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WANJIRU DRNGUGIROSE. "Owen Nyango'ro, Tax and Capital structure: Case of listed firms in Kenya, University of Nairobi, 2003.". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2003. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mbogwa S.W., W.V Lumb, K.W. Smith: . (1978) Plating of Canine Scapular Fractures: Am. J. Vet. ResVol. 39 No. 8: 1327-1330.". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1978. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WANJIRU DRNGUGIROSE. "Yong Yoon; World economic booms and crisis, adjustment policies and the current account: A decomposition analysis for Kenya 1972-1993, University of Nairobi.". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1993. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
Wanjiru KG, Digolo Patrick Ochieng Obonyo, Boniface N, Owino MS. "Effect of Computer Based Instruction on Learners’ Performance in Art and Design in public secondary schools in Kenya. ." The International Journal of Humanities & Social Studies.. 2017;5(6).
WANJIRU DRGICHUHIAGNES. "Gichuhi, W. and E. K. Bauni.". In: Measure Macro International, Maryland. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1998. Abstract

Fresh blood lymphocytes from nine health donors have been compared with samples from the same donors, recovered after period of 2 to 21 months storage in liquid nitrogen, for the capacity to respond to a range of mitogens in vitro. A microculture assay was used, requireing aliquots of only 25,000 cells. The mean levels of 14C-thymidine uptake for fresh and frozen samples were closely comparable when the cells had been stimulated by PHA, Pokeweed or mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells. Lymphocytes from six East African donors, frozen by a very simple technique, were recovered after 3 or more years storage in liquid nitrogen. Five of the samples were in good condition as judged by cell viability and the capacity to form spontaneous 'E' rosettes with sheep erythrocytes. These five samples also responded extremely well to PHA, PWM and mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells using the microculture assay. This study extends the range of applications of cell banks in which small aliquots of blood lymphocytes are stored in liquid nitrogen for periods of several years.

WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mande, J.D., I.B.J. Buoro, S.W. Mbugua and P.M.F. Mbithi (2002) Experimental Models of Osteoarthritis. A Review The Kenya Vet. (23) 67-69.". In: East Afri. Med J. 1988 May; 65(5):330-4. IBIMA Publishing; 2002. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mbugua, S.W. (1996) contribution on rabies and worms in .". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1996. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WANJIRU DRNGUGIROSE. "Growth of the NSE primary market: what can we learn? KIPPRA Discussion Paper # 47." The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2005.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mbugua, S.W., Skoglund, L.A., Skjelbred, P. and Lokken, P. (1988): Effects of a glucocorticoid in the post-operative course following experimented orthopaedic surgery in dogs. Acta. Vet. Scand. 29, 415-419.". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1988. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WANJIRU DRNGUGIROSE. "Makoma, L. Wanza; the demand for municipal solid waste disposal services; An econometric analysis of willingness to pay; 1998, University of Nairobi.". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1998. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
WANJIRU DRGICHUHIAGNES. "Gichuhi, Wanjiru, Sarah Bradley and Karen Hardee. 2004. Provision and Use of Family Planning in the Context of HIV/AIDS in Kenya: Perspectives of Providers, Family Planning and Antenatal Care Clients and HIV-Positive Women.". In: Policy Project, Futures Group. International, Washington DC. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2004. Abstract

Fresh blood lymphocytes from nine health donors have been compared with samples from the same donors, recovered after period of 2 to 21 months storage in liquid nitrogen, for the capacity to respond to a range of mitogens in vitro. A microculture assay was used, requireing aliquots of only 25,000 cells. The mean levels of 14C-thymidine uptake for fresh and frozen samples were closely comparable when the cells had been stimulated by PHA, Pokeweed or mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells. Lymphocytes from six East African donors, frozen by a very simple technique, were recovered after 3 or more years storage in liquid nitrogen. Five of the samples were in good condition as judged by cell viability and the capacity to form spontaneous 'E' rosettes with sheep erythrocytes. These five samples also responded extremely well to PHA, PWM and mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells using the microculture assay. This study extends the range of applications of cell banks in which small aliquots of blood lymphocytes are stored in liquid nitrogen for periods of several years.

WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mbugua, S.W., Skoglund, L.A., Djoseland, O. and Lokken, P. (1988): Adrenocortical suppression by a glucocorticoid: Effect of a single i.m. injection of betamethasone depot versus placeto given prior to orthopaedic surgery in dogs. Acta. Vet. Scand., 29, 4.". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1988. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WANJIRU DRNGUGIROSE. "Rose W. Ngugi, Health Seeking Behavior in Reform Process for Rural Households The Case of Mwea-Kirinyaga District. AERC Research paper # 95.". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1999. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
WANJIRA DRNJUGUNAPAMELA. "Prevalence, incidence and risk factors of epilepsy in older children in rural Kenya.Mung'ala-Odera V, White S, Meehan R, Otieno GO, Njuguna P, Mturi N, Edwards T, Neville BG, Newton CR. Seizure. 2008 Jul;17(5):396-404. Epub 2008 Jan 14.". In: Seizure. 2008 Jul;17(5):396-404. Epub 2008 Jan 14. East African Medical Journal; 2008. Abstract
BACKGROUND: There is little data on the burden or causes of epilepsy in developing countries, particularly in children living in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We conducted two surveys to estimate the prevalence, incidence and risk factors of epilepsy in children in a rural district of Kenya. All children born between 1991 and 1995 were screened with a questionnaire in 2001 and 2003, and those with a positive response were then assessed for epilepsy by a clinician. Active epilepsy was defined as two or more unprovoked seizures with one in the last year. RESULTS: In the first survey 10,218 children were identified from a census, of whom 110 had epilepsy. The adjusted prevalence estimates of lifetime and active epilepsy were 41/1000 (95% CI: 31-51) and 11/1000 (95% CI: 5-15), respectively. Overall two-thirds of children had either generalized tonic-clonic and/or secondary generalized seizures. A positive history of febrile seizures (OR=3.01; 95% CI: 1.50-6.01) and family history of epilepsy (OR=2.55; 95% CI: 1.19-5.46) were important risk factors for active epilepsy. After the second survey, 39 children from the same birth cohort with previously undiagnosed epilepsy were identified, thus the incidence rate of active epilepsy is 187 per 100,000 per year (95% CI: 133-256) in children aged 6-12 years. CONCLUSIONS: There is a considerable burden of epilepsy in older children living in this area of rural Kenya, with a family history of seizures and a history of febrile seizures identified as risk factors for developing epilepsy.
WANJIRA DRNJUGUNAPAMELA. "Validity and reliability of the 'Ten Questions' questionnaire for detecting moderate to severe neurological impairment in children aged 6-9 years in rural Kenya. Mung'ala-Odera V, Meehan R, Njuguna P, Mturi N, Alcock K, Carter JA, Newton CR.Neuroepidemiol.". In: Neuroepidemiology. 2004 Jan-Apr;23(1-2):67-72. East African Medical Journal; 2004. Abstract

BACKGROUND: The 'Ten Questions' Questionnaire (TQQ) is used to detect severe neurological impairment in children living in resource-poor countries. Its usefulness has been established in Asia and the Caribbean, but there are a few published studies from Africa. We evaluated the TQQ as part of a larger study of neurological impairment in a rural community, on the coast of Kenya. METHODS: The study was conducted in two phases from June 2001 to May 2002; in phase one, a community household screening of 10,218 children aged 6-9 years using the TQQ was performed. Phase two involved a comprehensive clinical and psychological assessment of all children testing positive on the TQQ (n = 810) and an equivalent number of those testing negative (n = 766). Data were interpreted using the impairment-specific approach. RESULTS: Overall, the sensitivity rates for screening the different impairments were: cognitive (70.0%), motor (71.4%), epilepsy (100%), hearing (87.4%) and visual (77.8%). All the specificity rates were greater than 96%. However, the positive predictive values were low, and ranged from 11 to 33%. CONCLUSIONS: These results are similar to those from other continents and provide evidence that the TQQ can be used to compare the epidemiology of moderate/severe impairment in different parts of the world. Furthermore, the TQQ can be used to screen for moderately/severely impaired children in resource-poor countries; however, the low positive predictive values mean that other assessments are required for confirmation. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

