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M. DRWASIKEADUA. "Lecture Notes in Ordinary differential Equations I:.". In: University of Nairobi (Electronic content- Asynchronize mode(2005. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
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M. PROFKABIRAWANJIKU. "The Oral Artist and the Gender Dimension in Relections on Theories and Methods Ed Okombo, Nandwa, Nairobi University Press.". In: East African Medical Journal 68(9): 714-9. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1993. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
M. MS. "From Qatar with the Love for the Soil: Between Agro-Colonialism and Globalization.". In: (Re)membering Kenya Vol. III: Governance, Citizenship and Economics. Nairobi: Twaweza Communications; 2013.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S. Kilelu et al (1987) Incidence of Newcastle disease in sera of poultry from Kenya and Malawi using haemaggltination inhibition test. Kenya Veterinarian Journal Vol. 91 No. 77 p73 .". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1987. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ndavi PM, Dlamini D, Khumalo P: Report of Maternal Death Review in the 13 Kingdom of Swaziland, December, 2002.". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
M. PROFKYAMBIJ. "Barrack SM, Kyambi JM, Ndungu J, Wachira N, Anangwe G, Safwat S.Intestinal atresia and stenosis as seen and treated at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 1993 Sep;70(9):558-64.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Sep;70(9):558-64. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 1993. Abstract

In this retrospective study carried out covering the period, 1978-1991, 62 neonates were seen, diagnosed and treated for intestinal atresia which included: duodenal atresia and stenosis, small bowel atresia and atresia of large bowel. Locations of obstruction were duodenal in 17 patients, jejunal in 25 patients, jejuno-ileal in 5 and colon in two. Duodenal atresia was noted in 9 infants and duodenal stenosis due to annular pancreas, Ladd's bands with malrotation of bowel in 8. Associated anomalies which were observed were anorectal malformations in 2 and malrotation in 2 infants. Birth weights ranged from 1450 gm to 3000 gm. Prematurity was recorded in 11 infants. Diagnosis of intestinal atresia in our patients was made clinically and radiologically. Intestinal atresia in neonates was differentiated from other causes of obstruction such as Meconium Ileus, Hirschsprung's disease, neonatal volvulus, rectal atresia in anorectal malformations. Treatment of infants with intestinal atresia was surgical. Surgical techniques used depended on pathological findings. In 36 patients, complications such as functional obstructions with vomiting and failure to thrive, malabsorption, aspiration, bronchopneumonia, sepsis were observed. Overall mortality rate in our cases was 25 (41.9%) out of 62 patients.

M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Mati JKG, Sinei SK, Mulandi TN, Ndavi PM et al: Oral Contraceptive use and the risk of Malaria: East Africa Medical Journal 63:6:382, 1986.". In: MMed Thesis, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nairobi, 1987. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1986. Abstract

Part of a detailed analysis of 864 unmarried teenage mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital is presented. Teenage pregnancy amounted for 42.3% of all deliveries of unmarried mothers. Most teenage patients were above 16 years of age, had a religious background of wide coverage, had low quality antenatal care and low education. 94.6% were found to be primigravidas. This dominance has also been found by other workers. PIP: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study of unmarried mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, from December 1986-April 1987, was conducted with a pretested open-ended questionnaire: the 864 teen mothers are described here. They ranged from 13.4-19 years, most were 17-19. 49.4% were Catholic and 45% Protestant. 88.5% attended prenatal clinics once; 51.5% attended 5 times, although only 13% went to hospital clinics for specialized care. For reasons for not going for prenatal care teens stated that they were too shy to undergo a clinical exam, afraid of parents' reaction, unaware of the pregnancy or of the existence of prenatal care, they had not menstruated, or were in school, in prison, or had long work hours. Most girls had primary education, and 97.9% had dropped out of school. 34% dropped out because of pregnancy, and 32% for lack of tuition fees. Reasons for dropping out of school were tabulated, encompassing a broad range of social problems such as war, death, divorce, alcoholism or illness of parents, no tuition or uniform funds, poor grades, and running away from school. In Africa, teen pregnancy is probably increasing because of decreasing age at menarche and relaxing of traditional values.

M. MRMOGAMBIHEZRON. "Mogambi H, Mwongozo wa Walenisi, World Link Publishers.". In: Politics and Political Science (Online Publication), Vol. 43, Number 1, January 2010. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2003. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
M. PROFLUTIFELIX. "Luti, F.M. (1987). Experimental modelling of axial temperature profiles of buoyant diffusion flames. African Journal of Science and Technology, Series A, vol. 6, no. 1, 76-80.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 May;76(5):281-3. UN-HABITAT; 1987. Abstract
Mean temperatures were measured along the axis of propane gas flames using a porous ceramic burner. Data for fire heat release rates ranging form 13.3kW to 30.6kW were taken and analyzed. It was found that the lower zone of a fire in a clam environment could be conveniently divided into three regions. For the same heat release rates, the fires were subjected to a cross flow of 0.72ms-1 and it was found that along the axis, the three zones could be identified. The excess temperature in the intermittent zone decreased with height to the power of 0.60 for the calm environment and 1.11 with crossflow. In the plume zone, excess temperature decreased with 1.87 power for the clam case and 2.05 with crossflow case, all data when plotted on log plots fell on a single curve.
M. DRKATHUKUDAMMAS, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Gatere N, Othieno CJ, Kathuku DM. Prevalence of tardive dyskinesia among psychiatric in-patients at Mathari Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2002 Oct;79(10):547-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Oct;79(10):547-9. Equinet; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of tardive dyskinesia among psychiatric in-patients. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Mathari Hospital, Nairobi, the main psychiatric referral hospital in Kenya. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and two randomly selected in-patients seen in the hospital between January and April 2000. RESULTS: The prevalence of tardive dyskinesia was 11.9%. Neither the psychiatric diagnosis nor the sex was significantly associated with tardive dyskinesia. The antipsychotic dosage was also not associated with tardive dyskinesia but an increase in age was significantly associated with the abnormal movements. CONCLUSION: The prevalence rate of tardive dyskinesia among patients at Mathari Hospital is much lower than that found in western countries but similar to that from Asian studies. These findings indicate the possibility of racial differences in the aetiology of TD. Prospective cross-racial studies are necessary to confirm these findings.
M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY, J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY. "Computer-based information systems in their social context: Use of Different Perspectives.". In: Eds., Bhatnagar & Odedra, pp. 233-243. Tata Mcgraw-Hill. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1992. Abstract
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M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Changes in Fatty Acid Levels of Young Shoots of Tea (Camellia Sinensis L.) due to Nitrogenous Fertilizers", Food Chemistry, 38, 211-219.". In: Journal of Pharmacognosy 30 (1): 9-16. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1990. Abstract
   
M. MRMBUTHIAJACKSON, Mbuthia DM. "Dr Mwangi Mbuthia, Ph D. and S. O. Orero. M.Sc. "Short Term load Forecasting For the Kenya Power" Submitted to "IEEE (Institution of Electrical and Electronic 'Engineers, USA) Transactions on Power Systems", October 2001 _.". In: East Centr. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. au-ibar; 2001. Abstract

A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.

M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Camara, S., Abdelnour-Nocera J., Luckin, R., Waema, T. (2008), Bridging the global digital divide with participatory customisation.". In: Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Cultural Attitudes towards Technology and Communication (CATAC), 28 June-1 July 2008, Nimes, France. Pambazuka Press; 2008. Abstract
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M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S. Kilelu et al 1979. Isolation of E. coli from piglets with porcine oedema. Journal of bacteriology. Vol.97 No.39, p93.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1979. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DROLUBAYOFLORENCE. "J. H. Nderitu, E. M. Wambua, F. Olubayo, J. M. Kasina, C. N. Waturu. 2007. Evaluation of French Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Cultivars and Breeding lines for Resistance to Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Pests in Kenya.". In: Journal of Entomology 4 (3): 2002-209. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 2007. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "The potential for Utilization of some Indigenous Kenyan Seeds".,.". In: Nairobi. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1981. Abstract
   
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "P.N. Nyaga, J. Kasiti, E.S. Kilelu (1999) Serological prevalence of Newcastle disease virus in Kiambu district. Kenya Veterinarian Journal Vol. 107 N.o. 97. p39-41.". In: Medicus Vol. 9 No. 10, page 8,9 October 1990. EAMJ; 1999. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY, MUTUKU DRKIOKOURBANUS. "Development and Implementation of a Human Resource Management System in the University of Nairobi: Analysis from a Social Informatics Approach.". In: International ICT Workshop 2004 On Application of ICT in enhancing Higher Learning Education, pp 238. East African Educational Publishers Ltd.; 2004. Abstract
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M. PROFWANYOIKEMARGARETM, GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Nyakalo, S., M.S. Badamana and M.M. Wanyoike (1990). Milk production and kid performance of Galla Goats supplemented with Poultry waste.". In: In the Proceedings of the 8th SR-CRSP Scientific Workshop, Nairobi, Kenya 7th . Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1990.
M. PROFKABIRAWANJIKU. "Reclaiming Women.". In: East African Medical Journal 68(9): 714-9. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1999. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "Kilelu E.S. et. al Kilelu E.S. et. al. Incidence of Brucellosis in Kajiado district of Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian Journal 1991.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1991. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Waema, T.M. and Walsham, G., (1990), Information Systems Strategy Formation in a Developing Country Bank,.". In: Technological Forecasting and Social Change 38, 4, 393-407. East African Educational Publishers Ltd.; 1990. Abstract
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M. MRMAINADAVID, J. MRMANGALAMICHAEL. "MINERAL MICRONUTRIENT DENSITY CHARACTERIZATION USING ENERGY DISPERSIVE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE (XRF) ANALYSIS IN FOUR ON-FARM KENYAN WILD AFRICAN FRUIT TREE GERMPLASM Akundabweni LSM, Munene RW, Maina DM and Mangala JM.". In: (1979-1986)Guidance in the development of numerous Institute of Adult Studies. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2010.
M. PROFKITONYIJOSEPHK. "Onyango F.E., Wafula E.M., Kitonyi J.M.K et al. Hypoxaemia in young Kenyan children with acute lower respiratory infection.BMJ. 1993 Mar 6;306(6878):612-5.". In: BMJ. 1993 Mar 6;306(6878):612-5. Comment in: BMJ. 1993 May 15;306(6888):1342. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1993. Abstract

