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Njihia JM. "Growing a Business: Adaptive Evolutionary Entreprenuership - A Case Study in Emergent Strategy and Complex adaptive Systems.". In: 6th International Conference on African Entterprenuership and Small Business Development: Entreprenuership Research and Development in Africa: Achievements, Challenges and Future Prospects. University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 2002. Abstract
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Ritho CN, Irungu P, Korir JK, Affognon HD, Kingori WS, Mohamed SA, Ekesi S. "Grower adoption of an integrated pest management package for management of mango-infesting fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Embu, Kenya ." International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 2015:35, 80-98.
Mrumbi K, Obondo A, Rono R, Ngare D, editor Ndetei, D.M. "Group, Marital and Family Therapies."; 2006.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Group takes a fresh look at the lithosphere underneath southern Kenya,.". In: KRSIP Working Group EOS Transactions, AGU 76, 81-82. Wiley Interscience; 1995. Abstract
(including Nyambok, I.O.), .
Gatotoh AM, Kariuki DK. "GROUP SYNERGY: A BEHAVIOURAL THRUST FOR MICRO-ENTREPRENEURIAL GROWTH FOR WOMEN IN INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2012; Vol. 2 No. 5; March 2012 (5):255-262.group_synergy_a_behavioural_thrust_for_micro-entrepreneurial.pdf
L MRNDOGONIKINYANJUI. "Group interpersonal psychotherapy for rural Uganda: six months follow-up (co-author).". In: British Journal of Psychiatry, 2006, 188-567-573. EAMJ; 2006. Abstract
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L MRNDOGONIKINYANJUI. "Group Interpersonal psychotherapy for depression in Rural Uganda. A Randomized controlled trial (co-author).". In: Journal of American Asociation (JAMA) Vol. 289 no. 23, June. EAMJ; 2005. Abstract
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Xu Y, Seward P, Gaye C, Lin L, Olago DO. "Groundwater in Sub-Saharan Africa." Hydrogeology Journal. 2019;27(3):815-822. AbstractWebsite

Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA; Fig. 1) refers to an area encompassing the countries in Africa that are fully, or partially, located south of the Sahara. The remaining African countries are generally referred to as belonging in North Africa. Although the socio-economic and hydrogeological conditions in SSA are diverse, they are sufficiently distinct (in general) from the conditions in North Africa to warrant being assessed separately—for example, high-yielding, high-storage, sedimentary aquifers are more common in North Africa than in SSA, while low-yielding, low-storage, basement aquifers are more widespread in SSA than in North Africa. The use of fossil groundwater is more typical in North Africa, while the use or renewable groundwater is more typical in SSA. Other hydrological characteristics associated with SSA include: groundwater resources that are generally under-utilized; lack of research and development that often prevents the optimal use of groundwater rather than over-development; and a heavy reliance by the rural and urban poor on shallow unconfined or semi-confined groundwater for potable water supplies, other domestic uses, and subsistence agriculture. Because of distinguishing characteristics such as these, there are good reasons for treating the hydrogeology of SSA as a whole, and separate from North Africa.

Ferrer N, Folch A, Lane M, Olago D, Odida J, Custodio E. "Groundwater hydrodynamics of an Eastern Africa coastal aquifer during the recent La Niña 2016-17 drought." Science of The Total Environment. 2019;661:575-597. AbstractWebsite

In 2016–17 much of East Africa was affected by a severe drought which has been attributed to Indian Ocean Dipole and El Niño Southern Oscillation conditions. Extreme events such as this have immediate and knock-on effects on water availability for household, agricultural and industrial use. Groundwater resources can provide a buffer in times of drought, but may themselves be stressed by reduced recharge and increased usage, posing significant challenges to groundwater resource management. In the context of East Africa, groundwater management is also hampered by a lack of information on aquifer characteristics. With the aim of addressing this knowledge gap, this study shows the hydrogeological behaviour before and during La Niña 2016/17 drought in southern coastal Kenya on a groundwater system which sits within a geological structure which is representative of an important portion of the East African coast. Diverse hydrochemical and isotopic campaigns, as well as groundwater head variation measurements, were carried out to study the groundwater hydrodynamics and thus characterize the aquifer system under climatic conditions before and during the La Niña event. This information is complemented with an estimation of changes in local recharge since 2012 using local data sets. The main consequence of the drought was a 69% reduction of recharge compared to an average climatic year. There was reduced recharge during the first rainy season (April–June) and no recharge during the second wet season (October–December). There was a concurrent increase in seawater intrusion even during the wet season.

Olago DO, Olaka LA, Wilke FDH, Odada EO, Mulch A, Musolff A. "Groundwater fluoride enrichment in an active rift setting: Central Kenya Rift case study." Science of the Total Environment. 2016;545:641-653. AbstractFull Text Link

Groundwater is used extensively in the Central Kenya Rift for domestic and agricultural demands. In these active rift settings groundwater can exhibit high fluoride levels. In order to address water security and reduce human exposure to high fluoride in drinking water, knowledge of the source and geochemical processes of enrichment are required. A study was therefore carried out within the Naivasha catchment (Kenya) to understand the genesis, enrichment and seasonal variations of fluoride in the groundwater. Rocks, rain, surface and groundwater sources were sampled for hydrogeochemical and isotopic investigations, the data was statistically and geospatially analyzed. Water sources have variable fluoride concentrations between 0.02–75 mg/L. 73% exceed the health limit (1.5 mg/L) in both dry and wet seasons. F− concentrations in rivers are lower (0.2–9.2 mg/L) than groundwater (0.09 to 43.6 mg/L) while saline lake waters have the highest concentrations (0.27–75 mg/L). The higher values are confined to elevations below 2000 masl. Oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δD) isotopic values range from − 6.2 to + 5.8‰ and − 31.3 to + 33.3‰, respectively, they are also highly variable in the rift floor where they attain maximum values. Fluoride base levels in the precursor vitreous volcanic rocks are higher (between 3750–6000 ppm) in minerals such as cordierite and muscovite while secondary minerals like illite and kaolinite have lower remnant fluoride (< 1000 ppm). Thus, geochemical F− enrichment in regional groundwater is mainly due to a) rock alteration, i.e. through long residence times and natural discharge and/or enhanced leakages of deep seated geothermal water reservoirs, b) secondary concentration fortification of natural reservoirs through evaporation, through reduced recharge and/or enhanced abstraction and c) through additional enrichment of fluoride after volcanic emissions. The findings are useful to help improve water management in Naivasha as well as similar active rift setting environments.

Odada E, Olaka LA, Wilke FDH, Olago DO, Mulch A, Musolff A. "Groundwater fluoride enrichment in an active rift setting: Central Kenya Rift case study." Science of the Total Environment. 2016;545:641-653. AbstractFull Text

Groundwater is used extensively in the Central Kenya Rift for domestic and agricultural demands. In these active rift settings groundwater can exhibit high fluoride levels. In order to address water security and reduce human exposure to high fluoride in drinking water, knowledge of the source and geochemical processes of enrichment are required. A study was therefore carried out within the Naivasha catchment (Kenya) to understand the genesis, enrichment and seasonal variations of fluoride in the groundwater. Rocks, rain, surface and groundwater sources were sampled for hydrogeochemical and isotopic investigations, the data was statistically and geospatially analyzed. Water sources have variable fluoride concentrations between 0.02–75 mg/L. 73% exceed the health limit (1.5 mg/L) in both dry and wet seasons. F− concentrations in rivers are lower (0.2–9.2 mg/L) than groundwater (0.09 to 43.6 mg/L) while saline lake waters have the highest concentrations (0.27–75 mg/L). The higher values are confined to elevations below 2000 masl. Oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δD) isotopic values range from − 6.2 to + 5.8‰ and − 31.3 to + 33.3‰, respectively, they are also highly variable in the rift floor where they attain maximum values. Fluoride base levels in the precursor vitreous volcanic rocks are higher (between 3750–6000 ppm) in minerals such as cordierite and muscovite while secondary minerals like illite and kaolinite have lower remnant fluoride (< 1000 ppm). Thus, geochemical F− enrichment in regional groundwater is mainly due to a) rock alteration, i.e. through long residence times and natural discharge and/or enhanced leakages of deep seated geothermal water reservoirs, b) secondary concentration fortification of natural reservoirs through evaporation, through reduced recharge and/or enhanced abstraction and c) through additional enrichment of fluoride after volcanic emissions. The findings are useful to help improve water management in Naivasha as well as similar active rift setting environments.

