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Hassan R, Njoroge K, Ngure M, Otsyula R, Laboso A. "Adoption patterns and performance of improved maize in Kenya. In: R.M. Hassan, (Ed).". In: Maize Technology Development and Transfer: A GIS application for research planning in Kenya (Chapter 7). CAB International, Oxford and New York; 1998.
MUIGUA" "KARIUKI, FRANCIS" "KARIUKI. "ADR, Access to Justice and Development in Kenya ." Strathmore Law Journal. 2015;1(June, 2015):1-21.
Muigua DK. "ADR: THE ROAD TO JUSTICE IN KENYA." Chartered Institute of Arbitrators (Kenya Branch). 2014;Volume 2 Number 1 (2014):28-94.paper_on_adr_the_road_to_justice__in_kenya_-_ciarb_conference_presentation.pdf
Gichohi KE. "Adsorbed water in dry vegetables.".; 1995.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Adsorption and detection of some phenolic compounds by rice husk ash of Kenyan origin", J. Environ. Monit., 4, 1-8.". In: Joseph M. Mwaniki and Geoffrey N. Kamau, International Journal of BioChemiPhysics, Vol.11&12(Nos.1&2) 2003. Survey Review; 2002. Abstract
Ground Flowers of Matricaria Recutita (German Chamomile) Banat Variety grown in Kenya, were subjected to Clevenger distillation under varying temperature, distillation, pressure conditions and the yields assessed. An inert solvent being present in the collecting column of the Clevenger apparatus increases the yield of the oil by reducing dispersion of the blue oil; its presence however, in the distillation flask inhibits the production of the essential oil. Distillation under reduced pressure leads to a decrease in the yield of the oil produced. A break in distillation time especially during the first three hours of distillation also leads to a decrease in the yield of the oil produced.
Kemboi AK, Mbugua JK, Madadi VO, Guto PM, Kamau GN. "Adsorption Characteristics of Captafol Pesticide by Sediment and Soil Samples: Apparent Thermodynamic Properties Using Spectroscopic Methods." International Journal of BioChemiPhysics. 2014;22:61-68.
Kemboi AK, Mbugua JK, Madadi VO, Guto PM, Kamau GN. "Adsorption Characteristics of Captafol Pesticide by Sediment and Soil Samples: Apparent Thermodynamic Properties Using Spectroscopic Methods." International Journal of BioChemiPhysics. 2014;22:61-68.
Mbugua JK, Michira IN, Kagwanja SM, Madadi VO, Zeranyika M, Kamau GN. "Adsorption of 2,4,4,5,6-Tetrachloroisophthalonitrile (Chlorothalonil) by Nairobi River Sediments: Adsorption characteristics and Related Thermodynamic Data." International Journal of BioChemiPhysics. 2012;20:25-37.
Mbugua JK, Michira IN, Kagwanja SM, Madandi VO, Zaranyika MF, Kamau GN. "Adsorption of 2,4,5,6-tetra chloroisophthalonitrile by Nairobi river sediments: Adsorption characteristics and related thermodynamic data." International Journal of Biochemiphysics. 2012;20:25-37.
Mbugua JK, Kemboi A, Michira IN, Madadi VO, Zaranyika MF, Kamau GN. "Adsorption of Atrazine pesticide by sediment and soil samples: Effect of Equilibration Time on the Freundlich Parameter (n)." International Journal of BioChemiPhysics. 2014;22:31-41.
Mbugua JK, Kemboi A, Michira I, Madadi V, Zaranyika M, Kamau G. "Adsorption of Atrazine Pesticide by sediments and soil samples: Apparent thermodynamic properties." International Journal of Biochemiphysics. 2013;07(10).
Wanyonyi WC, Onyari JM SPM. "Adsorption of Congo Red Dye from Aqueous Solutions Using Roots of Eichhornia crassipes: Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies." The International Conference on Technologies and Materials for Renewable Energy, Environment and Sustainability, TMREES14, Energy Procedia. 2014;50:862-869.
K. MJ, Mbui DN, G.N. K. "Adsorption of Dursban (Chlorpyrifos) Pesticide by Loam soil fro Limuru, Kenya: Apparent Thermodynamic Properties." African Journal of Physical Sciences. 2014;1(1):1-9.
Mwaniki JM, Onyatta JO, Yusuf AO. "Adsorption of Heavy Metal Ions from Aqueous Solutions and Wastewater using Water Hyacinth Powder ." International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) . 2019;4(1):1-5.
Sherrif SS, Madadi V. "Adsorption of Lambda Cyhalothrin onto Athi River Sediments: Apparent Thermodynamic Properties." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2017;3(3):568-574.
Muinde VM, Onyari JM, Wamalwa B, Wabomba J, Nthumbi RM. "Adsorption of Malachite Green from Aqueous Solutions onto Rice Husks: Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies." Journal of Environmental Protection. 2017;8(03):215. AbstractWebsite

