H, G. P. "Genetic diversity of Kenyan potato germplasm revealed by simple sequence repeat markers." American Journal of Potato Research. 2011;88:424-434.genetic_diversity_of_kenyan_potato_germplasm_revealed.
Lung'aho C, Chemining’wa G, Fu Y-B, Shibairo S, Hutchinson MJ, Paniagua HG. "Genetic diversity of Kenyan Potato Germplasm Revealed by Simple Sequence Repeat markers." American Journal of Potato Research . 2011;88:424-434.genetic_diversity_of__potato_germplasm_revealed_by__sequence_repeat_markers._
Opanda SM, Wamunyokoli F, Khamadi S, Coldren R, Bulimo WD. "Genetic Diversity of Human Enterovirus 68 Strains Isolated in Kenya Using the Hypervariable 3′- End of VP1 Gene." PLoS ONE. 2014;9(7):e102866-. Abstractjournal.pone_.0102866.pdfWebsite

Reports of increasing worldwide circulation of human enterovirus-68 (EV68) are well documented. Despite health concerns posed by resurgence of these viruses, little is known about EV68 strains circulating in Kenya. In this study, we characterized 13 EV68 strains isolated in Kenya between 2008 and 2011 based on the Hypervariable 3′- end of the VP1 gene. Viral RNA was extracted from the isolates and partial VP1 gene amplified by RT-PCR, followed by nucleotide sequencing. Alignment of deduced amino acid sequences revealed substitutions in Kenyan EV68 isolates absent in the prototype reference strain (Fermon). The majority of these changes were present in the BC and DE-loop regions, which are associated with viral antigenicity and virulence. The Kenyan strains exhibited high sequence homology with respect to those from other countries. Natural selection analysis based on the VP1 region showed that the Kenyan EV68 isolates were under purifying selection. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that majority (84.6%) of the Kenyan strains belonged to clade A, while a minority belonged to clades B and C. Overall, our results illustrate that although EV68 strains isolated in Kenya were genetically and antigenically divergent from the prototype strain (Fermon), they were closely related to those circulating in other countries, suggesting worldwide transmissibility. Further, the presence of shared mutations by Kenyan EV68 strains and those isolated in other countries, indicates evolution in the VP1 region may be contributing to increased worldwide detection of the viruses. This is the first study to document circulation of EV68 in Kenya.

Opanda SM, Wamunyokoli F, Khamadi S, Coldren R, Bulimo WD. "Genetic Diversity of Human Enterovirus 68 Strains Isolated in Kenya Using the Hypervariable 3$\prime$- End of {VP}1 Gene." {PLoS} {ONE}. 2014;9:e102866. AbstractWebsite
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Ochieng JW, Milugo TK. "Genetic diversity in Eucalypts.". In: Genetics, Genomics and Breeding of Eucalypts. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis; 2014.
Yoon DH, Ochieng JW, Lee HK, Oh SJ, Cho BW, Cheong IC, Hanotte O. Genetic diversity and relationships of three Eastern Asian cattle breeds.; 2002. AbstractBook

Ten cattle populations, 3 Asian (Hanwoo, Yanbian, Wagyu), 2 African, and 2 European Bos taurus as well as 2 Asian B. indicus and one Bali cattle, B. banteng, were characterized with 13 microsatellite markers. A total of 364 animals from the different cattle populations were used in the study. Allele frequencies were used to estimate expected heterozygosities (He), genetic distances (Ds), and to perform principal component analysis. 165 alleles were observed across all loci. The data supported a common origin for the Hanwoo and Yanbian cattle (Ds=0.013). No evidence for a major West European taurine introgression into the Wagyu was observed. The Eastern Asian cattle were found to be genetically distinct from the European and African taurine and from the Asian zebu. It is recommended that the genetic uniqueness of these cattle breeds be maintained in conservation and improvement programmes

Mburu DN, Ochieng JW, Kuria SG, Jianlin H, Kaufmann B, Rege JEO, Hanotte O. "Genetic diversity and relationships of indigenous Kenyan camel (Camelus dromedarius) populations: implications for their classification." Anim. Genet.. 2003;34(1):26-32. Abstract

The genetic diversity and relationships amongst the dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) populations are poorly documented. Four recognized Kenyan dromedary breeds (Somali, Turkana, Rendille, Gabbra) and dromedary from Pakistan and the Arabian Peninsula (Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates) were studied using 14 microsatellite loci. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Kenyan dromedaries are distinct from Arabian and Pakistani populations. Expected heterozygosity and allelic diversity values indicate that Kenyan dromedaries are less diverse than non-Kenyan populations. With the exception of the Somali population, the Kenyan dromedaries are poorly differentiated (average FST=0.009), with only one to two loci separating the Gabbra, Rendille and Turkana populations studied (P < 0.05). Individual assignments were performed using the maximum likelihood method. A correct breed assignment of only 39-48% was observed for the Kenyan dromedaries, using an allocation stringency of a log of the odds ratio >2. Our results do not support the present classification of the indigenous Kenyan dromedary into four distinct breeds based on socio-geographical criteria. Instead, our results point to just two separate genetic entities, the Somali and a group including the Gabbra, Rendille and Turkana populations.

Jianlin H, Ochieng JW, Lkhagva B, Hanotte O. "Genetic diversity and relationship of domestic bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus) in China and Mongolia." Journal of Camel Practice & Research. 2004;11(2):97-99.2004_jianlin_et_al_jcpr.pdf
Salih DA, Mwacharo JM, Pelle R, Njahira MN, Odongo DO, Mbole-Kariuki MN, Marcellino WL, Malak AK, Kiara H, El Hussein ARM, Bishop RP, Skilton RA. "Genetic diversity and population structure of Theileria parva in South Sudan." Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2018;9(4):806-813. Abstract

Theileria parva is a parasitic protozoan that causes East Coast fever (ECF), an economically important disease of cattle in eastern, central and southern Africa. In South Sudan, ECF is considered a major constraint for livestock development in regions where the disease is endemic. To obtain insights into the dynamics of T. parva in South Sudan, population genetic analysis was performed. Out of the 751 samples included in this study, 178 blood samples were positive for T. parva by species-specific PCR, were collected from cattle from four regions in South Sudan (Bor = 62; Juba = 45; Kajo keji = 41 and Yei = 30) were genotyped using 14 microsatellite markers spanning the four chromosomes. The T. parva Muguga strain was included in the study as a reference. Linkage disequilibrium was evident when populations from the four regions were treated as a single entity, but, when populations were analyzed separately, linkage disequilibrium was observed in Bor, Juba and Kajo keji. Juba region had a higher multiplicity of infection than the other three regions. Principal components analysis revealed a degree of sub-structure between isolates from each region, suggesting that populations are partially distinct, with genetic exchange and gene flow being limited between parasites in the four geographically separated populations studied. Panmixia was observed within individual populations. Overall T. parva population genetic analyses of four populations in South Sudan exhibited a low level of genetic exchange between the populations, but a high level of genetic diversity within each population.