Olaka LA, Wilke FDH, Olago DO, Odada EO, Mulch A, Musolff A. "Groundwater fluoride enrichment in an active rift setting: Central Kenya Rift case study." Science of the Total Environment. 2016;545(1):641-653. AbstractFull Text

Groundwater is used extensively in the Central Kenya Rift for domestic and agricultural demands. In these active rift settings groundwater can exhibit high fluoride levels. In order to address water security and reduce human exposure to high fluoride in drinking water, knowledge of the source and geochemical processes of enrichment are required. A study was therefore carried out within the Naivasha catchment (Kenya) to understand the genesis, enrichment and seasonal variations of fluoride in the groundwater. Rocks, rain, surface and groundwater sources were sampled for hydrogeochemical and isotopic investigations, the data was statistically and geospatially analyzed. Water sources have variable fluoride concentrations between 0.02–75 mg/L. 73% exceed the health limit (1.5 mg/L) in both dry and wet seasons. F− concentrations in rivers are lower (0.2–9.2 mg/L) than groundwater (0.09 to 43.6 mg/L) while saline lake waters have the highest concentrations (0.27–75 mg/L). The higher values are confined to elevations below 2000 masl. Oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δD) isotopic values range from − 6.2 to + 5.8‰ and − 31.3 to + 33.3‰, respectively, they are also highly variable in the rift floor where they attain maximum values. Fluoride base levels in the precursor vitreous volcanic rocks are higher (between 3750–6000 ppm) in minerals such as cordierite and muscovite while secondary minerals like illite and kaolinite have lower remnant fluoride (< 1000 ppm). Thus, geochemical F− enrichment in regional groundwater is mainly due to a) rock alteration, i.e. through long residence times and natural discharge and/or enhanced leakages of deep seated geothermal water reservoirs, b) secondary concentration fortification of natural reservoirs through evaporation, through reduced recharge and/or enhanced abstraction and c) through additional enrichment of fluoride after volcanic emissions. The findings are useful to help improve water management in Naivasha as well as similar active rift setting environments.

Kuria Z. "Groundwater Distribution and Aquifer Characteristics in Kenya.". In: Developments in Earth Surface process .; 2013.
Dulo, Olago, D. O., Kanoti. "Ground water supply and sanitation challenges in developing countries: Case studies from Kenya.". In: International Association of Hydrogeologisy (IAH) Congress . Daejeon, Korea; 2018.
S.O. A, Tole M, Ojakoun C. "Ground water resources in Kwale district ." Coastal management series . 1997;volume 1.(1).
M PROFNGECUWILSON. "Ground subsidence and its socioeconomic implications on the population. A case study of Nakuru area in Central Rift Valley, Kenya.". In: Environmental Geology 39(6), 567-576. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences; 2000. Abstract
Tala Quarrry in African Geoscience Review Vol. 9 Number 4 pp. 385-396.  
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Ground subsidence and its socio-economic implications on the population: A case study of Nakuru area in Central Rift Valley, Kenya.". In: Environmental Geology. 39(6), 567-574. Wiley Interscience; 2000. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
KITHURE DRKINDIKI. ""Gross Violations of Human Rights: Whither Humanitarian intervention?" in Conflict Trends pp. 26-31.". In: In Volume 1 Number 1 (2001) African Human Rights Law Journal pp. 63-76. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2001. Abstract

We describe the technique of splenic aspiration in 113 patients presenting with splenomegaly. It was used initially to establish a diagnosis, and in those patients with kala azar, to follow the response of the parasites to therapy until 'parasitological cure'. In all 671 aspirations were performed. No complications occurred in the 69 patients with active kala azar, who collectively had more than 600 aspirations. One patient in a moribund condition had a fatal haemorrhage. The aspirate suggested a lymphoma, confirmed at autopsy. In 68 of the 69 patients with active kala azar, the diagnosis was established at the first aspiration. The essentials of the technique are the use of a small calibre needle (21 G), and speed, the needle being in the spleen for less than a second, with the consequent procurement of a few drops of material only.

Ngatia TA;, Mbuthia PG;, Njiro M;, Kanyari PWN;, Ngotho J. gross Lesions Encountered In Slaughtered Wild Animals In A Game Ranching Farm In Kenya."..; 1996.Website
Mbuthia PG;, Ngatia TA;, Njiro M;, Kanyari PWN;, Munyua W k;, Ngotho J. "gross Lesions Encountered In Slaughtered Wild Animals In A Game Ranching Farm In Kenya."..; 1996.Website
Njiro M;, Ngatia TA;, Mbuthia PG;, Kanyari PWN;, Munyua W k;, Ngotho J. "gross Lesions Encountered In Slaughtered Wild Animals In A Game Ranching Farm In Kenya."..; 1996.Website
Kanyari PWN;, Munyua W k;, Ngotho J, Njiro M;, Mbuthia PG;, Ngatia TA;. "gross Lesions Encountered In Slaughtered Wild Animals In A Game Ranching Farm In Kenya."..; 1996.Website
Ngatia TA, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Njiro SM, Kanyari PWN, Munyua WK, Weda EH, Ngotho JW. "Gross lesions encountered in slaughtered wild animals in a game ranching farm in Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 1996;43:253-259.
Ncebere JM, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Gathumbi PK. "Gross and histopathology of goats feeding on Opuntia stricta in Laikipia County, Kenya." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International. 2021;2021(Article ID 8831996).
Ncebere JM, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Gathumbi PK. "Gross and Histopathology of Goats Feeding on Opuntia stricta in Laikipia County, Kenya." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International. 2021;Volume 2021(Article ID 8831996, 12 pages).
Otsyina HR, Mbuthia PG, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM, Ogara WO. "Gross and histopathologic findings in sheep with plastic bags in the rumen." International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine . 2017;5:152-158.
Otsyina HR, Mbuthia PG, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM, Ogara WO. "Gross and histopathologic findings in sheep with plastic bags in the rumen.". In: International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine. Vol. 5.; 2017:.
Otsyina HR, Mbuthia PG, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM. "Gross and Histo-Pathologic Findings in Goats with Plastic bags in the Rumen.". 2017.
Maingi D. "Groebner Basis over finite fields and over finite extensions of Q.". In: Internation Journal of Contemporary Mathematics. Groebner-Bases-Bibliography-RICAM; 2005. Abstract

The computation of Groebner Basis can be tedious and mid boggling. In this research we simplify the computation from any Field to Q-arithmetic which simplifies the algorithm even for computers.