WANJIRA DRNJUGUNAPAMELA. "Prevalence and risk factors of neurological disability and impairment in children living in rural Kenya. Mung'ala-Odera V, Meehan R, Njuguna P, Mturi N, Alcock KJ, Newton CR.Int J Epidemiol. 2006 Jun;35(3):683-8. Epub 2006 Feb 21.". In: Int J Epidemiol. 2006 Jun;35(3):683-8. Epub 2006 Feb 21. East African Medical Journal; 2006. Abstract
BACKGROUND: There is little data on the burden of neurological impairment (NI) in developing countries, particularly in children of Africa. METHODS: We conducted a survey of NI in children aged 6-9 years in a rural district of Kenya. First, we screened for neurological disability by administering the Ten Questions Questionnaire (TQQ) to parents/guardians of children in a defined population. In phase two, we performed a comprehensive clinical and psychological assessment on children who tested positive on TQQ and on a similar number of children who tested negative. RESULTS: A total of 10 218 children were screened, of whom 955 (9.3%) were positive on TQQ. Of these, 810 (84.8%) were assessed, and of those who tested negative 766 (8.3%) were assessed. The prevalence for moderate/severe NI was 61/1000 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 48-74]. The most common domains affected were epilepsy (41/1000), cognition (31/1000), and hearing (14/1000). Motor (5/1000) and vision (2/1000) impairments were less common. Of the neurologically impaired children (n = 251), 56 (22%) had more than one impairment. Neonatal insults were found to have a significant association with moderate/severe NI in both the univariate [odds ratio (OR) = 1.70; 95% CI 1.12-2.47] and multivariate analyses (OR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.09-1.65). CONCLUSIONS: There is a considerable burden of moderate/severe NI in this area of rural Kenya, with epilepsy, cognition, and hearing being the most common domains affected. Neonatal insults were identified as an important risk factor.
Wanjira J, Ndiwa TC, Gichuki N, Wykstra M. "Evaluating the efficacy of flashing lights in deterring livestock attacks by predators: a case study of Meibae Community Conservancy, Northern Kenya." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2021;2(3).
WANJIRA DRNJUGUNAPAMELA. "Computerized tomography scan of the brain in a community study of neurological impairment in Kenya. Njuguna PW, Mungala-Odera V, Chong WK, Meehan RA, Newton CR. J Child Neurol. 2007 Jan;22(1):26-32.". In: J Child Neurol. 2007 Jan;22(1):26-32. East African Medical Journal; Submitted. Abstract
Neurological impairment is common in resource-poor countries, but its causes are not clear. Computerized tomography (CT) of the brain has been used to determine the cause of brain insults that may manifest as neurological impairments. The authors conducted a community survey in Kilifi of 10 218 children aged 6 to 9 years to detect neurological impairment. From this survey, 34 children were identified, of whom 16 had motor deficits, 11 complex partial seizures, 4 microcephaly or macrocephaly, and 3 severe developmental delay. These children were assessed with elicitation of history, physical examination, and CT scan of the brain. Sixteen (47%) of the scans showed abnormalities: cerebral atrophy (n = 9), schizencephaly (n = 3), periventricular leukomalacia (n = 2), porencephalic cyst (n = 1), and agenesis of the corpus callosum (n = 1). The minimum prevalence of abnormalities on the CT scan of the brain is 1.56 of 1000, and the prevalence of schizencephaly is 0.29 of 1000. Motor impairments were more likely to show abnormality than the other indications. CT abnormalities are common in children with neurological impairment in Kenya, but the appearances did not identify a major cause.
WANJIRA DRNJUGUNAPAMELA. "Perturbations in electrolyte levels in kenyan children with severe malaria complicated by acidosis. Maitland K, Pamba A, Fegan G, Njuguna P, Nadel S, Newton CR, Lowe B.Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Jan 1;40(1):9-16. Epub 2004 Dec 6.". In: Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Jan 1;40(1):9-16. Epub 2004 Dec 6. East African Medical Journal; 2004. Abstract
BACKGROUND: To date, information about the frequency of electrolyte disturbances among children with severe falciparum malaria is limited. METHODS: We describe changes in potassium, calcium, magnesium, and phosphate levels in 56 Kenyan children (42 who survived and 14 who died) admitted to the hospital with clinical features of severe malaria (impaired consciousness or deep breathing) complicated by acidosis (base deficit, >8 mmol/L). RESULTS: Mild-to-moderate hypercalcemia was common at admission, particularly among children with severe anemia. Severe hyperkalemia complicated falciparum malaria in 9 children (16%), of whom 7 (78%) died, generally soon after admission. Hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, and hypophosphatemia were uncommon (<7% of children) at admission but developed in >30% of children within 24 h. Hypocalcemia was infrequent (<5% of children) at any time point. Apart from administration of potassium, electrolyte deficiencies were not corrected and were not associated with an adverse outcome. CONCLUSIONS: At admission to the hospital, hyperkalemia may complicate cases of acidosis due to severe malaria and is associated with high, early mortality. After admission, mild asymptomatic deficiencies in magnesium and phosphate levels were common but were not associated with any deleterious effect. Thus, routine correction when serial measurement of electrolyte levels cannot be performed is unwarranted. Asymptomatic potassium deficiency developed despite provision of this electrolyte at maintenance doses. Further studies are justified but are unlikely to be a major research priority because, as these data suggest, the impact on mortality would at most be limited.
WANJIRA DRNJUGUNAPAMELA. "Management of severe falciparum malaria. Njuguna P, Newton C. J Postgrad Med. 2004 Jan-Mar;50(1):45-50.". In: J Postgrad Med. 2004 Jan-Mar;50(1):45-50. East African Medical Journal; 2004. Abstract
Plasmodium falciparum is the most common cause of severe and life-threatening malaria. Falciparum malaria causes over one million deaths every year. In Africa, a vast majority of these deaths occur in children under five years of age. The presentation of severe malaria varies with age and geographical distribution. The mortality rate is higher in adults than in children but African children develop neuro-cognitive sequelae following severe malaria more frequently. The management of severe malaria includes prompt administration of appropriate parenteral anti-malarial agents and early recognition and treatment of the complications. In children, the complications include metabolic acidosis (often caused by hypovolaemia), hypoglycaemia, hyperlacticacidaemia, severe anaemia, seizures and raised intracranial pressure. In adults, renal failure and pulmonary oedema are more common causes of death. In contrast, concomitant bacterial infections occur more frequently in children and are associated with mortality in children. Admission to critical or intensive care units may help reduce the mortality, and the frequency and severity of sequelae related to severe malaria.
Wanjiku Ng’ang’a AL, Carlson L. "Multilingual Generation of Live Math Problems in WebALT." In: Mika Seppälä, Sebastian Xambo OC, ed. Proceedings of the First WebALT Conference and Exhibition.; 2006:. Abstract
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Wanjiku Ng'ang'a, Anni Laine LC. Natural Language Generation from OpenMath.; 2006. Abstract
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WANJIKU DRMUMENYASIPHILA. "Mumenya S.W., Tait R.B. and Alexander M.G.: Mechanical behavior of textile concrete under accelerated ageing conditions.". In: Research paper submitted to Cement and Concrete Composites journal. Materials Research Society; 2003. Abstract
1. Singh C. B.  .  August . .
Wanjiku J;, Manyengo JU;, Oluoch-Kosura W;. Gender differentiation in the analysis of alternative farm mechanization choices on small farms in Kenya.; 2007. AbstractWebsite

Using multinomial logit we analyze factors that influence the choice of mechanization technologies in Nyanza Province. The results show that farmers are aware of the attributes of the mechanization technologies, and that animal traction is the most commonly used. Gender, formal and informal training of the household head, and technology attributes influence the choice of mechanization technology. This study recommends increased formal and informal training, extension, credit, and tractor hire services to facilitate knowledge transfer, credit, and tractor availability. The study also recommends enactment of laws that increase women's access and control of productive resources.

WANJIKU DRMUMENYASIPHILA. "Mumenya S.W., Tait R.B. and Alexander M.G.: An appropriate specimen geometry for direct tensile testing of textile concrete.". In: Proceedings of 3rd Young Concrete Engineers, Practitioners and Technologists, pp. 1-10, Cape Town and Mindrand, 2006. Materials Research Society; 2006. Abstract
1. Singh C. B.  .  August . .
WANJIKU DRNJUGUNAMARGARET. "Njuguna M, Msukwa G, Shilio B, Tumwesigye C, Courtright P, Lewallen S. Causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in children in schools for the blind in eastern Africa: changes in the last 14 years. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2009 May-Jun;16(3):151-5.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology. Livestock Research for Rural Development; 2009. Abstract

PURPOSE: To determine the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in children attending schools for the blind in Kenya, Malawi, Uganda, and Tanzania and to compare the findings with those of a 1994 study. METHODS: Children attending schools for the blind or annexes in 4 eastern African countries were examined. The major anatomical site of and underlying etiology of severe visual impairment and blindness was recorded using the standardized World Health Organization (WHO) reporting form. RESULTS: A total of 1062 children aged below 16 years were examined of whom 701 (65.2%) had severe visual impairment or blindness. The major anatomical sites of visual loss overall (% and 95% CI) were cornea scar/phthisis bulbi (19%,16.1-21.9), whole globe lesions (15.7%,13.0-18.4), retina (15.4 %, 12.7-18.1), lens related disorders (13.1%, 10.7-15.5), and optic nerve disorders (12.3%, 9.9-14.7). Corneal scar/phthisis was not distributed equally among the countries and was highest in Malawi, similar to findings in 1995. The major etiology of visual loss was childhood factors (29.9%) and an estimated 40% of severe visual impairment and blindness was due to potentially avoidable causes. CONCLUSION: The major causes of severe visual impairment and blindness overall have not changed appreciably since 1995. There are important differences among countries, however, and using overall estimates for planning may be misleading.

PMID: 19437309 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

WANJIKU DRMUMENYASIPHILA. "Mumenya S.W., Tait R.B. and Alexander M.G.: Evaluation of pseudo-ductile behavior of textile concrete.". In: Research Paper aimed at Materials and Structures Journal. Materials Research Society; 2003. Abstract
1. Singh C. B.  .  August . .
WANJIKU DRMUMENYASIPHILA. "2. Tait R.B., Mumenya S.W., Alexander M.G., and Hourahane D.: Textile concrete provides special architectural and permanent shuttering opportunities.". In: Paper presented at the conference: Developing concrete to serve practical needs, Mindrand, South Africa, 13th -14th October 2004. Publication ISBN Number 1-920-01717-8 pp. 281-289. Materials Research Society; 2004. Abstract
1. Singh C. B.  .  August . .
WANJIKU DRNJUGUNAMARGARET. "Tumwesigye C, Msukwa G, Njuguna M, Shilio B, Courtright P, Lewallen S. Inappropriate enrollment of children in schools for the visually impaired in east Africa. Ann Trop Paediatr. 2009 Jun;29(2):135-9.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology. Livestock Research for Rural Development; 2009. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Many visually impaired children can learn to read print with appropriate training and simple visual aids. This may allow them to attend normal schools and to be integrated into society, which has lifelong benefits. Yet, in Africa, many visually impaired children are enrolled in special schools and taught only Braille. The purpose of this analysis was to document the extent of inappropriate enrollment of visually impaired children in special schools and annexes for the blind in four African countries. METHODS: Schools were selected through a population-proportional-to-size method so that they would represent all children attending special schools in Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda. Children were examined by ophthalmologists trained in standardised methods to determine visual acuity and the cause of decreased acuity. RESULTS: Of 1062 children examined in special schools and annexes for the blind, 361 (34%, 95% CI 31.2, 36.8) had visual acuity >or=6/60; the most common cause of visual impairment was retinal disease. Of the 120 children with normal vision (>or=6/18), 69 (57.5%) had two normal eyes, 21 (17.5%) had an obvious ocular disfigurement in the fellow eye and 10 (8.4%) had had successful cataract surgery. CONCLUSIONS: In these countries, many children are placed inappropriately in special schools and annexes for the blind. The reasons are multiple and to rectify the situation will require advocacy and cooperation between ministries of health and education.

PMID: 19460267 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

WANJIKU DRMUMENYASIPHILA. "Mumenya S.W., Tait R.B. and Alexander M.G.: Evaluation of toughness of textile concrete:.". In: Conference Paper to be presented to: Advanced Concrete Materials Conference at Stellenbosch, November 2009. Materials Research Society; 2009. Abstract
1. Singh C. B.  .  August . .
WANJIKU DRNJUGUNAMARGARET, M DRWANYOIKEMILICENT. "Msiska V, Njuguna M, Kariuki M. Magnitude and pattern of significant refractive errors in primary school children of Ntcheu, a rural district in Malawi. East Afr. j. ophthalmol. 2009 Jul; 15(1): 18-20.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology. Livestock Research for Rural Development; 2009. Abstract

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Objectives: To determine the prevalence and pattern of significant refractive errors in rural primary school children.

 

Design: Cross sectional community based study.

 

Setting: Nine primary schools from Muluma, Kasinje and Bunyenga education zones in Ntcheu district, Malawi.

 

Subjects: One thousand two hundred and seventy eight primary school pupils aged 12

Wanjiku PW, Moturi CA. Cloud Computing: Transforming Medium and High Tech Industries in Kenya. Durban, South Africa; 2016. Abstract

Cloud Computing provides novel perspectives in internetworking technologies and has the potential to dramatically change business models. This study aimed at establishing Cloud Computing adoption in Medium and High Tech Industries in Kenya, with an ultimate intention of recommending an appropriate model for its adoption. Using questionnaires, data was collected from 126 Medium and High Tech Industries within Nairobi and interviews were conducted with 25 Cloud Computing providers. Data analysis was done using SPSS and qualitative content analysis. Approximately 70% of cloud users and providers had recognized Cloud Computing as a force that is reshaping ICT and powering innovation. The major factors influencing the adoption of Cloud Computing were identified as cost, performance and reliability of The Cloud application. After analysis of four existing models for technology adoption, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model is recommend for adoption of Cloud Computing.