Gyang PJ, Muge EK, Nyaboga EN. "Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Kenyan Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Germplasm Using Peroxidase Gene Markers." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section B: Biological Sciences. 2020;90:293-301. Abstract
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Ong'amo G, LeRu BP, Campagne P, Branca A, Calatayud P-A, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Silvain J-F. "Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Busseola segeta Bowden (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae): A case study of host use diversification in Guineo-Congolian rainforest relic area, Kenya." Science. 2012;3:1156-1170. Abstract

Habitat modification and fragmentation are considered as some of the factors that drive organism distribution and host use diversification. Indigenous African stem borer pests are thought to have diversified their host ranges to include maize [Zea mays L.] and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] in response to their increased availability through extensive cultivation. However, management efforts have been geared towards reducing pest populations in the cultivated fields with few attempts to understand possible evolution of "new" pest species. Recovery and growing persistence of Busseola segeta Bowden on maize (Zea mays L.) in Kakamega called for studies on the role of wild host plants on the invasion of crops by wild borer species. A two-year survey was carried out in a small agricultural landscape along the edge of Kakamega forest (Kenya) to assess host range and population genetic structure of B. segeta. The larvae of B. segeta were found on nine different plant species with the majority occurring on maize and sorghum. Of forty cytochrome b haplotypes identified, twenty-three occurred in both wild and cultivated habitats. The moths appear to fly long distances across the habitats with genetic analyses revealing weak differentiation between hosts in different habitats (FST = 0.016; p = 0.015). However, there was strong evidence of variation in genetic composition between growing seasons in the wild habitat (FST = 0.060; p < 0.001) with emergence or disappearance of haplotypes between habitats. Busseola segeta is an example of a phytophagous insect that utilizes plants with a human induced distribution range, maize, but does not show evidence of host race formation or reduction of gene flow among populations using different hosts. However, B. segeta is capable of becoming an important pest in the area and the current low densities may be attributed to the general low infestation levels and presence of a wide range of alternative hosts in the area.

Simon E. Bull 1, 3 Rob W. Briddon 1, 4 William S. Sserubombwe, 1 Kahiu Ngugi 2, and PM11 G, Stanley J. "Genetic diversity and phylogeography of cassava mosaic viruses in Kenya." Journal of General Virology. 2006;87, :3053-3065.genetic_diversity_and_phylogeography_of_cassava_mosaic_viruses_in_kenya.pdf
Elusah J, Bulimo WD, Opanda SM, Symekher SL, Wamunyokoli F. "Genetic diversity and evolutionary analysis of human respirovirus type 3 strains isolated in Kenya using complete hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene." PLOS ONE. 2020;15(3):e0229355. Abstractelusa_et_al_2020.pdfWebsite

Human respirovirus type 3 (HRV3) is a leading etiology of lower respiratory tract infections in young children and ranks only second to the human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV). Despite the public health importance of HRV3, there is limited information about the genetic characteristics and diversity of these viruses in Kenya. To begin to address this gap, we analyzed 35 complete hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) sequences of HRV3 strains isolated in Kenya between 2010 and 2013. Viral RNA was extracted from the isolates, and the entire HN gene amplified by RT-PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses of the sequences revealed that all the Kenyan isolates grouped into genetic Cluster C; sub-clusters C1a, C2, and C3a. The majority (54%) of isolates belonged to sub-cluster C3a, followed by C2 (43%) and C1a (2.9%). Sequence analysis revealed high identities between the Kenyan isolates and the HRV3 prototype strain both at the amino acid (96.5–97.9%) and nucleotide (94.3–95.6%) levels. No amino acid variations affecting the catalytic/active sites of the HN glycoprotein were observed among the Kenyan isolates. Selection pressure analyses showed that the HN glycoprotein was evolving under positive selection. Evolutionary analyses revealed that the mean TMRCA for the HN sequence dataset was 1942 (95% HPD: 1928–1957), while the mean evolutionary rate was 4.65x10-4 nucleotide substitutions/site/year (95% HPD: 2.99x10-4 to 6.35x10-4). Overall, our results demonstrate the co-circulation of strains of cluster C HRV3 variants in Kenya during the study period. This is the first study to describe the genetic and molecular evolutionary aspects of HRV3 in Kenya using the complete HN gene.

Magembe EM. Genetic diversity analysis among cowpea [vigna unguiculata (l.) walp] accessions from Sub-Saharan Africa using simple sequence repeats (ssr's).; 2008. Abstract

Cowpea is one of the most important legumes in the world. 1t is the second most
important pulse crop in tropical Africa after common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Cowpea
is valued for the high protein content of its grains which is about 25%. In Africa, where
animal protein is not always freely available/ affordable, cowpea provides a valuable
source of proteins. Cowpea diversity and relatedness in Africa is poorly understood. This
lack of knowledge and information inhibits the use of novel germplasm and novel alleles
in breeding programs and results in potential crop improvement bottlenecks. A core set of
1430 accessions of cowpea landraces from Sub-Saharan Africa were identified from the
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture's (lIT A) global cowpea collection (15003
accessions). In this study sixteen SSR markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity
cowpea landraces in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Within the core set a total of 125 alleles were detected with the mean number of alleles
per marker being 7.8. The number of alleles per SSR ranged from 2 to 18. The mean
polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.4531 with the most informative marker
being VM70 with a PIC of 0.8636 while the least informative marker was VM54 with a
PIC of 0.0376. The overall level of genetic diversity, measured as heterozygosities was
medium to low, with an average gene diversity of 0.4988. The gene diversity (H) ranged
from 0.0383 for VM54 to 0.8760 for VM70. The genetic diversity in West Africa was
higher than North Africa indicated by H of 0.4987 and 0.4129 respectively. The mean
observed heterozygosity was low (0.0953) as expected from a predominantly inbreeding
species. Gene differentiation (FsT) among populations was low (0.095) suggesting free
gene flow between populations, a result confirmed by genetic distance (DA), and
phylogenetic analysis. In, contrast, FJS which can be taken variously as a measure of
heterozygote deficiency and departure from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, but also as
a measure of inbreeding, was found to be extremely high at 0.797.