E.O PROFWASUNNAAMBROSE. "Gripenberg U, Saarinen I, Bwibo NO, Oduori ML, Grayburn JA, Awori NW, Wasunna AE, Kinuthia DM. Two true hermaphrodites with XX chromosomes. East Afr Med J. 1978 Aug;55(8):373-9. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1978 Aug;55(8):373-9.; 1978. Abstract
There is a marked shortage of surgical manpower all over Africa. General surgeons undertake a very wide range of surgical work because of the lack of specialists. Orthopaedic and general surgeons both care for accident injuries. Current training and recruitment programs are inadequate in correcting existing gross manpower deficiencies. The situation is further aggravated by a gross maldistribution of available manpower in favor of large urban centers. In many parts of rural Africa, minor surgical procedures are carried out by suitably trained, non-physician health workers, but facilities and resources for surgery outside urban centers are generally inadequate. The World Health Organization program on essential surgical and anesthetic procedures, which is currently under way in collaboration with the International Federation of Surgical Colleges, the World Federation of Societies of Anesthesiologists, and other professional bodies, should have a significant impact on these urgent needs for basic surgery in rural district hospitals.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Grillenberger M, Neumann CG, Murphy SP, Bwibo NO, Weiss RE, Jiang L, Hautvast JG, West CE.Intake of micronutrients high in animal-source foods is associated with better growth in rural Kenyan school children. Br J Nutr. 2006 Feb;95(2):379-90.". In: Br J Nutr. 2006 Feb;95(2):379-90. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 2006. Abstract

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 20956-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Early growth in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants has been found predictive of their later outcomes. This has led to increased interest in establishing measures to optimise such growth. In facilities without the resources required to undertake long-term audits for all the high risk infants they graduate, these growth parameters may also be used as selection criteria for those meriting such follow up reducing costs. OBJECTIVES: To describe early growth patterns among a cohort of VLBW infants and determine some of the factors associated with poor growth among them. DESIGN: Cross section survey. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: One hundred and seventy five neonatal survivors. RESULTS: Of the 175 infants recruited, the male/female ratio was 4:6, sixty four (36.6%) were intrauterine growth retarded while significant illnesses during the neonatal period were reported in 109 (62.3%). Forty seven percent of the infants had been fed on exclusive breast milk, 33% on mixed feeds while 20% received exclusive preterm formula. The mean neonatal weight gain for the whole cohort was 13.5 (3.9) g/kg/day, length of 0.34 (0.11) cm/week and head circumference of 0.32 (0.71) cm/week. By term only 33 (18.9%), 37 (21.1%) and 48 (28%) had reached the expected (the 3rd percentile) weight, length and head circumference respectively. Sixty percent of the infants gained weight at <15 g/kg/day while 70% and 78% grew in head circumference and length at < 0.5 cm/week respectively. At term weight, head and linear growth faultering were recorded in 81%, 72% and 79% respectively. The factors that were associated with better growth at this stage included feeding on preterm formula (P < 0.001) and absence of neonatal morbidity (P < 0.001). Infants who were appropriate for gestational age at birth also had better catch up growth at term compared to those born small for gestation (P < 0.001) but their neonatal growth itself was not significantly better. CONCLUSION: The mean neonatal growth in all anthropometric measures was less than expected and by the time of their expected delivery, less than 30% of these infants had reached the 3rd percentile of the expected measurement in all the three growth parameters. Choice of milk and neonatal morbidity influenced these growth patterns. RECOMMENDATIONS: Routine fortification of mother's milk or addition of preterm formula and reorganised care of sick newborns is recommended to improve early growth. PMID: 16771104 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Burgis MJ, Mavuti KM. The Gregory Rift Lakes.; 1987.The Gregory Rift Lakes
Gardner DG, Shoback DM. Greenspan's basic & clinical endocrinology. McGraw-Hill Medical New York:; 2007. Abstract
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DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD. "A greenhouse-based simulation of a natural Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) ecosystem in Western Kenya.". In: Malaria Journal, 1, 19. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
Mgalula ME, Wasonga OV, Hülsebusch C, and Hensel URO. "Greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sink potential in Eastern Africa rangeland ecosystems: A review." Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice . 2021;11(19).
Ogot M, Nyangaya J. "Greenhouse Gas Emissions Abatement Potential in Kenya from Introduction of Feebates.". In: 1st Biennial Status of Higher Education Conference, . Commission for University Education, Nairobi; 2016.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Greenblatt RM, Lukehart SA, Plummer FA, Namaara W, Critchlow CW, Quinn TC, Ronald AR, D'Costa LJ, Ndinya-Achola JO, Holmes K.K.Genital Ulceration as a risk factor for Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection. AIDS 2: 47 - 50, 1988.". In: AIDS 2: 47 - 50, 1988. IBIMA Publishing; 1988. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
KATITHI DAVIDM. "GREEN SYNTHESIS OF IRON NANOPARTICLES ON CHAMOMILE INBUILT TEMPLATES." EUROEAN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF APPLIED SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. 2014;1(5):77-98.
Katithi DN, Michira IN, Guto PM, Baker P, Kamau GN, Iwuha E. "Green Synthesis of Iron Nanoparticles on Chamomile in-built Templates." European International Journal of Applied Science and Technology . 2014;1(5):77-98.
Gavamukulya Y, Maina EN, Meroka AM, Madivoli ES, El-Shemy HA, Wamunyokoli F, Magoma G. "Green synthesis and characterization of highly stable silver nanoparticles from ethanolic extracts of fruits of Annona muricata." Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials. 2020;30:1231-1242. Abstract
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Sila JM, Kiio I, Mwaura FB, Michira I, Abong'o D, Iwuoha E, Kamau GN. "Green Syntheis of Silver nanoparticles Using Eucalyptus Corymbia Leave Extract and Antimicrobial Applications." Journal of BioChemPhysics. 2014;22.
Odock SO, Awino ZB, Njihia JM, IRAKI WN. "Green supply chain management practices and performance of ISO 14001 certified manufacturing firms in East Africa." DBA Africa Management Review. 2016;6(3):103-128. Abstract

Increasing levels of environmental degradation by manufacturing firms has resulted in heterogeneous pressures from various organizational groups on the need for them to conduct environmentally friendly operations. A viable option for these firms has been the implementation of green supply chain practices. The key concern however is whether the implementing these practices actually lead to improved performance. The main objective of this study therefore was to examine the relationship between the implementation of GSCM practices and performance of ISO 14001 certified firms in East Africa. Through the use of positivist research paradigm and descriptive cross-sectional research design, primary data was collected from persons in charge of environmental issues in ISO 14001 manufacturing firms in East Africa. Based on the objective, the study establishes a statistically significant positive direct relationship between implementation of GSCM practices and organizational performance. The study therefore confirms existence of a positive link between GSCM practices and organizational performance thus helping to reduce the uncertainty which has arisen out of contradictory findings from past studies on whether it is beneficial to pursue these practices. The results support the natural resource based view that GSCM practices affords the firm an opportunity for competitive advantage and performance improvement through unique causally ambiguous and socially complex resources. The study recommends that manufacturing firms should implement environmentally sound practices in all phases of the supply chain, beginning with procurement of raw materials through to design, manufacture, packaging, distribution and end of life disposal of their products. Regulators can use the findings to scale up the level of implementation of GSCM practices by enforcing stricter environmental legislation and giving incentives to firms that have already implemented these practices. The findings also provide future researchers’ with a useful conceptual and methodological reference to pursue further studies in this under-studied GSCM area especially in the African context.