WANJIKU DRMUMENYASIPHILA. "Mumenya S.W., Tait R.B. and Alexander M.G.: Textile concrete: Preliminary mechanical characterization of a new ductile material.". In: Proceedings of Materials Research Society Conference, Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 12th December 2003. Materials Research Society; 2003. Abstract
1. Singh C. B.  .  August . .
Wanjiku J;, Ackello – Ogutu C;, Kimenye LN;, Place F. "Socio-economic Factors Influencing Use Of Improved Fallows In Crop Production By Small-scale Farmers In Western Kenya."; 2003. Abstract

Abstract This study analysed the factors influencing the intensity of adoption of improved fallows in Western Kenya. Three hundred farmers were interviewed. Descriptive results showed the adopters to be older, more educated and had more contact with technology promoters than the non-adopters. Partial budgets were constructed and marginal rates of returns (MRR) showed that the technology is profitable. Based on the censored Tobit, the results indicate that the intensity of adoption was significantly influenced by age, experience of the household head and spouse, total land area, contact with technology promoters, technology profitability and use of other soil fertility replenishment options. It is recommended that education efforts be intensified. There is need to strengthen contact with the technology promoters. In order to ensure information flow to all, there is need for improvement in the approach and methods employed in on-farm research. Further, there is need to establish and strengthen networks of information exchange among relevant and interested organisation

WANJIKU DRNJUGUNAMARGARET, STEPHEN DRGICHUHI. "Ocular injuries in children. East Afr Med J. 2008 Jan;85(1):39-45. PMID: 18543526 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Murithi I, Gichuhi S, Njuguna MW.". In: East Afr Med J. 2008 Jan;85(1):39-45. Livestock Research for Rural Development; 2008. Abstract

Department of Ophthalmology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology, referral system and visual outcomes of eye injuries in children. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Children aged upto 15 years with eye injuries hospitalised between January 1 st, 2000 and December 31st, 2004. RESULTS: There were 182 cases. Male: female ratio was 2:1. Median age was seven years (IQR 4-10) with bimodal peaks at four and seven years. The most common cause (35%) was sticks. One hundred and twenty seven cases (70%) were open- globe injuries. One hundred and fourty one (77%) presented with visual acuity worse than 6/60 seven eyes were badly damaged and were removed (evisceration enucleation). Ninety five children (52%) were referred from Central and Eastern provinces while 87 (48%) were from Nairobi province. Most [26 (31%)] cases in Nairobi were from Kibera, Dandora and Kariobangi. Median duration between injury and arrival at first medical facility was one day but three days from injury to KNH after referral. Only 29% got tetanus toxoid, antibiotics, analgesics or eyepads at the referring facility. Median hospitalisation was seven days with a median bill of KSh 5,275/= (US$ 70.00). Fourty four children (24%) had their bills waived for inability to pay. At the last recorded follow-up 81 (57%) children had better visual acuity, 16.9% had light perception (PL). Corneal scar was the most common complication. CONCLUSIONS: Eye injuries in KNH are severe, mostly affecting pre-school children from low-income settings. There is delay in arriving at KNH and inadequate care at the referring centres. Outcomes were poor although better than on admission. This may affect education, careers and quality-of-life. Injury-prevention programmes are recommended. PMID: 18543526 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

WANJIKU DRMUMENYASIPHILA. "Mumenya S.W., Tait R.B. and Alexander M.G.: Effect of environmental exposure on the microstructure of textile concrete.". In: Presented to the Seventh International RILEM Symposium on Fibre Reinforced Concrete: Design and applications (BEFIB 2008), Chennai, India, 17th -19th September 2008, pp. 293 -302. Materials Research Society; 2008. Abstract
1. Singh C. B.  .  August . .
WANJIKU DRNJUGUNAMARGARET. "Msukwa G, Njuguna M, Tumwesigye C, Shilio B, Courtright P, Lewallen S. Cataract in children attending schools for the blind and resource centers in eastern Africa. Ophthalmology. 2009 May;116(5):1009-12.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology. Livestock Research for Rural Development; 2009. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe results of a representative sample of children who have undergone cataract surgery in schools for the blind in 4 African countries. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Children enrolled at schools for the blind in Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda. METHODS: We used a population-proportional-to-size methodology to select a representative sample of schools for the blind and annexes and included all the children attending the selected schools. Trained teams using standardized examination methods and a modified World Health Organization form examined the children. The form was modified specifically to collect information on outcomes of cataract surgery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Operative status and postoperative visual acuity. RESULTS: Of 1062 children examined, 196 (18%) had undergone cataract surgery or had cataract as the major cause of visual impairment; 140 (71%) had bilateral surgery, 24 (12%) had unilateral surgery, and 32 (16%) had not had surgery. Of operated eyes, 118 (41%) had visual acuity > or =20/200. Intraocular lenses were implanted in 65% of the operated eyes. Eyes with intraocular lens were more likely to have better vision than those without (P for trend = 0.04). Amblyopia was the most common cause of poor visual acuity in children who had undergone cataract surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The number of children in the schools who receive cataract surgery has increased greatly since 1995. The high rate of amblyopia highlights the critical need for programs to find children earlier and to ensure adequate follow-up after surgery. Without such programs, the value of training pediatric surgeons will not be fully realized. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE(S): The authors have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.

PMID: 19410959 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Wanjeri JK, Kinoti M, Olewe THAM. "Risk factors for burn injuries and fire safety awareness among patients hospitalized at a public hospital in Nairobi, Kenya: A case control study." Burns. 2018;Jan 29(pii: S0305-4179(17)):Burns. 2018 30611-3. doi: 10.1016/j.burns.2017.11.007.
Wanjekeche E;, Imungi JK;, Karuri EG. "Effect of Soaking on the Cookability and Nutritional Quality of Mucuna Bean."; 2010. Abstract

Mucuna (Mucuna pruriens) is a legume with high but unexploited potential for food and soil fertility improvement. Use of the seed as food is limited by the hard-to-cook defect and the presence of several antinutritional factors notably the non-protein amino acid, 3, 4 ...

Wanjekeche E;, Imungi JK;, Karuri EG. "Effect of Soaking on the Cookability and Nutritional Quality of Mucuna Bean."; 2010. Abstract

Mucuna (Mucuna pruriens) is a legume with high but unexploited potential for food and soil fertility improvement. Use of the seed as food is limited by the hard-to-cook defect and the presence of several antinutritional factors notably the non-protein amino acid, 3, 4 .

Wanjare, J. & Owele L(2015). "The Effects of Working Capital Management Approaches on the Financial Performance of Agricultural Companies Listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange." International Journal of Advanced Research, ISSN 2320-5407. 2015;Vol 3.
Wanjare, J. & Motari M(2016). "Interest Rate Variations and the Profitability of Islamic Banks in Kenya." International Journal of Advanced Research, ISSN 2320-5407. 2016;Vol 4, 17 – 26.
Wanjare, J. & Kirui G(2016). "Discerning Cash Conversion Cycle Management Practices by Sugar Cane Out-grower Companies in Kenya." International Journal of Advanced Research, ISSN 2320-5407. 2016;Vol 5.
Wanjare, J. OOP & O. "Organizational Characteristics that are Antecedents to Organizational Learning: A Case of Maseno University, Kenya." An International Journal of Arts and Humanities. 2012;Vol 1:305-321.
Wanjare, J. & Ojwang P(2016). "Behavioral Factors and Financial Decisions by Traders in Kibuye Market, Kisumu City, Kenya." Online Journal of Social Sciences Research, ISSN 2277-0844. 2016;Vol 5, 29 - 39.
Wanjare, J. & Kanyange Z(2016). "International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) Adoption and the Quality of Financial Reporting by the Commercial Banks in Rwanda: A Managerial Perspective." Online Journal of Social Sciences Research, ISSN 2277-0844. 2016;Vol 5, 20 – 28.
Wanjama JK, Onyango I, Mutyambai DM, Kabochi SK, Ndegwa PN. "Occurrence of Nosema species in honey bee colonies in Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 2016;64(1):129-135.
Wanjala. G, Mwashigadi L.J., MATULA P.D. "Institutional Factors Influencing Teachers’ Job Commitment in Public Primary Schools in Mwatate Sub-County, Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research . 2018;6(4):1-18 .abstarct1.pdf
Wanjala. G, Kogei, J.K, A.R. Riechi. "Factors Influencing Enrolment of Learners with Disabilities in Primary Schools with Inclusive Education in Nandi South District, Kenya." International Journal of Novel Research in Education and Learning. 2017;4(2):172-190 .abstract.pdf
Wanjala. G, Omufwoko Esther A. "Use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) for Learning among Students at Technical Colleges in Nairobi Province, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge . 2017;2(8):34-43.abstract.pdf
Wanjala. G, Koriyow Hussein A. "Implication of Subsidised Fees Programme on Pedagogical Practices in Public Secondary Schools in Wajir County , Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology . 2017;4(8):19-34.abstract.pdf
Wanjala. G, Mwashigadi L.J.. "Impact of Socio-Psychological Work Environment on Teachers’ Job Commitment in Public Primary Schools in Mwatate Sub-County, Kenya." In International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences . 2018;5(5):19-28.this__abstractijhsse.pdf
Wanjala. G, Wanjala E. "Level of Teachers’ Efficiency in Work Performance in Public Secondary Schools in Wajir North District, Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology . 2017;4(4):23-36.abstract.pdf
Wanjala W Cornelius, Teresa Akeng'a, George O Obiero, Lutta. KP. "). Antifeedant activities of Erythrinaline alkaloids from Erythrina latissima against Sporodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera noctuidae)." Records of Natural Products. 2009;3(2):96-103.
Wanjala W Cornelius, Akeng’a T, George O Obiero, Lutta KP. "Institute of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, PO Box 62000-00200, Nairobi, KENYA." Records of Natural Products. 2009;3(2). Abstract

The antifeedant activities of the Erythrina alkaloids from the seeds, seed pods and flowers of Erythrina latissima were investigated in laboratory dual-choice bioassays using third-instar Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) larvae. The new compound (+)-11β-methoxy-10-oxoerysotramidine (1) from the flowers, showed potent dose dependant activity at concentration>= 500 pm while (+)-10, 11-dioxoerysotramidine (2) also new from the flowers showed potent dose dependant activity at concentration>= 100 ppm. Three known compounds (+)-erysotrine,(+)-erysotramidine,(+)-erythraline,(+)-11β-hydroxyerysotramidine showed potent dose dependant antifeedant activity at concentrations>= 100 ppm while (+)-10, 11-dioxoerysotrine and (+)-11 b-hydroxyerysotramidine also a known compounds showed potent dose dependant antifeedant activity at concentrations>= 100 ppm.

Wanjala W Cornelius, Teresa Akeng'a, George O Obiero, Lutta KP. "Antifeedant Activities of the Erythrinaline Alkaloids from Erythrina latissima against Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera noctuidae)." Records of Natural Products. 2009;3(2):96. Abstract

The antifeedant activities of the Erythrina alkaloids from the seeds, seed pods and flowers of Erythrina latissima were investigated in laboratory dual-choice bioassays using third-instar Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) larvae. The new compound (+)-11β-methoxy-10-oxoerysotramidine (1) from the flowers, showed potent dose dependant activity at concentration 500≥ ppm while (+)-10, 11-dioxoerysotramidine (2) also new from the flowers showed potent dose dependant activity at concentration 100≥ ppm. Three known compounds (+)-erysotrine,(+)-erysotramidine,(+)-erythraline,(+)-11β-hydroxyerysotramidine showed potent dose dependant antifeedant activity at concentrations 100≥ ppm while (+)-10, 11-dioxoerysotrine and (+)-11βhydroxyerysotramidine also a known compounds showed potent dose dependant antifeedant activity at concentrations 300≥ ppm. Three known compounds (+)-11β-methoxyerysotramidine,(+)-8-oxoerythraline and (+)-15 (16) β-D-glucoerysodine showed no appreciable change in antifeedant activity with concentration change.

