Imungi, JK, Biesalski HK, Okoth MW.  Submitted. . AbstractWebsite

Certain indigenous foods commonly consumed by Kenyan vulnerable groups (the malnourished; children under 5 years of age; pregnant and lactating women; malnourished adults in cases of vitamin or mineral deficiencies, TB, diabetes, cancer, AIDS; refugees; orphans the elderly and the disabled) are not yet evaluated for phenolic content and health relevant functionality. The present study was therefore designed to analyze the phenolic content, antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of methanolic extract of raw and traditionally processed food ingredients. The total phenolic contents of the cereals, legumes, oil seeds and vegetables were ranged from 0.41 to 3.00 g/100 g DM. Amaranth grain (Amaranthus cruentus) and drumstick leaves (Moringa oleifera) exhibited significantly higher phenolic content than the other samples. The methanolic extract of the investigated samples showed promising levels of DPPH radical scavenging activity (81–89%); ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP, 44–744 mmolL−1 Fe[II]/g extract DM); α-amylase (10–45%) and α-glucosidase (13–80%) inhibition activities. The food ingredients with high phenolic content exhibited relatively higher antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. The results indicate that soaking + cooking is the mild processing method to preserve the phenolic compounds and their health relevant functionality in the presently investigated cereal, legume and oil grains, while cooking is suitable treatment for vegetables.


Mewa, E. A., OKRMWCN.  2019.  Experimental evaluation of beef drying kinetics in a solar tunnel dryer. Renewable Energy. 139:235-241.
and Werikhe, G., KORCNMW.  2019.  Status and process analysis of koche, a traditional pastoral meat product in Kenya. Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice. 9(6)


Mewa E. A, Okoth M. W, KRCNMN.  2018.  Drying Modelling, Moisture Diffusivity and Sensory quality of Thin Layer dried Beef. Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science. 6(2):552-565.
Chikondi Memory Liomba, Catherine Nkirote Kunyanga, AA.  2018.  Development of Multimix Composite Flour as Complementary Food for Infants in Malawi. . International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. (2):11.
Karibe Wilson, Kunyanga Catherine, IJ.  2018.  Isolation and Characterization of Probiotic Microorganisms from the Bovine Tripe.. Asian Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 3(2):58-65.
Chanzu, Oliver., KCIJKWNK.  2018.  Current Status of Pre-slaughter, Slaughtering and Post-slaughter Practices of Fresh Beef in Pastoral Areas of Kenya.. Journal of Food Science and Quality Management;. 78:17-22.
Karibe, Wilson G., KCIJNK.  2018.  Microbiological Status of Ready to Eat (RTE) Bovine Tripe Rolls under Different Storage Conditions. . Journal of Food Science and Quality Management;. 78:7-16.
Kunyanga Catherine. N., Amimo, JKLC'wa GN.  2018.  Consumer Risk Exposure to Chemical and Microbial Hazards through Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables in Kenya. . Journal of Food Science and Quality Management. 78:59-69.
Wilson Karibe, Catherine Kunyanga, JI.  2018.  Storability and Physico-Chemical Quality of Ready to Eat Bovine Tripe Rolls under Different Storage Conditions. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 7(8):370-382.
and Karibe Wilson, KCIJ.  2018.  Current status and utilization of beef slaughter by-product by the pastoral communities in Kenya: the case of bovine tripe.. Journal of Advances in Food Science & Technology. 5(2):48-57.
and Abok O. Elisha, Okoth W. Michael., KCANOB.  2018.  Microbiological Quality and Contamination Level of Water Sources in Isiolo County in Kenya. Journal of Environmental and Public Health. 2018:1-10.
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and Onyango C.M., Kunyanga Catherine N., WKMIRGDN.  2018.  Employer Perceptions and Attitudes towards Agricultural University Training in Kenya. International Journal for Innovation Education and Research. 6:175-185.
Mewa, Eunice. A., OMKCRWNMN.  2018.  Effect of drying air temperature and slice thickness on the physical and microbiological quality of dried beef.. LWT - Food Science and Technology. 92:484–489.