Key Words: Green Supply Chain, Management Practices, Organizational Performance, ISO Certified Firms, East Africa

Ochieng PE, Iwuoha E, Michira I, Masikini M, Ondieki J, Githira P, Kamau GN. "Green Route Synthesis and Characterization of ZnO Nanoparticles using spathodea campanulata." International Journal of Biochemiphysics. 2015;23.
JAMES PROFODEK. "The Green Revolution in Africa in the Biotechnology and Development Monitor,Journal of the department of International Relations and Public International law.". In: Paper presented at the WIPO High Level Forum on IP Policy and Strategy, Tokyo . Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 1994. Abstract
J. O. Midiwo, A. Yenesew, B. F. Juma, S. Dereses, J. A. Ayoo, A. Aluoch and S. Guchu There are several described medicinal plants in Kenya from a flora of approximately 10,000 members. Strong cross-medical information from the 42 ethnic groups points to the high potential of some of these species. The Myrsinaceae are well established ethno-anthelmintics and anti-bacterials. They are harbingers of long alkyl side chain benzoquinones which clearly have a protective function from their histochemical disposition. The main benzoquinone in the sub-family Myrsinodae is embelin while for the Maesodae it is maesaquinone together with its 5-acetyl derivative; the distribution of these benzoquinones by their alkyl side chain length or the presence/absence of a 6-methyl group is in accord with morphological sub-family de-limitation. The benzoquinones showed anti-feedant, anti-microbial, phytotoxic, acaricidal, insecticidal and nematicidal activity. Many other benzoquinones of medium and minor concentration were also isolated and characterised. Some plants belonging to the Polygonaceae which are widely used as ethno-anthelmintics have been studied. The common anthelmintic anthraquinones were obtained from all five Rumex species while the naphthalenic acetogenin derivative, nepodin was more selectively distributed. The leaf of Polygonum senegalense is up to 17% surface exudate; about thirteen non polar flavonoid derivatives (chalcones, dihydrochalcones, flavanones and a flavone) have been isolated from it. From the internal aerial tissues of this plant, the major flavonoids were common flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin and their glycosides. The only unique compound isolated from this plant was 2prime-glucosyl-6prime-hydroxy-4prime-methoxydihydrochalcone whose aglycone, uvangolatin is part of the exudate mixture. Other leaf exudate plants studied include the stomach-ache medicine, Psiadia punctulata (Compositae) from which novel methylated flavonoids, kaurene and trachyloban diterpenes have been found
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "The Green Paper on Relaitons Between the European Union and the ACP Countries: Some Comments.". In: ECDPM Working paper, NO. 26, Maastricht. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1997. Abstract
The Road to Democarcy, ESAURP, Dar es Salaam
Hayford A, Joseph OO, Afra N. "Green Marketing Orientation (GMO) and Performance of SMEs in Ghana." American Journal of Management. 2017;11(1):99-109.amegbe_owino__nuwasiima_2017.pdf
Kinoti M. "Green Marketing and Sustainable Development a Kenyan perspective." PhD independent study paper - UoN; 2003. Abstract
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K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Green manure/cover crop technology in Eastern and Central Uganda: Development and Dissemination. In (eds) M Eilitta, J Mureithi and R Derpsch. Green manure/cover crops systems of smallholder farmers: Experiences from Tropical and Subtropical Regions, Kluw.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2004. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
Mukonzo SE, ODOCK SO. "Green manufacturing and operational performance of a firm: Case of a cement manufacturing firm in Kenya." International Journal of Business and Social Science. 2017;8(4):106-120. Abstract

Green Manufacturing includes all practices connected with ecological concerns that constantly incorporate environmental manufacturing processes and products. Green Manufacturing considers decrease from the start or prevention, recycling and green product designs. It focuses on the greening production stage where pollutants are largely generated. The outcomes of these strategies would be no pollution, defects, downtime and zero inventories. The study sought to establish the relationship between green manufacturing practices and operational performance of a selected cement manufacturing company in Kenya. Secondary data on green manufacturing practices and operational performance was collected for a period of 4 years from 2011-2014. The results indicate a significant relationship between green manufacturing practices and operational performance. There is also compliance with the Kenya’s environmental management and co-ordination regulations for 1999 on the part of the cement manufacturing firm. The study emphasizes the implementation of green manufacturing projects that would focus on eliminating or controlling all kinds of pollution in its conclusion.

Key Words: Green Manufacturing; Emissions; Dust; Pollution; Waste Management; Operational Performance

Muriuki G. "The Green Fruits of Uhuru .". 1965.Website
Opijah FJ, Akenga P, Salim A, Onditi A, Amir Y, Waudo W. Green Energy Potential in East Africa.; 2014. Abstract

Background Analgesics in clinical used have many side effects and are not always effective. Hence need for safer and more effective agents. Hydrazinocurcumin is an azole derivative of the natural product curcumin.

Irandu EM, Ndolo J. "Green Energy for the City of Nairobi: a path to sustainable future .". In: Food Security, renewable energy and water: Insights on sustainability. Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau; 2018.
P.N. K, K WE. The Green Dream .; 2010.
Kimeu M. "Green Buildings and Sustainable Housing.". In: UN-Habitat Workshop on African Cities and Climate Change.; 2013.
M.Kimeu. "Green Building Design Strategies in Tropical Climates." The Architect magazine 2 (2013):Pages 06-11.
Cheserek JJ, Ngugi K, Muthomi JW, Omondi CO, Ezekiel NK. "Green bean biochemical attributes of Arabusta coffee hybrids from Kenya using HPLC and soxhlet extraction methods." Australian Journal of Crop Science . 2021;15(2):201-208 .
M.Kimeu. "Green Architecture: The Quest for Best Practice in Nairobi.". In: 2nd East African regional Workshop . ADD building, University of Nairobi; 2011.
Kamweru AK. "Green Architecture: Developing Global Significance from Local Knowledge.". In: Sustainable development Conference . Panafric Hotel,Nairobi; 1996.
Kimeu AM. "Green architecture explained: A day with Architect Musau Kimeu”." Varsity Focus. Volume 12 Issue December 2014 (2014):Pages 40-43.
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "The Great Rift Valley Ecosystem for UNESCO World Heritage Centre 2003.". In: UNESCO World Heritage Centre 2003. Elsevier; 2003.
Iraki XN. "The great expectations: MBA and after.". In: Sixth annual Africa International Business and Management (AIBUMA 2015) conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2015.
KIMPEI DRMUNEI. "Grazing schemes and group ranches as models of developing pastoral lands in Kenya.". In: Proceeding of a conference held in Manchester, April1987. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1987. Abstract
Mwaura F, K M Mavuti and W N Wamicha. . :
Maloiy GMO;, Heady HF. "Grazing Conditions In Kenya Masailand.".; 1965.
Standring S. Gray's anatomy: the anatomical basis of clinical practice. 40th edition. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2008. Abstract
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Dindi EW. A GRAVITY SURVEY OF THE JOMBO HILL AREA, SOUTH COAST KENYA. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1982. Abstract

ABSTRACT

The aeromagnetic survey of the Jombo Hill Area conducted in l977 revealed an anomaly of 2000 gammas in amplitude in the area of the intrusive rocks. This value gtands,out as one of the highest values ever recorded in Kenya. In order to investigate the anomaly further, a gravity survey was conducted in the area within 40 km radius_of Jombo hill. After the necessary corrections to the observed data they were compiled into a Bouguer gravity map of the area.