Wanjala C, Wanjala A. "East and Central Africa- A Personal Overview." Journal of Commonwealth Literature. 2005;40(5):253-265.
Wanjala A. "“Grace Ogot’s The Promised Land as a Pioneer Feminist Text.”." The Nairobi Journal of Literature. 2007;(5).
Wanjala A. "“L’oeuvre ‘Kouroumanesque’- comment l’enseigner dans une Université Kenyane?” .". In: Research and Teaching in East Africa, Opportunities and Challenges. Nairobi: United States International University -Africa Press; 2006.
Wanjala NW, Gitau GK, Muchem GM, Makau DN. "Effect of Bismuth Subnitrate Teat Canal Sealant with Ampicillin-Cloxacillin Combination in Control of Bovine Mastitis in Selected Farms in Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2020;9(3):331-336.
Wanjala C. Standpoints on African Literature. Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau; 1973.
Wanjala C. "Cultural Events in East and Central Africa." Busara. 1973;5(2):70-76.
Wanjala G, L.P O. "Teacher Perception of Performance Appraisal and Development Tool in Public Primary Schools in Mumias East Sub-County, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge . 2019;4(6):69-78.abstract_.pdf
Wanjala AN. An Unsettled Hearth: Womens Voices in Postcolonial Kenyan Fiction. Berlin: Lambert Academic Publishing; 2012.
Wanjala C. "The Tabanic Genre.". In: Standpoints on African Literature. Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau; 1973.
Wanjala G, Otieno DO. "Factors influencing Demand for Bachelor of Education degree by Distance Learning at the University of Nairobi." Journal of Continuing , Open and Distance Education. 2010;1(1):1-24. Abstract

The development of the distance mode of teacher training can be characterized as an attempt to resolve the conflict between aspiration for more education by an ever increasing number of Kenyans and the need to broaden the base of high level human resources for national development and that of resource constraint - both human and financial. This paper discusses a research study that was carried out to establish the factors influencing the demand for the Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) Arts Degree Programme by Distance Learning mode at the University of Nairobi. It was a descriptive survey and had seven objectives and seven hypotheses to test. The target population for the research study comprised all the students enrolled in the B.Ed. (Arts) programme of the University of Nairobi who were studying through the distance learning mode. Through stratified random sampling , the study focused on the 2002 cohort that was undergoing part six semester in the School of Continuing and Distance Education. Chi square tests were used to analyze the relationship between demand for distance learning considered as a dependent variable and the independent variables of gender , age , income level , admission criteria , employment status and source of finance. A 0.1 level of significance was used to determine the acceptance level in all the hypotheses.

Wanjala C. "Culture, the African Writer and Alienation." Maktaba: Official Journal of the Kenya Library Association. 1977;4(1):22-27.
Wanjala AN. "Historiography or Imagination? The Documentation of Traditional Luo Cultural Memory in Kenyan Fiction.". In: The Language Loss of the Indigenous. London & New York: Routledge; 2016.
Wanjala C. "African Response to Negritude and Pan-Africanism." Busara. 1974;6(1):39-42.
Wanjala G, Malechwanzi J. "Improving the Quality of Technical Education through International Standardization : the case of Coast Institute of Technology, Kenya.". In: Fast-forwarding Higher Education Institutions for Global Challenges: Perspectives and Approaches . Singapore: Springer ; 2016.abstrac3.pdf
Wanjala G, Okinda R. "The Implications of Decentralised Teacher Recruitment in Public Secondary Schools in Kisumu District , Kenya." THE FOUNTAIN , Journal of Educational Research. 2010;4(2):75-90. Abstract

Decentralization of teacher recruitment in Kenya was as a result of World Bank/IMF policies which support projects that guarantee direct net economic returns by productivity and indirect returns or externalities. The projects are also expected to meet the private demand for education and inter-regional distribution (Psacharapoulos & Woodhall , 1985; and Psacharapoulos , 1994) These strategies that have been successful elsewhere are not necessarily appropriate for Kenya. Any meaningful interventions in Kenya ought to be based on research data from within the country's education system. These paper , thus , discusses a research study that set out to assess the implications of decentralizing teacher recruitment for secondary schools to the Boards of Governors in Kisumu District. The research study analyzed data gathered from head-teachers who are secretaries to the recruitment panels , seniour education officials and trade union officials at the district. Data were collected through questionnaires , interviews and document study and were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings indicate that decentralization reduces the workload at the Teachers' Service Commission headquarters while also satisfying the staffing needs of the schools. However , the respondents were dissatisfied with current staffing trends and were in agreement that the recruitment panel members' capacity be enhanced to enable them carry out the tasks bestowed upon them effectively and efficiently.. Thus , decentralization of teacher recruitment should not take place when institutional capacity is weak , democratic institutions are fragile and resources are scarce.

Wanjala G, L.P O. "Appraising Teacher Creativity and Collaborative Skills in Public Primary Schools in Mumias East Sub- County, Kenya ." International Journal of Education and Research . 2019;7(6):207-218 .abstract-.pdf
Wanjala C. "Anthologies in East Africa.". In: The Companion to African Literatures. Oxford: James Currey; 2000.
Wanjala G. "An analysis of How Post-colonial Educational Policy Implementation in Higher Education has contributed to Socio-economic Transformation of Kenya." The Fountain , Journal of the Faculty of Education.. 2002;1(1):46-52. Abstract

Planners attempting to influence the course of a country's educational development can expect to confront a wide variety of problems which are sometimes difficult to formalize. Many of these challenges involve the most significant decisions in determining an effective sectoral growth strategy. Examples that come readily to mind for higher education include an assessment of the optimal level of resources to be devoted to research and extension activities , estimated rates of return , demand-adapted education policies , employment promotion of programmes as well as fostering marketable occupational capacities particularly of young people.
This paper tries to describe and analyze educational policy formation , planning and implementation in higher education showing its contribution to the socio-economic transformation of Kenya. The central proposition in this paper is that educational endeavour - whether conceived as an activity of colonizing powers or as the unfolding of the aspirations of the African peoples - has shown itself as an important vehicle for the transformation of society. Thus , the process of educational policy formation is necessarily an exercise in social learning whereby technical expertise is required to establish information requirements and the parameters of reasonable choice. Nevertheless , this analysis must be embedded in a process of social dialogue , negotiation and learning.

Wanjala G. "what extent do teachers' perception of quality affect their practices?" ResearchGate. 2016;(https://www.researchgate.net ).
Wanjala C. "The East African Writer and Society." Kenya Historical Review. 1974;2:23-37.
Wanjala C. "Lewis Nkosi's Early Literary Criticism.". In: Still Beating the Drum. Amsterdam & New York: Rodopi; 2005.
Wanjala A. "“Orality in Rebeka Njau’s The Sacred Seed”." The Global South . 2012;5(2):93-106.
Wanjala CL;, Wanjala AN. "A Personal Overview−Central and East Africa.". 2005. AbstractWebsite

Ever since Professor G.D. Killam of the University of Guelph edited The
Writings of East and Central Africa (1984),and the conferences that lead
to the changes in the English syllabi of Secondary Schools, nothing has
brought the writers,booksellers,librarians,literary critics,journalists,and
intellectual property lawyers of the region together more than book fairs
which take place annually in Harare, Zimbabwe, and Nairobi, Kenya.
Names like Ali A. Mazrui, Njabulo Ndebele, Ngugi wa Thiong’o, David
Rubadiri, Charles Mungoshi, Chenjerai Hove, Micere Githae Mugo,
which one sees on book covers suddenly stick into one’s mind as one
meets their owners at either the Zimbabwe or Nairobi International
Book Fairs.
During the years under review (2000–4), Jared Angira, the internationally
known Kenyan poet and chairman of the Kenya Organization
of Writers Association (KOWA) could be seen with Dr. Jack Mapanje,
the famous Malawian linguist and poet, at the international book fair
almost every day. At the meetings of the National Book Development
Council of Kenya,one met the stakeholders in the book production and
book marketing industry meeting under the aegis of the East African
Book Development Association (EABDA),a consortium comprising of
the National Book Development Councils of Kenya, Uganda, and
Tanzania. As constituent bodies,these councils and the organizers of the
book fairs in Nairobi and Harare argue that the challenges facing all the
stakeholders of the books is the fight against the monster of illiteracy. A
nation that has to operate satisfactorily in the twenty-first century has to
be a reading nation. It must celebrate the book.

Wanjala A. "“After the Kenyan Harvest” .". In: Fearful Symmetries: Essays and Testimonies around Excision and Circumcision. Amsterdam & New York: Rodopi; 2008.
Wanjala C. Drums of Death. Nairobi: Africawide Network; 2005.
Wanjala G. Educational Planning : Lecture Series. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press-CEES; 2002. Abstract

The module as a whole is designed to provide both the student and the lecturer/professor with a descriptive account of the content of planning and its application to education and national development. it is divided into four sections. Section One comprises of the first six lectures of the unit and is intended to introduce the learner to the study of educational planning. Lecture 1 deals with the general concept of planning ; its characteristics and scope. The concept of planning as applied to education is described in Lecture 2 and Lecture 3 deals with the concept of modelling in educational planning. Lecture 4 discusses the historical background and rationale for educational planning while the social and psychological factors affecting educational planning are dealt with in Lecture 5 and the final lecture in this section discusses the process of educational planning.
Section Two covers three lectures which , taken together intend to introduce the learner to methodologies of educational planning with particular reference to developing countries , that is the Social Demand Approach covered in in Lecture 7 ; the Labour Requirements Approach covered in Lecture 8 and the Cost/benefit Analysis Approach covered in Lecture 9.
Section Three has three broad lectures , which give some highlights on the need to plan for changes in the educational system. They focus on the issues of efficiency and equity as a measure of the success of an educational system.
Section Four has three lectures dealing with population , education and national development. Apart from considering demographic factors and how they affect educational planning , we also examine matters dealing with the location of schools.

Wanjala C. "Achebe: Teacher and Satirist.". In: Standpoints on African Literature. Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau; 1973.
Wanjala G. "The Effectiveness of the Teachers' Service Commission in maintaining a Balanced Teaching Force at the Secondary School Level." The Fountain , Journal of the Faculty of Education.. 2009;3(1):1-11. Abstract

This paper discusses the research study that was carried out in an effort to assess the effectiveness of the Teachers' Service Commission in maintaining a balanced teaching force in all secondary schools in Kenya. The research had two main hypotheses : Ho1 : Teachers are equitably distributed in all provinces in Kenya ; and Ho2 : Teacher related factors have an impact on the role of the Commission in teacher distribution. The analysis of the data revealed that there are disparities in teacher distribution between subject areas and regions. These disparities can be viewed as indicators of potential ineffectiveness in the Teachers' Service Commission's role in maintaining a balanced teaching force at the secondary school level.