OBJECTIVES–To determine the prevalence, clinical correlates, and outcome of hypoxaemia in acutely ill children with respiratory symptoms. DESIGN–Prospective observational study. SETTING–Paediatric casualty ward of a referral hospital at 1670 m altitude in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS–256 Infants and children under 3 years of age with symptoms of respiratory infection. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES–Prevalence of hypoxaemia, defined as arterial oxygen saturation < 90% determined by pulse oximetry, and condition of patient on the fifth day after admission. RESULTS–Over half (151) of the children were hypoxaemic, and short term mortality was 4.3 times greater in these children. In contrast, the relative risk of a fatal outcome in children with radiographic pneumonia was only 1.03 times that of children without radiographic pneumonia. A logistic regression model showed that in 3-11 month old infants a respiratory rate > or = 70/min, grunting, and retractions were the best independent clinical signs for the prediction of hypoxaemia. In the older children a respiratory rate of > or = 60/min was the single best clinical predictor of hypoxaemia. The presence of hypoxaemia predicted radiographic pneumonia with a sensitivity of 71% and specificity of 55%. CONCLUSIONS–Over half the children presenting to this referral hospital with respiratory symptoms were hypoxaemic. A group of specific clinical signs seem useful in predicting hypoxaemia. The clear association of hypoxaemia with mortality suggests that the detection and effective treatment of hypoxaemia are important aspects of the clinical management of acute infections of the lower respiratory tract in children in hospital in developing regions. PIP: In 1989, pediatricians followed 256 children 7 days to 36 months old with symptoms of respiratory infection at Kenyatta National Hospital (1670 m altitude) in Nairobi, Kenya. The symptoms were serious enough to warrant hospital admission for 209 of these children. The most common clinical diagnoses were pneumonia (53%) and bronchiolitis (33%). 59% of the children admitted to the hospital were hypoxemic (arterial oxygen saturation or + to 90%). 10% of all admitted children died. 90.4% of them were hypoxemic with arterial oxygen saturations ranging from 40-88%. Children with hypoxemia were 4.3 times more apt to die within 5 days than those with no hypoxemia (p = .02). On the other hand, children with radiographic pneumonia had a relative risk of short-term mortality of only 1.03. Hypoxemia on admission predicted short-term mortality with 90% sensitivity and 34% specificity. It predicted pneumonia with 71% sensitivity and 55% specificity (p .0001). Children who lived for at least 5 days had arterial oxygen saturations ranging from 41-98. Even though all of the children with clinically evident cyanosis were less than a year old, 89% of the hypoxemic infants less than 1 year old did not exhibit cyanosis. Mothers' reports of blueness in newborns and infants less than 2 months was the best predictor of hypoxemia (62% accuracy; p .05). For children 3-11 months old, the best predictors of hypoxemia, with an accuracy of 70%, were a respiratory rate of at least 70/minute (odds ratio [OR] 2.6; p .001). For children at least 12 months old, the sole best predictor was a respiratory rate of at least 60/minute (70% accuracy; OR 5.1; p .01). This study should be followed by well-designed studies of the clinical effectiveness of proper treatment with oxygen in preventing mortality in hypoxemic infants and children.

M. DRWASIKEADUA. "Lecture Notes in Ordinary differential Equations III:.". In: University of Nairobi (2006). Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2006. Abstract
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M. PROFKABIRAWANJIKU. "Democratic Change in Africa: Ed Kabira, Odoul and Nzomo; AAWORD/Acts Publication, Nairobi.". In: East African Medical Journal 68(9): 714-9. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1993. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S. Kilelu et al (1988). Diagnosis of Nairobi. Sheep Disease virus using Passive Haemagglutination and Haemagglutination inhibition test. Veterinary Record. Vol. 39. No 77 p 73.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1988. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ministry of Health: Essential Obstetric Care Manual for Health Service Providers in Kenya: March 2002.". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
M. MW, B. KOOPMAN, V. TIEDEMMANNA, W. PROFMUTITUEUNICE, W. DRKIMENJUJOHN. "Race typing and evaluation of aggressiveness of Exserohilum turcicum isolates of Kenyan German and Austrian origin." World Journal of Agricultural Sciences . 2010;6(3):277-284.
M. DRGUANTAIERIC, Ncokazi K, Egan T, et al. "Enone- and Chalcone-Chloroquinoline Hybrid Analogues: In Silico Guided Design, Synthesis, Antiplasmodial Activity, in Vitro Metabolism, and Mechanistic Studies." J. Med. Chem. . 2011;54 :3637-3649. Abstract

Analogues of the previously reported antimalarial hybrid compounds 8b and 12 were proposed with the aim of identifying compounds with improved solubility and retained antimalarial potency. In silico characterization predicted improved solubilities of the analogues, particularly at low pH; they retained acceptable predicted permeability properties but were predicted to be susceptible to hepatic metabolism. These analogues were synthesized and found to exhibit notable in vitro antimalarial activity. Compounds 25 and 27 were the most active of the analogues. In vitro metabolism studies indicated susceptibility of the analogues to hepatic metabolism. There was also evidence of primary glucuronidation for analogues 24-27. Presumed cis-trans isomerism of 12, 22, and 23 under in vitro metabolism assay conditions was also observed, with differences in the nature and rates of metabolism observed between isomers. Biochemical studies strongly suggested that inhibition of hemozoin formation is the primary mechanism of action of these analogues.

M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Boman J., Maina D.M., Trace Element Categorization of Pollution Sources in the Equator Town of Nanyuki, Kenya.". In: Oral Presentation, abstract in the proceedings of the, European Conference on Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry(XRS2002), Berlin, Germany: 16 - 21 June 2002. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2002.
M. PROFKYAMBIJ. "Kyambi JM.A case for day-care surgery.East Afr Med J. 2001 Apr;78(4):169.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Apr;78(4):169. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 2001. Abstract
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M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Githiru PK, Kamau RK, Ndavi PM, Wanjala SHM: Value of Erect Lateral Pelvimetry in Management of patients with one previous scar: J Obst/Gyn. East Cert Afr. vol. 10: 1 13-15 1992.". In: J. Obstet. Gyna East Afr. 10(2): 65 1992,. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1992. Abstract

PIP: In this study, 273 university students (161 men and 112 women) were interviewed by means of a self-administered questionnaire to determine their knowledge, attitude, and practice concerning sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The mean age of the men was 22.4 +or- 1.6 years and that of the women was 22.1 +or- 1.6 years. 97.4% of the students were sexually experienced. Knowledge of common STDs was high, but knowledge of their signs, symptoms, and consequences was low. 24.5% of the male and 3.7% of the female students had had an STD. The principal sources of information on STDs included books, films, and TV for 39.6% of the students and teachers for 16.8% of the students. Parents played a very minimal role. It is suggested that primary and secondary school students be taught about STDs as part of reproductive health education and that such education be continued at the college level in order to increase the awareness among young people. author's modified

M. MK. "A Visit to Father and Mother.". In: The Winner and Other Stories. Nairobi, Kenya.: Kenya Literature Bureau; 1994.
M. MRMOGAMBIHEZRON. "Mogambi H, Johari ya Kiswahili Bk 1, East African Educational Publishers (EAEP).". In: Politics and Political Science (Online Publication), Vol. 43, Number 1, January 2010. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2003. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
M. DRKATHUKUDAMMAS, A DROBONDOANNE, MAINA DRMBURUJOHN, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Kisivuli J A, Othieno C J, Mburu J M, Kathuku D M, Obondo A A & Nasokho P W (2005). Psychiatric morbidity among leprosy patients in Teso and Busia Districts of Western Kenya. East African Medical Journal, Vol. 82 no9, 452-456.". In: Journal. Equinet; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To establish the magnitude of psychiatric disorders among leprosy patients in western Kenya. DESIGN: A cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Busia and Teso districts in western Kenya. SUBJECTS: A sample of 152 male and female, adult leprosy patients. RESULTS: The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity (PM) was 53.29%. The PM was positively correlated with physical disability and marital status but not with age, sex, education, type of leprosy, or duration of the illness. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity was lower among Kenyan leprosy patients compared to studies carried out in India (56% to 78%). It was high compared to the rate of psychiatric morbidity in those seeking medical help in primary health care centres in Kenya, which was recently estimated to be 10%. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of PM in leprosy patients in western Kenya was lower than that in studies carried out in India. This could be attributed to de-institutionalisation and re-integration of leprosy sufferers back into their local communities. Since the rate was more than double that in the general Kenyan population and seemed to be related to presence of physical disability, an appraisal of psychiatric services offered to these patients is needed.
M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Flavonoids from Tephrosia interrupta and tephrosia linearis". Fitoterapia, LXI,372.". In: Journal of Pharmacognosy 30 (1): 9-16. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1990. Abstract
   