Kithinji J. "Genetic divergence in Jatropha curcas L., a potential biofuel crop in Kenya." Future science Journal. 2013;4(3):313-322.
Mutiga ER. "Genetic conservation of livestock."; 1988.
Omondi SF, Odee DW, Ongamo GO, Kanya JI, Khasa DP. "Genetic consequences of anthropogenic disturbances and population fragmentation in Acacia senegal." CONSERVATION GENETICS . 2016;17(6):1235-1244.
Stephen F Omondi, George O Ongamo, James I Kanya DKP. "Genetic consequences of anthropogenic disturbances and population fragmentation in Acacia senegal." Conservation genetics. 2016;17(6):1235-1244.
Nduhiu JG, Ombui JN, Nduati DW. "Genetic characterization of food borne Bacillus cereus strains from milk, cheese and rice by multiplex PCR assay. ." International Journal of Integrative Biology. 2009;5(2):82-86.Website
Okoth S. "Genetic characterisation of Plasmodium falciparum isolates with deletion of the pfhrp2 and/or pfhrp3 genes in Colombia: the Amazon region, a challenge for malaria diagnosis and control." PloS one. 2017:1-17. Abstractjournal.pone_.0163137.pdfWebsite

Most Plasmodium falciparum-detecting rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) target histidine-rich
protein 2 (PfHRP2). However, P. falciparumisolates with deletion of the pfhrp2 gene and its
homolog gene, pfhrp3, have been detected. We carried out an extensive investigation on
365 P. falciparumdried blood samples collected from seven P. falciparumendemic sites in
Colombia between 2003 and 2012 to genetically characterise and geographically map
pfhrp2- and/or pfhrp3-negative P. falciparumparasites in the country. We found a high proportion
of pfhrp2-negative parasites only in Amazonas (15/39; 38.5%), and these parasites
were also pfhrp3-negative. These parasites were collected between 2008 and 2009 in
Amazonas, while pfhrp3-negative parasites (157/365, 43%) were found in all the sites and
from each of the sample collection years evaluated (2003 to 2012). We also found that all
pfhrp2- and/or pfhrp3-negative parasites were also negative for one or both flanking genes.
Six sub-population clusters were established with 93.3% (14/15) of the pfhrp2-negative
parasites grouped in the same cluster and sharing the same haplotype. This haplotype
corresponded with the genetic lineage BV1, a multidrug resistant strain that caused two outbreaks
reportedin Peru between 2010 and 2013. We found this BV1 lineage in the Colombian
Amazon as early as 2006. Two new clonal lineages were identified in these parasites
from Colombia: the genetic lineages EV1 and F. PfHRP2 sequence analysis revealed high
genetic diversity at the amino acid level, with 17 unique sequences identified among 53
PfHRP2 sequences analysed. The use of PfHRP2-based RDTs is not recommended in
Amazonas because of the high proportionof parasites with pfhrp2 deletion (38.5%), and
implementation of new strategies for malaria diagnosis and control in Amazonas must be
prioritised.Moreover, studies to monitor and genetically characterise pfhrp2-negative P. falciparumparasites in the Americas are warranted, given the extensive human migration
occurring in the region.

Okoth S. "Genetic Characterisation of Plasmodium falciparum Isolates with Deletion of the pfhrp2 and/or pfhrp3 Genes in Colombia: The Amazon Region, a Challenge for Malaria Diagnosis and Control." PLOS One. 2016:1-17. Abstractjournal.pone_.0163137.pdfWebsite

Most Plasmodium falciparum-detecting rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) target histidine-rich
protein 2 (PfHRP2). However, P. falciparumisolates with deletion of the pfhrp2 gene and its
homolog gene, pfhrp3, have been detected. We carried out an extensive investigation on
365 P. falciparumdried blood samples collected from seven P. falciparumendemic sites in
Colombia between 2003 and 2012 to genetically characterise and geographically map
pfhrp2- and/or pfhrp3-negative P. falciparumparasites in the country. We found a high proportion
of pfhrp2-negative parasites only in Amazonas (15/39; 38.5%), and these parasites
were also pfhrp3-negative. These parasites were collected between 2008 and 2009 in
Amazonas, while pfhrp3-negative parasites (157/365, 43%) were found in all the sites and
from each of the sample collection years evaluated (2003 to 2012). We also found that all
pfhrp2- and/or pfhrp3-negative parasites were also negative for one or both flanking genes.
Six sub-population clusters were established with 93.3% (14/15) of the pfhrp2-negative
parasites grouped in the same cluster and sharing the same haplotype. This haplotype
corresponded with the genetic lineage BV1, a multidrug resistant strain that caused two outbreaks
reportedin Peru between 2010 and 2013. We found this BV1 lineage in the Colombian
Amazon as early as 2006. Two new clonal lineages were identified in these parasites
from Colombia: the genetic lineages EV1 and F. PfHRP2 sequence analysis revealed high
genetic diversity at the amino acid level, with 17 unique sequences identified among 53
PfHRP2 sequences analysed. The use of PfHRP2-based RDTs is not recommended in
Amazonas because of the high proportionof parasites with pfhrp2 deletion (38.5%), and
implementation of new strategies for malaria diagnosis and control in Amazonas must be
prioritised.Moreover, studies to monitor and genetically characterise pfhrp2-negative P. falciparumparasites in the Americas are warranted, given the extensive human migration
occurring in the region.

