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2015
T L, C S-K, CF O, G W. "Glycated albumin and glycated haemoglobin levels as a measure of monitoring glycaemic control in diabetic patients attending out-patient clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital: a comparative study." East African Journal of Pathology. 2015;2(1):25-29. Abstractglycated_albumin_and_glycated_haemoglobin_levels_as_a_measure_of_monitoring_glycaemic_control_in_diabetic_patients_attending_out-patient_clinic_at_kenyatta_national_hospital.pdf

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disease that is characterized by persistent hyperglycemia. Monitoring of glycaemic control ir individuals with DM is currently done by a combination of short term, that is daily monitoring of blood glucose and long term biochemical tests especially glycatec haemoglobin(HbA1c) which is done every 2-4 months. Glycated albumin (GA) is a new test for intermediate glycaemic control. It measures averaged plasma gluCOSE level over two to four weeks. This enables closer monitoring and evaluation ot treatment regimen faster than HbAlc.
Objectives: To compare glycated haemoglobin to glycated albumin levels as a measure of monitoring glycaemic control in diabetic patients.
Design: A prospective comparative study.
Methods: The study was carried out on diabetic patients attending the diabetic clinic
at Kenyatta National Hospital.
Results: A total of 260 patients were enrolled into the study. The mean age was 52 years with a standard deviation of 12.3. There was a female preponderance of 60.4%, Random blood sugar analysis showed that, the population with good glycaemic control constituted 156 (60%). Majority of the patients had good glycaemic control 170 (65.4%) based on the HbAlc assay, compared to 39.4% in GA.There was a good correlation between HbAlc and glycated albumin with R2value of 0.64.
Conclusion: More patients showed good glycaemic control based on HbAlc compared to glycated albumin. There was correlation between .HbAlc and glycated albumin with R2 value of 0.64. There is need to introduce glycated albumin as a method of intermediate glycaemic control in the hospital.

PJ C, C S-K, W W, LW M. "Pap Smear Cytological findings in women with abnormal visual inspection test results referred to Kenyatta National Hospital." East African Journal of Pathology. 2015;2(1):8-12. Abstractpap_smear_cytological_findings_in_women_with_abnormal_visual_inspection_test_results_referred_to_kenyatta_national_hospital.pdf

Background: The challenge of cost in establishing cytology and/or Human Papillomavirus (HPV) mass screening for cervical cancer in resource limited countries prompted adoption of visual inspection techniques as alternative tests despite them having low specificity.
Objectives: To determine the pattern of cervical intraepitheliallesions and infections in women with abnormal visual inspection test results referred to Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).
Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at KNH where women who were referred to this facility after having abnormal visual inspection test results were recruited.
Results: Of the 232 participants recruited, 57(24.6%) had a report of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASUCS) or worse as follows; 5(2.2%) were ASCUS, 13(5.6%) were low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), 4(1.7%) were atypical glandular cells (AGC), 1(0.4%) was atypical squamous cells cannot exclude high grade (ASC-H), 20(8.6%) were high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and 18(7.8%) were reported as having carcinoma on cytology. Of these abnormal results 3(1.3%) were from 33 women (14.2%) more than 50 years of age who were also recruited in this study. Infections were detected in 1 (4.7%) of the study participants.
Conclusions and recommendations: Pap smear was useful as follow-up test as it reduced number of referrals for definitive diagnosis to 16.8% while sparing the rest (83.2%) from unnecessary treatment. Pap smear is therefore recommended as follow-up test in women with abnormal visual inspection test results. Increase awareness to service providers and the general public about the Government Policy on the use of visual inspection tests in women more than 50 years of age since 14.2% were inappropriately screened by the visual inspection test.

S S, C S-K, er CS G, W W. "Prevalence of Cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) positive Helicopter pylori strains in asymptomatic H. pylori-infected children attending Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi and correlation with risk factors associated with infection acquisition." East African Journal of Pathology. 2015;2(1):2-7. Abstractprevalence_of_cytotoxin-associated_gene_a_caga_positive_helicobacter_pylori_strains_in_asymptomatic_h._pylori-infected_children_attending_kenyatta_national_hospital_nairobi_and_correlatio.pdf

Background: Helicobacter pylori bacteria colonize the gastric mucosa of 20-80% of humans worldwide. Approximately 60-70% of H. pylori strains possess the Cytotoxinassociated gene A (CagA gene) and express the CagA protein, an oncoprotein and a highly immunogenic virulence factor that has been linked to gastric disease.
Objective: To determine the prevalence ofCagA positive H.pylori among asymptomatic children attending Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi.
Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study at KNH paediatric outpatient clinic and paediatric wards and at the immunology laboratory, University of Nairobi.
Subjects: Children aged 2-13 years attending KNH, presenting with non-gastrointestinal tract conditions.
Methods: Socio-demographic information was collected by direct interview of the participants' parents/guardians (respondents) and entered into a study questionnaire. Serum samples from the subjects were tested by ELISA for the anti-H. pylori IgG antibody. Those that tested positive were tested for anti-CagA IgG antibody.
Results: A total of 175 children with a mean age of 7.5 years were enrolled, 57.3 % being males. The overall prevalence of H. pylori was 50.3%. CagA positive H. pylori prevalence among those who tested positive for H. pylori was 64.8%. There was significant positive correlation of H. pylori seropositivity with age (p

2012
Sinei S, Morrison CS, Sekadde-Kigondu C, Melissa A, okonya D. "Complications of use of intrauterine devices among HIV-1-infected women.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Background A WHO expert group and the International
Planned Parenthood Federation recommend against use of
intrauterine devices (IUDs) in HIV-1-infected women based
on theoretical concerns about pelvic infection and increased
blood loss. We investigated whether the risk of
complications after IUD insertion is higher in HIV-1-infected
women than in non-infected women.
Methods 649 (156 HIV-1 infected 493 non-infected) women in
Nairobi, Kenya, who requested and met local eligibility criteria
for insertion of an IUD were enrolled. We gathered information
on IUD-related complications, including pelvic inflammatory
disease, removals due to infection, pain, or bleeding,
expulsions, and pregnancies at 1 and 4 months after insertion.
Patients’ HIV-1 status was masked from physicians.
Findings Complications were identified in 48 of 615 women
(11 [7·6%] HIV-1-infected women, 37 [7·9%] non-infected).
Incident pelvic inflammatory disease (two [1·4%] HIV-1
infected, one [0·2%] non-infected) and infection-related
complications (any tenderness, removal of IUD for infection
or pain; ten [6·9%] HIV-1 infected, 27 [5·7%] non-infected)
were also rare and similar in the two groups. Complication
rates were similar by CD4 (immune) status. Multivariate
analyses suggested no association between HIV-1 infection
and increased risks for overall complications (odds ratio 0·8
[95% CI 0·4–1·7]) or infection-related complications (1·0
[0·5–2·3]), adjusted for marital status, study site, previous
IUD use, ethnic origin, and frequency of sexual intercourse,
but a slight increase cannot be ruled out.
Interpretation Our data suggest that IUDs may be a safe
contraceptive method for appropriately selected HIV-1-
infected women with continuing access to medical services.
Lancet 1998; 351: 1238–41

Lucy MW, Christine S-KB, Benson EBA, Marleen TT. "Risk Association between Human Leucocyte Antigens (HLA) and Cervical Neoplasia in Kenyan Women.". 2012. Abstract

Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer mortality among women worldwide (Franco et al, 2003). Epidemiological studies have shown a strong link between human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and the development of cervical cancer (Franco et al, carcinogenic process (Chan et al, 2005). Most HPV infections are transient and regress spontaneously and only a minority of women develops persistent infection that with time may evolve into cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and/or progress to invasive cervical cancer(Villa, 1997; Franco et al, 1999). Given that host immune response to HPV is thought to be an important determinant of HPV acquisition and progression to high-grade cervical lesions and cancer, it is plausible that human leucocyte antigen (HLA) variations may affect pathogenesis of cervical neoplasia (Beskow et al, 2005; Clerici et al, 1997; Hildesheim et al, 1997). The major histocompatibility complex is a highly polymorphic gene cluster on the short arm of chromosome six. The genes in this cluster are divided into three classes with different roles in immune responses. HLA gene polymorphisms result in variations in peptide-binding cleft, therefore influencing the antigens bound and presented to T cells (Beskow et al, 2005; Wang e al, 2005). The HLA class I genes (HLAA, -B, and –C) present foreign antigens to CD8+ Cytotoxic T lymphocytes, while class II genes (HLA-DR, - DQ and –DP) present antigenic peptides to CD4+ T helper cells and are important in host immune responses to viruses and other pathogens (Wang et al, 2001).

2010
Thaimuta ZL, Kigondu C, Makawiti DW. "Prevalence of nonthyroidal illness among HIV patients on HAART.". 2010.
Qureshi ZP, Sekadde-Kigondu C, Mutiso SM. "Rapid assement of partograph utilisation in selected maternity units in Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

Prolonged labour causes maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Its sequela include obstructed labour, uterine rupture, maternal exhaustion, postpartum haemorrhage, puerperal sepsis, obstetric fistula, stillbirths, birth asphyxia and neonatal sepsis. These complications can be reduced by using the partograph to assess the progress of labour. The Ministry of Health, Kenya has adopted this tool for labour management in the country and the standardised partograph is recommended for use in all delivery units. Objective: To determine the utilisation of the partograph in the management of labour in selected health facilities in Kenya. Design: A descriptive cross sectional study. Setting: Nine health facilities -ranging from a tertiary hospital to health centre, including public private and faith based facilities in four provinces in Kenya. Results: All facilities apart from Pumwani Maternity Hospital and one health centre were using the partograph. The correct use was low, the knowledge on the use of the tool was average and there was minimal formal training being provided. Staff shortage was listed as the most common cause of not using the tool. Contractions were recorded 30-80%, foetal heart rate 53-90% and cervical dilatation 70-97%. Documentation of state of the liquor, moulding and descent as well as maternal parameters such as pulse, and blood pressure and urinalysis were minimally recorded. Supplies for monitoring labour such as fetoscopes and blood pressure machines were in short supply and sometimes not functional. Overall, the poor usage was contributed to staff shortages, lack of knowledge especially on interpretation of findings, negative attitudes, conflict between providers as to their roles in filling the partograph, and senior staff themselves not acting as role models with regards to the use, advocacy and implementation of the partograph. Conclusion: The partograph was available in most units. However, accurate recording of parameters to monitor the foetus, the mother and progress of labour as recommended was mostly not done. Shortage of staff, lack of knowledge, lack of team work, lack of supplies and negative attitude among healthcare providers were some of the obstacles noted to hamper partograph use.

Thamuita ZL, Sekadde-Kigondu C, Makawiti DW. "Thyroid function among HIV/AIDS patients on highly active anti-retroviral therapy.". 2010. Abstract

To assess the thyroid function among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/ Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients on anti-retroviral drugs: stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine and to establish the prevalence of non-thyroid illness. Design: Laboratory based comparative cross-sectional study. Setting: Comprehensive care clinics at KNH and Mbagathi District Hospital. Subjects: Eighty four HIV-infected patients on treatment with ARVs (ARV +ve) and an ARV naive (ARV naive) group of 26 HIV-infected patients. Results: Thyroid stimulating hormone levels were not altered following treatment whereas the levels of FT4 decreased. The frequency of those with low FT4 were increasing with continued ARV use. The prevalence of non-thyroidal illness state defined by TSH within reference ranges and low FT4 was comparable among the ARV +ve and ARV naive groups (44 and 46% respectively). Conclusion: Progressive use of HAART causes decline in FT4 hormone levels. It is debatable whether interventions for low FT4 is necessary in ARV treatment but a longitudinal study would explain the progressive trend of thyroid hormones and implications with HAART treatment. The prevalence of NTI is comparable to both HAART users and non-users. Low levels of thyroid hormone (FT 4) may be an adaptive response by thyroid gland to minimize calorie utilisation as in chronic diseases

2009
Waithaka SK, Njagi EN, Ngeranwa JN, Kigondu CS. "Reference Ranges for Some Biochemical Parameters in Adult Kenyans.". 2009. Abstract

To establish the reference ranges of some biochemical parameters for adult Kenyan population. METHODS: In a prospective involving 1100 healthy blood donors (age: 18-55 yr) in Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya reference ranges of some biochemical analytes were constructed by using the parametric methods to estimate 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles of distribution. RESULTS: The reference ranges of the analytes were: alanine aminotransferase (ALT) [males (0-39) U/L, females (0-34) U/L]; aspartate aminotransferase (AST) [males (6-40) U/L, females (3-37) U/L]; alkaline phosphatase (ALP) [males (13-201) U/L, females (5-227) U/L]; albumin (ALB) [males (29-52) g/L, females (28-50) g/L]; protein (PROT) [males (57-89) g/L, females (56-88) g/L]; creatinine (CREAT) [males (59-127) μmol/L, females (54-122) μmol/L]; glucose (GLU) [males (2.8-6.8) mmol/L, females (2.6-7) mmol/L]; phosphorus (PHOS) [males (0.5-2.0) mmol/L, females (0.2-2.4) mmo/L]; potassium (POT) [males (3-5.3), females (3.1-5.1) mmo/L]; sodium (SOD) [males (111-153) mmol/L, females (117-151) mmol/L]; Blood urea nitrogen BUN [males (1.5-5.9) mmol/L, females (1.2-6.0) mmol/L] and Uric acid (UA) [males (120-458) μmol/L, females (89-415) μmol/L]. Age differences in the established reference ranges were observed in ALT, ALB, CREAT, ALP and UA in males and in ALT, ALB, and CREAT in females. Gender differences were observed in ALT, AST, ALB, CREAT and UA in the 18-28 yr old, ALT, AST, ALB, SOD and UA in 29-39 yr old and AST, ALB, and UA in 40-50 yr old. CONCLUSION: Age and sex specific reference ranges of some biochemical parameters were established some of which were different from those reported in literature. There therefore the need for each clinical chemistry laboratory to establish its own ranges