M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Waema, T.M. and Mwamburi, C.M. (2009). Ex Ante Evaluation of Information and Communication Technology Projects; Case Studies of Kenyan Universities.". In: International Journal of Computing and ICT Research (IJCIR), 3 (1), 65-76. Pambazuka Press; 2009. Abstract
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M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "G Davies, Rksoi, E.S.Kilelu (1983). Blue tongue virus disease antibodies in sheep form Kitengela, Athi River Veterinary Record. Vol 9 No. 7 p 77-78.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1983. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DROLUBAYOFLORENCE. "14. Johnson O. Nyasani; John W. Kimenju; Florence M. Olubayo and Michel J. Wilson. (2008). Laboratory and field investigations using indigenous entomopathogenic nematodes for biological control of Plutella xylostella in Kenya.". In: Asian Journal of plant pathology 2(1) 48-53. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 2008. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Myristoyl Esters of Lactose", Carbohydrate Research, 125, 253-263.". In: J. Sci. Technol. (Kenya), 5, 45- 52 (1984). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1984. Abstract
   
M. MRSMUIVAMARGARET. "Muiva, M. N., .". In: CSD Activity Report for UNICEF. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1993. Abstract
The gene Q13L coding for the Capripoxvirus group specific structural protein P32 was expressed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pGEX-2T as a fusion protein with glutathione-s-transferase and purified on glutathione sepharose affinity chromatography column. The protein was then employed for diagnosis of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpyskin disease, by a latex agglutination test (LAT) using the purified P32 antigen and guinea pig detector antiserum raised against the P32 antigen. The LAT and virus neutralization test (VNT) were used to screen one hundred livestock field sera for antibodies to Capripoxvirus, in comparison the LAT was simpler, rapid and 23% more sensitive than the VNT. In addition the LAT was found to be specific for Carpripoxvirus because it did not pick antibodies to Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus. The LA test can be taken for a simple and quick diagnostic tool for primary screening of Carpripoxvirus infection and will reduce the reliance of diagnostic laboratories on tissue culture facilities. Keywords: Carpripox, latex agglutination test, attachment gene J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Vol. 3 (2) 2007: pp. 36-43
M. MROBALALUKE. "The Relationship between Land Markets and Land Conflicts in Nairobi.". In: East African Medical Journal, 1989, 66: 757 - 763. UoN; 1979.
M. DROLUBAYOFLORENCE. "Olubayo, F.M. 1990. Insect Pests of Major Crops in Kenya In: The farmer.". In: J. of Stored Prod. Res.Vol. 33, No. 4. Pp. 271-276. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 1990. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Metalation, Reduction and Cleavage Reactions of 2- methyl 2-Thiazolines.". In: Kenya. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1972. Abstract
", Tetrahedron Lett., 4543-4546 ()
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S. Kilelu et al (1991). Incidence of Newcastle disease in Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian Journal Vol. 77 No. 67 p77-87.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1991. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY, J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY. "Communications research for development: The experience of the Nairobi ESANET node.". In: Eds.,Tindimubona A & Auerbacher W., pp. 101-108. African Academy of Sciences/American Association for the Advancement of Science. East African Educational Publishers Ltd.; 1992. Abstract
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M. MRMAINADAVID. "Radiactivity and dose assessment of limestone samples from Kitui South Limestone Deposits-Kenya B. Mulwa and J. P. Patel, D. M. Maina.". In: (1979-1986)Guidance in the development of numerous Institute of Adult Studies. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2010. Abstract
Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K of limestone samples collected from Kitui South have been measured using Hyper Pure Germanium (HPGe) detector gamma ray spectrometry.  A total of 48 samples were collected from the limestone rock outcrops in the region.  The average activity concentrations varied from 28.3 to 47.4 with a mean value of 35.9 Bq/kg and 87.4 to 142.6 with an average of 108.5 Bq/Kg for 226Ra and 40K respectively.  232Th was below detection limits in all the samples.  The value of the absorbed dose rates, annual effective dose rates, external hazard index, gamma activity index and alpha index were all below the maximum recommended values for radiological safety and showed good comparison within other studies in the world.    
M. PROFKITONYIJOSEPHK. "Kitonyi JM.Radiological behaviour of the thymus in chest infection in the underfives. East Afr Med J. 1995 Feb;72(2):81-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Feb;72(2):81-2. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1995. Abstract
The thymus in the paediatric chest will often give radiological appearances of very intriguing nature. It is known to react dramatically to stress factors such as infection or trauma. Gross hypertrophy following atrophy has been documented in many cases. In this paper the author scrutinizes one hundred anteroposterior chest radiographs of children under the age of five years suspected of having chest infection. Thymocardiac ratio is determined. It is concluded that in children under five years, the thymus generally decreases in size with age and that often the thymus will undergo atrophy as a primary response to infection. PMID: 7796759 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
M. MW, B. KOOPMAN, V. TIEDEMMANNA, W. PROFMUTITUEUNICE, W. DRKIMENJUJOHN. "A review of the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique in genotyping and DNA fingerprinting studies.". In: Journal of applied Biosciences, Vol. 9(2): 389-395.; 2008.
M. PROFKABIRAWANJIKU. "Delusions: Essays on Social Construction of Gender, Ed. Kabira W. Masheti M. and Mbugua W.: African Womens Communication and Development Network, Nairobi.". In: East African Medical Journal 68(9): 714-9. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1994. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "F Parker E.S Kilelu 1988 clostridium infection in sheep in Kenya . Journal of Microbiology Vol.7 No. 7 P 47 .". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1988. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Heavy Metal Content of Leafy Vegetables grown on sludge amended soils.". In: Inaugural National Nutrition Congress . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract
Food crops are an important source of minerals that are important to the health of human beings. The main source of these minerals is the soils that they are grown in. The quality of these soils is ameliorated using additives such as fertilizers and manure. Sewage sludge contains important nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in enough quantities to warrant it being used as manure. Some scale farmers who are close to major urban centers use it as a form of manure. However, sludge may also contain harmful heavy metals which when assimilated by the plants will enter the food chain.
M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Olenja J, Ndavi PM, Muia E, Kizito P, Hyslop A, Curtis S, Nganga S: Client Satisfaction as a Measure of Quality of Care Among Antenatal Clinic Clients in Factors that Contribute to the Utilization of Quality RH Care: Finding from Further Analysis of the S.". In: East Cert Afr. vol. 16 No. 1, 48: 2003. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2003. Abstract
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M. DRGUANTAIERIC, Chibale K. "How can natural products serve as a viable source of lead compounds for the development of new/novel anti-malarials?" Malaria J. . 2011;10((Suppl 1) ):S2. Abstract

Malaria continues to be an enormous global health challenge, with millions of new infections and deaths reported annually. This is partly due to the development of resistance by the malaria parasite to the majority of established anti-malarial drugs, a situation that continues to hamper attempts at controlling the disease. This has spurred intensive drug discovery endeavours geared towards identifying novel, highly active anti-malarial drugs, and the identification of quality leads from natural sources would greatly augment these efforts. The current reality is that other than compounds that have their foundation in historic natural products, there are no other compounds in drug discovery as part of lead optimization projects and preclinical development or further that have originated from a natural product start-point in recent years. This paper briefly presents both classical as well as some more modern, but underutilized, approaches that have been applied outside the field of malaria, and which could be considered in enhancing the potential of natural products to provide or inspire the development of anti-malarial lead compounds.

M. MRMAINADAVID. "Infrastructures for Radiation Safety: Towards effective and sustainable systems - Authorization, Inspection and Enforcement in Kenya.". In: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), IAEA-CN-107, p. 374 . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2003.
M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ministry of Health, Division of Health and Nursing: Report on the Mother and Baby Package Policy workshop: 3rd - 4th July 1996.". In: The XI International Conference on Aids, Vancouver, Canada 1996. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1996. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
M. MRNYANGAGAJOHN. "Watershed degradation, soil and water conservation challenges in Riana river catchment.". In: East African Medical Journal 69(10):583 . University of Nairobi Press; 1993. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
M. MRMOGAMBIHEZRON. "Mogambi H, Mwongozo wa Uhondo wa Kiswahili Book 4, Macmillan Kenya Publishers.". In: Politics and Political Science (Online Publication), Vol. 43, Number 1, January 2010. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2005. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
M. MJ, Tiagha WE, Mwaura M. "African Banking Systems." a chapter in a book titled MANAGEMENT OF ORGANISATIONS IN AFRICA . 1995;Vol.2 .
M. PROFKYAMBIJ. "Otieno LS, Awori NW, Bagshawe A, Abdullah MS, Kyambi JM, Ndirangu JK.The first renal transplant in Kenya.East Afr Med J. 1980 Jun;57(6):369-73.". In: East Afr Med J. 1980 Jun;57(6):369-73. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 1980. Abstract
At the beginning of the century, splenectomy was used in the treatment of kala-azar, but now is rarely needed, the major indication being for drug resistant kala-azar. Inadvertent splenectomy prior to the diagnosis of kala-azar continues to occur, probably because of a reluctance to perform splenic aspiration in the investigation of splenomegaly. Five Kenyan children underwent splenectomy for drug resistant kala-azar. All were immediately improved, but one died of overwhelming post splenectomy infection (OPSI) two months later and another of a malignant lymphoma seven months after surgery. The other three patients appear to be cured. Splenectomy was considered in a sixth child with kala-azar because of a Salmonella abscess in the spleen, but the abscess ruptured catastrophically before surgery could be arranged.
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Boman J., Maina D.M., Inorganic elemental concentrations in near surface aerosols sampled on the northwest slopes of Mount Kenya.". In: Atmospheric Environ., 35: 6015-6019. University of Nairobi.; 2001.
M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Pyrolizidine Alkaloids from Senecio hadiensis", J. Nat. Prod., 54, 491-9.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1992. Abstract
   