The Bouguer gravity anomalies range from - 40 to over 50 mgals. The peak of the anomaly occurs immediately to the south of the hill and most of the contours close on this peak. It is noticeable that the magnetic and gravity anomalies are roughly coincident. The relative ease and convenience of gravity 3D modelling relative to magnetic 3D modelling, in the context of this study, dictated the placing of a greater emphasis on the former in the quantitative interpretation.
The gravity anomaly is interpreted in terms of an inverted funnel like body of density 3.1 gcm-3, with its top surface at about l km depth. Estimates from the magnetic map yield a similar value for the depth to the top of the body.

Most of the magnetization in these rocks is the induced type and is in the direction of the ambient field. The large grain size has an appreciable effect on the magnetization in these rocks.
It appears from the study, that both the magnetic and gravity anomalies are caused by a single body. The gravity anomaly depicts the effect of the entire body while the magnetic anomaly that due to a relatively small central and shallow portion of it. The exact geometry of this portion was not determined. However a sphere fitted to the anomaly gave satisfactory results.

By comparison with the geology of the area and with the characteristics of other known alkaline complexes in Eastern Africa, the gravity model is considered geologically reasonable.

ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "'Grassroots Participation in Small and Large Scale Irrigation Agriculture: The Kenyan Experience', paper presented to the joint seminar on Irrigation Policies in Kenya and Zimbabwe, November 1986.". In: The Development of the National Economy Colourprint Ltd. Nairobi, 1993. International Union of Crystallography; 1986. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "'Grassroots Participation in Small and Large Scale Irrigation Agriculture' in G. M.Ruigu and M. Rukuni, eds., Irrigation Policy in Kenya and Zimbabwe, Institute for Development Studies, University of Nairobi, 1990.". In: The Development of the National Economy Colourprint Ltd. Nairobi, 1993. International Union of Crystallography; 1990. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "Grassroots Participation and Development in Kenya: Empowering Local Communities. A paper presented at n conference organised by The Swiss Society ol African Studies. Hern. Switzerland. 5 -13 May. 1994.". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1994. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "Grassroot Participation in Development Planning in Kenya: Empowering Local Communities. (1995) In Uhcr/chcn ini (ifrikanischen AJItiig. Ed. Beat Soltas and Lilo Roost Vischcr. Bern Switzerland.". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1995. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

Kamau HN, Koech OK, Mureithi SM, Wasonga OV, Gachene CKK. "Grass species for range rehabilitation: Perceptions of a pastoral community in Narok North sub-county, Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2020;16(8):1204-1212.grass_species_for_range_rehabilitation-_perceptions_of_a_2020.pdf
A. KSPE;KAK;LMV;BPM;. "Grappling With HIV Transmission Risks: Narratives of Rural Women in Eastern Kenya Living with HIV ." Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. 2012;23 (5)(Sept/Oct. 2012):442-453.
Amiga KK, Kola BO. "Graphics display unit for simulation on personal computers." African Journal of Science & Technology, Series A. 1995;11(1):29-33.
MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "Graphic Design for Students.". In: Kenya Institute of Education. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1992. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PETER DRODOCHJOHN. "Graphic Design for Development: The Case of Road Safety.". In: UNESCO /ICOGRAD A, Conference Proceedings Nairobi Kenya. University of Nairobi Press; 1986. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
Njomo N, Waryo T, Masikini M, Ikpo CO, Mailu S, Tovide O, Ross N, Williams A, Matinise N, Sunday CE, Mayedwa N, Baker PGL, Ozoemena KI, Iwuoha EI. "Graphenated tantalum (IV) oxide and poly (4-styrene sulphonic acid)-doped polyaniline nanocomposite as cathode material in an electrochemical capacitor." Electrochimica Acta. 2014;128:226-237. AbstractElectrochimica Acta

Description
Nanostructured poly(4-styrene sulphonic acid) and tantalum (IV) oxide-doped polyaniline nanocomposite were synthesised and their electro-conductive properties were determined. The oxide was synthesized using a modified sol-gel method and then dispersed in acidic media through sonication and entrapped in-situ into the polymeric matrix during the oxidative chemical polymerization of aniline doped with poly(4-styrene sulphonic acid). The oxides and novel polymeric nanocomposite were characterised with TEM, SEM, EDX, XRD, FTIR, UV-visible to ascertain elemental and phase composition, successful polymerization, doping, morphology and entrapment of the metal oxide nanoparticles. The electro-conductivity of the nanomaterial was interrogated using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The material was then anchored on activated graphitic carbon and used in the …

Tovide O, Jaheed N, Mohamed N, Nxusani E, Sunday CE, Tsegaye A, Ajayi RF, Njomo N, Makelane H, Bilibana M, Baker PG, Williams A, Vilakazi S, Tshikhudo R, Iwuoha EI. "Graphenated polyaniline-doped tungsten oxide nanocomposite sensor for real time determination of phenanthrene." Electrochimica Acta. 2014;128:138-148. AbstractElectrochimica Acta

Description
A graphenated polyaniline/tungsten oxide (PANI/WO3/GR) nanocomposite sensor was prepared by electropolymerisation of a mixture of aniline monomer and tungsten oxide on a graphene-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The PANI/WO3/GR/GCE nanocomposite electrode was tested as a sensor for the determination of phenanthrene. The direct electro-oxidation behaviour of phenanthrene on the PANI/WO3/GR modified GCE was carefully investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The results indicated that the PANI/WO3/GR/GCE sensor was more sensitive to phenanthrene (with a dynamic linear range of 1.0 - 6.0 pM and a detection limit of 0.123 pM.) than GCE, PANI/GCE or PANI/WO3/GCE. The sensor exhibited excellent reproducibility and long-term stability. The sensor exhibits lower detection sensitivity than the WHO permissible level of 1.12 nM phenanthrene in wastewater.

Waiganjo Wagacha P, Pauw GD, P.W. Githinji. "A Grapheme-Based Approach for Accent Restoration in Gikuyu.". In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation. Genoa, Italy: European Language Resources Association; 2006:. Abstract
n/a
Wagacha PW, Pauw GD, Githinji PW. A grapheme-based approach for accent restoration in Gıkuyu.; 2013.
Ananga A, Obuya J, Ochieng J, Tsolova V. "Grape seed nutraceuticals for disease prevention: current status and future prospects." Phenolic Compounds–Biological Activity. 2017:119-137.
Ananga A, Obuya J, Ochieng J, Tsolova V. "Grape seed nutraceuticals for disease prevention: current status and future prospects." Phenolic Compounds–Biological Activity. 2017:119-137.
Kanyinga K. "Grand corruption is back, but no one is willing to rein it in." Daily Nation, January 31, 2015.
Rintaugu EG, Munayi S, Mwangi I, Ngetich EDK. "The Grand coalition Government in Kenya: A recipe for sports Development." International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2011;1(18):305-311.
Mukunya DM. "Grain Storage."; 1976.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Grain Moisture Content Effects on Pressures in Grain Silos. Discovery and Innovation. 4(2): 49 - 52.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1992. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
Rutunga V;, Gachene CKK;, Karanja NK;, Palm CA. "Grain maize yield improvement using Tephrosia vogelii and Tithonia diversifolia biomass at Maseno, Kenya."; 2003. Abstract