Gichure, J. N., KMICNPM.  2017.  Standardization of cut size and pre-drying time of beef to mainstream pastoral processing in Kenya’s meat industry. Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice. 7:1-7.
and Ogumo E. O., Kunyanga, OKCNMW.  2017.  Current knowledge and performance of existing charcoal coolers in improving the overall quality and shelf-life of French beans.. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 12(49):3399-3409.


N., KC, J. M.  2016.  Linking Climate-Smart Horticulture to Better Nutrition and Health Outcomes of Rural Households for Improved Livelihoods, 20 October. World Food Day Colloquium. , University of Hohenheim


N., GJ, N. KC, K. IJ, M. MP.  2015.  Application of Appropriate Technologies to Minimize Post Harvest Losses and Improve Quality along Pastoral Beef Value Chain in Developing Countries: Case of Kenya. Proceeding of the 17th World Congress of Food Science and Technology & Expo. Research that resonates. :30-35., Montreal, Quebec, Canada: IUFOST
N., GJ, N. KC, K. IJ, M. MP.  2015.  Meat processing and preservation technologies practiced in Kenya’s Pastoral areas with potential for improvement based on product competitiveness, 5 March. “Policies for Competitive Smallholder Livestock Production” conference . , Gaborone, Botswana
N., KC, N. GJ, M. MP.  2015.  Production of shelf stable and innovative solar dried meat snacks from chevon with potential for commercialization in pastoral regions of Kenya, 4 August. Nairobi Innovation week, Innovate and Prosper: Strengthening Academia, Industry and Government linkages for economic growth”. , University of Nairobi Nairobi


Njenga, GJ, Nkirote KC, Mwangi MP, Jasper I.  2014.  The Present Status of Meat Processing and Preservation in the Pastoral Regions of Kenya. Food Science and Quality Management. 32:42-50.


Moraa, OC, N KC, Ontinta CG, Narla RD, W KJ.  2013.  urrent status on production and utilization of sider plant (Cleome gynandra L.) an underutilized leafy vegetable in Kenya. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 60(6):0925-9864.


Vellingiri, V;, Kunyanga CN, Biesalski HK.  2012.  Antioxidant Potential And Type II Diabetes-related Enzyme Inhibition Of Cassia Obtusifolia L.: Effect Of Indigenous Processing Methods. Abstract

The methanolic extract of Cassia obtusifolia L. (Sicklepod) seed, an underutilized food legume from India, was analyzed for antioxidant and health relevant functionality. The total free phenolic content of the raw seeds was 13.33 ± 1.73 g catechin equivalent/100 g extract. The extract exhibited 1,292 mmol Fe[II] per milligram extract of ferric reducing/antioxidant power, 49.92% inhibition of ß-carotene degradation, 65.79% of scavenging activity against DPPH, and 50.78% of superoxide radicals. The in vitro starch digestion bioassay of the extract showed 79.80% of α-amylase and 81.04% of α-glucosidase enzyme inhibition characteristics. Sprouting + oil frying caused an apparent increase on the total free phenolic content with significant improvement on the antioxidant and free radical scavenging capacity of C. obtusifolia seeds, while soaking + cooking as well as open-pan roasting treatments show diminishing effects. Inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzyme activity was 23.81% and 42.36%, respectively, following sprouting + oil-frying treatment. These enzyme inhibition values were similar to that of synthetic antidiabetic agent acarbose.