A study was done to evaluate the removal of a cationic dye from simulated waste water onto rice husks (RH). Spectroscopic methods such as FTIR and SEM/EDX were used for adsorbent characterization. Experimental dependency on solution pH, initial dye concentration, agitation speed, adsorbentparticle size, temperature of the solution and contact time was evaluated. The adsorption data was tested using both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The data fitted well into Langmuir isotherm model with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 6.5 mg/g. Further, the separation factor (RL) value was less than unity indicating a favorable adsorption process. Adsorption kinetics was determined using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion models. The results showed that the adsorption of malachite green onto rice husks followed pseudo-second-order model with a determination coefficient of 0.986. This work has revealed that rice husks have a great potential to sequester cationic dyes from aqueous solutions and therefore it can be utilized to clean contaminated effluents.

Muinde VM, Onyari JM, Wamalwa B, Wabomba J, Nthumbi RM. "Adsorption of malachite green from aqueous solutions onto rice husks: Kinetic and equilibrium studies." Journal of Environmental Protection. 2017;8(03):215. Abstract

A study was done to evaluate the removal of a cationic dye from simulated waste water onto rice husks (RH). Spectroscopic methods such as FTIR and SEM/EDX were used for adsorbent characterization. Experimental dependency on solution pH, initial dye concentration, agitation speed, adsorbentparticle size, temperature of the solution and contact time was evaluated. The adsorption data was tested using both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The data fitted well into Langmuir isotherm model with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 6.5 mg/g. Further, the separation factor (RL) value was less than unity indicating a favorable adsorption process. Adsorption kinetics was determined using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion models. The results showed that the adsorption of malachite green onto rice husks followed pseudo-second-order model with a determination coefficient of 0.986. This work has revealed that rice husks have a great potential to sequester cationic dyes from aqueous solutions and therefore it can be utilized to clean contaminated effluents.

Anzeze DA, Onyari JM SPMGPW. "Adsorption of Pb (II) ions from aqueous solutions by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes): Equilibrium and Kinetic studies,." International Journal of Environmental Pollution and Remediation. 2014;Volume 2,(DOI: 10.11159/ijepr.2014):9p.
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "The Adsorption/Desorption and Mobility of Cabofuran in a soil sample from Kenya.". In: Bull.Environ. Contamin. & Toxic. 56 (4) pg. 575. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1996. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "Aduda, B.O. and R.D. Rawlings, `An Acousto-Ultrasonic Study of the Effect of Porosity of a Sintered Glass System' J.". In: Mater. Sci. 29, 2297 - 2303. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1994. Abstract
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PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "Aduda, B.O. and R.D. Rawlings, `Monitoring the Effects of Inclusions in Model Glass Systems Using Acousto-Ultrasonic Techniques,.". In: British Ceramic Transactions 95 (1), 10-14. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1996. Abstract
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PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "Aduda, B.O. and R.D. Rawlings, `Spectral Analysis of Acousto-Ultrasonic Waves for Defect Sizing.". In: ' NDT & International Vol. 94 No.4, PP. 237-240, August issue. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1996. Abstract
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PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "Aduda, B.O. `A Case for Ultrasonic Evaluation of Materials in Kenya',.". In: Discovery and Innovation 6(1), 40. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1994. Abstract
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PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "Aduda, B.O., D.R. Newman and E.M. Ayiera, `Thermal Conductivity of Particulate Insulators: Effect of Particle Size Distribution, Moisture Content and Binders.". In: KJST Series A 13 (1-2), 116-129. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1996. Abstract
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PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "Aduda, B.O.,ffective thermal conductivity of loose particulate systems'.". In: Journal of Materials Science 31, pp 6441-6448. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1996. Abstract
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Karani PF. "Adult and Continuing Education in Kenya.". In: National Symposium on Adult and Continuing Education (ACE) in Kenya. Kenya School of Monetary Studies, Nairobi. Kenya.; 2003.
Ndiritu AW. ADULT AND LIFE LONG LEARNING PRACTICE IN KENYA.; 2008. Abstract