2008
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Njoroge GK, Njagi EN, Orinda GO, Sekadde-Kigondu CB, Kayima JK. Environmental and occupational exposure to lead. East Afr Med J. 2008 Jun;85(6):284-91.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Mar;79(3):163-4. uon press; 2008. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the status of environmental and occupational lead exposure in selected areas in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: Kariobangi North, Babadogo, Waithaka and Pumwani for assessment of environmental exposure to lead (Pb) and Ziwani Jua Kali works for assessment of occupational lead exposure. Olkalou in Nyandarua District was the covariate study area. SUBJECTS: Three hundred and eight children and adults participated. RESULTS: Blood lead levels (BLLs) obtained for the entire sample (n = 308) ranged from 0.4 to 65 microg/dl of blood. One hundred and sixty nine (55%) of the total sample had levels equal to or below 4.9 microg/dl, while 62 (20%) of the sample had levels ranging from 5.0 to 9.9 microg/dl. Blood lead levels above 10 microg/dl were recorded in 77 (25%) of the total sample. Within Nairobi, 32 (15.3%) of the study subjects in areas meant for assessment of environmental lead exposure had levels above the WHO/CDC action levels of 10 microg/dl of blood. The mean BLL for the occupationally exposed (Ziwani Jua kali) was 22.6 +/- 13.4 microg/dl. Among the workers, 89% had BLLs above 10 microg/dl. In general, 15% of the entire sample (for both environmental and occupational groups) in Nairobi had BLLs above 15 microg/dl. The covariate group at Olkalou had a mean BLL of 1.3 +/- 0.9 microg/dl. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of environmental lead exposure to the general public is high in Nairobi compared to Olkalou where non exposure was reported. Occupational lead exposure has been identified to be at alarming levels and urgent intervention measures are recommended.
2006
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Early perinatal outcome in cases delivered through Caesarian section following clinical diagnosis of severe foetal distress at Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):250-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):250-8. uon press; 2006. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To determine the value of clinical foetal distress in predicting early perinatal outcome. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Fifty eight newborns delivered via Caesarian section with a diagnosis of clinical foetal distress were compared with another group of 58 newborns delivered similarly, but without clinical foetal distress. RESULTS: Newborn acidemia was found in 71% of newborns with clinical foetal distress in contrast to 17% in newborns without foetal distress. Low Apgar score at one minute was noted in about 59% of newborns with foetal distress compared with 31% in newborns without foetal distress. Similarly, 24.1% of neonates with clinical foetal distress had low Apgar score at five minutes compared with 3.4% in those without foetal distress. Thirty one percent of newborns with clinical foetal distress were admitted to newborn unit for more than 24 hours due to respiratory distress or birth asphyxia compared to 17% of those without foetal distress. The incidence of morbidity and or mortality in newborns exposed to foetal distress was twice the one of newborns without foetal distress. CONCLUSION: The results obtained in this study agreed with those who consider intrapartum passage of meconeum and abnormal foetal heart rate and rhythm to signify clinical foetal distress that carries bad prognostic outcome. These two parameters should still be used to indicate foetal distress which requires immediate institution of supportive therapy and immediate delivery.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Millennium development goal 5: a review of maternal mortality at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2006 Jan;83(1):4-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Jan;83(1):4-9. uon press; 2006. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To review if there is a change in the maternal mortality rate at the Kenyatta National Hospital since the inception of the Millennium Development Goal strategy in 1990, compared to earlier reviews. DESIGN: A retrospective descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Maternal deaths attributed directly to obstetric causes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Determination of maternal mortality rates of all patients admitted to the Kenyatta National Hospital Maternity and died after admission up till six weeks of admission. Also determine any avoidable causes of the same. RESULTS: During the period under review, there were 27,455 deliveries and 253 maternal deaths giving a maternal mortality ratio of 921.5 per 100,000 live births. Direct obstetric causes accounted for 71% of all maternal deaths with sepsis, haemorrhage, and hypertension being the leading causes. Respiratory tract infections associated with HIV/ AIDS infection was the prominent indirect cause. 67.5% of deaths occurred in women aged between 25 and 35 years and 78.7% were Para 2 or less. Evidently there was poor antenatal clinic attendance with only 28.6% having had any attendance at all. CONCLUSION: Antenatal clinic attendance needs to be re-emphasised if an impact is to be realised in curbing maternal mortality; moreover there is need for early referrals and encouraging mothers to deliver under skilled care.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Sang CK, Kigondu CS, Muchiri L.Correlation between cytology and thyroid function test.East Afr Med J. 2006 Oct;83(10):533-8. PMID: 17310678 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE].". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Oct;83(10):533-8. uon press; 2006. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Thyroid dysfunction can be evaluated by measuring serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total tri-iodothyronine (T3) and total thyroxine (T4) which will establish euthyroidism, hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is the diagnostic test of choice in determining whether a nodule is benign or malignant. OBJECTIVE: To correlate hormonal levels to FNA cytologic findings. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). RESULTS: Forty two patients had their thyroid profiles done and the results were correlated with FNA diagnosis. Majority of patients had nodular goiter (83.3%), of which 47.6% had euthyroidism, 16.7% had biochemical euthyroidism, 11.9% had hyperthyroidism, 4.8% had sub-clinical hyperthyroidism and 2.4% had sub-clinical hypothyroidism. Three patients (7.1%) with FNA diagnosis of non-diagnostic sample had euthyroidism while 2.4% each with papillary carcinoma, thyroglossal cyst, and atypia, had a hormonal profile of euthyroidism. There was no significant statistical difference (p > 0.05) of the mean levels of T4 (0.406), T3 (0.311), and TSH (0.90), between and within the various groups of FNA cytological diagnoses. CONCLUSION: The study showed that there was no correlation between T4, T3, and TSH measurements and FNA cytological diagnoses.
2005
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "J.K Ruminjo, C.B Sekadde-Kigondu et al. Comparative acceptability of combined and progestin-only contraception injectable contraceptives in Kenya. Contracetion. 72(2005) 138.1: Contraception. 2005 Aug;72(2):138-45.". In: Contraception. 2005 Aug;72(2):138-45. uon press; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: We compared 12-month continuation rates, menstrual bleeding patterns and other aspects of acceptability between users of Cyclofem and users of Depo-Provera. METHODS: The life-table method was used to calculate quarterly continuation rates. In all, 360 Kenyan women were randomly assigned to one of the two contraceptives. User-satisfaction questionnaires were administered at 6 and 12 months or at discontinuation, whichever occurred first. RESULTS: The 1-year continuation rate was 75.4% for Depo-Provera users versus 56.5% for Cyclofem users (p<.001). Main reasons for discontinuation included difficulty making clinic visits (45.1% for Cyclofem vs. 40% for Depo-Provera), menstrual changes (14.1% vs. 12.5%) and nonmenstrual problems (15.5% vs. 12.5%). None of the Depo-Provera users and 8.5% of the Cyclofem users claimed frequency of visits as the main reason for discontinuation. In all, 70.6% of the Depo-Provera users were amenorrheic after 12 months, as were 20.8% of the Cyclofem users. CONCLUSIONS: The 1-year continuation rate was higher for Depo-Provera than for Cyclofem. There was no important difference in discontinuation rates because of menstrual problems; the difference mainly reflected the frequency of visits required.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Rajab JA, Muchina WP, Orinda DA, Scott CS. Blood donor haematology parameters in two regions of Kenya. East Afr Med J. 2005 Mar;82(3):123-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Nov;82(11):565-71. uon press; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To determine the status of blood donor haematology in two regional sites in Kenya and to assess the potential role of automated haematology in National blood bank process control. DESIGN: A cross sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Two regional blood banks–Nairobi and its environs (Blood Transfusion Services, Nairobi) and Western Region (National Blood Transfusion Services, Kisumu). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Distribution, mean, median, and 95% percentile ranges of haemoglobin (Hb), red cell parameters (red cell count, haematocrit, MCV, MCH and MCHC), total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts, and platelet counts in the two donor populations. RESULTS: A significant number of donations (16.5% in Kisumu and 3.4% in Nairobi) showed haemoglobin levels below the recommended National Blood Transfusion Service (NBTS) guideline of 42g/unit. Compared to Kisumu, Nairobi donors had significantly (p < 0.001) higher Hb, MCV and MCH values while the red blood cell counts and MCHC values were similar (p > 0.05). A low MCV (< 78 fl) was observed in 12.4% and 3.4% of Kisumu and Nairobi donors respectively. Both populations showed similar but significant frequencies (Kisumu, 21.3%; Nairobi, 18.7%) of mild neutropenia (< 1.5 x 10(9)/1), while eosinophilia (> 0.5 x 10(9)/1 in the tropics the cut off is > 0.6 x 109) was more prominent in Kisumu donors (18.8% versus 8.5%). Platelet counts were also significantly lower in Kisumu donors, with the prevalence of thrombocytopenia (< 150 x 10(9)/1) being considerably higher (15.9% versus 3.7%). CONCLUSIONS: A significant number of Kenyan donors showed abnormal haematology profiles that may indicate underlying pathology. Such abnormalities are not detected by current blood transfusion services screening practices and there may be a need to strengthen donor selection criteria to protect both donors and recipients.
O PROFORINDADA, A DRRAJABJAMILLA, S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Rajab JA, Waithaka PM, Orinda DA, Scott CS. Analysis of cost and effectiveness of pre-transfusion screening of donor blood and anti-malarial prophylaxis for recipients. East Afr Med J. 2005 Nov;82(11):565-71.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Nov;82(11):565-71. uon press; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of malaria in donor units in a low and a high endemic region in Kenya and evaluate the cost effectiveness of recipient anti-malarial prophylaxis and pre-transfusion screening (using an automated method) as options to prevent post transfusion malaria. DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: Two regional blood banks, Nairobi and its environs (National Blood Transfusion Services, Nairobi) a low malaria endemic region and western region (National Blood Transfusion Services, Kisumu) high malaria endemic region. SUBJECTS: All the donated units were included in the study for analysis, during the duration of study, from the two study sites. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of malaria in donor units in low endemic area (Nairobi) and high endemic area (Kisumu). Cost per case prevented for the two options, Option I Prophylactic administration of anti-malarial (sulfadoxine pyrimethamine SP) drugs to recipients, and Option II pre-transfusion screening using an automated technique. RESULTS: A malaria prevalence of 0.67% was found in Nairobi and its environments (low endemic) and 8.63% for Kisumu and its environments (high endemic area). The cost analysis showed a cost per case prevented of Ksh.105 (US$1.4) adult, Ksh.52.5 (US$0. 69) and paediatric for the option of recipient prophylaxis using an SP based drug. The cost escalated to Ksh.592 (US$7.79) adult Ksh.444 (US$5.84) paediatric if the prophylaxis was upgraded to the recommended artemisinin derivative (ACT-artemisinin based combination) and for the option of pre-transfusion screening using an automated technique the cost was Ksh.2.08 (US$0.03). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of malaria in donors showed the expected regional variation in the low and high endemic areas and was comparable to data obtained elsewhere. If malaria positive donor units were to be excluded from the national blood supply, an estimated 5% (compared to 1.3% for human Immunodeficiency virus, 3.6% for hepatitis B virus and 1.3% for hepatitis C virus) would be wasted. The cost per case prevented of transfusion-associated malaria is considerably higher for recipient antimalarial prophylaxis than pre-transfusion screening using an automated technique. The cost escalates by five to seven times if the newer artemesinin based combination antimalarial drugs are adopted.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Ruminjo JK, Sekadde-Kigondu CB, Karanja JG, Rivera R, Nasution M, Nutley T. Comparative acceptability of combined and progestin-only injectable contraceptives in Kenya. Contraception. 2005 Aug;72(2):138-45.". In: Contraception. 2005 Aug;72(2):138-45. uon press; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: We compared 12-month continuation rates, menstrual bleeding patterns and other aspects of acceptability between users of Cyclofem and users of Depo-Provera. METHODS: The life-table method was used to calculate quarterly continuation rates. In all, 360 Kenyan women were randomly assigned to one of the two contraceptives. User-satisfaction questionnaires were administered at 6 and 12 months or at discontinuation, whichever occurred first. RESULTS: The 1-year continuation rate was 75.4% for Depo-Provera users versus 56.5% for Cyclofem users (p<.001). Main reasons for discontinuation included difficulty making clinic visits (45.1% for Cyclofem vs. 40% for Depo-Provera), menstrual changes (14.1% vs. 12.5%) and nonmenstrual problems (15.5% vs. 12.5%). None of the Depo-Provera users and 8.5% of the Cyclofem users claimed frequency of visits as the main reason for discontinuation. In all, 70.6% of the Depo-Provera users were amenorrheic after 12 months, as were 20.8% of the Cyclofem users. CONCLUSIONS: The 1-year continuation rate was higher for Depo-Provera than for Cyclofem. There was no important difference in discontinuation rates because of menstrual problems; the difference mainly reflected the frequency of visits required.
2004
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Kasilima YS, Wango EO, Kigondu CS, Mutayoba BM, Nyindo M. Plasma bioactive LH and testosterone profiles in male New Zealand rabbits experimentally infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Acta Trop. 2004 Nov-Dec;92(3):165-72.". In: Acta Trop. 2004 Nov-Dec;92(3):165-72. uon press; 2004. Abstract
Department of Animal Physiology, Reproductive Biology Unit, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya. The effects of Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) infection on plasma levels of bioactive luteinising hormone (LH) and testosterone in the New Zealand rabbit model were studied. S. mansoni infection significantly decreased the pulse frequency (P < 0.05), amplitude (P < 0.05), area under LH curve (P < 0.05) and mean plasma LH concentrations (P < 0.05) on days 42 and 70 post-infection, as compared to values for day 14 pre-infection. Areas under the response curves for plasma testosterone levels decreased significantly (P < 0.05) on days 42 and 70 post-infection in infected animals compared to day 14 pre-infection. In the praziquantel-treated group, the levels of LH and testosterone remained unchanged throughout the experimental period. The pulsatile secretion of LH was completely inhibited in S. mansoni-infected animals 70 days post-infection. These results suggest that the effects on reproductive gonadal hormones caused by S. mansoni in the rabbit model may partly be induced by alteration in pituitary synthesis or release of LH.
2003
Morrison CS;, Sekadde-Kigondu C;, Sinei S;, Weiner DH;, Kwok C;, Kokonya D. "Is the intrauterine device appropriate contraception for HIV-1-infected women?". 2003. Abstract

Objective To assess whether the risk of complications is higher in HIV-1-infected women compared with non-infected women in the two years following insertion of the intrauterine contraceptive device. Design Prospective cohort study. Population Six hundred and forty-nine women (156 HIV-1-infected, 493 non-infected) in Nairobi, Kenya who requested an intrauterine contraceptive device and met local eligibility criteria. Methods We gathered information on complications related to the use of the intrauterine contraceptive device, including pelvic inflammatory disease, removals due to infection, pain or bleeding, expulsions, and pregnancies at one, four, and 24 months after insertion by study physicians masked to participants’ HIV-1 status. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios. Results Complications were identified in 94 of 636 women returning for follow up (14.7% of HIV-1-infected, 14.8% of non-infected). The incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease was rare in both infected (2.0%) and non-infected (0.4%) groups. Multivariate analyses suggested no association between HIV-1 infection and increased risk of overall complications (hazard ratio=1.0; 95% CI 0.6-1.6). Infection-related complications (e.g. any pelvic tenderness, removal for infection or pain) were also similar between groups (10.7% of HIV-1-infected, 8.8% of non-infected; P=0.50), although there was a non-significant increase in infection-related complications among HIV-1-infected women with use of the intrauterine contraceptive device longer than five months (hazard ratio=1.8; 95% CI 0.8-4.4). Neither overall nor infection-related complications differed by CD4 (immune) status. Conclusions HIV-1-infected women often have a critical need for safe and effective contraception. The intrauterine contraceptive device may be an appropriate contraceptive method for HIV-1-infected women with ongoing access to medical services.