KUNYANGA, MSCATHERINENKIROTE.  2012.  Development, Acceptability and Nutritional Characteristics of Low-cost, Shelf-stable Supplementary Food Product for Vulnerable Groups in Kenya.. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. : Kunyanga CN Abstract
KUNYANGA, MSCATHERINENKIROTE.  2012.  Total phenolic content, antioxidant ant antidiabetic properties of methanolic extract of raw and traditionally processed Kenyan indigenous food ingredients.. LWT - Food Science and Technology. : Kunyanga CN Abstract
KUNYANGA, MSCATHERINENKIROTE.  2012.  Review on Health Benefits of Nut Consumption with Special Reference to Body Weight Control.. Nutrition Journal. Abstract


N., KC, K. BH, V. S, V. V, K. IJ, W. OM.  2011.  Evaluation of the role of flavanoids present in indigenous foods regarding health and nutrition of vulnerable groups in Kenya., 24 September. II World Congress of Public Health Nutrition and I Latin-American Congress of Community Nutrition. , Alfandega Congress Centre, Porto, Portugal
Kunyanga, CN;, Imungi JK.  2011.  Quality Characteristics and Acceptability of Bread Produced with Supplementation of Dolichos lab lab Beans. Abstract

The viability of production of good quality and acceptable bread with substitution of wheat flour with Dolichos lab lab (Lab lab purpureus) was investigated. The bread was analyzed for protein, moisture, general bread quality and sensory properties. The protein content of bread was elevated by up to about 20% and the moisture content reduced by about 10% without significant changes in bread taste, odor, volume and general bread quality. Substitution levels of up to 10% produced bread with quality characteristics not significantly different from the control. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between the control bread and the Dolichos supplemented breads up to 15% in the sensory attributes of aroma, crumb appearance, texture, crust colour, loaf shape, taste and general acceptability (p < 0.05). The crumb colour changed from creamish white to dull brown and a gradual hardening of crumb texture was observed as the addition of Dolichos lab lab bean flour increased. Above 15% substitution levels, the acceptability declined because of the compact texture of the crumb and the strong beany flavor of the product. Results indicate that acceptable breads can be produced by substitution of up to 15% wheat flour with dolichos bean flour

KUNYANGA, MSCATHERINENKIROTE.  2011.  Antioxidant and Antidiabetic properties of condensed tannins in acetonic extract of raw and processed food ingredients from Kenya.. Journal of Food Science. Abstract
KUNYANGA, MSCATHERINENKIROTE.  2011.  Flavonoid content of Ethanolic Extract of Indigenous Foods Consumed by Vulnerable Groups in Kenya: Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Activities.. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition. Abstract
KUNYANGA, MSCATHERINENKIROTE.  2011.  Evaluation of the role of flavanoids present in indigenous foods regarding health and nutrition of vulnerable groups in Kenya.. II World Congress of Public Health Nutrition and I Latin-American Congress of Community Nutrition. Abstract
KUNYANGA, MSCATHERINENKIROTE.  2011.  Diversity and Characteristics of Supplementary Foods Sold and Consumed by Vulnerable Groups in Kenya.. Journal of Applied Biosciences. : Kunyanga CN Abstract
KUNYANGA, MSCATHERINENKIROTE.  2011.  Antioxidant and Type II Diabetes Related Functional Properties of Phytic Acid Extract from Kenyan Indigenous Food Ingredients: Effects of Traditional Processing Methods.. Ecology of Food Nutrition. Abstract

Emerging scientific evidences reveal that phytic acid has several positive ef fects on human health. The antioxidant and type 2 diabetes related enzyme inhibition pr operties of phytic acid extract prepar ed from raw and traditionally processed local grains and vegetables collected from Kenya were evaluated. Phytic acid content of raw grains and vegetables ranged between 2.81–3.01 and 0.29–3.23 g/100 g DM, respectively. The phytic acid extract from raw s amples revealed 59%–89% of DPPH radical scavenging capacity, 27–3,526 mmol Fe(II)/g e xtract of reducing power, 20%–72% ofα-amylase inhibition activity and 8%–91% of α-glucosidase inhibition activity. Cooking and roasting impr oved the antioxidant and health relevant functionality of phytic acid extracts obtained from Kenyan local vegetables and grains, respectively

KUNYANGA, MSCATHERINENKIROTE.  2011.  Antioxidant Potential and type II Diabetes Related Enzyme Inhibition of Cassia obtusifolia L.: Effect of Indigenous Processing Methods.. Food Bioprocess Technology. : Vadivel, V., Kunyanga C.N., and Biesalski, H.K. Abstract

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