Wanjala C. "Theatre and Politics." African Perspectives. 1977;1(1):30-38.
Wanjala, G., Akumu Maurice O. "Adminstrative Strategies Towards Disaster Awareness and Preparedness in Secondary Schools in Homa-Bay County, Kenya." International Journal of Development Research . 2017;7(10):16420-16423 .abstract3.pdf
Wanjala G. "Education Curricula and the Development Needs of Africa : Is there a Mismatch?". In: Research conference of the Ghana Chapter of Educational Research Network for West and Central Africa (ERNWACA). At Windy Bay Lodge Hotel in Winneba.Ghana; 2015.
Wanjala C. "Literature and Society: A View in Approach." Busara. 1973;5(2):70-76.
Wanjala G, Phylister D. Matula, Ankomah YA. Instructional Supervision: A Text for the M.Ed. Degree Programme of the University of Nairobi. Nairobi: CODL: University of Nairobi; 2015.
Wanjala G, Luchu SB. "Factors influencing implementation of the Integrated English curriculum in Public Secondary Schools in Kanduyi Division , Bungoma South District , Kenya." THE FOUNTAIN , Journal of Educational Research. 2010;iv(1):66-77. Abstract

The teaching of English using the Integrated Approach at secondary school has been an issue of concern to both Linguists and Literary Scholars as well as Educators for quite some time now due to poor performance of students in KCSE , coupled with their inability to communicate effectively in English. This research study investigated factors that influence the implementation of the Integrated English Curriculum in public secondary schools in Kanduyi Division of Bungoma District. Using a descriptive survey research design , the study had two objectives and two corresponding research questions. This paper discusses the said research study and its findings , key of which was that the training that English teachers received at pre-service level does not much the requirements of teaching Integrated English in public secondary schools. Thus , the need for the Kenya Institute of Education (KIE) to liaise with teacher training colleges and Schools of Education in the universities to ensure there is harmony between pre-service teacher training programmes for teachers of Integrated English and the implementation of the curriculum in secondary schools. This will empower them to be better placed in implementing the curriculum with competence and confidence.

Wanjala C. "Discovering New East African Poets." Busara. 1969;2(2):43-45.
Wanjala G. "What is Theoretical Framework in Vocational/Technical Education? ." ResearchGate. 2016;(https://www.researchgate.net ).
Wanjala N, Khainga S. "An Outreach Experience With Cleft Lip/Palate Surgery in selected Hospitals in Kenya." Annals of African Surgery . 2011;7. Abstract

Objective
To describe the presentation and surgical care of patients managed for cleft lips and palates during a surgical outreach program..
Study design
A five year retrospective chart study of the patients operated on between January 2005 to the 31st December 2009 in selected hospitals in Kenya.
Setting
Smile train-facilitated surgical outreach programs at the following hospitals: St Elizabeth Mission Hospital Mukumu, St Francis Mission Hospital, Mwiki, Embu Provincial General hospital , Isiolo District Hospital.and Alupe Subdistrict Hospital.
Subjects
One hundred and sixty three patients with cleft lips and palates.
Results
The male female ratio was 1.3 to 1. Left unilateral cleft lip was the most common malformation (34.6% of the patients) with modified Millards repair the most frequent surgical procedure. More than 30% of the patients operated on had attained their fifth birthday. There were eight complications for every 100 procedures. Palatal fistulae were the most common complications.
Conclusion
The overall pattern of deformity encountered and the morbidity profile correlate with other studies. There is need to intensify more outreach programs to capture younger patients and address the backlog of cleft cases in the community.

Wanjala C. "The Kenya National Theatre Revival." Weekly Review 8 November 1973 (1973):32.
Wanjala G, undefined. "Extent of Secondary School Teachers' involvement in Instructional Supervision and its effect on KCSE performance in Gucha South District , Kenya." THE FOUNTAIN , Journal of Educational Research. 2011;v(1):31-43. Abstract

This paper discusses the research that was carried out in order to determine the extent of teachers' involvement in instructional supervision and its effects on KCSE performance in Gucha-South District. The purpose of the research was to establish whether there existed a significant correlation between teacher involvement in instructional supervision and students' performance in KCSE. Using a descriptive survey research design , data were collected from 266 teachers in 13 secondary schools and 8 Quality Assurance Officers. Data were collected using a variety of techniques and analyzed using appropriate descriptive statistics. A major finding of the research is that schools where teachers' involvement in supervision was higher registered better grades in the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Examination.

Wanjala, G., Obutu OB. "Impact of Double-Intake Programmes on the Teacher Co-Efficient Determinant of Quality Education at the University of Nairobi,Kenya." International Journal of Educational Technology and Learning. 2020;8(1):16-24.abstract.pdf
Wanjala C. "East African Biographies and Autobiographies.". In: The Companion to African Literatures. Oxford: James Currey; 2000.
Wanjala CL;, Wanjala AN. "A Personal Overview−Central and East Africa.". 2005. AbstractWebsite

Ever since Professor G.D. Killam of the University of Guelph edited The
Writings of East and Central Africa (1984),and the conferences that lead
to the changes in the English syllabi of Secondary Schools, nothing has
brought the writers,booksellers,librarians,literary critics,journalists,and
intellectual property lawyers of the region together more than book fairs
which take place annually in Harare, Zimbabwe, and Nairobi, Kenya.
Names like Ali A. Mazrui, Njabulo Ndebele, Ngugi wa Thiong’o, David
Rubadiri, Charles Mungoshi, Chenjerai Hove, Micere Githae Mugo,
which one sees on book covers suddenly stick into one’s mind as one
meets their owners at either the Zimbabwe or Nairobi International
Book Fairs.
During the years under review (2000–4), Jared Angira, the internationally
known Kenyan poet and chairman of the Kenya Organization
of Writers Association (KOWA) could be seen with Dr. Jack Mapanje,
the famous Malawian linguist and poet, at the international book fair
almost every day. At the meetings of the National Book Development
Council of Kenya,one met the stakeholders in the book production and
book marketing industry meeting under the aegis of the East African
Book Development Association (EABDA),a consortium comprising of
the National Book Development Councils of Kenya, Uganda, and
Tanzania. As constituent bodies,these councils and the organizers of the
book fairs in Nairobi and Harare argue that the challenges facing all the
stakeholders of the books is the fight against the monster of illiteracy. A
nation that has to operate satisfactorily in the twenty-first century has to
be a reading nation. It must celebrate the book.

Wanjala G. "“The Meaning of Quality in Teacher Education : Some Policy Implications for Educational Planning .”." The Fountain : Journal of Educational Research . 2011;5 (1): 1-10 . Abstract

Decline in quality education has become one of the major challenges facing the education sector as the government tries to widen access to basic education. To address these challenges , the major thrust has been to develop feasible policies , objectives , strategies , programmes and activities to guide the development of the sector. For instance , the strategies proposed by MPET for primary education included increasing access and participation as well as raising relevance and quality. However , the quality of education cannot be improved without improving the teacher. Consequently , many primary school teachers went back to school and enrolled in degree courses at universities.This paper discusses the attempt to assess the extent to which the teachers who enrolled in the B.Ed.(Arts) programme of the University of Nairobi have been able to expand their knowledge and pedagogical skills in different subjects. Can these teachers contribute to improved efficiency and effectiveness with respect to the provision and delivery of education? In what ways have they contributed to increased quality in education at the primary school level?

Wanjala C. "Popular Culture in East African Literature.". In: Urban Legends, Colonial Myths. Trenton: Africa World Press; 2007.
Wanjala A, Wanjala C. "“East and Central Africa- A Personal Overview”." Journal of Commonwealth Literature. 2005;40(4):253-265.
Wanjala C. "Cesaire's Responsibilities as a Poet." Thought and Practice: The Journal of the Philosophical Association of Kenya. 1974;1(1):59-72.
Wanjala A. "Representing the Gendered Subaltern in Postcolonial Kenyan Fiction." Reyono Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 2012;1(2):19-34.reyono_abstract.doc
Wanjala C. "The Face of Injustice: Alex La Guma's Fiction.". In: Standpoints on African Literature. Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau; 1973.
Wanjala C. "African Literature and the Tyranny of Change.". In: Language and Literature. Suva: The University of South Pacific Press; 1983.
WANJALA DRNYONGESAFRANCIS, PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "The Role of Aspect Ratio in the Elastic Modulus-Porosity Relationship of a Triaxial Porcelain.". In: Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2000. Abstract
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Wanjala G, Baariu IM. "Staffing Practices of the Teachers’ Service Commission and Academic Performance in Public Primary Schools in Merti Sub-County, Kenya." East African Scholars Journal of Education, Humanities and Literature . 2019;2(11):683-691.abstract--.pdf
Wanjala C. "East African Literary Supplement." Joliso. 1973;1(1):1-4.
Wanjala G, Onyango MA. "Factors influencing Participation Rates in Public Primary Schools in Rangwe Division of Homa-Bay District , Kenya." THE FOUNTAIN , Journal of Educational Research. 2010;iv(1):104-128. Abstract

According to the Education Sector Report (2007 : 12) the primary school completion rate (PCR) has grown from 52.5% in 2001 to 67.4% in 2005. The primary net enrollment rate (NER) similarly increased from 82.1% in 2004 to 83.2% in 2005. This is a clear indicator that nationally , Kenya is yet to achieve full participation rates because there are gaps between NER and PCR worth assessing. This paper discusses a research study whose purpose was to unearth the factors influencing participation rates in public primary schools in Rangwe Division of Homa-Bay District in Kenya. Using a descriptive survey research design , in which data were collected and analyzed from 20 head-teachers , 20 class teachers and 100 pupils by means of questionnaires , interviews and direct observation; it was established that provincial differences in terms of poverty index , persistent drought , insecurity , cultural and religious beliefs , have a bearing on primary schooling , hence creating complexity in achieving 100% primary school participation rates by province , district or division. It was also observed that processes undertaken by school adminstrators and QASO officials in ensuring that teaching and learning is provided according to required standards played a major role in influencing participation rates in public primary schools in Rangwe Division.

Wanjala C. "The New Jerusalem in African Literature and Literary Criticism." Literary Review. 1980:25-26.
Wanjala AN. "Rerouting the Postcolonial From an East African Perspective." Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies. 2016;2, 2016(1-2):54-63.
Wanjala C. "Poetry in East Africa." Joliso. 1974;2(2):1-6.
Wanjala G. "An Assessment of the contribution of Education to Entrepreneural Development in Kenya : The case of the Kenya Institute of Management." THE FOUNTAIN , Journal of Educational Research. 2010;4(2):10-35. Abstract

This paper discusses the research that was carried out to assess the usefulness of the educational solutions that were adopted to respond to government policy of enhancing entrepreneurial development. The main arguement of the thesis is that entrepreneurs are not always born , they can be made and developed through appropriate education and training. The purpose of the study was to determine whether there is a causal relationship between entrepreneurial development and education using the Entrepreneural Development Unit (EDU) of the Kenya Institute of Management (KIM) as an illustrative case. Taking the conceptual perspective that human capital formation is an essential process to the socio-economic development of nations , the study had five objectives and three research questions. It was a qualitative study looking at a single institution as an illustrative case of a policy intervention to enhance entrepreneurship. The study used the poisson process of the stochastic family of models to assess the contribution of education to entrepreneural development. The sample size for the study included 50 EDU graduates sampled using cluster sampling techniques such as area sampling and systematic list sampling ; 10 government officials , 15 trainers and other staff from KIM and 2 officials from the sponsoring body - all of whom were purposively sampled because they were viewed as information-rich cases. Questionnaires , interviews , observation checklists and document study were the instruments that were used to collect data.