J NG, Ombui JN, Nduati DW, Gicheru MM. "Genetic Characterisation of food borne Bacillus cereus strains from milk, cheese and rice by multiplex PCR assay." Inter J. of Integrative Biology. 2009;5(2):82-86.
Kikuvi GM, Ombui JN, Mitema ES, Schwartz S, Kehrenberg C. "Genetic basis, transferability and linkage of streptomycin and sulphonamide resistance genes in Escherichia coli from foods of animal origin in Kenya." Bulletin of Animal health and Production in Afriica,. 2008;56(1):56-66.
M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Genetic basis for tolerance to low soil nitrogen in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).". In: Proceedings of the Sixth Afr. Crop Science Conference, 12-17 Oct 2003, Nairobi, Kenya. EAMJ; 2003. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Dreher D, Kok M, Cochand L, Kiama SG, Gehr P, Peche` J-C, Nicod LP. "Genetic background of attenuated Salmonella typhimurium has profound influence on infection and cytokine patterns in human dendritic cells.". 2001. Abstract

Salmonella typhimurium (ST) can cause infection in man, and attenuated strains are under consideration as live vaccine vectors. However, little is known about the interaction of ST with human dendritic cells (DC). Here, we compared the consequences of exposure of human, monocyte-derived DC with different attenuated strains of ST. Infection was observed with all four strains tested (wild type, PhoP2, PhoPc, and AroA), but the PhoPc strain was by far the most efficient. Intracellular persistence of wild type and PhoP2 was longer than that of PhoPc and AroA, both of which were largely eliminated within 24 h. Most DC survived infection by the attenuated strains, although apoptosis was observed in a fraction of the exposed cells. All strains induced DC maturation, independent from the extent of infection. Although all strains stimulated secretion of TNF-a and IL-12 strongly, PhoPc induced significantly less IL-10 than the other three strains and as much as 10 times less IL-10 than heat-killed PhoPc, suggesting that this mutant suppressed the secretion of IL-10 by the DC. These data indicate that infectivity, bacterial elimination, and cytokine secretion in human DC are controlled by the genetic background of ST. J. Leukoc. Biol. 69: 583–589

Thuo DN, Kamau JM, Kariuki MW, Kibegwa FM, Kimiti KS, Amimo JO, Githui EK. "Genetic assessment of a breeding population of black rhinoceros in Kenya using mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequencing." Genetics and Molecular Research. 2019;18(2):1-11.
Okoth S, Marthe De Boevre, Arnau Vidal, José Diana Di Mavungu, Sofie Landschoot, Martina Kyallo, Joyce Njuguna, Jagger Harvey, Saeger SD. "Genetic and toxigenic variability within Aspergillus flavus population isolated from maize in two diverse environments in Kenya." Frontiers in microbiology. 2018;9(Frontiers in microbiology):57.
Inyangala BAO, Rege JEO, Itulya S. "Genetic and phenotypic parameter estimates of growth traits of the Dorper and Dorper X Red Masai sheep.". 1990. Abstract

Data on 1550 Dorper and Dorper X Masai lambs recorded over a 10-yr period were analysed. The crossbred lambs were from dams having >73.4% Dorper inheritance. The effect of percentage of Dorper inheritance was not significant for birth weight and for most measures of body weight to 12 months of age. The h²s, estimated by paternal half-sib analysis, were 0.15±0.07 for birth weight, 0.18±0.08 for weaning weight, 0.39±0.11 for 9-month weight, and 0.55±0.13 for 12-month weight. Genetic correlations among body weights were 0.15-0.99 and phenotypic correlations 0.02-0.

Ndumu DB, Baumung R, Hanotte O, Wurzinger M, MA O, H J, Kibogo H SJ. "Genetic and morphological characterisation of the Ankole Longhorn cattle in the African Great Lakes region.". 2008. Abstract

The study investigated the population structure, diversity and differentiation of almost all of the ecotypes representing the African Ankole Longhorn cattle breed on the basis of morphometric (shape and size), genotypic and spatial distance data. Twentyone morphometric measurements were used to describe the morphology of 439 individuals from 11 sub-populations located in five countries around the Great Lakes region of central and eastern Africa. Additionally, 472 individuals were genotyped using 15 DNA microsatellites. Femoral length, horn length, horn circumference, rump height, body length and fore-limb circumference showed the largest differences between regions. An overall FST index indicated that 2.7% of the total genetic variation was present among sub-populations. The least differentiation was observed between the two sub-populations of Mbarara south and Luwero in Uganda, while the highest level of differentiation was observed between the Mugamba in Burundi and Malagarasi in Tanzania. An estimated membership of four for the inferred clusters from a model-based Bayesian approach was obtained. Both analyses on distance-based and model-based methods consistently isolated the Mugamba sub-population in Burundi from the others.

Zaccara S, Mavuti KM, Crosa G, Vanetti I, Binelli G, Harper DM, Balarin JD, Britton RJ. "Genetic and morphological analyses indicate high population mixing in the endangered cichlid Alcolapia flock of East Africa." Conservation Genetics. 2013. Abstract

Alcolapia is a minor genus of small-bodied, polymorphic cichlids inhabiting the lagoons and hot
springs surrounding the soda lakes Natron (largely in Tanzania) and Magadi (Kenya). Three
Alcolapia species are present at Natron (Alcolapia alcalicus, Alcolapia ndalalani and Alcolapia
latilabris) and one at Magadi (Alcolapia grahami). All are IUCN Red Listed as either vulnerable
or endangered. We performed analyses of morphometric and genetic structure on 13 populations
of the Natron Alcolapia flock, and one A. grahami population of Lake Magadi as an out-group.
Morphometric analyses revealed significant differentiation in the head and mouth shape of the
species at Natron. From a genetic perspective, among 70 mtDNA control region sequences 17
haplotypes were found, showing in the minimum spanning network a star-like pattern around the
widespread haplotype 2lat. At Natron, there was limited genetic differentiation between the
different populations of A. alcalicus and A. latilabris, despite apparent ecological barriers of
extreme alkalinity that suggested their populations were isolated. Instead, there appeared to be
some population connectivity, with a rate of 0.5–2.3 migrants per generation suggesting that
natural factors, such as intense rains or transmission by large piscivorous birds, facilitate
population connectivity and maintain genetic similarity. The outputs of high population
connectivity and one genetic unit at the basin level (despite morphological divergence) suggest
that any human activities that disrupt the connectivity of the freshwater resources of the Natron
catchment could further threaten the integrity and current status of these already threatened fish
populations.