M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Waema, T.M., Mitullah, W. and Adera, E. (2009). Research in African e-Local Governance: Outcome Assessment Research Framework.". In: African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development (AJSTID), 1(1), 227-256. Pambazuka Press; 2009. Abstract
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M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S. Kilelu et al. (1984). Incidence of Leptospirosis in Cattle in Kenya. Kenya veterinarian Journal vol.77 No. 91 p 73-79.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1984. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DROLUBAYOFLORENCE, M. DROLUBAYOFLORENCE, M. DROLUBAYOFLORENCE, M. DROLUBAYOFLORENCE, M. DROLUBAYOFLORENCE. "F. OLUBA YO, D. KILALO, S. OBUKOSIA, S. SHIBAIRO AND M. KASINA. HOMOPTERAN PESTS COMPLEX OF CITRUS (Citrus sinensis) IN SEMI-ARID KENYA.". In: International Journal of Sustainable Crop Production (IJSCP). 6 (2):23-28(August 2011). Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 2011. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} On farm studies in collaboration with farmers who grow citrus were conducted in upper midlands and lower midlands agro- ecological zones in Machakos district Kenya. The aim of the study was to understand the factors affecting population fluctuations of homopteran pests attacking citrus in Kenya. White flies (Aleurothrixus flocossus Maskell) and black flies (Aleuroeanthus woglumi Ashby) were the most common pests of citrus observed throughout the monitoring. Aphids (Toxoptera citricidus Kirk.) and psyllids (Triozae erytreae Del Guercio) were occasional pests while scales (various) were rare attacking only a few plants within the farms. Time period of sampling had an effect on whitefly, psyllid and blackfly populations. Aphid populations were not affected by the sampling time period. However, there were ecological differences in the development of aphid, blackfly and psyllid populations. 11 has been observed that populations of homopteran pests on citrus trees do vary with time. There was one major flush period of the citrus trees during the monitoring period. High aphid and psyllid populations seemed to coincide with the flush period. Flushing of the trees may have contributed in the variation of the pest populations that were being monitored. These findings are discussed in relation to their possible use in  the development of integrated pest management (IPM) strategies for the management of these pests. Key words: aphid, psyllid, blackflies, whiteflies, monitoring, IPM,flush growth
M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Oils of Local Plants that may Substitute Imported Ones".". In: POST (Kenya), X, 16-22 (1985). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1985. Abstract
   
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "R.W. Waruiru, E.S. Kilelu, M. Mutune (2003) Rift Valley fever virus antibody analysis in Machakos district. Kenya Veterinary Journal. May 2003. Vol. 77 No. 109 p78-87.". In: Medicus Vol. 9 No. 10, page 8,9 October 1990. EAMJ; 2003. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Waema, T.M. (2006), SME e-access and usage in Kenya. In Christopher Stork and Steve Esselaar (Editors): Towards an African e-Index: SME e-access and usage across 14 African countries, researchICTafrica.net, ISBN: 10 0-620-37593-0.". In: Towards an African e-Index: SME e-access and usage across 14 African countries. Mvule Africa Publishers, ISBN 9966-769-56-0, pp. 25-72; 2006. Abstract
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M. NA, and AD, G W. "Factors affecting use of Radio Broadcasting in Public Primary Schools in Tharaka Nithi Division , Tharaka District , Kenya." International Journal of Education & Research. . 2014;2(6):53-62.abstrac2.pdf
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "Jiversen J. Mbaya, E.S. Kilelu (1977). Determination of the rate of reaction for biological specimen obtained from industrial area Journal of Biochemistry. Vol.97 No. 99 p72 -80.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1977. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DROLUBAYOFLORENCE. "Field infestation of cowpeas by storage bruchids in semi arid areas of Kenya.". In: African Agriculture and Forestry Journal. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 2000. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Conversion of Polyfunctional Alcohols to Acetals under non-acidic conditions.". In: Kenya. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1975. Abstract
", Tetrahedron Lett., 4543-4546 ()
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "Kilelu E.S. The incidence of contagious postular dermatitis (orf) virus in Kenya. Bulletin of animal health and production. 1993.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1993. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Informatics in higher education-Kenya case study.". In: Higher Education Policy. 1993. Vol. 6 No. 3, pp 41-49. East African Educational Publishers Ltd.; 1993. Abstract
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M. PROFKABIRAWANJIKU. "The Agikuyu, Rosen Publishers, New York USA.". In: East African Medical Journal 68(9): 714-9. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1994. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
M. PROFMWABORAJULIUS. "Degradation Studies of Multilayer Coatings Exhibiting Angular Dependent Transmittance.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "Kilelu E.S. et al Incidence of Brucellosis in Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian Journal 1989.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1989. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Heavy Metal Concentration levels in Lates Niloticus, A Fish Species from Lake Victoria.". In: Inaugural National Nutrition Congress . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract
Lake Victoria is the main source of fish that is consumed in the major towns in Kenya, including the city of Nairobi. Some of the fish is also exported to Europe. Surveillance and assessment of heavy metals in the fish is important to ensure compliance with stipulated standards for human consumption. Obviously, noncompliance would lead to adverse health effects to the consumers as well as a ban on our fish exports.
M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Kahihura D, Kamau RK, Ndavi PM: A prospective Study on the Outcome of Caesarean Section at Chogoria Hospital; J Obst/Gyn. East Cert Afr. vol. 16 No. 1, 18: 2003.". In: East Cert Afr. vol. 16 No. 1, 48: 2003. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2003. Abstract
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M. DRAKECHJOSEPHMIGAI. "African Custoary law and the Common Law Presumption of marriage: Strange Bedfellows University of Nairobi Law Honoural vol.1. 1994.". In: Law Journal, Vol.2,. Departmental seminar; 1994. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
M. DROTIDOJULIUS. "Quality of sexually transmitted disease case management in Nairobi, Kenya: a comparison among different types of healthcare facilities. Voeten HA, Otido JM, O'Hara HB, Kuperus AG, Borsboom GJ, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo JJ, Habbema JD. Sex Transm Dis. 2001 N.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 2001 Nov;28(11):633-42. The Kenya Medical Association; 2001. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
M. MW, W. PROFMUTITUEUNICE, MUNGE PROFMUKUNYAD. "Isolation and screening of actinomycete isolates for antagonistic activity against plant pathogens." Botswana Journal of Agriculture and Applied Sciences. 2009;5(2):73-81.
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Maina D.M., Air pollution problems in the perspective of the Kenyan situation, regulation and awareness.". In: Oral Presentation, International workshop on Environmental Health education in the Eastern African region: challenges and the way forward at Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya. 24 - 26 March 2004. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2004.
M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ndavi PM: A Review of the Feasibility of Algorithmic Management of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STIs) in Primary Health Care Systems in Africa: J Obst/Gyn. East Cert Afr. vol. 13 No. 1:39, 1997.". In: East Afr. Med. J. 1997; 74: 634-638. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1997. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY, J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY. "An Integrated Regional ICT Policy for the East Africa Community (EAC): Impact on a Possible Information Revolution.". In: Proceedings of the Third Conference on Information Technology and Economic Development. 2004 Ghana .INTERCED. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
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M. MRMOGAMBIHEZRON. "Mogambi H, Uhondo wa Kiswahili Book 3, Macmillan Kenya Publishers.". In: Politics and Political Science (Online Publication), Vol. 43, Number 1, January 2010. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2005. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
M. PROFKYAMBIJ. "Meme JS, Njai DM, Kyambi JM, Kung'u A.Antral mucosal diaphragm: an obstructing lesion of the stomach.East Afr Med J. 1982 Feb;59(2):161-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Feb;59(2):161-4. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 1982. Abstract
At the beginning of the century, splenectomy was used in the treatment of kala-azar, but now is rarely needed, the major indication being for drug resistant kala-azar. Inadvertent splenectomy prior to the diagnosis of kala-azar continues to occur, probably because of a reluctance to perform splenic aspiration in the investigation of splenomegaly. Five Kenyan children underwent splenectomy for drug resistant kala-azar. All were immediately improved, but one died of overwhelming post splenectomy infection (OPSI) two months later and another of a malignant lymphoma seven months after surgery. The other three patients appear to be cured. Splenectomy was considered in a sixth child with kala-azar because of a Salmonella abscess in the spleen, but the abscess ruptured catastrophically before surgery could be arranged.
M. DRGUANTAIERIC. "Design, synthesis and in vitro antimalarial evaluation of triazole-linked chalcone and dienone hybrid compounds.". In: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. DMW; 2010. Abstract
A targeted series of chalcone and dienone hybrid compounds containing aminoquinoline and nucleoside templates was synthesized and evaluated for in vitro antimalarial activity. The Cu(I)-catalyzed cycloaddition of azides and terminal alkynes was applied as the hybridization strategy. Several chalcone-chloroquinoline hybrid compounds were found to be notably active, with compound 8b the most active, exhibiting submicromolar IC50 values against the D10, Dd2 and W2 strains of Plasmodium falciparum.
M. PROFMACHARIAW, MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL. "Verbal autopsy: a tool for determining cause of death in a community. East Afr Med J . 1990 Oct; 67 ( 10 ): 693-8 . PMID: 2282890 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Mirza NM , Macharia WM , Wafula EM , Agwanda RO , Onyango FE .". In: East Afr Med J . 1990 Oct; 67 ( 10 ): 693-8 . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1990. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Verbal autopsy was used to determine causes of death in 239 children under the age of 5 years. The diagnosis derived from verbal autopsy was corroborated with hospital diagnosis in 39 cases. There was concurrence of diagnosis in 72% of the cases. Using the diagnosis of bronchopneumonia to validate the method, verbal autopsy was found to have a sensitivity of 71%, specificity of 92%, a positive predictive value of 85%. Reliability index of agreement was 0.654. Recall period up to 29 months after death was found to be reliable. PMID: 2282890 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Maina D.M., Air pollution problems in the perspective of the Kenyan situation, regulation and awareness.". In: Oral Presentation, International workshop on Environmental Health education in the Eastern African region: challenges and the way forward at Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya. 24 - 26 March 2004. University of Nairobi.; 2004. Abstract
There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which describes aerosol studies in Kenya and development of an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF). Atmospheric aerosols are composed of both the particulate and gas phases and they contain chemical compounds and elememts that are harmful to human health. Their particle size range is related to sources and this determines their impact in the ambient aatmosphere. Anthropogenic activities mainly contribute fine particles mass (PM 2.5) and natural proceses contribute both fine and course (PM (10-2.5)) particle masses. PM10 (PM 2.5 + PM (10-2.5)) are inhalable into the human respiratory system and the fine particles have a marked impact on climate. PM10 particles are efficient in transporting micronutrients between ecosystems, soiling and destroying buildings. Any policies meant to protect the environment by controlling atmospheric aerosol particles will need back up knowledge on particle sources and their physical and chemical characteristics. The five sampling campaigns covered under this study were conducted in Nairobi city, Meru and Nanyuki towns and on the slopes of Mount Kenya at about 2000m and 4000 m above the sea level. The multi-elemental analyzing capacity of EDXRF and statistical treatment of data are indispensable tools in aerosol source identification. These techniques were used in all the published results. The results revealed the dominance of local and regional biomass burning and local soil dust emissions. Traffic emissions were more pronounced in urban centers, with high concentrations of Br, Pb and Mn in Nairobi but with minor contribution at the remote sites on Mount Kenya. Marine influence was seen superimposed in the soil dust emissions and agricultural activities were also identied through elevated concentrations of Ca, Cl, K and S in the same source. Nairobi turned out to be a more polluted city in comparison to Dar es Salaam, Gaborone and Khartoum in Africa. The developed EDXRF spectrometer will play a major role in environmental studies in Kenya. Longterm measurements of Kenyan aerosols are recommended to better understand the total picture of aerosol particles including seasonal variation.
M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Lippia species in Kenya", Discovery and Innovation, 6, 58-60.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1994. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Wausi, A.N. and Waema, T.M. (2010). Implementing IS in developing country context: towards creating a favourable implementation context.". In: International Journal of Computing and ICT Research (IJCIR), 4(2), 12-26. Pambazuka Press; 2010. Abstract
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M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Chemical studies of Kenyan Tea Seeds: Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the kernel Oil", TEA, (1), 23-28.". In: Trop. Sci., 29, 207-213 (1989). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1985. Abstract
   