Wanjala G, Ongosi BO. "Establishing the Impact of Double-Intake Programmes on the Physical Infrastructural Learning Environment at the University of Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge . 2020;5(2):17-29 .abstract.pdf
Wanjala C. "Drama in East Africa.". In: The Companion to African Literatures. Oxford: James Currey; 2000.
Wanjala G. "Which Factor Influences Social Interaction? Answer provided on 30th March 2016 on ResearchGate. ." ResearchGate. 2016;(https://www.researchgate.net ).
Wanja DW, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Mwadime JM, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Ngowi HA, Mdegela RH. "Preliminary findings of common bacterial pathogens affecting farmed fish in Kirinyaga County, Kenya.". In: KVA Annual Scientific Conference. Greenhill Hotel, Nyeri, Kenya; 2018.
Wanja DW, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Mwandime JM, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Ngowi, H. "Fish husbandry practices and water quality in central Kenya: Potential risk factors for fish mortality and infectious diseases." Veterinary Medicine International. 2020;2020.
Wanja DW, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Ngowi, H. "Antibiotic and disinfectants susceptibility patterns of bacterial pathogens recovered from farmed fish in Kirinyaga County, Kenya." Hindawi International Journal of Microbiology. 2020;2020(Article ID 8897338. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/8897338).
Wanja ND, Agnèse J-F, Ford AGP, Day JJ, Ndiwa TC, Turner GF, Getahun A. Identifying and conserving Tilapiine cichlid species in the twenty-first century. Springer; 2021.
Wanja DW, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN. "Natural concurrent infections with black spot disease and multiple bacteriosis in farmed Nile tilapia in central Kenya." Natural concurrent infections with black spot disease and multiple bacteriosis in farmed Nile tilapia in central Kenya. 2020;2020(Article ID 8821324. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/8821324).
Wani I. "K-sign in retrocaecal appendicitis: a case series." Cases journal. 2009;2:157. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Variations in position of the vermiform appendix considerably changes clinical findings. Retrocaecal appendicitis presents with slightly different clinical features from those of classical appendicitis associated with a normally sited appendix. K-sign looks for the presence of tenderness on posterior abdominal wall in the retrocaecal and paracolic appendicitis. This is the first case report of this kind in the literature. The K-sign has been named, as a mark of respect, after the region of origin of this sign, Kashmir, so called as "Kashmir Sign". The sign being present in view of inflamed appendix crossing above its non palpable position above iliac crest on the posterior abdominal wall and the tenderness is by irritation of posterior peritoneum. CASE PRESENTATION: The author is reporting a case series of four patients in whom a K-sign, a clinical sign, was elicited and found positive on the posterior abdominal wall for presence of tenderness in a specific area bound by the 12th rib superiorly, spine medially, lateral margin of posterior abdominal wall laterally and iliac crest inferiorly and was found to be present in three retrocaecal and one paracolic appendicitis. Each case had tenderness in this specific area on posterior abdominal wall. All had appendectomy and having histopathological evidence of appendicitis. CONCLUSION: K-sign can be useful in diagnosis of retrocaecal and paracolic appendicitis. Significance of K-sign being in view of difficulty in diagnosis of retrocaecal appendicitis and its subsequent complications.

Wang’ondu VW, Muthumbi A, Ann Vanruesel, Koedam N. "Phenology of mangroves and its implication on forest management: a case study of Mida Creek, Kenya." Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science. 2017;16(2):41-51.
Wang’ondu V, Muthumbi A, Ann Vanruesel, Koedam N. "Phenology of mangroves and its implication on forest management: a case study of Mida Creek, Kenya." WIO Journal of Marine Science . 2018;16 (2):41-51.
Wang’ondu VW, Bosire JO, Kairo JG, Kinyamario JI, Mwaura FB, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Koedam N. "Litter Fall Dynamics of Restored Mangroves (Rhizophora mucronata Lamk. and Sonneratia alba Sm.) in Kenya. ." Restoration Ecology. 2014;22(6):824-831.
Wang’ombe JK, Mugo MG, Ajakaiye O, Mwabu G. "Provision and Organisation of Reproductive Health Services in Sub-Saharan Africa.". In: Reproductive Health, Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction in Africa: Frameworks of Analysis. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2010.
Wang’ombe JK, Muriithi DP, Partet A, Njeru G, Kinyua M, Mwiti C, Njeru E, Waweru M. POSITIONING RESEARCH TO SUPPORT COMMUNITY EFFORT TO REVERSE HIV/AIDS AMONG YOUTH IN MARAGWA AND KIRINYAGA DISTRICTS – KENYA.; 2004.
Wang’ombe DN, Mose BR, Maranga SM, MBUYA TM. "Effects of friction stir welding on microstructure and mechanical properties of extruded secondary aluminum 6061 alloy." Materialwissenschaft und Werkstofftechnik. 2021;52(3):270-278 . Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.1002/mawe.202000094

Experiments were carried out to determine the effects of friction stir welding on microstructure and properties of recycled Aluminum 6061 alloy, whose alloy content varied from that of primary alloy. The alloy was processed at tool speed and feed ranges of 530 rev/min–1320 rev/min and 40 mm/min–100 mm/min respectively. Microstructure examination; tensile test and Vickers microhardness evaluation were carried out. Microstructure of the alloy was in four zones including: base metal, heat affected zone, thermo-mechanically affected zone and stirred zone. Average grain size of unprocessed material was 93 μm. Processing the alloy at 530 rev/min and 100 mm/min resulted in grains of average size 93 μm, 183 μm and 7 μm; in base metal, heat affected zone and stirred zone respectively. Tensile failure occurred in heat affected zone; that was exposed to high heat. The alloy hardness decreased to a minimum in heat affected zone, followed by a brief rise in thermo-mechanically affected zone, to another maximum in stirred zone. Processed zone hardness was inversely proportional to tool speed and directly proportional to feed rate. Increase in the speed and decrease in feed, increased heat which deteriorated the properties.

Wang’ombe JK, Ng’ang’a P, WANZALA. "EFFECT OF HEALTH EDUCATION ON ORAL HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG PERSONS LIVING WITH HIV AT TWO COMPREHENSIVE CARE CENTRES IN KENYA." East African Medical Journal. 2016;Vol. 93(No. 9):111-116.abstract.pdf
Wangusi BMUYUKANI, Kanja LW, Ole-Mapenay IM, Onyancha JM. "Acute Toxicity, Phytochemical Screening, Analgesic, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Aqueous and Methanol Root Extracts of Maerua triphylla A. Rich. (Capparaceae)." Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicin. 2021;2021:11.
Wangusi BMUYUKANI, Kanja LW, Ole-Mapenay IM, Onyancha JM. "Acute Toxicity, Phytochemical Screening, Analgesic, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Aqueous and Methanol Root Extracts of Maerua triphylla A. Rich. (Capparaceae)." Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2021;Volume 2021, Article ID 3121785, :9 pages.
Wangui. J, Bulimo. W, Nokes. J, Nyaigoti. C, Onyango. C, Achilla. R, Wadegu. M, Wurapa. E. Prevalence of Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Out-Patients with Acute Respiratory Infections in Kenya in 2007 - 2009. . Sarova Panafric Hotel Nairobi Kenya.; 2012. Abstract
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Wangui. J, Bulimo. W, Nokes. J, Nyaigoti. C, Onyango. C, Achilla. R, Wurapa. E. Prevalence of Acute Respiratory Infections Caused by RSV and Adenoviruses, Kenya in 2007 –2009.. Bangkok Thailand.; 2012. Abstract
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WANGUI DRGITAURUTH. "Fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress responses to invasive procedures are independent of maternal responses. Gitau R, Fisk NM, Teixeira JM, Cameron A, Glover V.J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Jan;86(1):104-9.". In: J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Jan;86(1):104-9. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001. Abstract
{ Paired fetal and maternal samples were obtained, at fetal blood sampling and intrauterine transfusion, to study hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress responses. This confirmed that the fetus mounts an hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress response to transfusion via the intrahepatic vein, which involves piercing the fetal trunk, but not to transfusion via the placental cord insertion [mean cortisol response via intrahepatic vein delta = 52.6 nmol/L, 95% CI (25.3-79.9)
WANGUI DRGITAURUTH. "Maternal micronutrient status and decreased growth of Zambian infants born during and after the maize price increases resulting from the southern African drought of 2001-2002. Gitau R, Makasa M, Kasonka L, Sinkala M, Chintu C, Tomkins A, Filteau S.Public .". In: Public Health Nutr. 2005 Oct;8(7):837-43. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2005. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects on maternal micronutrient status and infant growth of the increased maize prices that resulted from the southern African drought of 2001-2002. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: A maternal and child health clinic in Lusaka, Zambia. SUBJECTS: Maternal and infant health and nutrition data and maternal plasma were being collected for a study of breast-feeding and postpartum health. Samples and data were analysed according to whether they were collected before (June to December 2001), during (January 2002 to April 2003) or after (May 2003 to January 2004) the period of increased maize price. Season and maternal HIV status were controlled for in analyses. RESULTS: Maize price increases were associated with decreased maternal plasma vitamin A during pregnancy (P = 0.028) and vitamin E postpartum (P = 0.042), with the lowest values among samples collected after May 2003 (vitamin A: 0.96 micromol l(-1), 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-1.09
Wangui J, Bulimo W, Nokes J, Wurapa E, Nyaigoti C, Otieno J, Opot B, Achilla R, Coldren R. Genotypic Diversity of HRSV-A in out-patients with Acute Respiratory Infections in Kenya 2007-2010. Hilton Hotel; Nairobi, Kenya; 2014. Abstract

Introduction: Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus is the leading viral cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children and infants. Amongst adults, the elderly and the immuno-compromised are also at risk of severe RSV. RSV is classified into two genetically distinct groups: RSV A and RSV B. In the case of RSV A, 11 genotypes have been reported to date. Amongst these are three new variants (NA1, NA2 and ON1). Appearance of new genotypes has been accompanied by rapid spread and near replacement of existing variants. There is need to constantly re-examine the nature of genotypic changes amongst circulating viruses. Objective: To assess the geographic distribution and genotypic diversity of RSV A in outpatients presenting with Influenza-Like-Illness from 2007 and 2010 across Kenya.Methods: Nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs were obtained from subjects ≥2 months of age presenting with fever ≥38ºC and cough or sore throat at district hospitals under surveillance across 5 regions of Kenya. RNA was extracted from the NP samples and screened using multiplex real-time RT-PCR. A 490bp fragment of the RSVA G-gene was amplified by nested RT-PCR and nucleotide sequencing carried out using the Sanger dideoxy termination method. The sequences were analyzed using a suite of bioinformatics software. Results: 159 NP samples were positive for RSV A, of which, 130 were genotyped; 21 (16%) were GA5, 39 (30%) GA2, 66 (50%) NA1, 1 GA1 and 3 (2%) GA2 variants closely related to NA2. GA2 and NA1 genotypes were identified in the highlands from 2007 – 2010. In 2009, NA1 was highest in Nairobi and Coast regions (11; 17%). GA2 genotype was highest in Northeastern (8; 21%) and was most prevalent in 2009 (44%). The Western region had the highest prevalence of GA5 in 2008 (6; 29%). Conclusion: Five genotypes were in circulation across the country in 2007 and of these NA1 genotype increased dominance year by year and spread to all the regions by 2009. These data provide insight into the dynamics of persistence of RSV strains within a national geographical area.