S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "C.O.Onuango, FW Maina C Sekadde-Kigondu and JKG Mati Effect of DMPA on Lipid and Lipoprotein Changes in the First three months and long term use. J.Obstet Gynaecol E.C. Afr. 16(10 54, 2003.". In: J.Obstet Gynaecol E.C. Afr. 16(10 54, 2003. uon press; 2003. Abstract
The presence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in genital secretions is regarded as a risk factor for sexual and perinatal transmission of HIV. A better understanding of correlates of genital shedding of HIV is crucial to the development of effective strategies against transmission of this virus. Events during menstrual cycle are likely to influence local immune responses and viral load in genital secretions, and hence determine susceptibility to HIV or efficiency of virus transmission. We report, in this study, preliminary findings on the relationship of menstrual cycle to genital mucosal and systemic immunity in female olive baboons (Papio anubis) experimentally inoculated with simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)89.6P.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "D.O.Ochiel, EOWango, C Sekadde-Kigondu et al. Effect of Menstrual cycle on local mucosal imuunity to SHIV within the reproductive tract of Baboons (Papio anubis): preliminary findings. Journal of Medical Primatology 32, 161 2003.". In: Journal of Medical Primatology 32, 161 2003. uon press; 2003. Abstract
The presence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in genital secretions is regarded as a risk factor for sexual and perinatal transmission of HIV. A better understanding of correlates of genital shedding of HIV is crucial to the development of effective strategies against transmission of this virus. Events during menstrual cycle are likely to influence local immune responses and viral load in genital secretions, and hence determine susceptibility to HIV or efficiency of virus transmission. We report, in this study, preliminary findings on the relationship of menstrual cycle to genital mucosal and systemic immunity in female olive baboons (Papio anubis) experimentally inoculated with simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)89.6P.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "JK Kyaligonza, EO Wango, C Sekadde-Kigondu and P Adayo The Acrosomee Reaction in Gray Mangbey.". In: J.Med. Primatology., 23, 187, 2003. uon press; 2003. Abstract
The presence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in genital secretions is regarded as a risk factor for sexual and perinatal transmission of HIV. A better understanding of correlates of genital shedding of HIV is crucial to the development of effective strategies against transmission of this virus. Events during menstrual cycle are likely to influence local immune responses and viral load in genital secretions, and hence determine susceptibility to HIV or efficiency of virus transmission. We report, in this study, preliminary findings on the relationship of menstrual cycle to genital mucosal and systemic immunity in female olive baboons (Papio anubis) experimentally inoculated with simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)89.6P.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Ndavi,PM, Kyobe.j, Munyao,G., OyiekeBO, Sekadde-Kiogndu, CB. Coagulation studies in Hypertensive Disease of pregnancy.J.Obs Gyn, Centr. Africa. 16(2003),.". In: J.Obs Gyn, Centr. Africa. 16(2003),. uon press; 2003. Abstract
The presence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in genital secretions is regarded as a risk factor for sexual and perinatal transmission of HIV. A better understanding of correlates of genital shedding of HIV is crucial to the development of effective strategies against transmission of this virus. Events during menstrual cycle are likely to influence local immune responses and viral load in genital secretions, and hence determine susceptibility to HIV or efficiency of virus transmission. We report, in this study, preliminary findings on the relationship of menstrual cycle to genital mucosal and systemic immunity in female olive baboons (Papio anubis) experimentally inoculated with simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)89.6P.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Ochiel DO, Wango EO, Kigondu CS, Otsyula MG. Effect of menstrual cycle on mucosal immunity to SHIV within the reproductive tract of baboons (Papio anubis): preliminary findings.J Med Primatol. 2003 Jun;32(3):161-9.". In: J Med Primatol. 2003 Jun;32(3):161-9. uon press; 2003. Abstract
Reproductive Biology Unit, Department of Animal Physiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. dochiel@kisian.mimcom.net The presence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in genital secretions is regarded as a risk factor for sexual and perinatal transmission of HIV. A better understanding of correlates of genital shedding of HIV is crucial to the development of effective strategies against transmission of this virus. Events during menstrual cycle are likely to influence local immune responses and viral load in genital secretions, and hence determine susceptibility to HIV or efficiency of virus transmission. We report, in this study, preliminary findings on the relationship of menstrual cycle to genital mucosal and systemic immunity in female olive baboons (Papio anubis) experimentally inoculated with simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)89.6P.
2002
Stanback J, Qureshi ZP, Sekkade-Kigondu C. "Advance provision of oral contraceptives to family planning clients in Kenya.". 2002. AbstractWebsite

In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients.

Prospective observational study.

Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya.

Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics.

Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately.

Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy.

Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit.

Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.