Zaccara S, Crosa G, Vanetti I, Binelli G, Harper DM, Mavuti KM, Balarin JD, Britton RJ. "Genetic and morphological analyses indicate high population mixing in the endangered cichlid Alcolapia flock of East Africa." Conservation genetics. 2014;15(2):429-440.
Amzati GS, Djikeng A, Odongo DO, Nimpaye H, Sibeko KP, Muhigwa J-BB, Madder M, Kirschvink N, Marcotty T. "Genetic and antigenic variation of the bovine tick-borne pathogen Theileria parva in the Great Lakes region of Central Africa." Parasit Vectors. 2019;12(1):588. Abstract

Theileria parva causes East Coast fever (ECF), one of the most economically important tick-borne diseases of cattle in sub-Saharan Africa. A live immunisation approach using the infection and treatment method (ITM) provides a strong long-term strain-restricted immunity. However, it typically induces a tick-transmissible carrier state in cattle and may lead to spread of antigenically distinct parasites. Thus, understanding the genetic composition of T. parva is needed prior to the use of the ITM vaccine in new areas. This study examined the sequence diversity and the evolutionary and biogeographical dynamics of T. parva within the African Great Lakes region to better understand the epidemiology of ECF and to assure vaccine safety. Genetic analyses were performed using sequences of two antigen-coding genes, Tp1 and Tp2, generated among 119 T. parva samples collected from cattle in four agro-ecological zones of DRC and Burundi.

Nyang'au EM, Bulimo WD, Mobegi V, Opanda S, Magiri E. "Genetic analysis of {HA1} domain of influenza {A/H3N2} viruses isolated in Kenya during the 2007-2013 seasons reveal significant divergence from {WHO-recommended} vaccine strains." Int. J. Infect. Dis.. 2020;95:413-420. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Influenza viruses evolve rapidly and cause regular seasonal epidemics in humans challenging effective vaccination. The virus surface HA glycoprotein is the primary target for the host immune response. Here, we investigated the vaccine efficacy and evolution patterns of human influenza A/H3N2 viruses that circulated in Kenyan in the period before and after the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic, targeting the HA1 domain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A hundred and fifteen HA sequences of Kenyan virus viruses were analyzed relative to the corresponding WHO vaccine reference strains using bioinformatics approaches. RESULTS: Our analyses revealed varied amino acid substitutions at all the five antigenic sites (A-E) of the HA1 domain, with a majority the changes occurring at sites A and B. The Kenyan A/H3N2 viruses isolated during 2007/2008 seasons belonged to A/Brisbane/10/2007-like viruses lineage, while those circulating in 2009-2012 belonged to the lineage of A/Victoria/361/2011-like viruses. The 2013 viruses clustered in clade 3C.3 of the A/Samara/73/2013-like viruses. The mean evolutionary rate of the A/H3N2 viruses analyzed in the study was at 4.17$\times$10-3 (95% HPD=3.09$\times$10-3-5.31$\times$10-3) nucleotide substitutions per site per year, whereas the TMRCA was estimated at 11.18 (95% HPD=9.00-14.12) years ago from 2013. The prediction of vaccine efficacy revealed modest vaccine efficaciousness during 2008, and 2010 influenza seasons, whilst sub-optimal effectiveness was registered in 2007, 2009, 2012 and 2013. Further, the overall selective pressure acting on the HA1 domain was estimated at 0.56 ($ømega$<1), suggesting that a majority of codon sites in the HA1 epitopes were evolving under purifying selection. CONCLUSIONS: Generally, our results highlight the genetic plasticity of A/H3N2 viruses and reveal considerable disparity in vaccine efficaciousness against the A/H3N2 viruses that circulated in Kenya, specifically during 2007, 2009, 2012, and 2013 influenza seasons. Our findings underscore the importance and need for consistent surveillance and molecular characterization of influenza viruses, to inform decision making and enhance early of detection of strains with epidemic/pandemic potential as well as benefit in guiding decisions regarding the appropriate annual influenza vaccine formulations.

Mukunzi. S, Bulimo. WD, Achilla. RA, Wadegu. M, Majanja. J, Mwala. D, Wurapa. E. Genetic analysis of Influenza A [H3N2] viruses co-circulating with pandemic H1N1 virus in Kenya Year 2009-2010.. Accra, Ghana; 2011. Abstract
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EM N'au, WD B, V M, S O, E M. "Genetic Analysis of HA1 Domain of Influenza A/H3N2 Viruses Isolated in Kenya During the 2007 to 2013 Seasons Reveal Significant Divergence from WHO-Recommended Vaccine Strains." International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases. 2020. Abstract
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Nyang'au EM, Bulimo WD, Mobegi V, Opanda S, Magiri E. "Genetic Analysis of HA1 Domain of Influenza A/H3N2 Viruses Isolated in Kenya During the 2007 to 2013 Seasons Reveal Significant Divergence from WHO-Recommended Vaccine Strains." Int J Infect Dis. 2020. Abstractnyagau_et_al_2020.pdf

BACKGROUND: Influenza viruses evolve rapidly and cause regular seasonal epidemics in humans challenging effective vaccination. The virus surface HA glycoprotein is the primary target for the host immune response. Here, we investigated the vaccine efficacy and evolution patterns of human influenza A/H3N2 viruses that circulated in Kenyan in the period before and after the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic, targeting the HA1 domain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A hundred and fifteen HA sequences of Kenyan virus viruses were analyzed relative to the corresponding WHO vaccine reference strains using bioinformatics approaches. RESULTS: Our analyses revealed varied amino acid substitutions at all the five antigenic sites (A-E) of the HA1 domain, with a majority the changes occurring at sites A and B. The Kenyan A/H3N2 viruses isolated during 2007/2008 seasons belonged to A/Brisbane/10/2007- like viruses lineage, while those circulating in 2009 to 2012 belonged to the lineage of A/Victoria/361/2011-like viruses. The 2013 viruses clustered in clade 3C.3 of the A/Samara/73/2013-like viruses. The mean evolutionary rate of the A/H3N2 viruses analyzed in the study was at 4.17×10(-3) (95% HPD=3.09×10(-3) to 5.31×10(-3)) nucleotide substitutions per site per year, whereas the TMRCA was estimated at 11.18 (95% HPD=9.00-14.12) years ago from 2013. The Prediction of vaccine efficacy revealed modest vaccine efficaciousness during 2008, and 2010 influenza seasons, whilst sub-optimal effectiveness was registered in 2007,2009, 2012 and 2013. Further, the overall selective pressure acting on the HA1 domain was estimated at 0.56 (ω<1), suggesting that a majority of codon sites in the HA1 epitopes were evolving under purifying selection. CONCLUSIONS: Generally, our results highlight the genetic plasticity of A/H3N2 viruses and reveal considerable disparity in vaccine efficaciousness against the A/H3N2 viruses that circulated in Kenya, specifically during 2007,2009, 2012, and 2013 influenza seasons. Our findings underscore the importance and need for consistent surveillance and molecular characterization of influenza viruses, to inform decision making and enhance early of detection of strains with epidemic/pandemic potential as well as benefit in guiding decisions regarding the appropriate annual influenza vaccine formulations.