INTRODUCTION
Kenya as an East African country is bordered by Sudan, Ethiopia, Tanzania and Uganda. It has an area of 581,677 sq km. The capital city is Nairobi. The country is divided into eight provinces namely Coast, Central, Eastern, Nairobi, Nyanza, North Eastern, Rift Valley and Western.

CURRENT SITUATION OR PRACTICE OF ALLL
According to the Kenya National Adult Literacy Survey (2006), 38.5 per cent or 7.8 million of the Kenyan Adult population is illiterate. The results of the National Adult literacy survey 2007 indicate that urban adult population that is literate is higher at 79.9 per cent compared to the rural adult population at 58.7 per cent.

SUCCESSES AND PROBLEMS
Several innovations have taken place in the field of adult literacy. These include, the implementation of the post literacy programs as a continuation of basic literacy. For example, many post literacy programs have been established in the several districts and such as Machakos, Homa Bay and Malindi.

There has been an improvement on the learner generated materials LGMS- Primers that are written by the community itself. This makes the reading materials relevant and interesting to the learners. There has been establishment of community libraries and mobile literacy classes in pastoral communities. In 2003, when the government of Kenya declared free primary education, there the oldest pupil in the Guiness book of record Mzee Kimani Nganga Maruge joined the formal education system at the age of 83.

K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Adult Education and Development in Kenya, the Experience of the Kenya Adult Education Association., Proceeding of African Adult Education Association Workshop for National Secretaries and Leaders of Voluntary Associations, Freetown, Sierra Leone, 26th to .". In: Soc Sci Med. 1984;18(5):375-85. SITE; 1980. Abstract

This paper describes the methodology and presents preliminary results of an economic appraisal of a community based health care project in Kenya. Community health workers, trained for 12 weeks and deployed in two locations in Kenya's Western Province, act as first contact providers of basic health care and promoters of selected health, sanitation and nutrition practices. A Cost Benefit Analysis has been undertaken using the Willingness to Pay approach to compare the costs of the project and its benefits. The benefits are in the form of more easily accessible basic health care and are measured as consumer surplus accruing to the community. Gain in consumer surplus is consequent on the fall of average user costs and rise in utilisation of the project established points of first contact with primary health care. The argument for the economic viability of the project is validated by the large Net Present Value and Benefit Cost Ratio obtained for the whole of the project area and for the two locations separately. Although the evaluation technique used faces the problem of valuation of community time, aggregation of health care services at all points of first contact and the partial nature of cost benefit analysis evaluations, the results are strongly in favour of decentralisation of primary health care on similar lines in the rest of the country.

K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Adult Education and its effect on the economics of Primary Health Care. Kenya Journal of Adult Education, Vol. 8, No. 2, September 1980.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1984;18(5):375-85. SITE; 1980. Abstract

This paper describes the methodology and presents preliminary results of an economic appraisal of a community based health care project in Kenya. Community health workers, trained for 12 weeks and deployed in two locations in Kenya's Western Province, act as first contact providers of basic health care and promoters of selected health, sanitation and nutrition practices. A Cost Benefit Analysis has been undertaken using the Willingness to Pay approach to compare the costs of the project and its benefits. The benefits are in the form of more easily accessible basic health care and are measured as consumer surplus accruing to the community. Gain in consumer surplus is consequent on the fall of average user costs and rise in utilisation of the project established points of first contact with primary health care. The argument for the economic viability of the project is validated by the large Net Present Value and Benefit Cost Ratio obtained for the whole of the project area and for the two locations separately. Although the evaluation technique used faces the problem of valuation of community time, aggregation of health care services at all points of first contact and the partial nature of cost benefit analysis evaluations, the results are strongly in favour of decentralisation of primary health care on similar lines in the rest of the country.

KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Adult Education and National Building.". In: Based on speech given at Bushangara school in Jan. 1977. Elsevier; 1977. Abstract
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KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Adult Education and political culture, S.K. Akivaga.". In: East Afr. Medi. Journal. Elsevier; Submitted. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
Kinuthia JW, Odiemo L. "ADULT EDUCATION AND SELF-EFFICACY: A TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING PERSPECTIVE ." INTERNATIONAL OF CURRENT RESEARCH. 2018;10(07).joyce_kinuthia_31164-_2018.pdf
DAVID PROFMACHARIA. "Adult Education Facilitators Manual, (2005) Peace and Anti-Racism Education Adult Education Policy and Practice in Kenya Adult Students as Distance Education Learners:).". In: In the National Civic Education Program Training Manual (NCEP II), IntermediaNCG Publications, Nairobi (2006). Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract
Human Capital Externality and Returns to Education in Kenya
DAVID PROFMACHARIA. "Adult Education Facilitators Manual, Caritas Switzerland, Somaliland.". In: In the National Civic Education Program Training Manual (NCEP II), IntermediaNCG Publications, Nairobi (2006). Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract
Human Capital Externality and Returns to Education in Kenya
DAVID PROFMACHARIA. "Adult Education Policy and Practice in Kenya: A Critical Policy Analysis. (Asia-pacific Bureau of Adult Education/UNESCO.". In: A Resource Manual For Educators and Trainers (with others) (Umtapo Centre Peace Education Publications,Durban, South Africa, 2002). Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1999. Abstract
Human Capital Externality and Returns to Education in Kenya
KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Adult education, Conscientization and National Development.". In: A paper read to the law Society Kenya, Conference held in Kisumu in October, 1979. Elsevier; 1979. Abstract
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KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "The Adult Educator and His Leaerner-1977.". In: Proceedings of one weeks councilors seminar held at Kakameg,a, May 1981 compiled and edited by S. Kichamu Akivaga. Elsevier; 1977. Abstract
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KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "The Adult Educator And His Society.". In: A seminar paper given at the center of African studies, university of Edinburgh Jan.1978. Elsevier; 1978. Abstract
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Ochola E. "Adult Learners’ Perceptions of using Social Networking Tools in their Learning Processes." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research (IJIER). 2016;4(2):64-70.adult_learners.pdf
Jayne M. "Adult Literacy and the Place of Kiswahili.". In: proceedings on Language Curriculum Development. Kenyatta University; Forthcoming.
K MRCHEPKONGAMIKE. "The Adult Literacy Programme: How functional? A case study of Metkei Location.". In: Doctorate, Georg-August- University G. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1986. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
K MRCHEPKONGAMIKE. "The Adult Literacy Programme: How functional? A case study of Metkei Location.". In: Doctorate, Georg-August- University G. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1986. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
Krieger JN, Bailey RC, Opeya J, Ayieko B, Ndinya-Achola JO, Magoha GA. "Adult male circumcision outcomes: experience in a developing country setting.". 2007.Website
Magoha GAO. "Adult male circumcision: results of a standardized procedure in Kisumu District, Kenya." British Journal of Urology. 2005;96:1109-1113. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of the current global status of female genital mutilation (FGM) or female circumcision practised in various countries. DATA SOURCE: Major published series of peer reviewed journals writing about female genital mutilation (FGM) over the last two decades were reviewed using the index medicus and medline search. A few earlier publications related to the FGM ritual as practised earlier were also reviewed including the various techniques and tools used, the "surgeons or perpetrators" of the FGM ritual and the myriad of medical and sexual complications resulting from the procedure. Global efforts to abolish the ritual and why such efforts including legislation has resulted in little or no success were also critically reviewed.
CONCLUSION: FGM remains prevalent in many countries including African countries where over 136 million women have been 'circumcised' despite persistent and consistent efforts by various governments, WHO and other bodies to eradicate the ritual by the year 2000 AD. This is as a result of deep rooted cultures, traditions and religions. Although FGM should be abolished globally, it must involve gradual persuasion which should include sensitisation and adequate community-based educational and medical awareness campaign. Mere repression through legislation has not been successful, and women need to be provided with other avenues for their expression of social status approval and respectability other than through FGM.