S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "101. Wango, E.O, Tabifor, H.N, Muchiri, L.W., Sekadde-Kigondu, C. Progesterone, Estradiol and their receptors in leiomyomata and the adjacent normal myometria of black Kenyan women .Afr. J.Health Sci. 9:123, 2002.". In: E.A.M.J vol 79 (10) 530, 2002. uon press; 2002. Abstract
Reproductive Biology Unit, Department of Animal Physiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. dochiel@kisian.mimcom.net The presence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in genital secretions is regarded as a risk factor for sexual and perinatal transmission of HIV. A better understanding of correlates of genital shedding of HIV is crucial to the development of effective strategies against transmission of this virus. Events during menstrual cycle are likely to influence local immune responses and viral load in genital secretions, and hence determine susceptibility to HIV or efficiency of virus transmission. We report, in this study, preliminary findings on the relationship of menstrual cycle to genital mucosal and systemic immunity in female olive baboons (Papio anubis) experimentally inoculated with simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)89.6P.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "EgziabhleTekle, J.K.Ruminjo and C.B. Sekadde-Kigondu. Pain relief using Paracervical block in patients undergoing manual vacuum aspiration of the uters. E.A.M.J vol 79 (10) 530, 2002.". In: E.A.M.J vol 79 (10) 530, 2002. uon press; 2002. Abstract
Reproductive Biology Unit, Department of Animal Physiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. dochiel@kisian.mimcom.net The presence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in genital secretions is regarded as a risk factor for sexual and perinatal transmission of HIV. A better understanding of correlates of genital shedding of HIV is crucial to the development of effective strategies against transmission of this virus. Events during menstrual cycle are likely to influence local immune responses and viral load in genital secretions, and hence determine susceptibility to HIV or efficiency of virus transmission. We report, in this study, preliminary findings on the relationship of menstrual cycle to genital mucosal and systemic immunity in female olive baboons (Papio anubis) experimentally inoculated with simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)89.6P.
2000
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Kokonya D.A., Sinei S.K.A., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Morrison C.S., Kwok C, and Waner D.H. Experience with IUCD insertion outside Of menses in Kenya, E.A. Med J. 77 (7) 369, 2000.". In: E.A. Med J. 77 (7) 369, 2000. uon press; 2000. Abstract
Reproductive Biology Unit, Department of Animal Physiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. dochiel@kisian.mimcom.net The presence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in genital secretions is regarded as a risk factor for sexual and perinatal transmission of HIV. A better understanding of correlates of genital shedding of HIV is crucial to the development of effective strategies against transmission of this virus. Events during menstrual cycle are likely to influence local immune responses and viral load in genital secretions, and hence determine susceptibility to HIV or efficiency of virus transmission. We report, in this study, preliminary findings on the relationship of menstrual cycle to genital mucosal and systemic immunity in female olive baboons (Papio anubis) experimentally inoculated with simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)89.6P.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Kokonya DA, Sinei SK, Sekadde-Kigondu CB, Morrison CS, Kwok C, Weiner DH. Experience with IUCD insertion outside of menses in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 2000 Jul;77(7):369-73.". In: Int. J. of STDs and AIDS 11 257, 2000. uon press; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine if women receiving intrauterine devices (IUCDs) outside of menses have an acceptable rate of insertion problems and subsequent IUCD-related complications. DESIGN: Cross-sectional and prospective cohort study of insertions at times other than during menses. SETTING: The study was carried out in two government family planning (FP) clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: After appropriate pre-test and post-test HIV counselling, 1686 women requesting IUCDs at two FP clinics between 1994 and 1995 in Nairobi were enrolled at baseline into a study examining the effect of human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) infection on IUCD-related complications. Six hundred and forty nine women (156 HIV-infected and 493 HIV-uninfected) were selected for the four month follow up study. They were classified according to their menstrual cycle status at time of IUCD insertion. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Problems at the time of insertion (pain, bleeding, immediate expulsion) and IUCD-related complications through four months. RESULTS: Rates of immediate insertion problems were low in the women who had insertions during menses (7.0%), outside of menses (4.0%) or had oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (2.6%). The adjusted odds ratios for IUCD insertion problems outside of menses and in oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (versus women with insertion during menses) were 0.54 (95 % CI 0.18-1.59) and 0.39 (95% CI 0.12-1.29) respectively. IUCD-related complications were higher in the oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (11.5%) or insertion outside of menses (6.9%), than the within menses (4.3%) groups. However, the differences were not statistically significant. Adjusted odds ratios for IUCD outside of menses and oligomenorrhoea/amenorrhea groups were 1.65 (95% CI 0.21-12.91) and 2.72 (95% CI 0.34-21.71) respectively. CONCLUSION: The results confirm that the IUCD can be safely inserted outside of menses with minimal insertion difficulties and subsequent complications. Availability of IUCDs outside of menses may enhance IUCD acceptance in Kenya and create better opportunity for visual screening of the cervix for sexually transmitted infections.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "P. Gichangi, Forick K., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J, Kiragu D., Claeyo P., Temmerman M. Partner notification of pregnant women infected with syphilis in Nairobi, Kenya. Int. J. of STDs and AIDS 11 257, 2000.". In: Int. J. of STDs and AIDS 11 257, 2000. uon press; 2000. Abstract
Reproductive Biology Unit, Department of Animal Physiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. dochiel@kisian.mimcom.net The presence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in genital secretions is regarded as a risk factor for sexual and perinatal transmission of HIV. A better understanding of correlates of genital shedding of HIV is crucial to the development of effective strategies against transmission of this virus. Events during menstrual cycle are likely to influence local immune responses and viral load in genital secretions, and hence determine susceptibility to HIV or efficiency of virus transmission. We report, in this study, preliminary findings on the relationship of menstrual cycle to genital mucosal and systemic immunity in female olive baboons (Papio anubis) experimentally inoculated with simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)89.6P.
1999
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Ataya, W.M.. Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Ruminjo J.K., Wanjala S.M., Munyao G. The onset of spermaturia and the development of Pubertal changes among urban boys in Kenya. J. Obstet, Gynaecol. E.C. Afric 15 (1) 19 (1999).". In: J. Obstet, Gynaecol. E.C. Afric 15 (1) 19 (1999). uon press; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine if women receiving intrauterine devices (IUCDs) outside of menses have an acceptable rate of insertion problems and subsequent IUCD-related complications. DESIGN: Cross-sectional and prospective cohort study of insertions at times other than during menses. SETTING: The study was carried out in two government family planning (FP) clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: After appropriate pre-test and post-test HIV counselling, 1686 women requesting IUCDs at two FP clinics between 1994 and 1995 in Nairobi were enrolled at baseline into a study examining the effect of human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) infection on IUCD-related complications. Six hundred and forty nine women (156 HIV-infected and 493 HIV-uninfected) were selected for the four month follow up study. They were classified according to their menstrual cycle status at time of IUCD insertion. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Problems at the time of insertion (pain, bleeding, immediate expulsion) and IUCD-related complications through four months. RESULTS: Rates of immediate insertion problems were low in the women who had insertions during menses (7.0%), outside of menses (4.0%) or had oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (2.6%). The adjusted odds ratios for IUCD insertion problems outside of menses and in oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (versus women with insertion during menses) were 0.54 (95 % CI 0.18-1.59) and 0.39 (95% CI 0.12-1.29) respectively. IUCD-related complications were higher in the oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (11.5%) or insertion outside of menses (6.9%), than the within menses (4.3%) groups. However, the differences were not statistically significant. Adjusted odds ratios for IUCD outside of menses and oligomenorrhoea/amenorrhea groups were 1.65 (95% CI 0.21-12.91) and 2.72 (95% CI 0.34-21.71) respectively. CONCLUSION: The results confirm that the IUCD can be safely inserted outside of menses with minimal insertion difficulties and subsequent complications. Availability of IUCDs outside of menses may enhance IUCD acceptance in Kenya and create better opportunity for visual screening of the cervix for sexually transmitted infections.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Gichangi PB, Karanja JG, Kigondu CS, Fonck K, Temmerman M. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding emergency contraception among nurses and nursing students in two hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya.Contraception. 1999 Apr;59(4):253-6.". In: Contraception. 1999 Apr;59(4):253-6. uon press; 1999. Abstract
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. medmicro@ken.healthnet.org A cross-sectional descriptive study on knowledge, attitudes, and practice about emergency contraception (EC) was conducted among nurses and nursing students using a self-administered questionnaire. One-hundred-sixty-seven qualified nurses and 63 nursing students completed the questionnaire. Over 95% listed at least one regular contraceptive method but only 2.6% spontaneously listed EC as a contraceptive method, whereas 48% of the respondents had heard of EC. Significantly more nursing students than qualified nurses were familiar with EC. Knowledge about the types of EC, applications, and side effects was poor and 49% of the respondents considered EC as an abortifacient. Of those familiar with EC, 77% approved its use for rape victims and 21% for adolescents and schoolgirls. Only 3.5% of all respondents had personally used EC in the past, 23% of those familiar with EC intend to use it in the future, whereas 53% intend to provide or promote it. The view that EC was abortifacient negatively influenced the decision to use or provide EC in the future. The present findings suggest that the level of knowledge of EC is poor and more information is needed. These findings indicate the potential to popularize emergency contraception in Kenya among nurses and nursing students. PIP: A descriptive research study on knowledge, attitudes and practices with regard to emergency contraception (EC) was conducted using a questionnaire among 167 nurses and 63 nursing students in Nairobi, Kenya. Results revealed that 95% recorded at least one regular contraceptive method. About 48% of the respondents had heard about EC, but only 2.6% had used it. More nursing students than qualified nurses were aware of EC. There was poor knowledge about the types, applications and side effects of EC. Some 49% of the subjects regarded EC as an abortifacient. About 77% of those knowledgeable about EC approved its use for rape victims and 21% for adolescents and schoolgirls. Only about 3.5% had personally used it. Some 23% of those aware of EC intended to use it in the future. About 53% planned to provide or promote it. The perception that EC is abortifacient affected the decision whether to use or provide it. The data imply that there is potential for effective promotion of EC among nurses and nursing students in Kenya.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Mutungi A.K., Sanghvi H.C.G., Ojwang S.B.O., Sinei S.K. Sekadde-Kigondu C.B. Utilization of maternal and peri-natal Outcome of Twins Delivered at Two Public Hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya. J. Obstet. Gynaecol, E.C. Africa Vol 15 (5) 20, 1999.". In: J. Obstet. Gynaecol, E.C. Africa Vol 15 (5) 20, 1999. uon press; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine if women receiving intrauterine devices (IUCDs) outside of menses have an acceptable rate of insertion problems and subsequent IUCD-related complications. DESIGN: Cross-sectional and prospective cohort study of insertions at times other than during menses. SETTING: The study was carried out in two government family planning (FP) clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: After appropriate pre-test and post-test HIV counselling, 1686 women requesting IUCDs at two FP clinics between 1994 and 1995 in Nairobi were enrolled at baseline into a study examining the effect of human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) infection on IUCD-related complications. Six hundred and forty nine women (156 HIV-infected and 493 HIV-uninfected) were selected for the four month follow up study. They were classified according to their menstrual cycle status at time of IUCD insertion. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Problems at the time of insertion (pain, bleeding, immediate expulsion) and IUCD-related complications through four months. RESULTS: Rates of immediate insertion problems were low in the women who had insertions during menses (7.0%), outside of menses (4.0%) or had oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (2.6%). The adjusted odds ratios for IUCD insertion problems outside of menses and in oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (versus women with insertion during menses) were 0.54 (95 % CI 0.18-1.59) and 0.39 (95% CI 0.12-1.29) respectively. IUCD-related complications were higher in the oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (11.5%) or insertion outside of menses (6.9%), than the within menses (4.3%) groups. However, the differences were not statistically significant. Adjusted odds ratios for IUCD outside of menses and oligomenorrhoea/amenorrhea groups were 1.65 (95% CI 0.21-12.91) and 2.72 (95% CI 0.34-21.71) respectively. CONCLUSION: The results confirm that the IUCD can be safely inserted outside of menses with minimal insertion difficulties and subsequent complications. Availability of IUCDs outside of menses may enhance IUCD acceptance in Kenya and create better opportunity for visual screening of the cervix for sexually transmitted infections.
1998
Ojwang SBO, Mutungi AK, Sinei SK, Kigondu CS, Ndavi PM. "Post Abortive Acceptence Among Post-abortion in Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi,Kenya.". 1998.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Jeldesa, G.W., Qureshi, Z.P., Sekadde-Kigondu, C.B., Factors Enhansing the Practice of Female Genital Mutilation among Kenyan Somalis. J. Obstet.Gynaecol.E. and Centr. Afr. 14: 110, 1998.". In: J. Obstet.Gynaecol.E. and Centr. Afr. 14: 110, 1998. uon press; 1998. Abstract
Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi. Forty females, age 14 to 35 years (mean 28.6 years) with chronic renal failure (CRF) were included in the study. Their menstrual patterns were noted. The function of their hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis was assessed by the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin (PrL), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) at different phases of the menstrual cycle in patients who continued to have normal menses (Group 1) and at weekly intervals for six weeks in patients with menstrual disturbances (Group II). The mean hormone levels during the initial contact Luteal phase in group I were FSH 12.0 IU/L (N, 1.0-3.0 IU/L), LH 1.8IU/L (N 1.5-101U/L), PrL 652mIU/L (N, 100-600 mIU/L) mE2 160 pmol/L (N 400-1400 pmol/L) and P5 nmol/L (N 14-60 nmol/L) for group I. Corresponding values for group II were 1.2, 10.3, 250, 600 and 3.0 in relevant units. All patients (fourteen) with end stage renal disease (ESRD) had amenorrhoae. On the other hand, most patients with stable CRF (22/26) had normal menses. Following initiation of therapy (conservative or dialytic), there was no significant alteration in the hormonal profile or menstrual pattern. We conclude that other factors apart from the hormonal imbalances, may be responsible for the menstrual disturbances noted in patients with CRF.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Jeldesa, G.W., Qureshi, Z.P., Sekadde-Kigondu, C.B.,Wanjala, S.M.H., Maternal Mortality in Garissa Provincial Hospital. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. and Centre. Afr. 14: 68, 1998.". In: J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. and Centre. Afr. 14: 68, 1998. uon press; 1998. Abstract
Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi. Forty females, age 14 to 35 years (mean 28.6 years) with chronic renal failure (CRF) were included in the study. Their menstrual patterns were noted. The function of their hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis was assessed by the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin (PrL), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) at different phases of the menstrual cycle in patients who continued to have normal menses (Group 1) and at weekly intervals for six weeks in patients with menstrual disturbances (Group II). The mean hormone levels during the initial contact Luteal phase in group I were FSH 12.0 IU/L (N, 1.0-3.0 IU/L), LH 1.8IU/L (N 1.5-101U/L), PrL 652mIU/L (N, 100-600 mIU/L) mE2 160 pmol/L (N 400-1400 pmol/L) and P5 nmol/L (N 14-60 nmol/L) for group I. Corresponding values for group II were 1.2, 10.3, 250, 600 and 3.0 in relevant units. All patients (fourteen) with end stage renal disease (ESRD) had amenorrhoae. On the other hand, most patients with stable CRF (22/26) had normal menses. Following initiation of therapy (conservative or dialytic), there was no significant alteration in the hormonal profile or menstrual pattern. We conclude that other factors apart from the hormonal imbalances, may be responsible for the menstrual disturbances noted in patients with CRF.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Kirumbi, L.W., Makokha, E.A., Mukolwe, B.A., Sekadde-Kigondu, C.B., Nichols, D. Causes fo Maternal Mortality in Three Districts In Kenya: Kilifi, Kirinyaga and Kakamega. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. and Centr. Afr. 14:62, 1998.". In: J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. and Centr. Afr. 14:62. uon press; 1998. Abstract
Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi. Forty females, age 14 to 35 years (mean 28.6 years) with chronic renal failure (CRF) were included in the study. Their menstrual patterns were noted. The function of their hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis was assessed by the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin (PrL), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) at different phases of the menstrual cycle in patients who continued to have normal menses (Group 1) and at weekly intervals for six weeks in patients with menstrual disturbances (Group II). The mean hormone levels during the initial contact Luteal phase in group I were FSH 12.0 IU/L (N, 1.0-3.0 IU/L), LH 1.8IU/L (N 1.5-101U/L), PrL 652mIU/L (N, 100-600 mIU/L) mE2 160 pmol/L (N 400-1400 pmol/L) and P5 nmol/L (N 14-60 nmol/L) for group I. Corresponding values for group II were 1.2, 10.3, 250, 600 and 3.0 in relevant units. All patients (fourteen) with end stage renal disease (ESRD) had amenorrhoae. On the other hand, most patients with stable CRF (22/26) had normal menses. Following initiation of therapy (conservative or dialytic), there was no significant alteration in the hormonal profile or menstrual pattern. We conclude that other factors apart from the hormonal imbalances, may be responsible for the menstrual disturbances noted in patients with CRF.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Mueke, S.W., Njenga, E.M., Sekadde-Kigondu,C.B.,Ruminjo, J.K., amd Ojwang, S.O.B., the Prevalence of Menstrual Disorders in Reproductive Diabetic Women in Kenya: A Comprehensive Study. J. Obstet.Gynaecol, E. and Centr. Afr, 14; 62, 1998.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Jan;70(1):6-9. uon press; 1998. Abstract
Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi. Forty females, age 14 to 35 years (mean 28.6 years) with chronic renal failure (CRF) were included in the study. Their menstrual patterns were noted. The function of their hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis was assessed by the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin (PrL), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) at different phases of the menstrual cycle in patients who continued to have normal menses (Group 1) and at weekly intervals for six weeks in patients with menstrual disturbances (Group II). The mean hormone levels during the initial contact Luteal phase in group I were FSH 12.0 IU/L (N, 1.0-3.0 IU/L), LH 1.8IU/L (N 1.5-101U/L), PrL 652mIU/L (N, 100-600 mIU/L) mE2 160 pmol/L (N 400-1400 pmol/L) and P5 nmol/L (N 14-60 nmol/L) for group I. Corresponding values for group II were 1.2, 10.3, 250, 600 and 3.0 in relevant units. All patients (fourteen) with end stage renal disease (ESRD) had amenorrhoae. On the other hand, most patients with stable CRF (22/26) had normal menses. Following initiation of therapy (conservative or dialytic), there was no significant alteration in the hormonal profile or menstrual pattern. We conclude that other factors apart from the hormonal imbalances, may be responsible for the menstrual disturbances noted in patients with CRF.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Mutungi, A.K., Sanghvi, H.C.G., Sinei, S.K., Ojwang, S.B.O., Sekadde-Kigondu,C.B. Contraceptive Acceptance and Continuation Among Women Managed for Incomplete Abortion at Kenyatta National Hospital.J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. Centr. Afr. 14; 78. 1998.". In: J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. Centr. Afr. 14; 78. 1998. uon press; 1998. Abstract
Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi. Forty females, age 14 to 35 years (mean 28.6 years) with chronic renal failure (CRF) were included in the study. Their menstrual patterns were noted. The function of their hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis was assessed by the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin (PrL), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) at different phases of the menstrual cycle in patients who continued to have normal menses (Group 1) and at weekly intervals for six weeks in patients with menstrual disturbances (Group II). The mean hormone levels during the initial contact Luteal phase in group I were FSH 12.0 IU/L (N, 1.0-3.0 IU/L), LH 1.8IU/L (N 1.5-101U/L), PrL 652mIU/L (N, 100-600 mIU/L) mE2 160 pmol/L (N 400-1400 pmol/L) and P5 nmol/L (N 14-60 nmol/L) for group I. Corresponding values for group II were 1.2, 10.3, 250, 600 and 3.0 in relevant units. All patients (fourteen) with end stage renal disease (ESRD) had amenorrhoae. On the other hand, most patients with stable CRF (22/26) had normal menses. Following initiation of therapy (conservative or dialytic), there was no significant alteration in the hormonal profile or menstrual pattern. We conclude that other factors apart from the hormonal imbalances, may be responsible for the menstrual disturbances noted in patients with CRF.
1997
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Obwaka, W., Ruminjo, J.K., Ndavi, P.M., Sekadde-Kigondu, C.B., Correlates of Contraceptive failure among clients attending antenatal clinic in Nairobi. E.A.Med. J. 74: 561,1997.". In: E.A.Med. J. 74: 561,1997. uon press; 1997. Abstract

Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi. Forty females, age 14 to 35 years (mean 28.6 years) with chronic renal failure (CRF) were included in the study. Their menstrual patterns were noted. The function of their hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis was assessed by the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin (PrL), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) at different phases of the menstrual cycle in patients who continued to have normal menses (Group 1) and at weekly intervals for six weeks in patients with menstrual disturbances (Group II). The mean hormone levels during the initial contact Luteal phase in group I were FSH 12.0 IU/L (N, 1.0-3.0 IU/L), LH 1.8IU/L (N 1.5-101U/L), PrL 652mIU/L (N, 100-600 mIU/L) mE2 160 pmol/L (N 400-1400 pmol/L) and P5 nmol/L (N 14-60 nmol/L) for group I. Corresponding values for group II were 1.2, 10.3, 250, 600 and 3.0 in relevant units. All patients (fourteen) with end stage renal disease (ESRD) had amenorrhoae. On the other hand, most patients with stable CRF (22/26) had normal menses. Following initiation of therapy (conservative or dialytic), there was no significant alteration in the hormonal profile or menstrual pattern. We conclude that other factors apart from the hormonal imbalances, may be responsible for the menstrual disturbances noted in patients with CRF.

S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Kasilima Y.S., Wango E.O., Mutayoba B.M., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Mola P, Winga J, Odongo H. Schistosoma Mansoni. New Zealand Rabit - Model. Effect on Plasma Testosterone levels. Tanzanian Vet J. Vol 17, 148, 1997.". In: Tanzanian Vet J. Vol 17, 148, 1997. uon press; 1997. Abstract
Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi. Forty females, age 14 to 35 years (mean 28.6 years) with chronic renal failure (CRF) were included in the study. Their menstrual patterns were noted. The function of their hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis was assessed by the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin (PrL), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) at different phases of the menstrual cycle in patients who continued to have normal menses (Group 1) and at weekly intervals for six weeks in patients with menstrual disturbances (Group II). The mean hormone levels during the initial contact Luteal phase in group I were FSH 12.0 IU/L (N, 1.0-3.0 IU/L), LH 1.8IU/L (N 1.5-101U/L), PrL 652mIU/L (N, 100-600 mIU/L) mE2 160 pmol/L (N 400-1400 pmol/L) and P5 nmol/L (N 14-60 nmol/L) for group I. Corresponding values for group II were 1.2, 10.3, 250, 600 and 3.0 in relevant units. All patients (fourteen) with end stage renal disease (ESRD) had amenorrhoae. On the other hand, most patients with stable CRF (22/26) had normal menses. Following initiation of therapy (conservative or dialytic), there was no significant alteration in the hormonal profile or menstrual pattern. We conclude that other factors apart from the hormonal imbalances, may be responsible for the menstrual disturbances noted in patients with CRF.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Noreh, J.,Sekadde-Kigondu, C.B., Karanja, J.G., Thagana, N.G. Median Age at Menopause in a Rural. Population of Western Kenya. E.A.Med. J. 74; 634, 1997.". In: E.A.Med. J. 74; 634, 1997. uon press; 1997. Abstract
Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi. Forty females, age 14 to 35 years (mean 28.6 years) with chronic renal failure (CRF) were included in the study. Their menstrual patterns were noted. The function of their hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis was assessed by the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin (PrL), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) at different phases of the menstrual cycle in patients who continued to have normal menses (Group 1) and at weekly intervals for six weeks in patients with menstrual disturbances (Group II). The mean hormone levels during the initial contact Luteal phase in group I were FSH 12.0 IU/L (N, 1.0-3.0 IU/L), LH 1.8IU/L (N 1.5-101U/L), PrL 652mIU/L (N, 100-600 mIU/L) mE2 160 pmol/L (N 400-1400 pmol/L) and P5 nmol/L (N 14-60 nmol/L) for group I. Corresponding values for group II were 1.2, 10.3, 250, 600 and 3.0 in relevant units. All patients (fourteen) with end stage renal disease (ESRD) had amenorrhoae. On the other hand, most patients with stable CRF (22/26) had normal menses. Following initiation of therapy (conservative or dialytic), there was no significant alteration in the hormonal profile or menstrual pattern. We conclude that other factors apart from the hormonal imbalances, may be responsible for the menstrual disturbances noted in patients with CRF.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Sekadde-Kigondu,C.B., Kirumbi, L.W., Njoroge, J.W., Njoroge, J.K., et al. The Prevalence of Hyperprolactinemia in Infertile Women in a Rural Area in Kenya. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. and Centr. Afr. 13;21, 1997.". In: E.A.Med. J. 74: 561,1997. uon press; 1997. Abstract
Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi. Forty females, age 14 to 35 years (mean 28.6 years) with chronic renal failure (CRF) were included in the study. Their menstrual patterns were noted. The function of their hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis was assessed by the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin (PrL), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) at different phases of the menstrual cycle in patients who continued to have normal menses (Group 1) and at weekly intervals for six weeks in patients with menstrual disturbances (Group II). The mean hormone levels during the initial contact Luteal phase in group I were FSH 12.0 IU/L (N, 1.0-3.0 IU/L), LH 1.8IU/L (N 1.5-101U/L), PrL 652mIU/L (N, 100-600 mIU/L) mE2 160 pmol/L (N 400-1400 pmol/L) and P5 nmol/L (N 14-60 nmol/L) for group I. Corresponding values for group II were 1.2, 10.3, 250, 600 and 3.0 in relevant units. All patients (fourteen) with end stage renal disease (ESRD) had amenorrhoae. On the other hand, most patients with stable CRF (22/26) had normal menses. Following initiation of therapy (conservative or dialytic), there was no significant alteration in the hormonal profile or menstrual pattern. We conclude that other factors apart from the hormonal imbalances, may be responsible for the menstrual disturbances noted in patients with CRF.
1996
Sekadde-Kigondu C, Mwathe EG, Ruminjo JK, Nichols D, Katz K, Jessencky K, Liku J. "Acceptability and discontinuation of Depo-Provera, IUCD and combined pill in Kenya.". 1996. AbstractWebsite