This study aimed at assessing the response of maize crop to application of Tephrosia vogelii and Tithonia diversifolia biomass obtained six month-old fallows. The biomass were chopped into 5-cm long pieces and incorporated in the soil one week before planting maize. The natural fallow biomass was used as a control. These organic inputs were supplied with 20 kg phosphorus (P) /ha to attain P recommended rates. Shrub aboveground and litterfall biomass incorporation significantly (p=0.05) increased maize yield. Plots where above ground biomass was removed produced lower maize yield compared to those where the aboveground biomass was retained. Addition of 20 kg P/ha to soil together with the biomass increased maize yield by 40%. P in form of organic materials was insufficient to meet plant nutritional requirement. Residual effect of the biomass was low on the second and third subsequent crops. This may be due to the high rate of nutrient release during the biomass decomposition, the high crop nutrient uptake and also the nutrient losses through soil chemical and physical processes

Baudoin JP;, Vanderborght T;, Kimani PM;, Mwang’ombe AW. "Grain legumes: Common bean. Crop production in Tropical Africa."; 2001.
Baudoin JP;, Vanderborght T;, Kimani PM;, Mwang’ombe AW. "Grain legumes: Common bean. Crop production in Tropical Africa."; 2001.
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Graham SM, Masese L, Gitau R, Mwakangalu D, Jaoko W, Ndinya-Achola J, Mandaliya K, Peshu N, Baeten JM & McClelland RS (2009) Increased risk of genital ulcer disease in women during the first month after initiating antiretroviral therapy. Journal of Acquir.". In: UoN research meeting. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome 52(5):600-3; 2009. Abstract
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W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Graham SM, Masese L, Gitau R, Mwakangalu D, Jaoko W, Ndinya-Achola J, Mandaliya K, Peshu N, Baeten JM & McClelland RS (2009) Increased risk of genital ulcer disease in women during the first month after initiating antiretroviral therapy. Journal of Acquir.". In: Beverage among the Abagusii of Western Kenya. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome 52(5):600-3; 2009. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Graham SM, Holte SE, Peshu NM, Richardson BA, Panteleeff DD, Jaoko WG, Ndinya-Achola JO, Mandaliya KN, Overbaugh JM, McClelland RS.Initiation of antiretroviral therapy leads to a rapid decline in cervical and vaginal HIV-1 shedding.AIDS. 2007 Feb 19;21(4).". In: AIDS. 2007 Feb 19;21(4):501-7. IBIMA Publishing; 2007. Abstractinitiation_of_antiretroviral_therapy.docinitiation_of_antiretroviral_therapy.pdf

BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) may decrease HIV-1 infectivity in women by reducing genital HIV-1 shedding. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the time course and magnitude of decay in cervical and vaginal HIV-1 shedding as women initiate ART. METHODS: This prospective, observational study of 20 antiretroviral-naive women initiating ART with stavudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine measured HIV-1 RNA in plasma, cervical secretions, and vaginal secretions. Qualitative polymerase chain reaction estimated HIV-1 DNA in cervical and vaginal samples. Perelson's two-phase viral decay model and non-linear random effects were used to compare RNA decay rates. Decreases in proviral DNA were evaluated using logistic regression and generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: Significant decreases in the quantity of HIV-1 RNA were observed by day 2 in plasma (P < 0.001), day 2 in cervical secretions (P = 0.001), and day 4 in vaginal secretions (P < 0.001). Modeled initial and subsequent RNA decay rates in plasma, cervical secretions, and vaginal secretions were 0.6, 0.8, and 1.2 log10 virions/day, and 0.04, 0.05, and 0.06 log10 virions/day, respectively. The initial decay rate for vaginal HIV-1 RNA was more rapid than for plasma RNA (P = 0.02). Detection of HIV-1 DNA decreased significantly in vaginal secretions during the first week (P < 0.001). At day 28, 10 women had detectable HIV-1 RNA or proviral DNA in genital secretions. CONCLUSIONS: Genital HIV-1 shedding decreased rapidly after ART initiation, consistent with a rapid decrease in infectivity. However, incomplete viral suppression in half of these women may indicate an ongoing risk of transmission.

W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Graham SM, Holte SE, Peshu NM, Richardson BA, Panteleeff DD, Jaoko WG, Ndinya-Achola JO, Mandaliya KN, Overbaugh JM, McClelland RS.Initiation of antiretroviral therapy leads to a rapid decline in cervical and vaginal HIV-1 shedding. AIDS. 2007 Feb 19;21(4.". In: AIDS. 2007 Feb 19;21(4):501-7. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2007. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) may decrease HIV-1 infectivity in women by reducing genital HIV-1 shedding. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the time course and magnitude of decay in cervical and vaginal HIV-1 shedding as women initiate ART. METHODS: This prospective, observational study of 20 antiretroviral-naive women initiating ART with stavudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine measured HIV-1 RNA in plasma, cervical secretions, and vaginal secretions. Qualitative polymerase chain reaction estimated HIV-1 DNA in cervical and vaginal samples. Perelson's two-phase viral decay model and non-linear random effects were used to compare RNA decay rates. Decreases in proviral DNA were evaluated using logistic regression and generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: Significant decreases in the quantity of HIV-1 RNA were observed by day 2 in plasma (P < 0.001), day 2 in cervical secretions (P = 0.001), and day 4 in vaginal secretions (P < 0.001). Modeled initial and subsequent RNA decay rates in plasma, cervical secretions, and vaginal secretions were 0.6, 0.8, and 1.2 log10 virions/day, and 0.04, 0.05, and 0.06 log10 virions/day, respectively. The initial decay rate for vaginal HIV-1 RNA was more rapid than for plasma RNA (P = 0.02). Detection of HIV-1 DNA decreased significantly in vaginal secretions during the first week (P < 0.001). At day 28, 10 women had detectable HIV-1 RNA or proviral DNA in genital secretions. CONCLUSIONS: Genital HIV-1 shedding decreased rapidly after ART initiation, consistent with a rapid decrease in infectivity. However, incomplete viral suppression in half of these women may indicate an ongoing risk of transmission.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Graham SM, Baeten JM, Richardson BA, Wener MH, Lavreys L, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Overbaugh J, McClelland RS.A decrease in albumin in early HIV type 1 infection predicts subsequent disease progression.AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2007 Oct;23(10):1197.". In: AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2007 Oct;23(10):1197-2000. IBIMA Publishing; 2007. Abstracta_decrease_in_albumin_in_early_hiv_type_1_infection.doca_decrease_in_albumin_in_early_hiv_type_1_infection.pdf

{ We investigated the association between albumin levels and HIV-1 disease progression among 78 Kenyan women followed from before infection through a median of 70 months. With HIV-1 acquisition, median albumin decreased from 38.5 g/liter to 36.8 g/liter (p = 0.07) and the prevalence of hypoalbuminemia increased from 16% to 32% (p = 0.02). Each 1 g/liter decrease in albumin with HIV-1 acquisition was associated with a 13% increase (p = 0.01) in the risk of progressing to a CD4 count <200 cells/mul, after adjustment for set point plasma viral load. A decrease in albumin of over 10% was associated with a 3.5-fold increase in the risk of progressing to a CD4 count <200 cells/mul (95% CI 1.4-9.0

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Graham SM, Baeten JM, Richardson BA, Bankson DD, Lavreys L, Ndinya-Achola JO, Mandaliya K, Overbaugh J, McClelland RS.Higher pre-infection vitamin E levels are associated with higher mortality in HIV-1-infected Kenyan women: a prospective study. BMC Infec.". In: BMC Infect Dis. 2007 Jun 26;7:63. IBIMA Publishing; 2007. Abstracthigher_pre-infection_vitamin_e_levels.dochigher_pre-infection_vitamin_e_levels.pdf