Bulimo W, WD B, JL G, DC S, SA B, MK N, WO O, E A, JM M, JM S, VO O, SM L, J W, RF B, SK M. "Genetic analysis of H3N2 influenza A viruses isolated in 2006-2007 in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2008. AbstractWebsite
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Bulimo WD, Garner JL, Schnabel DC, Bedno SA, Njenga MK, Ochieng WO, Amukoye E, Magana JM, Simwa JM, Ofula VO, Lifumo SM, Wangui J, Breiman RF, Martin SK. "Genetic analysis of H3N2 influenza A viruses isolated in 2006-2007 in Nairobi, Kenya." Influenza Other Respi Viruses. 2008;2:107-13. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND: Minimal influenza surveillance has been carried out in sub-Saharan Africa to provide information on circulating influenza subtypes for the purpose of vaccine production and monitoring trends in virus spread and mutations. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate a surveillance program in Kenya to isolate and characterize influenza viruses. RESULTS: In the 2006-2007 influenza season, nine influenza A viruses were isolated. All were of H3N2 subtype with key amino acid (aa) changes indicating that they were more closely related to recent World Health Organization recommended vaccine strains than to older vaccine strains, and mirroring the evolution of circulating influenza A globally. Hemagglutination inhibition data showed that the 2006 Kenya isolates had titers identical to the 2005-2006 H3N2 vaccine strain but two- to threefold lower titers to the 2006-2007 vaccine strain, suggesting that the isolates were antigenic variants of the 2006-2007 vaccine strains. Analysis of aa substitutions of hemagglutinin-1 (HA1) protein of the 2006 Kenyan viruses revealed unique genetic variations with several aa substitutions located at immunodominant epitopes of the HA1 protein. These mutations included the V112I change at site E, the K 173 E substitution at site D and N 278 K change at site C, mutations that may result in conformational change on the HA molecule to expose novel epitopes thus abrogating binding of pre-existing antibodies at these sites. CONCLUSION: Characterization of these important genetic variations in influenza A viruses isolated from Kenya highlights the importance of continuing surveillance and characterization of emerging influenza drift variants in sub-Saharan Africa.

Mageto E.K, D. Makumbi, and K. Njoroge, Nyankanga R. "Genetic analysis of early-maturing maize (Zea Mays L.) inbred lines under stress and nonstress conditions." Journal of Crop Improvement. 2017; DOI: 10.1080/15427528.2017.1315625(31:4, ):560-588.
H A, T. T. "A Genetic Algorithm Solution to Relaxation Labeling of Line Images." Trans. IEEJ. 1998;118-C(11):1670-1671.
Mulunda C, Wagacha P, Oyugi A. "Genetic Algorithm Based Model in Text Steganography: A Framework for Securing Online Data Communication." Scholars Press. 2014. AbstractFull Text

Steganography is an ancient art. It is used for security in open systems. It focuses
on hiding secret messages inside a cover medium. The most important property of a cover
medium is the amount of data that can be stored inside it without changing its noticeable
properties. There are many sophisticated techniques with which to hide, analyze, and
recover that hidden information. This research work discusses an exploration in the use of
Genetic Algorithm operators on the cover medium. We worked with text as the cover

Absaloms HO. Genetic Algorithm Application to Image Processing Optimization Problems. Atsugi, Japan: Kanagawa Institute of Technology; 1998.
Olago D, WoldeGabriel G, Dindi E, Owor M. "Genesis of the East African Rift System.". In: Soda Lakes of East Africa. Springer, Cham; 2016. Abstract

The East African Rift System (EARS) started in Late Oligocene to Early Miocene time and gradually propagated southwards from the Afar Depression, beginning in the Middle Miocene. The hot, low-density mantle material of the Afar Plume heated the overlying lithosphere, causing thinning, regional doming, and the earliest basaltic volcanism in southern Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, the Afar Depression, the Main Ethiopian Rift, and the broadly rifted zone of southwestern Ethiopia represent the northern segment of the EARS.

In the Kenyan sector of the EARS, uplift and doming also gave rise to the Kenya Dome. The radial flow patterns of the initial phonolites provide evidence for doming. Another important observation is that the rift geometry was greatly influenced by pre-existing structures of the underlying Mozambique Mobile Belt. Rifting proceeded through alternating episodes of volcanism and tectonics. Crossing into Tanzania, the influence of the neighbouring Tanzania Craton becomes evident. Here, the rift is expressed only in the northern part, splaying out in diverging half-graben valleys that are outside the Kenya Dome.

Large boundary faults and opposing flexural margins, producing mobile asymmetrical full and half-graben basins that are individually linked along the rift axis, mark the Western Rift Valley. These basins are frequently occupied by elongate and narrow lakes (largely freshwater) separated by accommodation zones and containing significant hydrocarbon resources especially in the Albertine Graben. Small to large lakes existed in the EARS during the Plio–Pleistocene. Lakes in the Western Rift are large and deep, whereas those in the Kenya, Main Ethiopian, and Afar Rifts are generally small and shallow. Geological records indicate that the lakes sensitively responded to orbital forcing as well as to local, regional, and global climatic, environmental, and tectonic changes, resulting in fluctuating lake sizes and even desiccation.