M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Waema, T.M. (2007), 2007 Kenya Telecommunications Sector Performance Review: A Supply Side Analysis of Policy Outcomes.". In: Research ICT Africa! SPR 2007 Country Reports. Pambazuka Press; 2007. Abstract
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M. DROLUBAYOFLORENCE. "J. Kasina, J. Nderitu, G. Nyamasyo, F. Olubayo, C. Waturu. E. Obutho and D. Yobera. 2006. Evaluation of companion crops for thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)management on French bean Phaseolus vulgaris (Fabaceae).". In: International journal of Tropical Insect Science Vol. 26, No. 2 pp. 121-125. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 2006. Abstract
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M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Cellulosic Renewable Resources as Sources of Energy and Chemicals", in Energy Resources in East Africa.". In: Kenya. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1979. Abstract
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M. PROFWANYOIKEMARGARETM, GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Nyakalo, S., M.S. Badamana and M. Wanyoike (1989). The Effect of Increasing Chicken Manure Levels in Supplemental Diets for Lactating Galla Goats on Milk Production.". In: Paper presented at the SR-CRSP/APSK Workshop held in Nairobi, Kenya. 22-23 February 1989. J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 1989. Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "Kilelu E.S. A case report. Histomonas meleagridis infection in a Turkey. Kenya Veterinary Journal 1995.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1995. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Waema, T.M., (1995), Implementation of Information Technology Projects & Economic Development in Developing Countries: Issues, Problems and Strategies,.". In: Proceedings of 1995 International Federation for Information Processing WG 9.4 International Conference, pp. 14- 26, held in Cairo, Egypt, January, 1995. East African Educational Publishers Ltd.; 1995. Abstract
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M. PROFKABIRAWANJIKU. "TILDA .". In: East African Medical Journal 68(9): 714-9. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1996. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
M. PROFMWABORAJULIUS. "Metallic Cu and In Films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering. Journal of Material Science.". In: Materials in Electronics 12, 75-80. University of Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S.Kilelu et al. 1989 diagnosis of RVFV using plaque assay. Veterinary Record. Vol. 79 No. 8 P11.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1989. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J.,Boman J., Maina D.M., Pettersson J.B.C, Space Measurements of near surface aerosols in the central district of Nairobi City, Kenya.". In: Poster presentation, abstrct in the preceedings, European Aerosol Conference (EAC2000), Ghent, Belgium, 28 August . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005.
M. PROFKITONYIJOSEPHK. "Kariuki J.K. and Kitonyi J.M.K An unusual intra-renal A-V fistula East Afr Med J. 1986 Apr;63(4):281-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 1986 Apr;63(4):281-4. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1985. Abstract

While Diagnostic Radiology has become increasingly indispensible in sound clinical patient management the cost and maintenance of radiological equipment has continued to soar, reaching almost unaffordable levels in developing countries. As an attempt to provide some measure of remedy to the above problem, the World Health Organization in the early 80's introduced the basic radiological system (BRS) concept. The BRS is supposed to meet such criteria as being relatively cheap, of low maintenance cost easy operability and suitable in rural areas where electrical power supply may not be constant. In addition it should be able to perform 80% of all conventional radiological examinations. In this paper the author gives a critical account of the BRS experience in Kenya. Proposals for possible future considerations and modifications in order to achieve near ideal BRS X-ray machine are also advanced.