This paper reports on a prospective study conducted between June 1990 and June 1992 to determine method acceptability, user satisfaction and continuation rates for three highly effective and reversible contraceptive methods currently available in Kenya: the CuT 380A (IUCD), the injectable, Depo-Provera and the low-dose oral contraceptive pill, Microgynon. A non-randomised sample of volunteer participants was used. One thousand and seventy-six users were followed up for a period of one year or up to the time of discontinuation of the method, whichever came earlier. Analysis revealed method specific differences in users' characteristics. The OC users were younger and had fewer children than the IUCD or Depo-Provera users. The Depo-Provera users were older, and had the largest family sizes. Many OC users (almost 40%) were single, while almost three-quarters of IUCD and Depo-Provera users were married. IUCD users were also more educated compared to OC and Depo-Provera users. Survival analysis was used to calculate cumulative life table discontinuation rates by method for the 12 month period. Discontinuation rates were highest for OC users (80%) and lowest for IUCD users (20%) and intermediate for Depo-Provera users (39%). Ninety percent of OC and Depo-Provera users and 86% of IUCD users said they were satisfied with their respective methods. While OCs are among the most popular family planning methods in Kenya, they are also one of the most problematic, while IUCD has the fewest compliance problems. Service providers need to address the issue of high discontinuation rates among the young OC users.
PIP:
This paper reports on a prospective study conducted between June 1990 and June 1992 to determine method acceptability, user satisfaction, and continuation rates for three highly effective and reversible contraceptive methods currently available in Kenya: the CuT 380A IUD; the injectable Depo-Provera; and the low-dose oral contraceptive Microgynon. A nonrandomized sample of volunteer participants was used. 1076 users were followed up for a period of 1 year or up to the time of discontinuation of the method, whichever came earlier. Analysis revealed method-specific differences in users' characteristics. The OC users were younger and had fewer children than the IUD or Depo-Provera users. The Depo-Provera users were older and had the largest family sizes. Many OC users (almost 40%) were single, while almost three-quarters of the IUD and Depo-Provera users were married. IUD users were also more educated compared to OC and Depo-Provera users. Survival analysis was used to calculate cumulative life table discontinuation rates by method for the 12-month period. Discontinuation rates were highest for OC users (80%), lowest for IUD users (20%), and intermediate for Depo-Provera users (39%). 90% of OC and Depo-Provera users and 86% of IUD users said they were satisfied with their respective methods. While OCs are among the most popular family planning methods in Kenya, they are also one of the most problematic, while IUDs have shown the fewest compliance problems. Service providers need to address the issue of high discontinuation rates among young OC users

S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Kamau, R.K., Karanja, J.K,. Sekadde-Kigonu, C.B., Ruminjo, J.K., Nichols, D., et al. Identifying Barriers to Contraceptive Use in Kenya, E.A. Med J. 73:651, 1996.". In: E.A. Med J. 73:651, 1996. uon press; 1996. Abstract
This pilot study aimed to determine the feasibility of a larger study of contraception and risk of HIV infection in women. We also measured risk factors for and occurrence of HIV infection in the participants. A cohort of 1537 seronegative women attending a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya was enrolled and followed for up to 12 months per woman. HIV testing was done quarterly. A nested case-control analysis was done with seroconverting women (cases) and 3 matched controls per case, who had detailed interviews and received physical examinations and STD tests. The prevalence of HIV at enrollment was 6.1%; seropositive women were excluded from further analysis. The 12-month life-table cumulative incidence of HIV was 2.1 per 100 women (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-3.2). In the nested case-control analysis (17 cases and 51 controls), the crude odds ratio of HIV infection comparing oral contraceptive (OC) users with other women was 3.5 (95%) CI 0.8-21.5), which persisted after control for single confounders at a time. The putative association between OC use sand HIV infection is critical to public health policy, yet no study has been conducted specifically to measure it, yielding weak and conflicting evidence. We intend to conduct a larger study with a similar design as the current pilot study, which confirmed the feasibility of a more definitive project.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Leslie PW, Campbell KL, Little MA, Kigondu CS. Evaluation of reproductive function in Turkana women with enzyme immunoassays of urinary hormones in the field.Hum Biol. 1996 Feb;68(1):95-117.". In: Hum Biol. 1996 Feb;68(1):95-117. uon press; 1996. Abstract
Department of Anthropology and Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 27516, USA. The frequently reported observation that nomadic populations have lower fertility than their settled counterparts is often attributed to what are perceived as harsh, stressful conditions under which the nomads live. But the consequences of the hypothesized stresses for the reproductive biology or demography of these populations have been documented only a little. Traditionally, the Turkana of northwest Kenya are nomadic herders, but increasing numbers have settled on agricultural development schemes. We used an array of hormonal assays along with anthropometric indexes of nutritional status and interviews covering reproductive history, recent menstruation, diet, and health to compare reproductive function in nomadic and settled Turkana women. First morning urine samples were collected for three consecutive days during a series of surveys. Human choriogonadotropin (hCG; a marker for pregnancy), luteinizing hormone (LH; an indicator of ovulation), and pregnanediol glucuronide (PdG; an indicator of postovulatory luteal function) were assessed in the field with commercially available dipstick enzyme immunoassays. These assays along with the interview data allowed us to determine the reproductive status (e.g., pregnant or cycling, and if cycling, which phase of the ovarian cycle) of 166 nomadic and 194 settled Turkana women. The cross-sectional classifications allowed inferences of conception rates and normality of ovarian function. Follow-up surveys provided rates of pregnancy loss. Compared with the settled women, the nomadic women exhibited lower pregnancy rates and cycling nomadic women were less likely to show evidence of ovulation or luteal function. These results suggest that reproductive function of the nomadic women is diminished relative to the settled women. However, the settled women experienced a much higher rate of pregnancy loss, which may mean that their effective fecundability is in fact lower than that of the nomadic women. This study is the first to apply such a wide range of hormonal assays in the field. It demonstrates that field-based assays are feasible and robust and can play an important role in epidemiological and biodemographic studies, even in remote locations under conditions that would ordinarily be considered incompatible with on-site laboratory analysis.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Pharmacodynamic effects of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) administered to lactating women on their male infants. Contraception. 1996 Sep;54(3):153-7.". In: Int J STD AIDS. 1996 Jan-Feb;7(1):65-70. uon press; 1996. Abstract
Normal postpartum women, who had a spontaneous vaginal delivery of one full-term male infant, free of congenital abnormalities and other diseases, were recruited for this study. Thirteen women received 150 mg depot-medroxy-progesterone acetate (DMPA), intramuscularly on days 42 + 1 and 126 + 1 postpartum. Infants of nine mothers, who did not receive DMPA, served as controls. Blood samples were collected from treated mothers on days 44, 47, 74, 124, 128, and 130 postpartum for medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) measurements. Four-hour urine collections were obtained from all 22 infants in the morning on days 38, 40, 42, 44, 46, 53, 60, 67, 74, 88, 102, 116, 122, 124, 126, 128, 130, and 137. Urinary follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), unconjugated testosterone, and unconjugated cortisol were measured by radioimmunoassay, and serum MPA and urinary MPA metabolites were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). No MPA metabolites could be detected in the urine of the infants from the DMPA-receiving mothers. Hormonal profiles in the urine samples were not suppressed in comparison with those of the control infants. The present study demonstrates that DMPA, administered to the mother, does not influence the hormonal regulation of the breast-fed normal male infant.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Sekadde-Kigondu, C.B., Mwathe,E.G., Ruminjo, J.K., Nichols, D. et al. Discontinuation of Depo-provera, IUCD, and Combined Pills, E.A. Med.J. 73:786, 1996.". In: E.A. Med.J. 73:786, 1996. uon press; 1996. Abstract
This pilot study aimed to determine the feasibility of a larger study of contraception and risk of HIV infection in women. We also measured risk factors for and occurrence of HIV infection in the participants. A cohort of 1537 seronegative women attending a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya was enrolled and followed for up to 12 months per woman. HIV testing was done quarterly. A nested case-control analysis was done with seroconverting women (cases) and 3 matched controls per case, who had detailed interviews and received physical examinations and STD tests. The prevalence of HIV at enrollment was 6.1%; seropositive women were excluded from further analysis. The 12-month life-table cumulative incidence of HIV was 2.1 per 100 women (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-3.2). In the nested case-control analysis (17 cases and 51 controls), the crude odds ratio of HIV infection comparing oral contraceptive (OC) users with other women was 3.5 (95%) CI 0.8-21.5), which persisted after control for single confounders at a time. The putative association between OC use sand HIV infection is critical to public health policy, yet no study has been conducted specifically to measure it, yielding weak and conflicting evidence. We intend to conduct a larger study with a similar design as the current pilot study, which confirmed the feasibility of a more definitive project.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Sinei SK, Fortney JA, Kigondu CS, Feldblum PJ, Kuyoh M, Allen MY, Glover LH. Contraceptive use and HIV infection in Kenyan family planning clinic attenders.Int J STD AIDS. 1996 Jan-Feb;7(1):65-70.". In: Int J STD AIDS. 1996 Jan-Feb;7(1):65-70. uon press; 1996. Abstract
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. This pilot study aimed to determine the feasibility of a larger study of contraception and risk of HIV infection in women. We also measured risk factors for and occurrence of HIV infection in the participants. A cohort of 1537 seronegative women attending a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya was enrolled and followed for up to 12 months per woman. HIV testing was done quarterly. A nested case-control analysis was done with seroconverting women (cases) and 3 matched controls per case, who had detailed interviews and received physical examinations and STD tests. The prevalence of HIV at enrollment was 6.1%; seropositive women were excluded from further analysis. The 12-month life-table cumulative incidence of HIV was 2.1 per 100 women (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-3.2). In the nested case-control analysis (17 cases and 51 controls), the crude odds ratio of HIV infection comparing oral contraceptive (OC) users with other women was 3.5 (95%) CI 0.8-21.5), which persisted after control for single confounders at a time. The putative association between OC use sand HIV infection is critical to public health policy, yet no study has been conducted specifically to measure it, yielding weak and conflicting evidence. We intend to conduct a larger study with a similar design as the current pilot study, which confirmed the feasibility of a more definitive project.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Sinei, S.K., Fortney, J.A., Sekadde-Kigondu, C.B., et al, Contraceptive Use and HIV Infection in Kenya Family Planning Clinics Attendants. International J. of STD and AIDS Vol. 7, 65-70, 1996.". In: International J. of STD and AIDS Vol. 7, 65-70, 1996. uon press; 1996. Abstract
This pilot study aimed to determine the feasibility of a larger study of contraception and risk of HIV infection in women. We also measured risk factors for and occurrence of HIV infection in the participants. A cohort of 1537 seronegative women attending a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya was enrolled and followed for up to 12 months per woman. HIV testing was done quarterly. A nested case-control analysis was done with seroconverting women (cases) and 3 matched controls per case, who had detailed interviews and received physical examinations and STD tests. The prevalence of HIV at enrollment was 6.1%; seropositive women were excluded from further analysis. The 12-month life-table cumulative incidence of HIV was 2.1 per 100 women (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-3.2). In the nested case-control analysis (17 cases and 51 controls), the crude odds ratio of HIV infection comparing oral contraceptive (OC) users with other women was 3.5 (95%) CI 0.8-21.5), which persisted after control for single confounders at a time. The putative association between OC use sand HIV infection is critical to public health policy, yet no study has been conducted specifically to measure it, yielding weak and conflicting evidence. We intend to conduct a larger study with a similar design as the current pilot study, which confirmed the feasibility of a more definitive project.
1995
Sekadde-Kigondu C, Ndavi PM, Nyagero JM, Nichols DJ, Jensencky K, Ojwang SB, Gachara M. "A survey of knowledge of family planning (FP) methods among Kenyan medical doctors: secondary data analysis.". 1995. Abstract

This survey, conducted between October 1989 and March 1990, to determine the knowledge, attitude, practice, and provision of family planning of a sample of 376 Kenyan medical doctors, reports on the aspects of knowledge of family planning (FP) methods. Kenyan medical doctors had low-to-average knowledge of the association between oral contraceptives (OCs) and the risk of various medical conditions and the mechanism of action of steroidal contraceptives. Their knowledge of the effectiveness of various program methods was average to high. There was a linear relationship between monthly income and knowledge of effectiveness of OCs, according to which physicians earning more had less knowledge than their colleagues who earned less (Z = 2.318, p = 0.02). A stepwise unconditional logistic regression model showed that two variables, department where most work is performed and sex, are significantly associated with better knowledge. Use of these operational variables for assessing medical doctors' knowledge of FP methods gave a better resolution of the extent and perhaps the quality of counseling and advice they provided to their FP clients. At the same time, the need for update courses in FP for medical doctors is unquestionable and long overdue. author's modified author's modified