Magoha GAO. "Adult male circumcision: results of a standardized procedure in Kisumu District, Kenya. ." British Journal of Urology: Vol. 96: 1109-1113, 2005.. 2005;96:1109-1113. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of the current global status of female genital mutilation (FGM) or female circumcision practised in various countries. DATA SOURCE: Major published series of peer reviewed journals writing about female genital mutilation (FGM) over the last two decades were reviewed using the index medicus and medline search. A few earlier publications related to the FGM ritual as practised earlier were also reviewed including the various techniques and tools used, the "surgeons or perpetrators" of the FGM ritual and the myriad of medical and sexual complications resulting from the procedure. Global efforts to abolish the ritual and why such efforts including legislation has resulted in little or no success were also critically reviewed.
CONCLUSION: FGM remains prevalent in many countries including African countries where over 136 million women have been 'circumcised' despite persistent and consistent efforts by various governments, WHO and other bodies to eradicate the ritual by the year 2000 AD. This is as a result of deep rooted cultures, traditions and religions. Although FGM should be abolished globally, it must involve gradual persuasion which should include sensitisation and adequate community-based educational and medical awareness campaign. Mere repression through legislation has not been successful, and women need to be provided with other avenues for their expression of social status approval and respectability other than through FGM.

DAVID PROFMACHARIA. "Adult Students as Distance Education Learners: An MA Study Unit, London University/IEC,.". In: A Critical Policy Analysis (1999),co-authored with J Kebathi and G Righa. (Asia-South Pacific Bureau of Adult Education/UNESCO). Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1990. Abstract
Human Capital Externality and Returns to Education in Kenya
Gow L, Gulati R, Khan A, Mihaimeed F. "Adult-onset cystic hygroma: a case report and review of management." Grand Rounds. 2011;11:5-11. AbstractWebsite
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OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON. "Adungo N.I., Ondijo S.O. and Pamba H.O.: Observation of Entrobius Vermicularis in the Urine. 3 Case Reports. E. Afr. Med. J. 63: 676, 1986.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 63: 676, 1986. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1986. Abstractobservation_of_enterobius_vermicularis_ova_in_urine_3_case_reports.pdf

This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.

DR. MUTISO VINCENTMUOKI. "Adungo.J.I, Mutiso.V.M, Ngugi.M, Pattern of Fractures in The American Embassy Terrorist Bomb Explosion in Nairobi, Kenya. . East and Central Africa Journal of Surgery Vol 10, No.1 May 2005.". In: East and Central Africa Journal of Surgery Vol 10, No.1 May 2005. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2005. Abstract
Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma, University of Nairobi, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. mutisovm@yahoo.com
DR. MUTISO VINCENTMUOKI. "Adungo.J.I, Mutiso.V.M, Ngugi.M,Pattern Of Fractures Sustained In The American Embassy Terrorist Bomb Explosion In Nairobi Kenya .". In: East and Central African Journal of Surgery,Vol 10, No.1,May 2005. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2005. Abstract
Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma, University of Nairobi, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. mutisovm@yahoo.com
O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW. "Aduol FWO, (1997):A model for a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum.". In: Survey Review, 34, 264. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1997. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Aduol, F.W.O., P.M. Syagga (et al) (1995), .". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1995. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
O. KG. "Advance Geomorphology.". Forthcoming. Abstract
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Stanback J, Qureshi ZP, Sekkade-Kigondu C. "Advance provision of oral contraceptives to family planning clients in Kenya.". 2002. AbstractWebsite

In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients.

Prospective observational study.

Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya.

Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics.

Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately.

Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy.

Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit.

Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.

S. PROFNTEEREJACOB. "Advanced Diploma Dissertation entitled "A study of the Curricula of Physical Education of Primary Teachers Colleges in Kenya" (University of Leeds, in 1978).". In: Seminar, University of Manchester, 1981. Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1978. Abstract
Introduction The Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been established to facilitate the Internal Faculties in launching and managing their programmes using distance mode with a view to increasing access to university education and provide equity in higher education to the learners all over the country. Operational Strategies The operational strategies that have been set up involve collaborative arrangements between the CODL and the Internal Faculties in the development of Study Materials and Learner support Services for off-campus students. The professional in open and distance learning are availed by the Centre to serve the Faculties as trainers while the Faculties provide academic expertise who are facilitated through participatory methods involving application of knowledge, skills and strategies to develop study materials in their respective subjects. Focus The Centre is currently working with Faculties of Science, Commerce and Arts. The Material development process involves training, writing, reviewing and editing followed by conversion to e-content and audio modes. Conclusion These collaborative arrangements will increase access to higher education make significant contribution in the realization of educational Millennium Goals in Kenya where only 20% of all those who qualify obtain admission in the public universities.
WEKESA MRMALOBA. "ADVANCED ENGLISH STRUCTURE.". In: 4th CHOTRO Conference on Language, Literature and Visual Arts for the Indigenous: Theme - Imagining the Intangibe. University of Nairobi Press; 2011. Abstract