WANGUI DRGITAURUTH. "Effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy on inflammatory markers in Nepalese women. Hindle LJ, Gitau R, Filteau SM, Newens KJ, Osrin D, Costello AM, Tomkins AM, Vaidya A, Mahato RK, Yadav B, Manandhar DS. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Nov;.". In: Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Nov;84(5):1086-92. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2006. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Multiple micronutrient supplementation of Nepalese women during pregnancy is associated with a significant increase in birth weight. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that improved birth weight in infants of mothers supplemented with micronutrients is associated with a decrease in inflammatory responses and an increase in the production of T helper 1 cells and T helper 2 cells. DESIGN: The study was embedded in a randomized controlled trial of 15 micronutrients, compared with iron-folate supplementation (control), given during pregnancy with the aim of increasing birth weight. Blood samples were collected at 32 wk of gestation, 12-20 wk after supplementation began, for the measurement of inflammatory markers. Breast-milk samples were collected 1 mo after delivery for the measurement of the ratio of milk sodium to potassium (milk Na:K). In an opportunistically selected subgroup of 70 women, mitogen-stimulated cytokine production was measured ex vivo in whole blood. RESULTS: Blood eosinophils; plasma concentrations of the acute phase reactants C-reactive protein, alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP), neopterin, and ferritin; milk Na:K; and the production of interleukin (IL) 10, IL-4, interferon gamma, and tumor necrosis factor alpha in whole blood did not differ significantly between the supplemented and control groups. Plasma C-reactive protein and AGP were higher in women who had a preterm delivery, and AGP was higher in women who delivered a low-birth-weight term infant than in women who delivered a normal-birth-weight term infant. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate an association between systemic inflammation in late pregnancy and compromised delivery outcome in Nepalese women but do not support the hypothesis that multiple micronutrient supplementation changes cytokine production or inflammatory markers.
Wangui J, Opot B, Njiri J, Mitei K, Wadegu M, Osuna F, Bulimo W, Mukunzi S, Achilla R, Majanja J, et al. "Genotypic characterization of antiviral susceptibility of Influenza A viruses isolated in Kenya from 2008 to 2011." International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2012;16:e437-e438. AbstractWebsite
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Wangui J, Nokes JD, Mobegi VA, Otieno JR, Agoti CN, Ngeranwa JJN, Bulimo WD. "Spatial-temporal distribution and sequence diversity of group a human respiratory syncytial viruses in Kenya preceding the emergence of {ON1} genotype." Influenza Other Respi. Viruses. 2022;16:501-510. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a major cause of severe viral acute respiratory illness and contributes significantly to severe pneumonia cases in Africa. Little is known about its spatial-temporal distribution as defined by its genetic diversity. METHODS: A retrospective study conducted utilizing archived nasopharyngeal specimens from patients attending outpatient clinics in hospitals located in five demographically and climatically distinct regions of Kenya; Coast, Western, Highlands, Eastern and Nairobi. The viral total RNA was extracted and tested using multiplex real time RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction). A segment of the G-gene was amplified using one-step RT-PCR and sequenced by Sanger di-deoxy method. Bayesian analysis of phylogeny was utilized and subsequently median joining methods for haplotype network reconstruction. RESULTS: Three genotypes of HRSVA were detected; GA5 (14.0%), GA2 (33.1%), and NA1 (52.9%). HRSVA prevalence varied by location from 33% to 13.2% in the Highlands and the Eastern regions respectively. The mean nucleotide diversity (Pi[$π$]) varied by genotype: highest of 0.018 for GA5 and lowest of 0.005 for NA1. A total of 58 haplotypes were identified (GA5 10; GA2 20; NA1 28). These haplotypes were introduced into the population locally by single haplotypes and additional subsidiary seeds amongst the GA2 and the NA1 haplotypes. CONCLUSIONS: HRSVA was found across all the regions throughout the study period and comprised three genotypes; GA5, GA2, and NA1 genotypes. The genotypes were disproportionately distributed across the regions with GA5 gradually increasing toward the Western zones and decreasing toward the Eastern zones of the country.

WANGUI DRGITAURUTH. "Pain and stress in the human fetus.Smith RP, Gitau R, Glover V, Fisk NM.Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2000 Sep;92(1):161-5.". In: Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2000 Sep;92(1):161-5. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2000. Abstract
Invasive diagnostic and therapeutic techniques are increasingly applied to the fetus. It is not known if the fetus feels pain during such procedures, but the fetus does mount significant stress hormonal and circulatory changes in response to these from 18-20 weeks. Perinatal stress may have long-term neurodevelopmental implications. During open fetal surgery, maternal general anaesthesia provides fetal anaesthesia. However, in closed procedures, fetal analgesia presents difficulties. The optimal drug, dose, and route of administration remain to be determined.
Wangui J, Nokes DJ, Nyaigoti CA, Achilla R, Onyango C, Wurapa E, Bulimo W. "Prevalence of acute respiratory infections caused by RSV and Adeno viruses in Kenya in 2007-2009." Int J Infect Dis. 2012;16:E118-E119. AbstractWebsite
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WANGUI DRGITAURUTH. "Effect of direct fetal opioid analgesia on fetal hormonal and hemodynamic stress response to intrauterine needling. Fisk NM, Gitau R, Teixeira JM, Giannakoulopoulos X, Cameron AD, Glover VA.Anesthesiology. 2001 Oct;95(4):828-35.". In: Anesthesiology. 2001 Oct;95(4):828-35. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Whether the fetus can experience pain remains controversial. During the last half of pregnancy, the neuroanatomic connections for nociception are in place, and the human fetus mounts sizable stress responses to physical insults. Analgesia has been recommended for intrauterine procedures or late termination, but without evidence that it works. The authors investigated whether fentanyl ablates the fetal stress response to needling using the model of delayed interval sampling during intrahepatic vein blood sampling and transfusion in alloimmunized fetuses undergoing intravascular transfusion between 20 and 35 weeks. METHODS: Intravenous fentanyl (10 microg/kg estimated fetal weight x 1.25 placental correction) was given once at intrahepatic vein transfusion in 16 fetuses, and changes (posttransfusion - pretransfusion) in beta endorphin, cortisol, and middle cerebral artery pulsatility index were compared with intrahepatic vein transfusions without fentanyl and with control transfusions at the placental cord insertion. RESULTS: Fentanyl reduced the beta endorphin (mean difference in changes, -70.3 pg/ml; 95% confidence interval, -121 to -19.2; P = 0.02) and middle cerebral artery pulsatility index response (mean difference, 0.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.26-1.04; P = 0.03), but not the cortisol response (mean difference, -10.9 ng/ml, 95% confidence interval, -24.7 to 2.9; P = 0.11) in fetuses who had paired intrahepatic vein transfusions with and without fentanyl. Comparison with control fetuses transfused without fentanyl indicated that the beta endorphin and cerebral Doppler response to intrahepatic vein transfusion with fentanyl approached that of nonstressful placental cord transfusions. CONCLUSIONS: The authors conclude that intravenous fentanyl attenuates the fetal stress response to intrahepatic vein needling.
WANGUI DRGITAURUTH. "Fetal plasma testosterone correlates positively with cortisol. Gitau R, Adams D, Fisk NM, Glover V.Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2005 Mar;90(2):F166-9.". In: Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2005 Mar;90(2):F166-9. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Fetal exposure to testosterone has been implicated in programming childhood behaviour, but little is known about the determinants of fetal testosterone concentrations. AIMS: To investigate the relation between fetal testosterone and maternal and fetal cortisol. METHODS: Clinically indicated blood samples taken from 44 human fetuses (mean gestational age 27 weeks, range 15-38), together with paired maternal samples, were analysed for testosterone and cortisol concentrations. RESULTS: Male fetuses had significantly higher concentrations of testosterone than females. Female but not male fetal concentrations rose significantly with gestational age. Fetal testosterone correlated positively with both fetal cortisol and maternal testosterone concentrations. Multiple regression showed that maternal testosterone and fetal cortisol were independently correlated with fetal plasma testosterone in both sexes. CONCLUSION: Unlike the norm in the adult, where testosterone production is often inhibited by cortisol, in the fetus there is a positive link between the two.
WANGUI DRGITAURUTH. "The gut microbiota and lipid metabolism: implications for human health and coronary heart disease. Fava F, Lovegrove JA, Gitau R, Jackson KG, Tuohy KM.Curr Med Chem. 2006;13(25):3005-21.". In: Curr Med Chem. 2006;13(25):3005-21. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2006. Abstract

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of mortality in Western societies, affecting about one third of the population before their seventieth year. Over the past decades modifiable risk factors of CHD have been identified, including smoking and diet. These factors when altered can have a significant impact on an individuals' risk of developing CHD, their overall health and quality of life. There is strong evidence suggesting that dietary intake of plant foods rich in fibre and polyphenolic compounds, effectively lowers the risk of developing CHD. However, the efficacy of these foods often appears to be greater than the sum of their recognised biologically active parts. Here we discuss the hypothesis that beneficial metabolic and vascular effects of dietary fibre and plant polyphenols are due to an up regulation of the colon-systemic metabolic axis by these compounds. Fibres and many polyphenols are converted into biologically active compounds by the colonic microbiota. This microbiota imparts great metabolic versatility and dynamism, with many of their reductive or hydrolytic activities appearing complementary to oxidative or conjugative human metabolism. Understanding these microbial activities is central to determining the role of different dietary components in preventing or beneficially impacting on the impaired lipid metabolism and vascular dysfunction that typifies CHD and type II diabetes. This approach lays the foundation for rational selection of health promoting foods, rational target driven design of functional foods, and provides an essential thus-far, overlooked, dynamic to our understanding of how foods recognised as "healthy" impact on the human metabonome.