1994
Sekadde-Kigondu C;, Ojwang SB;, Nyunya BO;, Kamau RK;, Thagana NG;, Nyagero JM. Sexuality and the use of condom among male university students.; 1994.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Sekadde-Kigondu C,B and Tantchou J.Laboratory support for Maternal Health in Africa . Chapter 12, pages 169-196, 1994 in a book Contemporary issues in Maternal Health Care in Africa.1994, Edited by JKG Mati, J.M. Kasonde and B. Nasah.". In: Chapter 12, pages 169-196, 1994 in a book Contemporary issues in Maternal Health Care in Africa.1994, Edited by JKG Mati, J.M. Kasonde and B. Nasah. uon press; 1994. Abstract
Normal postpartum women, who had a spontaneous vaginal delivery of one full-term male infant, free of congenital abnormalities and other diseases, were recruited for this study. Thirteen women received 150 mg depot-medroxy-progesterone acetate (DMPA), intramuscularly on days 42 + 1 and 126 + 1 postpartum. Infants of nine mothers, who did not receive DMPA, served as controls. Blood samples were collected from treated mothers on days 44, 47, 74, 124, 128, and 130 postpartum for medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) measurements. Four-hour urine collections were obtained from all 22 infants in the morning on days 38, 40, 42, 44, 46, 53, 60, 67, 74, 88, 102, 116, 122, 124, 126, 128, 130, and 137. Urinary follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), unconjugated testosterone, and unconjugated cortisol were measured by radioimmunoassay, and serum MPA and urinary MPA metabolites were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). No MPA metabolites could be detected in the urine of the infants from the DMPA-receiving mothers. Hormonal profiles in the urine samples were not suppressed in comparison with those of the control infants. The present study demonstrates that DMPA, administered to the mother, does not influence the hormonal regulation of the breast-fed normal male infant.
1993
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Menstrual disorders in patients with chronic renal failure. East Afr Med J. 1993 Jan;70(1):6-9. PMID: 8513732 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE].". In: J. Obstet. Gynaecol E.and Centr. Afric 11: 3, 1993. uon press; 1993. Abstract
Forty females, age 14 to 35 years (mean 28.6 years) with chronic renal failure (CRF) were included in the study. Their menstrual patterns were noted. The function of their hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis was assessed by the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin (PrL), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) at different phases of the menstrual cycle in patients who continued to have normal menses (Group 1) and at weekly intervals for six weeks in patients with menstrual disturbances (Group II). The mean hormone levels during the initial contact Luteal phase in group I were FSH 12.0 IU/L (N, 1.0-3.0 IU/L), LH 1.8IU/L (N 1.5-101U/L), PrL 652mIU/L (N, 100-600 mIU/L) mE2 160 pmol/L (N 400-1400 pmol/L) and P5 nmol/L (N 14-60 nmol/L) for group I. Corresponding values for group II were 1.2, 10.3, 250, 600 and 3.0 in relevant units. All patients (fourteen) with end stage renal disease (ESRD) had amenorrhoae. On the other hand, most patients with stable CRF (22/26) had normal menses. Following initiation of therapy (conservative or dialytic), there was no significant alteration in the hormonal profile or menstrual pattern. We conclude that other factors apart from the hormonal imbalances, may be responsible for the menstrual disturbances noted in patients with CRF.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Rukaria,RM, Sekadde-Kigondu CB and . Oyieke. JB. A knowlegde , attitude and practice survey on sexually transmitted diseases among undergraduate female and male students in a university in Kenya.J. Obstet. Gynaecol E.and Centr. Afric 11: 3, 1993.". In: J. Obstet. Gynaecol E.and Centr. Afric 11: 3, 1993. uon press; 1993. Abstract
Normal postpartum women, who had a spontaneous vaginal delivery of one full-term male infant, free of congenital abnormalities and other diseases, were recruited for this study. Thirteen women received 150 mg depot-medroxy-progesterone acetate (DMPA), intramuscularly on days 42 + 1 and 126 + 1 postpartum. Infants of nine mothers, who did not receive DMPA, served as controls. Blood samples were collected from treated mothers on days 44, 47, 74, 124, 128, and 130 postpartum for medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) measurements. Four-hour urine collections were obtained from all 22 infants in the morning on days 38, 40, 42, 44, 46, 53, 60, 67, 74, 88, 102, 116, 122, 124, 126, 128, 130, and 137. Urinary follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), unconjugated testosterone, and unconjugated cortisol were measured by radioimmunoassay, and serum MPA and urinary MPA metabolites were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). No MPA metabolites could be detected in the urine of the infants from the DMPA-receiving mothers. Hormonal profiles in the urine samples were not suppressed in comparison with those of the control infants. The present study demonstrates that DMPA, administered to the mother, does not influence the hormonal regulation of the breast-fed normal male infant.
1992
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Rukaria,RM, Ojwang SBO, Oyieke, KB and Sekadde-Kigondu CB In Vitro and In Vivo response to plasmodium Falciparum to chloroquine in pregnant women in Kilifi in Kenya. E.Afr. Med J. 69 306-308, 1992.". In: E.Afr. Med J. 69 306-308, 1992. uon press; 1992. Abstract
Forty females, age 14 to 35 years (mean 28.6 years) with chronic renal failure (CRF) were included in the study. Their menstrual patterns were noted. The function of their hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis was assessed by the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin (PrL), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) at different phases of the menstrual cycle in patients who continued to have normal menses (Group 1) and at weekly intervals for six weeks in patients with menstrual disturbances (Group II). The mean hormone levels during the initial contact Luteal phase in group I were FSH 12.0 IU/L (N, 1.0-3.0 IU/L), LH 1.8IU/L (N 1.5-101U/L), PrL 652mIU/L (N, 100-600 mIU/L) mE2 160 pmol/L (N 400-1400 pmol/L) and P5 nmol/L (N 14-60 nmol/L) for group I. Corresponding values for group II were 1.2, 10.3, 250, 600 and 3.0 in relevant units. All patients (fourteen) with end stage renal disease (ESRD) had amenorrhoae. On the other hand, most patients with stable CRF (22/26) had normal menses. Following initiation of therapy (conservative or dialytic), there was no significant alteration in the hormonal profile or menstrual pattern. We conclude that other factors apart from the hormonal imbalances, may be responsible for the menstrual disturbances noted in patients with CRF.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Rukaria,RM, Sekadde-Kigondu CB and . Oyieke. JB. A knowlegde , attitude and practice survey on contraception among undergraduate female and male students in a university in Kenya.J. Obstet. Gynaecol E.and Centr. Afric 10:65, 1992.". In: J. Obstet. Gynaecol E.and Centr. Afric 10:65, 1992. uon press; 1992. Abstract
Forty females, age 14 to 35 years (mean 28.6 years) with chronic renal failure (CRF) were included in the study. Their menstrual patterns were noted. The function of their hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis was assessed by the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin (PrL), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) at different phases of the menstrual cycle in patients who continued to have normal menses (Group 1) and at weekly intervals for six weeks in patients with menstrual disturbances (Group II). The mean hormone levels during the initial contact Luteal phase in group I were FSH 12.0 IU/L (N, 1.0-3.0 IU/L), LH 1.8IU/L (N 1.5-101U/L), PrL 652mIU/L (N, 100-600 mIU/L) mE2 160 pmol/L (N 400-1400 pmol/L) and P5 nmol/L (N 14-60 nmol/L) for group I. Corresponding values for group II were 1.2, 10.3, 250, 600 and 3.0 in relevant units. All patients (fourteen) with end stage renal disease (ESRD) had amenorrhoae. On the other hand, most patients with stable CRF (22/26) had normal menses. Following initiation of therapy (conservative or dialytic), there was no significant alteration in the hormonal profile or menstrual pattern. We conclude that other factors apart from the hormonal imbalances, may be responsible for the menstrual disturbances noted in patients with CRF.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Sekadde-Kigondu C,B, Ogutu C, et al 3. Condom acceptability and use among patient attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic. J. Obstet Gyneacol for East And Central Africa. 10 (1), 25, 1992.". In: J. Obstet Gyneacol for East And Central Africa. 10 (1), 25, 1992. uon press; 1992. Abstract
Forty females, age 14 to 35 years (mean 28.6 years) with chronic renal failure (CRF) were included in the study. Their menstrual patterns were noted. The function of their hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis was assessed by the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin (PrL), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) at different phases of the menstrual cycle in patients who continued to have normal menses (Group 1) and at weekly intervals for six weeks in patients with menstrual disturbances (Group II). The mean hormone levels during the initial contact Luteal phase in group I were FSH 12.0 IU/L (N, 1.0-3.0 IU/L), LH 1.8IU/L (N 1.5-101U/L), PrL 652mIU/L (N, 100-600 mIU/L) mE2 160 pmol/L (N 400-1400 pmol/L) and P5 nmol/L (N 14-60 nmol/L) for group I. Corresponding values for group II were 1.2, 10.3, 250, 600 and 3.0 in relevant units. All patients (fourteen) with end stage renal disease (ESRD) had amenorrhoae. On the other hand, most patients with stable CRF (22/26) had normal menses. Following initiation of therapy (conservative or dialytic), there was no significant alteration in the hormonal profile or menstrual pattern. We conclude that other factors apart from the hormonal imbalances, may be responsible for the menstrual disturbances noted in patients with CRF.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Wanjala, SM, Onyango, GK, Sekadde-Kigondu, CB A prospective Study on the Treatment of Oligospermia with Tomoxifene at kenyatta national Hospital. J. Obstet Gyneacol for East And Central Africa. 10(1), 31, 1992.". In: J. Obstet Gyneacol for East And Central Africa. 10(1), 31, 1992. uon press; 1992. Abstract
Forty females, age 14 to 35 years (mean 28.6 years) with chronic renal failure (CRF) were included in the study. Their menstrual patterns were noted. The function of their hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis was assessed by the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin (PrL), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) at different phases of the menstrual cycle in patients who continued to have normal menses (Group 1) and at weekly intervals for six weeks in patients with menstrual disturbances (Group II). The mean hormone levels during the initial contact Luteal phase in group I were FSH 12.0 IU/L (N, 1.0-3.0 IU/L), LH 1.8IU/L (N 1.5-101U/L), PrL 652mIU/L (N, 100-600 mIU/L) mE2 160 pmol/L (N 400-1400 pmol/L) and P5 nmol/L (N 14-60 nmol/L) for group I. Corresponding values for group II were 1.2, 10.3, 250, 600 and 3.0 in relevant units. All patients (fourteen) with end stage renal disease (ESRD) had amenorrhoae. On the other hand, most patients with stable CRF (22/26) had normal menses. Following initiation of therapy (conservative or dialytic), there was no significant alteration in the hormonal profile or menstrual pattern. We conclude that other factors apart from the hormonal imbalances, may be responsible for the menstrual disturbances noted in patients with CRF.
1991
W MRMAINAFRANCIS, S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Effects of the triphasic oral contraceptive on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1991;9(1):23-9. PMID: 12316812 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE].". In: J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1991;9(1):23-9. uon press; 1991. Abstract

PIP: The effects of the triphasic oral contraceptive (OC) ethinyl estradiol (EE) and levonorgestrel (LNG) on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism were evaluated in 97 black Kenyan women. Subjects were recruited from the Family Planning Clinic and were followed for 12 months. There was an increase in fasting levels of total cholesterol. These changes were not statistically significant. However, the triglyceride increase was statistically significant at 9 months and 12 months (p0.05). The high density cholesterol remained unchanged. Thus, this triphasic OC was found to have minimal effect on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. author's modified

S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "J.J. Bwayo, A.M. Omari, A.N. Mutere, W.Jaoko, C. Sekadde-Kigondu, J. Kreiss, F.A. Plummer. Long distance drivers: Prevalence of sexually transmitted disease. E.A. Med. J. 68 (6) 425, 1991.". In: E.A. Med. J. 68 (6) 425, 1991. uon press; 1991. Abstract
Forty females, age 14 to 35 years (mean 28.6 years) with chronic renal failure (CRF) were included in the study. Their menstrual patterns were noted. The function of their hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis was assessed by the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin (PrL), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) at different phases of the menstrual cycle in patients who continued to have normal menses (Group 1) and at weekly intervals for six weeks in patients with menstrual disturbances (Group II). The mean hormone levels during the initial contact Luteal phase in group I were FSH 12.0 IU/L (N, 1.0-3.0 IU/L), LH 1.8IU/L (N 1.5-101U/L), PrL 652mIU/L (N, 100-600 mIU/L) mE2 160 pmol/L (N 400-1400 pmol/L) and P5 nmol/L (N 14-60 nmol/L) for group I. Corresponding values for group II were 1.2, 10.3, 250, 600 and 3.0 in relevant units. All patients (fourteen) with end stage renal disease (ESRD) had amenorrhoae. On the other hand, most patients with stable CRF (22/26) had normal menses. Following initiation of therapy (conservative or dialytic), there was no significant alteration in the hormonal profile or menstrual pattern. We conclude that other factors apart from the hormonal imbalances, may be responsible for the menstrual disturbances noted in patients with CRF.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "J.J. Bwayo, A.N. Mutere, M.A. Omari, J.K. Kreiss. W. Jaoko, C. Sekadde-Kigondu, F.A. Plummer. Long distance truck driver: Knowledge and attitudes concerning sexually transmitted diseases and sexual behaviour E.A. Med. J. 68 (90), 714, 1991.". In: E.A. Med. J. 68 (90), 714, 1991. uon press; 1991. Abstract
Forty females, age 14 to 35 years (mean 28.6 years) with chronic renal failure (CRF) were included in the study. Their menstrual patterns were noted. The function of their hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis was assessed by the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin (PrL), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) at different phases of the menstrual cycle in patients who continued to have normal menses (Group 1) and at weekly intervals for six weeks in patients with menstrual disturbances (Group II). The mean hormone levels during the initial contact Luteal phase in group I were FSH 12.0 IU/L (N, 1.0-3.0 IU/L), LH 1.8IU/L (N 1.5-101U/L), PrL 652mIU/L (N, 100-600 mIU/L) mE2 160 pmol/L (N 400-1400 pmol/L) and P5 nmol/L (N 14-60 nmol/L) for group I. Corresponding values for group II were 1.2, 10.3, 250, 600 and 3.0 in relevant units. All patients (fourteen) with end stage renal disease (ESRD) had amenorrhoae. On the other hand, most patients with stable CRF (22/26) had normal menses. Following initiation of therapy (conservative or dialytic), there was no significant alteration in the hormonal profile or menstrual pattern. We conclude that other factors apart from the hormonal imbalances, may be responsible for the menstrual disturbances noted in patients with CRF.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Quereshi ZP, Sekadde-kigondu CB. A survey to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practice of family planning amongst the nursing staff at Kenyatta National Hospital. J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1991;9(1):49-51.". In: J. Obstet. Gynaecol E.and Centr. Afric 9:49, 1991. uon press; 1991. Abstract

PIP: This survey was conducted at the Kenyatta National Hospital between March-June 1988 to assess the attitudes, basic knowledge and personal use of contraceptives among the nursing staff and to determine how these would influence family planning utilization in the country. In 1987, a similar survey was conducted among the physicians at this same hospital. A total of 432 nurses were interviewed; 64.4% of the nurses were currently using contraceptives and 7.7% had used them continuously. The IUD was used by 47.1% of the nurses. 62.3% of the nurses indicated that they would be able to discuss contraceptive use with their teenage daughters but only 29.6% would provide contraceptives. 66.7% of the nurses had extensive knowledge of contraceptives (over 60% knowledge) but knowledge concerning male contraceptives and newer methods such as Norplant was poor. author's modified