M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Kaihura DM, Koigi-Kamau R, Ndavi PM. A prospective study on outcome of cesarean section at Chogoria Hospital. J Obstet Gynecol East Cent Afr 2003; 16: 18-27.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and central Africa. Volume 17 No 1:1-80 February 2004. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2003. Abstract
Effects of calcium supplementation in patient at risk of pregnancy induced Hypertension. (This was an experimental double blind randomized clinical trial.) J. Obset. Gynaecol. East Cent.Afr 2005, 18:49-59
M. DROTIDOJULIUS. "Effect of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria on health and education in schoolchildren: a cluster-randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.Clarke SE, Jukes MC, Njagi JK, Khasakhala L, Cundill B, Otido J, Crudder C, Estambale BB, Brooke.". In: Lancet. 2008 Jul 12;372(9633):127-38. The Kenya Medical Association; 2008. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in early childhood, yet its consequences for health and education during the school-age years remain poorly understood. We examined the effect of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) in reducing anaemia and improving classroom attention and educational achievement in semi-immune schoolchildren in an area of high perennial transmission. METHODS: A stratified, cluster-randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of IPT was done in 30 primary schools in western Kenya. Schools were randomly assigned to treatment (sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in combination with amodiaquine or dual placebo) by use of a computer-generated list. Children aged 5-18 years received three treatments at 4-month intervals (IPT n=3535, placebo n=3223). The primary endpoint was the prevalence of anaemia, defined as a haemoglobin concentration below 110 g/L. This outcome was assessed through cross-sectional surveys 12 months post-intervention. Analysis was by both intention to treat, excluding children with missing data, and per protocol. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00142246. FINDINGS: 2604 children in the IPT group and 2302 in the placebo group were included in the intention-to-treat analysis of the primary outcome; the main reason for exclusion was loss to follow-up. Prevalence of anaemia at 12 months averaged 6.3% in the IPT group and 12.6% in the placebo group (adjusted risk ratio 0.52, 95% CI 0.29-0.93; p=0.028). Significant improvements were also seen in two of the class-based tests of sustained attention, with a mean increase in code transmission test score of 6.05 (95% CI 2.83-9.27; p=0.0007) and counting sounds test score of 1.80 (0.19-3.41; p=0.03), compared with controls. No effect was shown for inattentive or hyperactive-compulsive behaviours or on educational achievement. The per-protocol analysis yielded similar results. 23 serious adverse events were reported within 28 days of any treatment (19 in the IPT group and four in the placebo group); the main side-effects were problems of balance, dizziness, feeling faint, nausea, and/or vomiting shortly after treatment. INTERPRETATION: IPT of malaria improves the health and cognitive ability of semi-immune schoolchildren. Effective malaria interventions could be a valuable addition to school health programmes.
M. DRWASIKEADUA. "A. A. M. WASIKE: An analytical and numerical study of a system of Linearly Two Coupled Oscillators with a time Lag in the coupling;.". In: Proceedings of the first conference of the Kenya Mathematical Society 1993: 27-28. Ed. Ogana & Mberia. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1993. Abstract
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M. PROFKABIRAWANJIKU. "Oral Literature, Nairobi University, College of Education and External Studies.". In: East African Medical Journal 68(9): 714-9. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1988. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Boman J., Maina D.M., "Trace Element categorization of pollution sources in the Equator town of Nanyuki, Kenya".". In: X-ray Spectometry, 34:118-123. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005.
M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ng.". In: Gynaec Eastern & Central Africa. March 1999. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
M. MRMOGAMBIHEZRON. "Mogambi H, Zimwi Hilo, Macmillan Kenya Publishers.". In: Politics and Political Science (Online Publication), Vol. 43, Number 1, January 2010. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2006. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
M. MM, I RK. "Redesigning university Education in Kenya: The what, Why and How?" IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS). 2022;27(8):40-56 .redesigning_university__education.pdf
M. DRGICHUHICHRISTINE, Bosire R, Payne BL, John-Stewart GC, Wariua G, JM M, G W, C G, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, J R, R G, B L, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Overbaugh J, Farquhar C. "Breast milk alpha-defensins are associated with HIV type 1 RNA and CC chemokines in breast milk but not vertical HIV type 1 transmission.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 2007 Jan;34(1):25-9. African Crop Science Society; 2007. Abstract

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Alpha-defensins are proteins exhibiting in vitro anti-HIV-1 activity that may protect against mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 via breast milk. Correlates of alpha-defensins in breast milk and transmission risk were determined in a cohort of HIV-1-infected pregnant women in Nairobi followed for 12 months postpartum with their infants. Maternal blood was collected antenatally and at delivery for HIV-1 viral load and infant HIV-1 infection status was determined < 48 h after birth and at months 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12. Breast milk specimens collected at month 1 were assayed for alpha-defensins, HIV-1 RNA, subclinical mastitis, and CC and CXC chemokines. We detected alpha-defensins in breast milk specimens from 108 (42%) of 260 HIV-1-infected women. Women with detectable alpha-defensins (> or =50 pg/ml) had a median concentration of 320 pg/ml and significantly higher mean breast milk HIV-1 RNA levels than women with undetectable alpha-defensins (2.9 log(10) copies/ml versus 2.5 log(10) copies/ml

M. PROFKYAMBIJ. "Kasili EG, Kyambi JM, Onyango JN Treatment of childhood malignancies in Kenya.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Sep;61(9):663-74. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 1984. Abstract

In this retrospective study carried out covering the period, 1978-1991, 62 neonates were seen, diagnosed and treated for intestinal atresia which included: duodenal atresia and stenosis, small bowel atresia and atresia of large bowel. Locations of obstruction were duodenal in 17 patients, jejunal in 25 patients, jejuno-ileal in 5 and colon in two. Duodenal atresia was noted in 9 infants and duodenal stenosis due to annular pancreas, Ladd's bands with malrotation of bowel in 8. Associated anomalies which were observed were anorectal malformations in 2 and malrotation in 2 infants. Birth weights ranged from 1450 gm to 3000 gm. Prematurity was recorded in 11 infants. Diagnosis of intestinal atresia in our patients was made clinically and radiologically. Intestinal atresia in neonates was differentiated from other causes of obstruction such as Meconium Ileus, Hirschsprung's disease, neonatal volvulus, rectal atresia in anorectal malformations. Treatment of infants with intestinal atresia was surgical. Surgical techniques used depended on pathological findings. In 36 patients, complications such as functional obstructions with vomiting and failure to thrive, malabsorption, aspiration, bronchopneumonia, sepsis were observed. Overall mortality rate in our cases was 25 (41.9%) out of 62 patients.

M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Sinei SKA, Mati JKG, Mungai J, Mailu CKM, Mbugua , Mulandi TN Ndavi PM. Prevalence of anaemia of Pregnancy and the role of Malaria in its aetiology in rural Kenya. J Obst/Gyn. East Cert Afr. vol. 3:3:119.1984.". In: J. of Ob. Gy. E & Centr Afric. 3(2); 63, 1984. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1984. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
M. PROFMACHARIAW, MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL. "Mortality Patterns in a Rural Kenyan Community: East Afr Med J 67:823-829, 1990. Mirza NM, Macharia WM, Wafula EM, Agwanda RO and Onyango FE:.". In: East Afr Med J 67:823-829. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1990. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. Causes of death of 239 children below the age of 5 years in a rural community were determined using structured questionnaires. It was found that mortality was highest in infancy, accounting for 63% of all deaths with a trend of decreasing mortality with increasing age. The commonest cause of death was ARI (pneumonia and measles) accounting for 49% of the deaths, followed by diarrhoeal illnesses (8.8%). Only half of the deaths (51.5%) occurred at some health facility, though 77% of all children had been taken to a health facility for treatment during the fatal illness. PMID: 2076684 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Kimani W., Boman J., Maina D.M., Pettersson J., Zakey A.S., Oral presentation "Study of inorganic and black carbon aerosols at a high altitude site on Mount Kenya, East Africa".". In: Oral presentation, The 6th informal conference on atmospheric and molecular science at Helsingor, Denmark, 3 - 5 June 2005. University of Nairobi.; 2005. Abstract
There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which describes aerosol studies in Kenya and development of an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF). Atmospheric aerosols are composed of both the particulate and gas phases and they contain chemical compounds and elememts that are harmful to human health. Their particle size range is related to sources and this determines their impact in the ambient aatmosphere. Anthropogenic activities mainly contribute fine particles mass (PM 2.5) and natural proceses contribute both fine and course (PM (10-2.5)) particle masses. PM10 (PM 2.5 + PM (10-2.5)) are inhalable into the human respiratory system and the fine particles have a marked impact on climate. PM10 particles are efficient in transporting micronutrients between ecosystems, soiling and destroying buildings. Any policies meant to protect the environment by controlling atmospheric aerosol particles will need back up knowledge on particle sources and their physical and chemical characteristics. The five sampling campaigns covered under this study were conducted in Nairobi city, Meru and Nanyuki towns and on the slopes of Mount Kenya at about 2000m and 4000 m above the sea level. The multi-elemental analyzing capacity of EDXRF and statistical treatment of data are indispensable tools in aerosol source identification. These techniques were used in all the published results. The results revealed the dominance of local and regional biomass burning and local soil dust emissions. Traffic emissions were more pronounced in urban centers, with high concentrations of Br, Pb and Mn in Nairobi but with minor contribution at the remote sites on Mount Kenya. Marine influence was seen superimposed in the soil dust emissions and agricultural activities were also identied through elevated concentrations of Ca, Cl, K and S in the same source. Nairobi turned out to be a more polluted city in comparison to Dar es Salaam, Gaborone and Khartoum in Africa. The developed EDXRF spectrometer will play a major role in environmental studies in Kenya. Longterm measurements of Kenyan aerosols are recommended to better understand the total picture of aerosol particles including seasonal variation.
M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Owuor, P.O., J.O. Wanyiera, E.K. Njeru, R.M. Munavu and N.M. Bhatt, "Comparison of Chemical Composition and Quality Changes due to Different Withering Methods in Black Tea Manufacture".". In: Trop. Sci., 29, 207-213 (1989). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1989. Abstract
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M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Walker, K., J. Underwood, T.M. Waema, L. Dunckley, J. Abdelnour-Nocera, R. Luckin, C. Oyugi and S. Camara. A resource kit for participatory socio-technical design in rural Kenya .". In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems, Florence, IT, 5-10 Apr 2008. Pambazuka Press; 2008. Abstract
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M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S.kilelu et al (1979) Antibody responses to new .". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1979. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Energy in Africa", Science and Public Policy, 476-479.". In: Nairobi. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1980. Abstract
   