G. WG, D. O, Dindi E, Owor M. "Genesis of the East African Rift System.". In: Genesis of the East African Rift System. Springer; 2016. Abstract

The East African Rift System (EARS) started in Late Oligocene to Early Miocene time and gradually propagated southwards from the Afar Depression, beginning in the Middle Miocene. The hot, low-density mantle material of the Afar Plume heated the overlying lithosphere, causing thinning, regional doming, and the earliest basaltic volcanism in southern Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, the Afar Depression, the Main Ethiopian Rift, and the broadly rifted zone of southwestern Ethiopia represent the northern segment of the EARS. In the Kenyan sector of the EARS, uplift and doming also gave rise to the Kenya Dome. The radial flow patterns of the initial phonolites provide evidence for doming. Another important observation is that the rift geometry was greatly influenced by pre-existing structures of the underlying Mozambique Mobile Belt. Rifting proceeded through alternating episodes of volcanism and tectonics. Crossing into Tanzania, the influence of the neighbouring Tanzania Craton becomes evident. Here, the rift is expressed only in the northern part, splaying out in diverging half-graben valleys that are outside the Kenya Dome. Large boundary faults and opposing flexural margins, producing mobile asymmetrical full and half-graben basins that are individually linked along the rift axis, mark the Western Rift Valley. These basins are frequently occupied by elongate and narrow lakes (largely freshwater) separated by accommodation zones and containing significant hydrocarbon resources especially in the Albertine Graben. Small to large lakes existed in the EARS during the Plio–Pleistocene. Lakes in the Western Rift are large and deep, whereas those in the Kenya, Main Ethiopian, and Afar Rifts are generally small and shallow. Geological records indicate that the lakes sensitively responded to orbital forcing as well as to local, regional, and global climatic, environmental, and tectonic changes, resulting in fluctuating lake sizes and even desiccation.

Mungai E, Ogot M. "Generic strategies and firm performance: An investigation of informal sector micro-enterprises in Kenya." International Journal of Business and Management. 2017;12:148. Abstract

Micro-enterprises (MEs) have been shown to collectively be the largest employer in most developing countries
thus playing a significant role in the countries economies. Using informal sector micro-enterprise furniture
makers (wood and metal) in Nairobi, Kenya and based on Porter's competitive business strategies typology, this
study sought to determine if the strategies employed by the informal sector MEs fit within the typology
framework, and if membership within the strategic groups in the typology are a predictor of better business
business performance. From the study, although membership within the two focus strategic groups of
differentiation and low cost was confirmed, unlike studies done with medium and large enterprises, membership
was not found to be a predictor of better business performance. Porter's typology may therefore not adequately
capture the competitive business activities relevant to and directly by MEs, presenting an opportunity for
research into the development of competitive business strategy typologies directly derived from their activities
and therefore applicable to them.

Keywords: competitive business typology, micro-enterprises, business performance, informal sector

Rinkanya AN. "Generic Innovations in Kenyan Anglophone Novel after the Year 2000 // Under Africa’s Sky." Moscow: Moscow State University Press. 2012;6:174-191.
Ogot MM. "A generic competitive business strategies typology for micro-enterprises." European Journal of Business and Management. 2012;4. Abstract

The important role of the micro enterprises (ME) sector in generating growth, creating jobs and reducing poverty,
especially in developing countries is widely acknowledged. Literature on competitive business strategy typology
development and validation, however, reveals a significant focus on small, medium and large enterprises, with virtual absence of any discourse on MEs. Although several competitive business strategies (CBS) typologies can be found in the literature, they have mainly been developed from and validated on medium to large enterprise data. These
typologies, therefore, may not be fully applicable to MEs. The new typology of generic competitive business
strategies for MEs described in this paper is built on two dimensions of Collaboration and Competency, yielding
four generic types, representing four broad types of strategic groups better suited than current models, in providing avenues for MEs seeking competitive advantage. The new typology provides a concise model relevant to MEs, providing a structured set of consistent and well understood guidelines for choice of adaptation by owner/managers who are typically involved, whether formally or informally, in an incremental process of strategic formulation and implementation.

Keywords: Generic Strategy Typology, Informal Sector, Micro Enterprises, Competitive Advantage

Mwaniki JM. Generator Sound Proof Container.; 2018.
Iraki XN. "Generation Z: Is it time to deschool society?" The Standard, August 10, 2015.
FRANCIS DRNJUI. "Generalization of non-singularity Conditions of Fifth Order Rotatable Designs.". In: Everyman's Science vol. XVII (1991). EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1991. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
BUERS DRAWUORJOHN. "A Generalization of Fractional Calculus.". In: 2005 Issue of the European Journal of Scientific Research. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2005.
KAMAU DRGACHIIMICHAEL. "Generalised Deletion Designs.". In: African Journalof Scienceand Technology, Volume 4 Number 2. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2003. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
DR. KABARU JACQUESM. "GENERAL TOXICITY TESTS on INDIGENOUS VEGETABLES.". In: Massachusetts. CABI. Pp 209. African Meteorological Society; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} GENERAL TOXICITY TESTS on INDIGENOUS VEGETABLES REPORT By J.M. Kabaru
Peng B, Meng X, Tang F, Ren X, Chen D, Ren J. "General synthesis and optical properties of monodisperse multifunctional metal-ion-doped TiO2 hollow particles." The Journal of Physical Chemistry C. 2009;113:20240-20245. Abstract
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Wamukowa N. A general survey of map projections, . Nairobi: Basic Books (K) LTD; 2006.
C. O. Mito, Laneve G, and Castronuovo MM. A general split window algorithm for land surface temperature estimation. France; 2001.
Oladipo R, Ikimari L, Kiplang’at J, Barasa L. General research methods. Nairobi: Oxford University Press East Africa; 2015.
MINYAFU DRAYOTROBERT. "General Principles of Education, Kaswanga Press and Consultancy Ltd. 1999.". In: Press and Consultancy Ltd. 1999. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1999. Abstract
This analysis attempted to capture the key economic and financial trends in the budget in the 1995/6 year and to provide the rationale for them. These trends were linked to fundamental requisites for development and sustainable growth.
Nyasani PJ. A General Guide to English Pronounciation for Learners and Teachers in African Schools. Nairobi: The Nairobi Academic Book Publishers; 2002.
Norbert Opiyo Akech*, Omuombo CA, Masibo{ M. "General Geology of Kenya.". In: Kenya: A Natural Outlook Geo-Environmental Resources and Hazards. Oxford, UK: Elsevier; 2013. Abstract

The geology of Kenya can be divided into five major geological successions:
(1) the Archaean (Nyanzian and Kavirondian), (2) Proterozoic (Mozambique Belt and Bukoban), (3) Palaeozoic/Mesozoic sediments, (4) Tertiary/Quaternary volcanics and sediments, and (5) Pleistocene to Recent soils, alluvial beach sands, evaporites, fossil coral reefs and sandstones at the coast: alluvial and lacustrine sediments of the Rift Valley. There are also volcanic rocks of the Rift Valley from the younger volcanoes.