S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Qureshi,Z.P., Sekadde-Kigondu, C,B. A Survey to Determine the Knowledge , Attitudes and Practice of Family Planning Amongst the Nursing Staff at Kenyatta National Hospital. J. Obstet. Gynaecol E.and Centr. Afric 9:49, 1991.". In: J. Obstet. Gynaecol E.and Centr. Afric 9:49, 1991. uon press; 1991. Abstract
Forty females, age 14 to 35 years (mean 28.6 years) with chronic renal failure (CRF) were included in the study. Their menstrual patterns were noted. The function of their hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis was assessed by the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin (PrL), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) at different phases of the menstrual cycle in patients who continued to have normal menses (Group 1) and at weekly intervals for six weeks in patients with menstrual disturbances (Group II). The mean hormone levels during the initial contact Luteal phase in group I were FSH 12.0 IU/L (N, 1.0-3.0 IU/L), LH 1.8IU/L (N 1.5-101U/L), PrL 652mIU/L (N, 100-600 mIU/L) mE2 160 pmol/L (N 400-1400 pmol/L) and P5 nmol/L (N 14-60 nmol/L) for group I. Corresponding values for group II were 1.2, 10.3, 250, 600 and 3.0 in relevant units. All patients (fourteen) with end stage renal disease (ESRD) had amenorrhoae. On the other hand, most patients with stable CRF (22/26) had normal menses. Following initiation of therapy (conservative or dialytic), there was no significant alteration in the hormonal profile or menstrual pattern. We conclude that other factors apart from the hormonal imbalances, may be responsible for the menstrual disturbances noted in patients with CRF.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Rogo K., Onyango, G. Ojwang, P.J. and Sekadde-Kigondu , C.B. Maternal levels of alpha- feto protein in African Women E. Afr. Med J. 68: 601, 1991.". In: E. Afr. Med J. 68: 601, 1991. uon press; 1991. Abstract
Forty females, age 14 to 35 years (mean 28.6 years) with chronic renal failure (CRF) were included in the study. Their menstrual patterns were noted. The function of their hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis was assessed by the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin (PrL), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) at different phases of the menstrual cycle in patients who continued to have normal menses (Group 1) and at weekly intervals for six weeks in patients with menstrual disturbances (Group II). The mean hormone levels during the initial contact Luteal phase in group I were FSH 12.0 IU/L (N, 1.0-3.0 IU/L), LH 1.8IU/L (N 1.5-101U/L), PrL 652mIU/L (N, 100-600 mIU/L) mE2 160 pmol/L (N 400-1400 pmol/L) and P5 nmol/L (N 14-60 nmol/L) for group I. Corresponding values for group II were 1.2, 10.3, 250, 600 and 3.0 in relevant units. All patients (fourteen) with end stage renal disease (ESRD) had amenorrhoae. On the other hand, most patients with stable CRF (22/26) had normal menses. Following initiation of therapy (conservative or dialytic), there was no significant alteration in the hormonal profile or menstrual pattern. We conclude that other factors apart from the hormonal imbalances, may be responsible for the menstrual disturbances noted in patients with CRF.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Sekadde- Kigondu C.B. The role of Women in Biomedical Research in Kenya. Proceedings of the conference by the Canadian International Development Agency and the Third World Academy of Sciences , Published by World Scientific Editors, A.M Faruqui, M.H.A. Ha.". In: A.M Faruqui, M.H.A. Hassan and G. Sandri, page 279, 1991. uon press; 1991. Abstract
Forty females, age 14 to 35 years (mean 28.6 years) with chronic renal failure (CRF) were included in the study. Their menstrual patterns were noted. The function of their hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis was assessed by the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin (PrL), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) at different phases of the menstrual cycle in patients who continued to have normal menses (Group 1) and at weekly intervals for six weeks in patients with menstrual disturbances (Group II). The mean hormone levels during the initial contact Luteal phase in group I were FSH 12.0 IU/L (N, 1.0-3.0 IU/L), LH 1.8IU/L (N 1.5-101U/L), PrL 652mIU/L (N, 100-600 mIU/L) mE2 160 pmol/L (N 400-1400 pmol/L) and P5 nmol/L (N 14-60 nmol/L) for group I. Corresponding values for group II were 1.2, 10.3, 250, 600 and 3.0 in relevant units. All patients (fourteen) with end stage renal disease (ESRD) had amenorrhoae. On the other hand, most patients with stable CRF (22/26) had normal menses. Following initiation of therapy (conservative or dialytic), there was no significant alteration in the hormonal profile or menstrual pattern. We conclude that other factors apart from the hormonal imbalances, may be responsible for the menstrual disturbances noted in patients with CRF.
1990
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "R.K. Kamau, F.W. Maina, C.S. Kigondu, J.K.G. Mati The effects of low-oestrogen pill, progestogen-only pill and medroxyprogestorone acetate on oral glucose tolerance test. E. Afr. Med. J. 67 (8), 550, 1990.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 67 (8), 550, 1990. uon press; 1990. Abstract

PIP: The effects of the triphasic oral contraceptive (OC) ethinyl estradiol (EE) and levonorgestrel (LNG) on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism were evaluated in 97 black Kenyan women. Subjects were recruited from the Family Planning Clinic and were followed for 12 months. There was an increase in fasting levels of total cholesterol. These changes were not statistically significant. However, the triglyceride increase was statistically significant at 9 months and 12 months (p0.05). The high density cholesterol remained unchanged. Thus, this triphasic OC was found to have minimal effect on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. author's modified

1989
1987
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Maina F.W., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B, Ojwang P.J. Mati J.K.G. Changes of plasma HDL-Cholesterol in women using oral contraceptives. E. Afr. Med. J., 64 (7) 442, 1987.". In: E. Afr. Med. J., 64 (7) 442, 1987. uon press; 1987. Abstract
Kenya Medical Research Institute, Clinical Research Centre, Nairobi. Twenty nine patients with rickets were studied in a one year period. The majority of patients (17/29) were below 2 years of age. Most of them had nutritional rickets resulting from a combination of factors. Premature delivery, nonexposure to sunlight, nutritional marasmus and inappropriate dietary intake. Some had familial hypophosphataemic rickets, others had renal tubular acidosis while the rest had rickets with a familial tendency. Both the previous hospital records and the present study indicate that rickets is a persistent problem in children in the community and should be suspected in children who present with features of failure to thrive, among other conditions.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Maina F.W., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Ojwang P.J., Mati J.K.G. The effects of Oral Contraceptives on body weight and blood pressure in indigenous Kenyan women. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. and Central Afr. 6 (2), 97, 1987.". In: J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. and Central Afr. 6 (2), 97, 1987. uon press; 1987. Abstract
Kenya Medical Research Institute, Clinical Research Centre, Nairobi. Twenty nine patients with rickets were studied in a one year period. The majority of patients (17/29) were below 2 years of age. Most of them had nutritional rickets resulting from a combination of factors. Premature delivery, nonexposure to sunlight, nutritional marasmus and inappropriate dietary intake. Some had familial hypophosphataemic rickets, others had renal tubular acidosis while the rest had rickets with a familial tendency. Both the previous hospital records and the present study indicate that rickets is a persistent problem in children in the community and should be suspected in children who present with features of failure to thrive, among other conditions.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Maina FW, Sekadde-Kigondu CB, Ojwang PJ, Mati JK. Changes in plasma HDL-cholesterol in women using oral contraceptives in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1987 Jul.". In: E. Afr. Med. J., 64 (7) 442, 1987. uon press; 1987. Abstract

PIP: 125 black Kenyan women attending the Kenyatta National Family Welfare Clinic were randomly allocated to combined and fixed dose oral contraceptives (Eugynon: 500 mcg dl-norgestrel + 50 mcg ethinyl estradiol or Microgynon: 150 mcg levonorgestel + 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol). They were between 18-33 years of age with a mean of 25 +or- 7 years. The mean parity of this group was 3 and they had a mean education standard of 8 years. Fasting blood sampled were taken on recruitment (control cycle) and thereafter once for cycles 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 during OC use. HDL-cholesterol was estimated in the sear. The 2 OCs elicited a significant decrease in levels of HDL-cholesterol (p0.01). author's modified

S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Mati J.K.G., et al , Sekadde-Kigondu C.B. Clinical aspects of infertility in Kenya A comprehensive evaluation of the couple J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. and Central Afr. 6 (2), 61, 1987.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Aug;71(8):536-42. uon press; 1987. Abstract
Kenya Medical Research Institute, Clinical Research Centre, Nairobi. Twenty nine patients with rickets were studied in a one year period. The majority of patients (17/29) were below 2 years of age. Most of them had nutritional rickets resulting from a combination of factors. Premature delivery, nonexposure to sunlight, nutritional marasmus and inappropriate dietary intake. Some had familial hypophosphataemic rickets, others had renal tubular acidosis while the rest had rickets with a familial tendency. Both the previous hospital records and the present study indicate that rickets is a persistent problem in children in the community and should be suspected in children who present with features of failure to thrive, among other conditions.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Mati J.K.G., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B. Principal investigators for Nairobi, Kenya Towards more objective in diagnosis and management of male fertility. Results from multicentre study Int. J. Andrology Supp. (7), 1987.". In: Results from multicentre study Int. J. Andrology Supp. (7), 1987. uon press; 1987. Abstract

PIP: The effects of the triphasic oral contraceptive (OC) ethinyl estradiol (EE) and levonorgestrel (LNG) on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism were evaluated in 97 black Kenyan women. Subjects were recruited from the Family Planning Clinic and were followed for 12 months. There was an increase in fasting levels of total cholesterol. These changes were not statistically significant. However, the triglyceride increase was statistically significant at 9 months and 12 months (p0.05). The high density cholesterol remained unchanged. Thus, this triphasic OC was found to have minimal effect on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. author's modified

S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Thagana N.G., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., et al .Aetiological factors associated with Azoospermia at Kenyatta National Hospital. J. Obstet Gynaecol. E. and Central . Afr. 6 (2), 87, 1987.". In: J. Obstet Gynaecol. E. and Central . Afr. 6 (2), 87, 1987. uon press; 1987. Abstract

PIP: The effects of the triphasic oral contraceptive (OC) ethinyl estradiol (EE) and levonorgestrel (LNG) on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism were evaluated in 97 black Kenyan women. Subjects were recruited from the Family Planning Clinic and were followed for 12 months. There was an increase in fasting levels of total cholesterol. These changes were not statistically significant. However, the triglyceride increase was statistically significant at 9 months and 12 months (p0.05). The high density cholesterol remained unchanged. Thus, this triphasic OC was found to have minimal effect on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. author's modified

1985
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Kibunguchy W., Mbugua S.E., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Mati J.K.G. Carcinoma of the cervix and cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN). Screening a high risk group. J. Obstet Gynaecol. E. and Central Afr. 4:29, 1985.". In: J. Obstet Gynaecol. E. and Central Afr. 4:29, 1985. uon press; 1985. Abstract

PIP: 125 black Kenyan women attending the Kenyatta National Family Welfare Clinic were randomly allocated to combined and fixed dose oral contraceptives (Eugynon: 500 mcg dl-norgestrel + 50 mcg ethinyl estradiol or Microgynon: 150 mcg levonorgestel + 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol). They were between 18-33 years of age with a mean of 25 +or- 7 years. The mean parity of this group was 3 and they had a mean education standard of 8 years. Fasting blood sampled were taken on recruitment (control cycle) and thereafter once for cycles 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 during OC use. HDL-cholesterol was estimated in the sear. The 2 OCs elicited a significant decrease in levels of HDL-cholesterol (p0.01). author's modified

S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Ogutu G.W., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Njoroge J.K. Mati J.K.G. A prospective study of dysfunctional uterine bleeding at Kenyatta National Hospital J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 4 : 23, 1985.". In: E. Afr. Med. J., 64 (7) 442, 1987. uon press; 1985. Abstract

PIP: 125 black Kenyan women attending the Kenyatta National Family Welfare Clinic were randomly allocated to combined and fixed dose oral contraceptives (Eugynon: 500 mcg dl-norgestrel + 50 mcg ethinyl estradiol or Microgynon: 150 mcg levonorgestel + 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol). They were between 18-33 years of age with a mean of 25 +or- 7 years. The mean parity of this group was 3 and they had a mean education standard of 8 years. Fasting blood sampled were taken on recruitment (control cycle) and thereafter once for cycles 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 during OC use. HDL-cholesterol was estimated in the sear. The 2 OCs elicited a significant decrease in levels of HDL-cholesterol (p0.01). author's modified

S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Rogo K.O., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Ojwang P.J., Mati J.K.G., Njoroge J.K. The effects of Tropical conditions on male fertility indices. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. and Central Afr. 4:45, 1985.". In: J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. and Central Afr. 4:45, 1985. uon press; 1985. Abstract

PIP: 125 black Kenyan women attending the Kenyatta National Family Welfare Clinic were randomly allocated to combined and fixed dose oral contraceptives (Eugynon: 500 mcg dl-norgestrel + 50 mcg ethinyl estradiol or Microgynon: 150 mcg levonorgestel + 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol). They were between 18-33 years of age with a mean of 25 +or- 7 years. The mean parity of this group was 3 and they had a mean education standard of 8 years. Fasting blood sampled were taken on recruitment (control cycle) and thereafter once for cycles 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 during OC use. HDL-cholesterol was estimated in the sear. The 2 OCs elicited a significant decrease in levels of HDL-cholesterol (p0.01). author's modified

S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Lequin R.M., Thuo S.J., Mati J.K.G. The use of pregnopost sticks in the detection and monitoring for treatment of Trophoblastic tumors in Kenya. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. and Central Afr. 4:41, 1985.". In: J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. and Central Afr. 4:41, 1985. uon press; 1985. Abstract

PIP: 125 black Kenyan women attending the Kenyatta National Family Welfare Clinic were randomly allocated to combined and fixed dose oral contraceptives (Eugynon: 500 mcg dl-norgestrel + 50 mcg ethinyl estradiol or Microgynon: 150 mcg levonorgestel + 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol). They were between 18-33 years of age with a mean of 25 +or- 7 years. The mean parity of this group was 3 and they had a mean education standard of 8 years. Fasting blood sampled were taken on recruitment (control cycle) and thereafter once for cycles 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 during OC use. HDL-cholesterol was estimated in the sear. The 2 OCs elicited a significant decrease in levels of HDL-cholesterol (p0.01). author's modified

1984
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Eshitera M.O., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Mati J.K.G.,Muitta M.N., Njoroge J.K. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. Central Afr. 3:141, 1984 Semen parameters, hormonal studies and incidence of asymptomatic bacteriospermia in fertile black males in Kenya.". In: J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. and Central Afr. 4:45, 1985. uon press; 1984. Abstract