M. MRMAINASAMUEL. "An exploration into the creative potentials of glass using various kiln and decorative techniques to produce items for interior and exterior spaces.". In: Kenyatta University. Longhorn; 2006. Abstract
Bovine foscioliosis coused by F. giganticais widespread in   There is a large collection of reports of fasciolosis in Kenya based on  abattoir data records from veterinary investigation laboratories (VILS) as well as reports on a few farm study was carried out to improve on the reports.  Diagnosis of fasciola infection has traditionally been based on detection of typical eggs in the faeces.  A variety of other techniques are now available eg enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which has shown to be sensitive and useful. Three agro-ecological zoned were defined depending on the reported prevalence; high risk, medium risk and low risk zones.  Two study districts were picked at random from each zone.  The study farms were selected using the two stage cluster sampling. Faecal and blood samples were collected on the farm.  Serum was later harvested.  ELISA and faecal sedimatation tests (FST) were carried out. A total of 2434 faecal and blood samples were screened.  ELISA achieved the highest (66%) positive rate of the samples from Kwale district and the lowest (23%) rate in Nakuru.  An overall positive prevalence of (43%) for fasciolosis was achieved.  The faecal sedimentation test showed prevalence of 19%.  In both tests high prevalence were observed in Kwale and Kilifi districts.  ELSA was always positive when FST was positive but not the converse. The on-famr survey utilizing two reliable diagnostic tests was meant to improve on existing abattoir reports.  Both tests showed fair to good agreements.  The higher detection by ELISA might be due to deworming and other reasons.  It was concluded that on-farm surveys are better than retrogressive studies; thought the latter are cheaper and faster.,  the current prevalence of fasciolosis are different from past reports with coastal showing higher than expected prevalences.
M. PROFWANYOIKEMARGARETM, GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Badamana, M.S., A.N. Said, M.M. Wanyoike and A. Abate (1990). Improving ruminant livestock production in sedentary smallholder farming systems in Kenya.". In: Paper presented at the 1st Pan-Commonwealth Veterinary Conference held in Harare, Zimbabwe 10th-14th September, 1990. J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 1990. Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S. Kilelu et al (1997). Prevalence of NewCastle Disease virus in indigenous chiken in Western and Machakos district of Kenya. Kenya veterinarian Journal vol 103 No. 99 p 33 .". In: Medicus Vol. 9 No. 10, page 8,9 October 1990. EAMJ; 1997. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Waema, T.M. (2000) Information and Communication Technology in the University of Nairobi,.". In: Kenya Engineer, Journal of the Institution of Engineers of Kenya, Vol. 21, No. 5, September/October 2000, pp 18-21. East African Educational Publishers Ltd.; 2000. Abstract
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M. MF. "Al Amin Mazrui Kama Mwandishi wa Ulimwengu wa Tatu." University of Nairobi. BA Thesis; 1992. Abstract
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M. PROFKABIRAWANJIKU. "Understanding Oral Literature, Ed. Kabira, Masheti and Obote; University of Nairobi Press.". In: East African Medical Journal 68(9): 714-9. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1998. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
M. PROFMWABORAJULIUS. "Structure, composition and morphology of photoelectrochemically active TiO2-xNx thin films deposited by reactive magnetron dc sputtering.". In: J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 20193-20198. University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S.kilelu et al (1989) testing for Rhinocerus sera examined or tested for various viruses. Blue tongue virus, Rift valley fever virus, Rinderpest and foot and mouth Disease virus. Journal of wildlife diseases.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1989. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Impact of road transport on air quality in Kenya; Roadside survey in the cities of Mombasa and Nairobi.". In: Poster presentation, abstract in the proceedings of the, International Aerosol Conference, St Paul Minnesota, USA,10 -15 September 2006: Poster presentation, Joint CACP-IGAC-WMO Conference, Cape Town, South Afric, 17 -23 September 2006. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2006.
M. PROFKITONYIJOSEPHK. "Kitonyi J.M.K.The determination of Hepatic blood Flow and its clinical significance African Journal of Hospital Medicine 1988, 7, 162.". In: African Journal of Hospital Medicine 1988, 7, 162. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1988. Abstract

While Diagnostic Radiology has become increasingly indispensible in sound clinical patient management the cost and maintenance of radiological equipment has continued to soar, reaching almost unaffordable levels in developing countries. As an attempt to provide some measure of remedy to the above problem, the World Health Organization in the early 80's introduced the basic radiological system (BRS) concept. The BRS is supposed to meet such criteria as being relatively cheap, of low maintenance cost easy operability and suitable in rural areas where electrical power supply may not be constant. In addition it should be able to perform 80% of all conventional radiological examinations. In this paper the author gives a critical account of the BRS experience in Kenya. Proposals for possible future considerations and modifications in order to achieve near ideal BRS X-ray machine are also advanced.

M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "The Syndrome of Haemolysis, Elevated Liver Enzymes and Low Platelet Count (HELLP) in patients with Preeclampsia/eclampsia at Kenyatta National Hospital;.". In: J Obst/Gyn. East Cert Afr. vol. 17; 1-8, 2004. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2004. Abstract
Effects of calcium supplementation in patient at risk of pregnancy induced Hypertension. (This was an experimental double blind randomized clinical trial.) J. Obset. Gynaecol. East Cent.Afr 2005, 18:49-59
M. DRWASIKEADUA. "A. A. M. Wasike, W. Ogana: Periodic solutions of a system of delay differential equations for a small delay.". In: Journal of Science Research . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
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M. HD, J. B, M. MK, N. P, E. T, F. G. "Field IT for East Africa: training young African scientists in Lake Naivasha (Kenya)." ALIENS:The Invasive Species Bulletin. 2010; Vol. 29 :pp. 48-51.
M. PROFKABIRAWANJIKU. "Oral Literature and Environment in Women as Managers of Environment, Ed Khasiani Acts.". In: East African Medical Journal 68(9): 714-9. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1992. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
M. K, S.M. M. "Rural livelihoods and land use.". In: Soil erosion and conservation in Western Kenya. Nagoya: Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University; 2006.
M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ministry of Health: Standards for Maternal Care in Kenya, December 2002.". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
M. MRMOGAMBIHEZRON. "Mogambi H, Vitendo vya Jamila, Macmillan Kenya Publishers.". In: Politics and Political Science (Online Publication), Vol. 43, Number 1, January 2010. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2006. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
M. PROFKYAMBIJ. "Kyambi J. Pediatric surgery in Kenya.". In: J Pediatr Surg. 1990 Oct;25(10):1085-7. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 1990. Abstract

In this retrospective study carried out covering the period, 1978-1991, 62 neonates were seen, diagnosed and treated for intestinal atresia which included: duodenal atresia and stenosis, small bowel atresia and atresia of large bowel. Locations of obstruction were duodenal in 17 patients, jejunal in 25 patients, jejuno-ileal in 5 and colon in two. Duodenal atresia was noted in 9 infants and duodenal stenosis due to annular pancreas, Ladd's bands with malrotation of bowel in 8. Associated anomalies which were observed were anorectal malformations in 2 and malrotation in 2 infants. Birth weights ranged from 1450 gm to 3000 gm. Prematurity was recorded in 11 infants. Diagnosis of intestinal atresia in our patients was made clinically and radiologically. Intestinal atresia in neonates was differentiated from other causes of obstruction such as Meconium Ileus, Hirschsprung's disease, neonatal volvulus, rectal atresia in anorectal malformations. Treatment of infants with intestinal atresia was surgical. Surgical techniques used depended on pathological findings. In 36 patients, complications such as functional obstructions with vomiting and failure to thrive, malabsorption, aspiration, bronchopneumonia, sepsis were observed. Overall mortality rate in our cases was 25 (41.9%) out of 62 patients.

M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ndavi PM: Thesis for the University of Nairobi Master of Medicine in Obstetrics and Gynaecology: 1986.". In: MMed Thesis, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nairobi, 1987. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1986. Abstract

Part of a detailed analysis of 864 unmarried teenage mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital is presented. Teenage pregnancy amounted for 42.3% of all deliveries of unmarried mothers. Most teenage patients were above 16 years of age, had a religious background of wide coverage, had low quality antenatal care and low education. 94.6% were found to be primigravidas. This dominance has also been found by other workers. PIP: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study of unmarried mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, from December 1986-April 1987, was conducted with a pretested open-ended questionnaire: the 864 teen mothers are described here. They ranged from 13.4-19 years, most were 17-19. 49.4% were Catholic and 45% Protestant. 88.5% attended prenatal clinics once; 51.5% attended 5 times, although only 13% went to hospital clinics for specialized care. For reasons for not going for prenatal care teens stated that they were too shy to undergo a clinical exam, afraid of parents' reaction, unaware of the pregnancy or of the existence of prenatal care, they had not menstruated, or were in school, in prison, or had long work hours. Most girls had primary education, and 97.9% had dropped out of school. 34% dropped out because of pregnancy, and 32% for lack of tuition fees. Reasons for dropping out of school were tabulated, encompassing a broad range of social problems such as war, death, divorce, alcoholism or illness of parents, no tuition or uniform funds, poor grades, and running away from school. In Africa, teen pregnancy is probably increasing because of decreasing age at menarche and relaxing of traditional values.