Turner CD, others. "General endocrinology." General endocrinology. 1948. AbstractWebsite
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Peng B, Iwnicki S, Shackleton P, Song Y. "General conditions for railway wheel polygonal wear to evolve." Vehicle System Dynamics. 2021;59:568-587. Abstract
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FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "General Circulation and Climatology.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. University of Nairobi; 2005.
K DRKARIUKIDAVID. General and Inorganic Chemistry Book for First Year Distance Learners. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2004. AbstractWebsite

OBJECTIVE: To determine the bacteriology and antibiotic sensitivity of the bacterial isolates in chronic maxillary sinusitis patients seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, ENT department. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Seventy-three patients had bilateral sntral washout done and the lavage submitted for culture and anti-microbial sensitivity between January and June 1996. RESULTS: Antral lavage yielded secretions in 63% of patients but bacteria were cultured in only 28.8% of the specimens. The isolates included Streptococcus pneumonia (22.2%), Staphylocococus albus (18.5%), Staphylocococus aureus (11.1%) and Enterobactericiae (11.1%). Anaerobic bacteria were cultured in 22.2% of the specimens. Of the commonly used antibiotics, there was high sensitivity to erythromycin, cefadroxyl, chloramphenicol and amoxicillin and poor sensitivity to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole and perfloxacin. CONCLUSION: The bacteriology of chronic maxillary sinusitis at Kenyatta National Hospital is generally similar to that found elsewhere. The bacteria are susceptible to relatively affordable antibiotics like amoxicillin, erythromycin and cefadroxyl.

Githae, W E, Gachene CKK, Njoka JT, Odee DW, Omondi SF. "Genefic Diversity of Gum Arabic-producing Acacia senegal Variefies in Kenya using Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) and Chloroplast Simple Sequence." Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation Journal. 2010. Abstract

Acacia senegal is a drought-tolerant, multi-purpose tree species, highly valued for gum arabic production and increasingly being used in agro-forestry in Sub-Saharan Africa. Despite its long history of use, there has not been exhaustive genetic evaluation of the extant genetic resource base of A. senegal in Kenya for genetic improvement of the species. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSR) markers were used to study genetic diversity among seven Kenyan populations of A. senegal embracing three putative varieties: kerensis, leiorhachis and senegal. The two marker types detected similar levels of Nei’s gene diversity (HISSR = 0.211, HcpSSR = 0.212) among the A. senegal populations. Acacia senegal var. kerensis exhibited the highest diversity using ISSR markers (HISSR = 0.248), followed by varieties leiorhachis (HISSR = 0.218) and senegal (HISSR = 0.151). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) detected significant genetic variations within and among populations (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01 for ISSR and cpSSR, respectively). Based on the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram of the seven populations, two regions were differentiated (north and south). Both markers demonstrated their potential for delineating population structure at local and regional levels, and infra-specific relations within the species, hence their potential as tools for conservation, improvement programmes and sustainable use of the species. This study provides baseline genetic information for the domestication of A. senegal varieties in Kenya.

Githae EW;, Gachene CKK;, Njoka JT;, Odee DW;, Omondi SF. "Genefic Diversity of Gum Arabic-producing Acacia senegal Variefies in Kenya using Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) and Chloroplast Simple Sequence."; 2011. Abstract

Acacia senegal is a drought-tolerant, multi-purpose tree species, highly valued for gum arabic production and increasingly being used in agro-forestry in Sub-Saharan Africa. Despite its long history of use, there has not been exhaustive genetic evaluation of the extant genetic resource base of A. senegal in Kenya for genetic improvement of the species. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSR) markers were used to study genetic diversity among seven Kenyan populations of A. senegal embracing three putative varieties: kerensis, leiorhachis and senegal. The two marker types detected similar levels of Nei’s gene diversity (HISSR = 0.211, HcpSSR = 0.212) among the A. senegal populations. Acacia senegal var. kerensis exhibited the highest diversity using ISSR markers (HISSR = 0.248), followed by varieties leiorhachis (HISSR = 0.218) and senegal (HISSR = 0.151). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) detected significant genetic variations within and among populations (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01 for ISSR and cpSSR, respectively). Based on the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram of the seven populations, two regions were differentiated (north and south). Both markers demonstrated their potential for delineating population structure at local and regional levels, and infra-specific relations within the species, hence their potential as tools for conservation, improvement programmes and sustainable use of the species. This study provides baseline genetic information for the domestication of A. senegal varieties in Kenya.

Githae EW;, Gachene CKK;, Njoka JT;, Odee DW;, Omondi SF. "Genefic Diversity of Gum Arabic-producing Acacia senegal Variefies in Kenya using Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) and Chloroplast Simple Sequence."; 2011. Abstract

Acacia senegal is a drought-tolerant, multi-purpose tree species, highly valued for gum arabic production and increasingly being used in agro-forestry in Sub-Saharan Africa. Despite its long history of use, there has not been exhaustive genetic evaluation of the extant genetic resource base of A. senegal in Kenya for genetic improvement of the species. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSR) markers were used to study genetic diversity among seven Kenyan populations of A. senegal embracing three putative varieties: kerensis, leiorhachis and senegal. The two marker types detected similar levels of Nei’s gene diversity (HISSR = 0.211, HcpSSR = 0.212) among the A. senegal populations. Acacia senegal var. kerensis exhibited the highest diversity using ISSR markers (HISSR = 0.248), followed by varieties leiorhachis (HISSR = 0.218) and senegal (HISSR = 0.151). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) detected significant genetic variations within and among populations (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01 for ISSR and cpSSR, respectively). Based on the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram of the seven populations, two regions were differentiated (north and south). Both markers demonstrated their potential for delineating population structure at local and regional levels, and infra-specific relations within the species, hence their potential as tools for conservation, improvement programmes and sustainable use of the species. This study provides baseline genetic information for the domestication of A. senegal varieties in Kenya.

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