Wangui MS, ADUDA JO. "The Relationship between Capital Structure and Corporate taxes for Companies listed at The Nairobi Securities Exchange." International Journal of Finance and Accounting. 2016;1(2):18-37.
Wangui J, Nokes DJ, Nyaigoti CA, Achilla R, Onyango C, Wurapa E, Bulimo W. "Prevalence of acute respiratory infections caused by RSV and Adeno viruses in Kenya in 2007-2009." International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2012;16:e118-e119. AbstractWebsite
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WANGUI DRGITAURUTH. "A prospective study of risk factors for bacterial vaginosis in HIV-1-seronegative African women. McClelland RS, Richardson BA, Graham SM, Masese LN, Gitau R, Lavreys L, Mandaliya K, Jaoko W, Baeten JM, Ndinya-Achola JO.Sex Transm Dis. 2008 Jun;35(6):617-2.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 2008 Jun;35(6):617-23. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2008. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is common and has been associated with increased HIV-1 susceptibility. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for BV in African women at high risk for acquiring HIV-1. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study among 151 HIV-1-seronegative Kenyan female sex workers. Nonpregnant women were eligible if they did not have symptoms of abnormal vaginal itching or discharge at the time of enrollment. At monthly follow-up, a vaginal examination and laboratory testing for genital tract infections were performed. Multivariate Andersen-Gill proportional hazards analysis was used to identify correlates of BV. RESULTS: Participants completed a median of 378 (interquartile range 350-412) days of follow-up. Compared with women reporting no vaginal washing, those who reported vaginal washing 1 to 14 [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88-1.89], 15 to 28 (aHR 1.60, 95% CI 0.98-2.61), and >28 times/wk (aHR 2.39, 95% CI 1.35-4.23) were at increased risk of BV. Higher BV incidence was also associated with the use of cloth for intravaginal cleansing (aHR 1.48, 95% CI 1.06-2.08) and with recent unprotected intercourse (aHR 1.75, 95% CI 1.47-2.08). Women using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate contraception were at lower risk for BV (aHR 0.59, 95% CI 0.48-0.73). CONCLUSIONS: Vaginal washing and unprotected intercourse were associated with increased risk of BV. These findings could help to inform the development of novel vaginal health approaches for HIV-1 risk reduction in women.
WANGUI DRGITAURUTH. "Fetal exposure to maternal cortisol.Gitau R, Cameron A, Fisk NM, Glover V. Lancet. 1998 Aug 29;352(9129):707-8.". In: Lancet. 1998 Aug 29;352(9129):707-8. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1998. Abstract
Invasive diagnostic and therapeutic techniques are increasingly applied to the fetus. It is not known if the fetus feels pain during such procedures, but the fetus does mount significant stress hormonal and circulatory changes in response to these from 18-20 weeks. Perinatal stress may have long-term neurodevelopmental implications. During open fetal surgery, maternal general anaesthesia provides fetal anaesthesia. However, in closed procedures, fetal analgesia presents difficulties. The optimal drug, dose, and route of administration remain to be determined.
WANGUI DRGITAURUTH. "Umbilical cortisol levels as an indicator of the fetal stress response to assisted vaginal delivery. Gitau R, Menson E, Pickles V, Fisk NM, Glover V, MacLachlan N.Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2001 Sep;98(1):14-7.". In: Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2001 Sep;98(1):14-7. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: While it is well established that delivery by elective caesarean section is less stressful for the fetus than normal vaginal delivery, little attention has been paid to the effect on the baby of an assisted delivery. STUDY DESIGN: We examined cortisol levels in venous cord blood from seven babies born by forceps, 10 by ventouse extraction, 28 by unassisted normal vaginal delivery, and 12 born by elective caesarean. Paired maternal bloods were taken immediately after delivery. RESULTS: Cord blood cortisol values were significantly different in the different groups (one-way ANOVA, P < 0.0001). The forceps group had the highest values and the caesarean group the lowest; both were different from the normal vaginal delivery group (P=0.019 and P=0.046, respectively). There was no effect of length of labour, or method of pain relief on cortisol levels. Maternal values were similar in the different groups, confirming that the differences observed derived from the fetus. CONCLUSIONS: There is increasing evidence that the stress experienced by the fetus or neonate can have long-term effects on the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in later life. We speculate that the stress caused by some assisted deliveries may contribute to this.
Wangui M, Gitao C, Gathumbi P, Kinge S. "Relationship Between Serum IgM Levels and Liver Function in Rubella and Measles Infection of Children Below Five Years in Nairobi County." . Asian Journal of Medical Sciences . 2018;9(2(DOI:10.19026/ajms.9.5927)):10-15.
WANGUI DRGITAURUTH. "Human fetal and maternal corticotrophin releasing hormone responses to acute stress. Gitau R, Fisk NM, Glover V.Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2004 Jan;89(1):F29-32.". In: Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2004 Jan;89(1):F29-32. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of acute stress, caused by intrauterine needling at the intrahepatic vein (IHV), on fetal plasma concentrations of corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH), and to compare paired fetal and maternal samples for CRH concentration to determine the extent of their joint control. DESIGN: Venous blood samples were obtained from fetuses (gestational age 17-38 weeks) undergoing fetal blood sampling (n = 29) or intrauterine transfusion (n = 17) through either the IHV or the placental cord insertion (PCI). SETTING: The Centre for Fetal Care, Queen Charlotte's and Chelsea Hospital, London, UK. PATIENTS: Pregnant women undergoing clinically indicated fetal blood sampling or intrauterine blood/platelet transfusion. RESULTS: Fetal plasma cortisol increased with intrahepatic vein transfusion (mean (SD) cortisol response Delta64.7 (54.5) nmol/l; p < 0.0001

WANGUI DRGITAURUTH. "Risk factors for subclinical mastitis among HIV-infected and uninfected women in Lusaka, Zambia. Kasonka L, Makasa M, Marshall T, Chisenga M, Sinkala M, Chintu C, Kaseba C, Kasolo F, Gitau R, Tomkins A, Murray S, Filteau S. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 200.". In: Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2006 Sep;20(5):379-91. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2006. Abstract

Subclinical mastitis, defined as raised milk sodium/potassium (Na/K) ratio, is associated with poor infant growth and, among HIV-infected women, with increased milk HIV viral load. We conducted a longitudinal cohort study in Lusaka, Zambia, in order to investigate the relative importance of several potential causes of subclinical mastitis: maternal infection, micronutrient deficiencies and poor lactation practice. Women (198 HIV-infected, 189 HIV-uninfected) were recruited at 34 weeks' gestation and followed up to 16 weeks postpartum for collection of information on their health, their infant's health, infant growth and infant feeding practices. Milk samples were collected from each breast at 11 postpartum visits and blood at recruitment and 6 weeks postpartum. The geometric mean milk Na/K ratio and the proportion of women with Na/K ratio > 1.0 in one or both breasts were significantly higher among HIV-infected than among uninfected women. Other factors associated with the higher mean Na/K ratio in univariable analyses were primiparity, high maternal alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP) at 6 weeks, maternal overall morbidity and specific breast symptoms, preterm delivery, low infant weight or length, infant thrush and non-exclusive breast feeding. In multivariable analyses, primiparity, preterm delivery, breast symptoms, HIV status and raised AGP were associated with the raised Na/K ratio. Thus the main factors associated with subclinical mastitis that are amenable to intervention are poor maternal overall health and breast health. The impact of improved postpartum health care, especially management of maternal infections and especially in primiparous women, on the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and its consequences requires investigation.

WANGUI DRGITAURUTH. "Nutrigenetics and CVD: what does the future hold?Lovegrove JA, Gitau R. Proc Nutr Soc. 2008 May;67(2):206-13.". In: Proc Nutr Soc. 2008 May;67(2):206-13. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2008. Abstract

CVD is a common killer in both the Western world and the developing world. It is a multifactorial disease that is influenced by many environmental and genetic factors. Although public health advice to date has been principally in the form of prescribed population-based recommendations, this approach has been surprisingly unsuccessful in reducing CVD risk. This outcome may be explained, in part, by the extreme variability in response to dietary manipulations between individuals and interactions between diet and an individual's genetic background, which are defined by the term 'nutrigenetics'. The shift towards personalised nutritional advice is a very attractive proposition. In principle an individual could be genotyped and given dietary advice specifically tailored to their genetic make-up. Evidence-based research into interactions between fixed genetic variants, nutrient intake and biomarkers of CVD risk is increasing, but still limited. The present paper will review the evidence for interactions between dietary fat and three common polymorphisms in the apoE, apoAI and PPARgamma genes. Increased knowledge of how these and other genes influence dietary response should increase the understanding of personalised nutrition. While targeted dietary advice may have considerable potential for reducing CVD risk, the ethical issues associated with its routine use need careful consideration.

Wangui J, Bulimo W, Nokes J, Wurapa E, Otieno J, Opot B, Achilla R, Coldren R. "Genotypic Diversity of HRSV-A in out-patients with Acute Respiratory Infections in Kenya 2007-2010.". 2014. Abstract
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Wangombe DN, Mose BR, Maranga SM, Nganga SP, MBUYA TO. "Recycling of Aluminium scrap in Kenya: A Survey of Foundry Enterprises and Mechanical Properties of Resultant Alloys." Journal of Sustainable Research in Engineering. 2019;5(1):25-33. Abstracthttps://jsre.jkuat.ac.ke/index.php/jsre/article/view/84

Small and medium scale foundry enterprises occupy an important position in the economic growth and development in our societies. They are the main force behind a large number of innovations and contribute significantly to the nation’s growth through employment creation, investments and exports. Their contribution to poverty reduction and wealth creation is enormous. This study investigated the aluminium scrap recycling practices through a survey of 45 foundry enterprises in Kenya; and evaluated the effectiveness of scrap segregation, melt cleanliness and post cast processing in reducing failures of load bearing products using commonly used cylinder head scrap. Survey data was acquired through a questionnaire, onsite observations and individual interviews with the foundry men. Three alloys were developed from carefully segregated cylinder head scrap; which include BA (base alloy), BA + 0.6%Fe and BA + 0.6%Fe + 0.3%Mn. Analysis of microstructure and mechanical properties was done on as cast and T6 heat treated alloys. The foundries involved in the survey were classified into ‘‘jua kali’’(micro), small, medium and large enterprises based on capital investment, number of employees, volume of castings produced and level of technology. It was found that ‘‘jua kali’’ enterprises were majority at 44%. Their operations were limited by low capital base, low level technology and inadequate skills; forcing them to operate below 40% capacity. Further, the approaches adopted for sorting scrap were found to lead to unpredictable chemical composition and uncertainties in mechanical performance. Use of alloying additives to adjust the alloy chemistry and improve properties of load bearing castings was utilized by 10% of the enterprises. This resulted in production of low quality and unreliable castings. BA had composition similar to that of parent cylinder head alloys. A small increase of Fe by 0.2 % as an inclusion in the as cast alloy, resulted in a drop of strength and ductility by 7 and 20 % respectively. Mn mitigated the harmful effects of Fe by increasing strength and ductility by 5 and 12 % respectively. T6 heat treatment of as cast alloy improved the strength and decreased ductility by 40 and 18 % respectively. It was shown that sorting separately the aluminium scrap component by component, observation of melt cleanliness, use of additives, and post cast processing can yield good mechanical performance of the resulting alloy. International market requirements have set quality standards, which local foundries must fulfill through adoption of scrap segregation, casting and melt control procedures in order to ensure high quality products.

Wangombe JK, Mwanili D, Mitula P, Mugo M, Nzoya D, Muasya I, Muchunga E. "Capacity of Non-Governmental (NGoK) Providers in Delivery of Health Care in Kenya." Informing and reforming. 1998;7:2-6. Abstract
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Wangolo EE, Onyango CM, Gachene CKK, Mong’are PN. "Effects of Shoot Tip and Flower Removal on Growth and Yield of Spider Plant (Cleome gynandra L.) in Kenya." American Journal of Experimental Agriculture. 2015;8(6):367-376.

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