M. PROFLUTIFELIX. "Luti, F.M. (1987). Experimental modelling of axial temperature profiles of buoyant diffusion flames. African Journal of Science and Technology, Series A, vol. 6, no. 1, 76-80.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 May;76(5):281-3. UN-HABITAT; 1987. Abstract
Mean temperatures were measured along the axis of propane gas flames using a porous ceramic burner. Data for fire heat release rates ranging form 13.3kW to 30.6kW were taken and analyzed. It was found that the lower zone of a fire in a clam environment could be conveniently divided into three regions. For the same heat release rates, the fires were subjected to a cross flow of 0.72ms-1 and it was found that along the axis, the three zones could be identified. The excess temperature in the intermittent zone decreased with height to the power of 0.60 for the calm environment and 1.11 with crossflow. In the plume zone, excess temperature decreased with 1.87 power for the clam case and 2.05 with crossflow case, all data when plotted on log plots fell on a single curve.
M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY, J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY. "Communications research for development: The experience of the Nairobi ESANET node.". In: Eds.,Tindimubona A & Auerbacher W., pp. 101-108. African Academy of Sciences/American Association for the Advancement of Science. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1992. Abstract
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M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Effect of Nitrogen and Phosphorous on the Essential Oil Yield and Quality of Chamomile (Matricaria Chamomilla L.) Flowers; E. Afr. Agric. For. J., 55 (4)., 261-264.". In: Journal of Pharmacognosy 30 (1): 9-16. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1990. Abstract
   
M. MRMBUTHIAJACKSON. "DrMwangi Mbuthia, Ph.D. "On Line .Graphic Display of Power Systems Transmission And Distribution Network for Switching and Fault Isolation for the Kenyan PowerSystem", Submiitcd to Kenya National_Academy of Sciences. November 2001.". In: East Centr. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. au-ibar; 2001. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Abdelnour-Nocera J., Luckin, R., Waema, T. Culture as a bottom up concept to understand diversity in systems production and use.". In: Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Cultural Attitudes towards Technology and Communication (CATAC), 28 June-1 July 2008, Nimes, France. Pambazuka Press; 2008. Abstract
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M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S. Kilelu et al. 1979 Electron microscopic appearance of IBR Isolate from bovine lung samples. Kenya Veterinarian Journal Vol.98 No. 99 p36 .". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1979. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DROLUBAYOFLORENCE. "W. Mwango.". In: Plant Pathology Journal 6 91): 66-71. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 2007. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
M. PROFWANYOIKEMARGARETM, GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "M.M. Wanyoike, R.G. Wahome and S.G. Mbogoh, (2005). Issues constraining Production, processing and marketing of dairy and other livestock products.". In: Paper presented at the . J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 2005. Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "J.B.Nyamwange, S. Nyamwange, E.S. Kilelu (1999). Canine urolithiasis in a German shepherd dog. University of Makerere Journal in Veterinary Medicine Vol. 37. No.99 p.103-105.". In: Medicus Vol. 9 No. 10, page 8,9 October 1990. EAMJ; 1999. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY, J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY. "An Integrated Regional ICT Policy for the East Africa Community (EAC): Impact on a Possible Information Revolution.". In: Proceedings of the Third Conference on Information Technology and Economic Development. 2004 Ghana .INTERCED. East African Educational Publishers Ltd.; 2004. Abstract
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M. MM. "Influence of structural context on implementation of secondary school life skills curriculum in Kajiado County, Kenya." International Journal of Research and Education, Austraria. 2013;1 (3).
M. PROFWANYOIKEMARGARETM, GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wanyoike, M.M., J.B. Ochuonyo and H. Cheruiyot (1989). State of the Art of Cattle Milk and Meat Production in Kenya.". In: Paper presented at the Consultative Workshop on Collaborative Cattle Milk and Meat Research in East and Southern Africa held at Kadoma,. Zimbabwe 12th-15th June, 1989. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1989.
M. PROFKABIRAWANJIKU. "Our Mothers Footsteps Ed. Wanjiku Kabira and Patricia Ngurukie CCGD.". In: East African Medical Journal 68(9): 714-9. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1999. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "Kilelu E.S. (1991). Incidence of lumpy skin disease in cattle. Bulletin of Animal health and production in Africa.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1991. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY, J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY. "Error estimates for recursive Pad.". In: Discovery and Innovation. 1990 Vol.2 No. 1 pp. 56-65. East African Educational Publishers Ltd.; 1990. Abstract
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M. MRMAINADAVID. "IONOMIC VARIATION CHARACTERIZATION IN AFRICAN LEAFY VEGETABLES FOR MICRONUTRIENTS USING XRF AND HPLC Akundabweni LSM, Mulokozi G and DM Maina.". In: (1979-1986)Guidance in the development of numerous Institute of Adult Studies. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2010.
M. PROFKITONYIJOSEPHK. "Kitonyi J.M.K The Basic Radiological System (BRS) Experience in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1993 Dec;70(12):793-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Dec;70(12):793-6. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1993. Abstract

While Diagnostic Radiology has become increasingly indispensible in sound clinical patient management the cost and maintenance of radiological equipment has continued to soar, reaching almost unaffordable levels in developing countries. As an attempt to provide some measure of remedy to the above problem, the World Health Organization in the early 80's introduced the basic radiological system (BRS) concept. The BRS is supposed to meet such criteria as being relatively cheap, of low maintenance cost easy operability and suitable in rural areas where electrical power supply may not be constant. In addition it should be able to perform 80% of all conventional radiological examinations. In this paper the author gives a critical account of the BRS experience in Kenya. Proposals for possible future considerations and modifications in order to achieve near ideal BRS X-ray machine are also advanced.

M. DRWASIKEADUA. "Lecture Notes in Ordinary differential Equations I:.". In: University of Nairobi (2005). Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
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M. PROFKABIRAWANJIKU. "Gender and Social Mythology in Delusions: Essays on Social Construction of Gender; Ed. Kabira W. Masheti M. Mbugua W. African Womens Communication and Development Network, Nairobi.". In: East African Medical Journal 68(9): 714-9. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1993. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "F parker E.S Kilelu 1987 clostridium infection in sheep in Kenya. Journal of Microbiology vol.7 No 9 P38 .". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1987. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ndavi PM, Dlamini D, Khumalo P: A Reproductive Health Needs Assessment; A Report of Findings from the Kingdom of Swaziland, August, 2002.". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
M. MW, B. KOOPMAN, V. TIEDEMMANNA, W. PROFMUTITUEUNICE, W. DRKIMENJUJOHN. "Evaluation of genetic variability of Kenyan, German and Austrian isolates of Exserohilum turcicum using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism DNA marker." Biotechnology. 2010;9(2):204-211.
M. PROFKYAMBIJ. "Kyambi JM.Intussusception.East Afr Med J. 1998 Jan;75(1):1.". In: East Afr Med J. 1998 Jan;75(1):1. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 1998. Abstract
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M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ndavi PM, Muia EG, Olenja J: A rationale for a clinically and public health applied medical anthropology (part 1) J Obst/Gyn. East Cert Afr. vol. 9, 2: 85-87, 1991.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1991:68, 69. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1991. Abstract

In this study, a total of 519 patients were interviewed. 82.5% had incomplete abortion. The implication of abortion especially when induced is emphasised. Economic implications that are contributed by the youth are stressed. 83.6% of the patients had not used any contraception. The role of contraception in preventing unwanted pregnancy and therefore induced abortion is stressed. The role of the physician in providing contraception and appropriate contraceptive knowledge is discussed. PIP: A study of 519 consecutive women admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital with the diagnosis of abortion revealed that the majority were young and had a history of nonuse of contraception. Abortion was incomplete in 428 (83%) of cases; 60 (12%) cases involved sepsis. Women 20-24 years of age accounted for 221 (43%) of the abortions; the other two most represented age groups were 25-29 years (28%) and 14-19 years (17%). 460 (89%) of the abortion patients had never used a contraceptive method. The most frequently cited reasons for nonuse were desire for pregnancy (48%), no conscious reason (13%), procrastination in getting to a family planning clinic (8%), no knowledge of family planning (6%), and fear of side effects (6%). Of the 64 cases of failed contraception, 27 were using the pill, 25 had an IUD in place, and 8 were relying on the rhythm method. Among contraceptive users, the major sources of information about contraception were nurses (52%), radio and newspapers (19%), and other women (15%). Only 4% indicated that a physician had discussed family planning with them. Given the resource drain that treatment of incomplete abortion can place on Kenya's health care system and the risk of abortion-induced pelvic infection and subsequent infertility, Kenya's health workers should be encouraged to be more aggressive in promoting family planning use among young women.

M. MRMOGAMBIHEZRON. "Mogambi H, Mwongozo wa Johari ya Kiswahili Bk 1, (EAEP).". In: Politics and Political Science (Online Publication), Vol. 43, Number 1, January 2010. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2003. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Plucking Standard Effects and the Distribution of Fatty Acids in the Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) Leaves". Food Chemistry, 37, 27-35.". In: Journal of Pharmacognosy 30 (1): 9-16. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1990. Abstract
   
M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Waema, T.M. and Mitullah, W. (2009). e-Governance in Local Authorities in Kenya: Policy and Institutional Elements of Implementation.". In: Proceedings of the LOG-IN Africa e-Local Governance 1st Conference, June 5-6 2008, Cairo, Egypt, ISBN 978-9981-1-1062-0, pp. 67-78. Pambazuka Press; 2009. Abstract
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M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S. Kilelu et al. (1980). Veterinary clinical cases from Taita Taveta District Kenya. Veterinarian Journal Vol.83 No. 79 p23 .". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1980. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DROLUBAYOFLORENCE. "F.Olubayo, A.Kibaru, J.Nderitu, R.Njeru, S.Shibairo and M.Kasina 2008. Management of Aphids and Aphid Transmitted virus in stored seed potatoes in Kenya.". In: International Journal of Sustainable Crop Production 3(5): 40- 45. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 2008. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Alumina and Silica gel catalysed rearrangement of 2,2 Diaryl Oxiranes to 2,2 -Diarylacetaldehydes" J.Sci. Technol.". In: Kenya. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1983. Abstract
   

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