PIP: 125 black Kenyan women attending the Kenyatta National Family Welfare Clinic were randomly allocated to combined and fixed dose oral contraceptives (Eugynon: 500 mcg dl-norgestrel + 50 mcg ethinyl estradiol or Microgynon: 150 mcg levonorgestel + 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol). They were between 18-33 years of age with a mean of 25 +or- 7 years. The mean parity of this group was 3 and they had a mean education standard of 8 years. Fasting blood sampled were taken on recruitment (control cycle) and thereafter once for cycles 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 during OC use. HDL-cholesterol was estimated in the sear. The 2 OCs elicited a significant decrease in levels of HDL-cholesterol (p0.01). author's modified

S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Gachara M.N., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Muitta M.N. Mati J.K.G. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. Central. Afr. 3:19, 1984 The role of antisperm antibodies in infertility in Kenya.". In: J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. Central. Afr. 3:19, 1984. uon press; 1984. Abstract

PIP: 125 black Kenyan women attending the Kenyatta National Family Welfare Clinic were randomly allocated to combined and fixed dose oral contraceptives (Eugynon: 500 mcg dl-norgestrel + 50 mcg ethinyl estradiol or Microgynon: 150 mcg levonorgestel + 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol). They were between 18-33 years of age with a mean of 25 +or- 7 years. The mean parity of this group was 3 and they had a mean education standard of 8 years. Fasting blood sampled were taken on recruitment (control cycle) and thereafter once for cycles 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 during OC use. HDL-cholesterol was estimated in the sear. The 2 OCs elicited a significant decrease in levels of HDL-cholesterol (p0.01). author's modified

S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Ndavi Muia P., Mwalali P.N., Mbugua S.E., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Mati J. K. G.Cervical cytology in a Kenyan rural population. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. and Central Afr. 3:167, 1984.". In: J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. and Central Afr. 3:167, 1984. uon press; 1984. Abstract

PIP: 125 black Kenyan women attending the Kenyatta National Family Welfare Clinic were randomly allocated to combined and fixed dose oral contraceptives (Eugynon: 500 mcg dl-norgestrel + 50 mcg ethinyl estradiol or Microgynon: 150 mcg levonorgestel + 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol). They were between 18-33 years of age with a mean of 25 +or- 7 years. The mean parity of this group was 3 and they had a mean education standard of 8 years. Fasting blood sampled were taken on recruitment (control cycle) and thereafter once for cycles 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 during OC use. HDL-cholesterol was estimated in the sear. The 2 OCs elicited a significant decrease in levels of HDL-cholesterol (p0.01). author's modified

S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Ojwang P.J., OgadaT., Maina F.W., Sekadde_Kigondu C.B , Mati J.K.G. E.A. Med. J. 61 (5): 367, 1984. Reference value for serum lipids and lipoprotein cholesterol in adults and cord blood of Kenyan Africans.". In: E.A. Med. J. 61 (5): 367, 1984. uon press; 1984. Abstract

PIP: 125 black Kenyan women attending the Kenyatta National Family Welfare Clinic were randomly allocated to combined and fixed dose oral contraceptives (Eugynon: 500 mcg dl-norgestrel + 50 mcg ethinyl estradiol or Microgynon: 150 mcg levonorgestel + 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol). They were between 18-33 years of age with a mean of 25 +or- 7 years. The mean parity of this group was 3 and they had a mean education standard of 8 years. Fasting blood sampled were taken on recruitment (control cycle) and thereafter once for cycles 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 during OC use. HDL-cholesterol was estimated in the sear. The 2 OCs elicited a significant decrease in levels of HDL-cholesterol (p0.01). author's modified

S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE, W MRMAINAFRANCIS. "Ojwang PJ, Ogada T, Maina FW, Sekadde-Kigondu CB, Mati JK. Reference values for serum lipids and lipoprotein cholesterol in adults and cord blood of Kenyan Africans. East Afr Med J. 1984 May;61(5):367-71.". In: J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. and Central Afr. 3:167, 1984. uon press; 1984. Abstract
No abstract available.
1983
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Achapa C.O., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Lequin R.M., Mati J.K.G., Njoroge J.K. Dynamic study follow up of pituitary reserve function in patients who had suffered postpartum haemorrhage J. Obstet Gynaecol. E. and Central Afr. 2:166, 1983.". In: J. Obstet Gynaecol. E. and Central Afr. 2:166, 1983. uon press; 1983. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Marchesini S., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Goi G.,Lombardo A. Plasma lysosomal hydrolase in normal malaria parasitized and sickle cell subjects. A study of a sample of Liberian population J. Res. Lab. Med x 5 493-497, 1983.". In: J. Res. Lab. Med x 5 493-497, 1983. uon press; 1983. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Thuo S.T.N., Maina F.W., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Lequin R.M., Mati J.K.G.J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. Central Afr. 2:15, 1983. Assessment of flat oral glucose tolerance tests.". In: J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1983 Mar;2(1):23-6. uon press; 1983. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Wanjohi J.K., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Maina F.W. Mati J.K.G., J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. Central Afr. 2:23, 1983 Menstrual blood loss in nulliparous normal women.". In: J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1983 Mar;2(1):23-6. uon press; 1983. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid.
W MRMAINAFRANCIS, S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Wanjohi JK, Sekadde-kigondu CB, Maina FW, Mati JK.Menstrual blood loss (MBL) in nulliparous Kenyan women.J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1983 Mar;2(1):23-6.". In: J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1983 Mar;2(1):23-6. uon press; 1983. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
1982
Karanja JG, Sekadde-Kigondu CB, Mati JKG, Lequin RM. "Pulsitile release and diurnal rhythm of gonadotropins and prolactin in young healthy Kenyan men.". 1982.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Karanja J.G., Gwayi-Chore M.O., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B.,Lequin R.M., Mati J.K.G.J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. Central Afr. 1:140, 1982 Hormonal patterns during the menstrual cycle of healthy black Kenyan women.". In: Obstet. Gynaecol. E. Central Afr. 1:140, 1982. uon press; 1982. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Karanja J.K., Gwayi-Chore M.D., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., et al J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. Central Afr. 108, 1982. Value of FSH, LH and PRL assays in diagnosis of amenorrhoea.". In: et al J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. Central Afr. 108, 1982. uon press; 1982. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Karanja JG, Gwanyi-chore MO, Sekadde-kigondu CB, Lequin RM, Mati JK. Hormonal patterns during the menstrual cycles in healthy black Kenyan women. J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1982 Dec;1(4):140-4.". In: J. Obs/Gyn. East Central Africa 1:126(1982). uon press; 1982. Abstract
PIP: 17 regularly mentruating young black Kenyan women were studied during a mentrual cylcle for their reproductive hormonal patterns. The serum concentrations of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and Prolactin (PRL) were determined by World Health Organization Matched Reagent Programme Radioimmunoassay (WHO-MR-RIA). A biphasic basal body temperature (BBT) record was also noted. The hormonal patterns showed a mid-cycle LH surge and rise in plasma progesterone beginning with the LH peak and lasting a maximum of 6-8 days after the LH peak. Cycle lengths ranged from 25-32 days with a mean of 28 plus or minus 2 days. The follicular phase ranged from 10-17 days, and the luteal phase lasted from 13-15 days. When the mean LH and FSH concentrations and the mean BBT curve were synchronized on the day of the mid-cycle LH peak, the temperature elevation occured about 48 days after the LH peak. Along with the LH, the FSH showed a mid-cycle peak. The results of this study
W MRMAINAFRANCIS, S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Maina F.W., Mati J.K.G., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B. .". In: J. Obs/Gyn. East Central Africa 1:126(1982). uon press; 1982. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Mukasa F., Mati J.K.G., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Lequin R.M. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. Central Afr. 1:160, 1982 Pituitary reserve for gonadotrophin and prolactin in women using long term depo-provera.". In: J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. Central Afr. 1:160, 1982. uon press; 1982. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Mukasa FR, Sekadde-kigondu CB, Mati JK, Njoroge JK. The pituitary reserve for gonadotrophins and prolactin in women under long-term use of depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) as a contraceptive. J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1982 Dec;1(4):160-3.". In: J. Obs/Gyn. East Central Africa 1:126(1982). uon press; 1982. Abstract
PIP: Pituitary reserve was assessed in women who had used depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) for 1, 5 and 10 years, and their responses were compared to 2 control groups–IUD users and noncontraceptive users. 100 ug GnRH and 200ug TRH were injected as a bolus and the Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and Prolaction (PRL) responses noted. The basal PRL levels were similar in all groups. The PRL response to stimulation was significantly greater among 5 and 10 year DMPA users and also IUD users. The mean basal levels of LH were within the normal follicular phase range in all groups. However, the response to stimulation was significantly higher among 1 and 5 year DMPA users when compared with noncontraceptive users. The basal serum FSH levels in both the study and control groups were comparable to those of normally cycling women in the follicular phase. The response to stimulation was greater in the 10 year DMPA users when compared to both the noncontraceptive users and IUD users. The study shows that basal levels of FSH, LH and PRL were similar in the study and control groups. The observed amplified response to stimulation among longterm DMPA users could be the result of failure of gonadotropin cyclic release, possibly resulting in increased pituitary reserves.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Mwalali P.N., Mati J.K.G., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Lequin R.M., J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. Central Africa,1:64, 1982 The Effects of GnRH and TRH on pituitary secretion of FSH, LH and PRL in Normal Kenyan Males.". In: J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. Central Africa,1:64, 1982. uon press; 1982. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Nana O.F., Mati J.K.G., Lequin R.M., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B.,J. Obster. Gynaecol. E. and Central Africa, 1:1, 42, 1982:Pituitary-Ovarian Function during and afterpelvic Irradiation for carcinoma of the cervix.". In: Obster. Gynaecol. E. and Central Africa, 1:1, 42, 1982:. uon press; 1982. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Ndeto G.W., Mati J.K.G., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., et al J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. Central Afr. 1:58, 1982 Prolactin release in subjects with uterine fibroid.". In: J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. Central Afr. 1:58, 1982. uon press; 1982. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Ndeto G.W.T., Mati J.K.G., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Lequin R.M. Prolactin response in patients with hypertensive disease in pregnancy J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. Central Afr. 1:166, 1982.". In: J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. Central Afr. 1:166, 1982. uon press; 1982. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Obwaka J.M., Mati J.K.G., Lequin R.M.,Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., et al J. Obstet. Gynaecol E and Central Africa Afr. 1:96, 1982. Baseline studies in semen and hormonal parameters in normal Kenyan males.". In: et al J. Obstet. Gynaecol E and Central Africa Afr. 1:96, 1982. uon press; 1982. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Obwaka JM, Mati JK, Lequin RM, Sekadde-kigondu CB, Muitta MN, Nthale JM, Njoroge JK. Baseline studies on semen and hormonal parameters in fertile Black males in Kenya. J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1982 Jun;1(2):96-9.". In: J. Obs/Gyn. East Central Africa 1:126(1982). uon press; 1982. Abstract

PIP: Masturbatory semen specimen from 49 fertile Black African males in Kenya whose wives were pregnant was obtained after at least 3 days of abstinence for the analysis of parameters which included volume motility, vitality, sperm concentration, pH, fructose and acid phosphatase levels. About 1/2 the spermatozoa was actively progressive in motility, while 40% was nonmotile. Vitality in the 1st hour revealed that 81.4% of the sperm was alive. About 90% of the semen specimens had more than 40% idea forms of spermatozoa. Spermatozoal abnormalities were a frequent feature. There was no correlation between age and the testicular volume, but seminal fluid volume and sperm density tended to decrease with age. Serum levels of Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Luteinizing Hormone, Prolactin and Testosterone were determined in the subjects' sera, enabling the establishment of reference values for these parameters in African Kenyan males.

1977
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Lutalo-Bosa A.J., Sekadde C.B., Opiyo W. and Kiwanuka J.B., Presentation of paper to the Annual Scientific Conference of East Africa Medical Research Council, February, 1977 Liver function tests among normal Ugandans. A paper was reported in the Annual Re.". In: Annual Scientific Conference of East Africa Medical Research Council. uon press; 1977. Abstract

PIP: Masturbatory semen specimen from 49 fertile Black African males in Kenya whose wives were pregnant was obtained after at least 3 days of abstinence for the analysis of parameters which included volume motility, vitality, sperm concentration, pH, fructose and acid phosphatase levels. About 1/2 the spermatozoa was actively progressive in motility, while 40% was nonmotile. Vitality in the 1st hour revealed that 81.4% of the sperm was alive. About 90% of the semen specimens had more than 40% idea forms of spermatozoa. Spermatozoal abnormalities were a frequent feature. There was no correlation between age and the testicular volume, but seminal fluid volume and sperm density tended to decrease with age. Serum levels of Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Luteinizing Hormone, Prolactin and Testosterone were determined in the subjects' sera, enabling the establishment of reference values for these parameters in African Kenyan males.

S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Papine J., Lutalo-Bosa A.J., Sekadde C.B. Reported in the Annual Report of Scientific Conference of the East African Medical Research Council, 1977. The Effect of Halothane on the levels of serum proteins.". In: Annual Report of Scientific Conference of the East African Medical Research Council. uon press; 1977. Abstract

PIP: Masturbatory semen specimen from 49 fertile Black African males in Kenya whose wives were pregnant was obtained after at least 3 days of abstinence for the analysis of parameters which included volume motility, vitality, sperm concentration, pH, fructose and acid phosphatase levels. About 1/2 the spermatozoa was actively progressive in motility, while 40% was nonmotile. Vitality in the 1st hour revealed that 81.4% of the sperm was alive. About 90% of the semen specimens had more than 40% idea forms of spermatozoa. Spermatozoal abnormalities were a frequent feature. There was no correlation between age and the testicular volume, but seminal fluid volume and sperm density tended to decrease with age. Serum levels of Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Luteinizing Hormone, Prolactin and Testosterone were determined in the subjects' sera, enabling the establishment of reference values for these parameters in African Kenyan males.

1972
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Contraceptives, clients and the medical profession. Kenya Nurs J. 1972 Jun;1(1):48-50.". In: Kenya Nurs J. 1972 Jun;1(1):48-50. uon press; 1972. Abstract

PIP: Masturbatory semen specimen from 49 fertile Black African males in Kenya whose wives were pregnant was obtained after at least 3 days of abstinence for the analysis of parameters which included volume motility, vitality, sperm concentration, pH, fructose and acid phosphatase levels. About 1/2 the spermatozoa was actively progressive in motility, while 40% was nonmotile. Vitality in the 1st hour revealed that 81.4% of the sperm was alive. About 90% of the semen specimens had more than 40% idea forms of spermatozoa. Spermatozoal abnormalities were a frequent feature. There was no correlation between age and the testicular volume, but seminal fluid volume and sperm density tended to decrease with age. Serum levels of Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Luteinizing Hormone, Prolactin and Testosterone were determined in the subjects' sera, enabling the establishment of reference values for these parameters in African Kenyan males.

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