BACKGROUND: Low vitamin E levels are often found in HIV-1 infection, and studies have suggested that higher levels may decrease the risk of disease progression. However, vitamin E supplementation has also been reported to increase CCR5 expression, which could increase HIV-1 replication. We hypothesized that vitamin E levels at HIV-1 acquisition may influence disease progression. METHODS: Vitamin E status was measured in stored samples from the last pre-infection visit for 67 Kenyan women with reliably estimated dates of HIV-1 acquisition. Regression analyses were used to estimate associations between pre-infection vitamin E and plasma viral load, time to CD4 count <200 cells/muL, and mortality. RESULTS: After controlling for potential confounding factors, each 1 mg/L increase in pre-infection vitamin E was associated with 0.08 log10 copies/mL (95% CI -0.01 to +0.17) higher set point viral load and 1.58-fold higher risk of mortality (95% CI 1.15-2.16). The association between higher pre-infection vitamin E and mortality persisted after adjustment for set point viral load (HR 1.55, 95% CI 1.13-2.13). CONCLUSION: Higher pre-infection vitamin E levels were associated with increased mortality. Further research is needed to elucidate the role vitamin E plays in HIV-1 pathogenesis.

Walter Onchere, Weke P, Ottieno J, Ogutu: C. "Graduation of Term Assurance Data using Frailty Approach." Afrika Statistika. 2021;16(3):2805-2817.
Njeri KM. "Graduates Stir Business Potential." African Executive Online Magazine (2009).
Khainga SO. ""Graciloplasty" in treatment of recurrent complete rectal prolapse: case report." East Afr Med J. 2007;84(8):398-400. Abstract

Gracilis muscle flap was used to treat a seven year old boy with a one year history of recurrent rectal prolapse. Initial perineal surgery in form of Thiersch stitch resulted into failure to control rectal prolapse and damage to anal sphincter. Graciloplasty corrected both problems.

Jerusa Omari, Wakasiaka S, Khisa W, Omoni G, Lavender T. "Grace Omoni Grace Omoni Women and men's awareness of obstetric fistula in facilities in Kisii and Nyamira Counties, Kenya." African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2015;9(1):12-16. AbstractWebsite

Background:

Obstetric fistula has been defined as an ‘abnormal communication’ between the vagina and the bladder or rectum of a woman which results in continuous leakage of urine and/or faeces. The most common cause of obstetric fistula is obstetric trauma. Obstetric fistula is a highly stigmatising condition; often the women are neglected and or ostracised.
Aim:

To establish the knowledge and awareness of fistula among men and women living in an area where fistula prevalence is rising.
Methods:

In this cross-sectional study, women and their partners were recruited purposefully in two counties Kenya: Nyamira and Kisii and interviewed using structured interviews. Data were cleaned and entered into Excel. SPSS was used for descriptive data analysis. Chi2 test was conducted to compare responses according to gender and level of education.
Results:

Three hundred participants (253 women and 47 men) were interviewed over a 3-month period. Responses from women and men were similar. Few (32%) participants reported having seen a woman with fistula in their community. Just over half (53%) said that they knew what causes fistula, of which 89% said they knew that fistula could be treated. Only 27% said that the health care provider mentioned fistula during health education talks. Participants educated to a level above secondary school were more knowledgeable about fistula.
Conclusion:

Fistula information is lacking among community members. There is a need to scale up training and community awareness campaigns to help eradicate fistula from Kenya.
Keywords: Fistula, Obstetric, Survey, Kenya, Women, Men

CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "'Grace Ogot: A Creative Writer's Contribution to Cultural Development and Women'sEmancipation' in Writers'Forum.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1992. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
APOLOT DROKALEBOFAITH. "Grace N. Thoithi and Faith A. Okalebo. Country case study: Kenya. In: 2009 FIP Global Pharmacy Workforce Report. No. 5.4. International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP), Hage, Netherlands.". In: FIP Global Pharmacy Workforce Report. No. 5.4. International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP), Hague, Netherlands; 2009. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} This study compared the efficacy and tolerability of stavudine at the two dose levels in patients attending HIV Comprehensive Care Centre, in the largest public hospital in Kenya. Data on CD4 cell counts, drug adverse events and opportunistic infections were collected retrospectively from the records of 810 adult patients distributed in three study groups: patients weighing ≥ 60 kg receiving 40 mg BD stavudine; patients weighing ≥ 60 kg receiving 30 mg BD stavudine; and patients weighing < 60 kg receiving 30 mg BD stavudine. Fewer stavudine related adverse effects were seen in patients weighing ≥ 60 kg treated with 30 mg stavudine compared to those who received 40 mg stavudine in the same weight category (4.2 % vs 16.7 %, p < 0.001). Patients weighing < 60 kg were more likely to experience drug toxicity than those ≥ 60 kg when given 30 mg stavudine (12.8% vs 4.2 %, p<0.001). Occurrence of any adverse drug reactions was also significantly associated with age greater than 45 years (HR = 2.16, CI:1.41-3.31, p<0.001), co-morbidities (HR = 2.16, CI:1.06-4.38, p < 0.001), treatment with isoniazid (HR = 2.07, CI:1.09-3.96, p<0.001) and severe (WHO stage IV) immunosuppression (HR=1.45,CI:0.86-2.45, p<0.001). The onset of drug related toxicities, for all study arms, was principally in the first year of commencing therapy, for example 76 % of all cases of peripheral neuropathy were diagnosed within 12 months of treatment. The study demonstrated similar immunologic outcomes in the treatment groups given either 30 or 40 mg stavudine, with median CD4 cell counts after 12 months of treatment more than doubling for patients in all the study cohorts. The findings support the use of combination antiretroviral therapy regimens containing low dose stavudine in Kenya. Key words Low-dose stavudine, combination antiretroviral therapy, HIV, stavudine tolerability
Iraki XN. "Grabbing is not just about land." The Standard, May 19, 2015.
Bendick R, Fisseha S, Lewi E, Reilinger R, King R, Kianji G. "GPS Constraints on the Spatial Distribution of Extension in the Ethiopian Highlands and Main Ethiopian Rift.". In: American Geophysical Union Annual Meeting, Volume: Eos, Trans. AGU 95, Fall Meet. San Francisco, CA,; 2014.
Sprenger KJ, Chouler CA. "The GP dilemma. Recommendations and synopsis of a student conference." S. Afr. Med. J.. 1975;49(49):2059-60. Abstract

The proceedings of a conference organised by students are reported. The present standing of the general practitioner and his need in different societies are equated and the obvious deficiencies are considered. Such themes as maldistribution, service and education are discussed. Resolutions derived from the conference are reported in full.

KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Goyal R, Chalamalasetty SB, Madan K, Paul SB, Arora R, Safaya R, Acharya SK.Acral and palmo-plantar hyperpigmentation in a patient with disseminated hepatocellular carcinoma.Indian J Gastroenterol. 2007 Nov-Dec;26(6):292-3.". In: Indian J Gastroenterol. 2007 Nov-Dec;26(6):292-3. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2007. Abstract
Capecitabine (5-fluorouracil prodrug) is being evaluated for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma, and is associated with a peculiar skin reaction called hand and foot syndrome (HFS). We describe one patient with HCC and drug-induced HFS.
joshua Kivuva. "The governmental and party system in kenya.". In: The 5th generation scholarship program "Go Africa...Go Germany..." Fairview Hotel, Nairobi.; 2012.
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "Government-owned Businesses. In Introduction to Business.". In: Kenya Literature Bureau, Nairobi. (Edited by Professor Kibera).; 1996.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "Government Policy and Environment: The Case of the Waste-oil Recycling Industry in Kenya", (Forthcoming).". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Government of Kenya, Ministry of Health: Clinical Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment of Common Conditions in Kenya, October 2002.". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J DRCHWEYALUDEKI. "Government of Kenya Anti-Corruption Programs, 2001-2005', ).". In: Ludeki C. et al Control of Corruption in Kenya: Legal & Political Dimensions Claripress: Nairobi. ISCTRC; 2005. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
Njeri KM. "Government and Gender Equity in Micro and small enterprises ." IDC working Paper No. 541,Nairob IDC University of Nairobi. 2007.
Folayan MO, Tantawi ME, Vukovic A, Schroth R, Alade M, Mehebbi S, Al-Batayneh OB, Arheiam A, Amalia R, Gaffar B, Onyejaka NK, Daryanavard H, Kemoli A, Diaz ACM, grewal N. "Governance, maternal well-being and early childhood caries in 3-5 year olds." BMC Oral Health. 2020;2020; 20:166(2020; 20:166):2020; 20:166.
Chebii WK, John M, Karatu K. "The governance of traditional medicine and herbal remedies in the selected local markets of Western Kenya." Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine . 2020;39(16).
WAMBUA MUSILI. "Governance of Kenya’s living and non-living marine resources: a review of the existing policy, legal and institutional frameworks.". In: worldwide colloquium of the IUCN academy of environmental law. Rio de Janiero/Paraty, Brazil; 2007.
ODUNDO DRAMOLLOHPAUL. "Governance of District Health Systems: A Focus on the Health Management Boards and Human Resource Development Issues Discussion paper No. 27. IPAR, Nairobi.". In: Discussion paper No. 27. IPAR, Nairobi. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2003.
Wanyande P, Omosa M, Ludeki C. Governance Issues in Kenya: An Overview.; 2007.Website
Ludeki C, Wanyande P, Omosa M. Governance Issues in Kenya: An Overview.; 2007.Website
Kanyinga K. "Governance Institutions and Inequality in Kenya .". In: Readings on Inequality in Kenya: Sectoral Dynamics and Perspectives . Nairobi: Society for International Development (SID); 2007.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Governance in Kenya During Pre-Colonial and Colonial Period," in Wilhelm Hofmeister and Inglo Scholz, (eds.), Traditional and Contemporary Forms of Local Government in Africa (Johannesburg: Konrad Adenauer Foundation), pp. 89-102.". In: African Journal of Political Science Vol. 2 No. 2,pp. 41-69. IPPNW; 1997. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "Governance in contemporary Kenya: Politics of citizenship, leadership and security. A paper prepared for the Department of Sociology, University of Nairobi.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2000.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Governance Beyond Government"; A rejoinder to Justice Breyer of the United states supreme Court and Prof. Frank Michelman of Harvard University Law School at a symposium organised by the US Association of Constitutional Law on constitutionalism Privatisa.". In: Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1998. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
Kivisi Mbali, Mutembei Henry MJ. "Governance Aspects on Adoption of Biogas Technology in." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge. 2018;3(3):81-86.mutembei-mbali-governance-2018.pdf
Wanyande, Peter; Omosa M; CL. "Governance and Transition Politics in Kenya .". 2007.Website
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Governance and Management of Urban Areas and Cities in the Context of the Kenya Constitution 2010.". In: National Urban Development Policy Workshop. Panari Hotel Nairobi; 2010.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. ""Governance and Leadership in Africa" in Bahemuka, J. and Brockington. J. East Africa in Transition: Communities, Culture and Change. Nairobi: Acton publishers.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2001.
MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "Governance and Conflict Management’ .". 2007.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Gouldesbrough DR, McLigeyo SO, Anderton JL.Renal transplant aspiration cytology. Role for simple morphological criteria. Cytopathology. 1992;3(2):119-28.". In: Central African Journal of Medicine, 38(10): 421-424, 1992. University of Nairobi.; 1992. Abstract
Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a well-recognized technique for sampling solid organs. It is used in renal transplantation to clarify the cause of a poorly functioning graft. Differential scoring techniques with respect to peripheral blood cell populations, and immunocytochemistry have been employed in this context. We describe the use of simple morphological criteria alone in renal transplant FNA. We compare these with needle biopsy and clinical parameters and show their value in the detection of active cellular rejection. Their limitations are discussed within the framework of other patterns of transplant pathology.
PROF. MIBEY RICHARDK. "Gough, F.J.; L.L. Singleton; T.S. Lee, and R.K. Mibey. Tan spot development in wheat cultivar Triumph 64 grown under three tillage systems. Phytopathology 71: 220.". In: Yair Ben-Dov & C.J. Hodgson. World Crop Pests, 7A. Elsevier. Amsterdam. Pp 275-20. University of Nairobi.; 1981.
Mwangi AP-. "The Gothic Novel as an Avenue in Disguise for Political Protest: A Fresh Look at the Gothic from Its Origins to its Appearance in Kenya." The Nairobi Journal of the Literature: Convergence and Divergence in Literature. 2014;(7):24-40.
Ichang’i DW, J.Omenge, Opiyo Akech N. "Got Ramogi: A Rare Syenitic Intrusion in the Archaean Greenstone Belt of Western Kenya." African Journal of Science and Technology (AJST) Science and Engineering Series. 2015;13(1):58-67.
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "A Gospel of Community, Compassion and Continuity in Daniel Carro and Richard E. Wilson, Contemporary Gospel Accents: Coing Theology in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, Macon, Georgia: Mercer University Press.". In: All Africa Journal of Theology, Sponsored by the All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) and Conference of African Theological Institutions (CATI), Vol. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1997. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
OBEL DRGORCHRISTOPHER. "Gor, C.O., and Riesenberg, L. (September, 1989). .". In: PhD Thesis , University of Nairobi. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1989.
OBEL DRGORCHRISTOPHER. "Gor, C.O., and Riesenberg, L. (July, 1987). .". In: Masters. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1987.
OBEL DRGORCHRISTOPHER. "Gor, C.O. (May, 1988). .". In: Masters. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1988.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "GOODALL, E.D., KAY, R.N.B. and MALOIY, G.M.O. (1968) The red deer as an experimental animal. Journal of Physiology London 194, 6-7P.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1968. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
Kanyinga K. "Good leadership in counties is an important condition for development." Sunday Nation, December 17, 2017.
Ontita E. "Good Governance." Omosa, M., G. Njeru, E. Ontita and O. Nyarwath (Eds.) Theory and Practice of Governance in Kenya: Towards Civic Engagement. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2008. Abstract
n/a
Ontita E. "Good Governance." Omosa, M., G. Njeru, E. Ontita and O. Nyarwath (Eds.) Theory and Practice of Governance in Kenya: Towards Civic Engagement. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2008. Abstract
n/a
Wakibi SN. "Good data, informed decisions: Strengthening HRH information systems.". In: The Global Health Council’s. Washington DC, USA; 2009.
Kanyinga K. "The good and the utterly bad in Okoa plan." Daily Nation, April 25, 2015.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Gonococcal cervicitis is associated with reduced systemic CD8+ T cell responses in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected and exposed, uninfected sex workers. Kaul R, Rowland-Jones SL, Gillespie G, Kimani J, Dong T, Kiama P, Simonsen JN, Bwayo JJ, M.". In: J Infect Dis. 2002 May 15;185(10):1525-9. Epub 2002 Apr 30. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2002. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.

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