At what point does language structure become advanced? This is a legitimate question since language necessarily is a very advanced concept of human beings. Moreover, having taken years learning language as a student is an indictment to this advanced concept. However, the mention of an advanced course sends wrong signals to students to mean that a course is complicated. The notion of 'advanced courses' being deemed complicated needs to be disabused by the simple understanding that the finer details that may have been overlooked previously take center stage at the advanced stage. The thrust of this book is to look at the finer details of the English language within certain theoretical bearings.

N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Advanced Financial Accounting" Concepts, Reationale and Procedures incorporating Kenyan Laws, Regulations and Standards. 15 chapters integrating Kenyan and International Accoutning Standards, and using KASNEB CPA examination problems sd illustrations. Cu.". In: Kenya Literature Bureau, Nairobi,. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1992. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
G.M. N, J.M O. "Advanced Manufacturing Technology Adoption in Manufacturing Companies in Kenya." International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology. 2015;Volume: 04 (Issue: 10 ):357-369.ijret20150410059.pdf
G.M.N, P.K.O. Advanced Manufacturing Technology Adoption in Manufacturing Companies in Kenya. Istanbul, Turkey: International science index; 2015.
Ogola JM, Nyori GM. "Advanced Manufacturing Technology Adoption In Manufacturing Companies in Kenya." International Journal of Research in Engineering and technology. 2015;Vol. 04, Issue.
G.M.N, M.O, J.M.O. "Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Size as Determinants of Organizational Structure." Researchjournali’s Journal of Technology Management . 2015;Vol. 2(issue. 4 ):1-26.2223.pdf
Ogola JM, Ogutu M, Nyori GM. "Advanced Manufacturing Technology And Size As determinants Of Organizational Structure." Research journali’s Journal of Technology Management. 2015;Vol. 2 / No. 4 October / 2015.
H DRONYANGOWALTER. "Advanced photography for Technical Institutions. A text book for teaching photography in Technical Institutions.". In: Olugraphics. IPPNW; 2005. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Advanced Study Companion to "A Grain of Wheat," Nairobi: Heinemann.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1985. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

Henry M. "Advances in Embryo Transfer Techniques." KVA Kisumu Branch Conference, Kisumu; 2017.
Owino WO, Ambuko J. "Advances in Ethylene Signal Transduction in Fruits and Vegetables." Postharvest Ripening Physiology of Crops. 2016;1:339. Abstract
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Oni EA, Ayoade JO, Owolabi IE. Advances in Geodesy and Geophysics Research in Africa.; 1998.Website
"Advances in Integrated Soil Fertility Managementinsub-SaharanAfrica: Challenges and Opportunities.". 2007. Abstract

Low soil fertility is one of the most important common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) productivity yield limiting factors in Eastern and Central Africa and cause substantial production losses. As a component of integrated soil fertility management strategy, a collaborative research was initiated to screen bean germplasms for their tolerance to the important edaphic stresses of the region, namely soil acidity, low available phosphorus and low nitrogen. A set of 300 breeding lines of major market classess eedtypes were evaluated at varying ecologies undermoderate andnon-stress conditions at different locations in five countries. Bean genotypes evaluated vary considerably in their yield under stress conditions. Several lines identified tolerant to individual stresses and gave yield advantage over previously selected tolerant varieties. A few lines,BZ12894-C-1,AND932-A-1,DRK137-1,Nm12806-2A were tolerant to all three stresses,while ARA8-B-1,AFR709-1,AFR703-1andAND1055-1 are tolerant to low P and low pH, and RWK 10,ARA 8-5-1, and T 842-6F11-6A-1 tolerant to low N and low pH. It is concluded that bean genotypes with multiple tolerance to edaphic stresses will make it possible to improve bean yield on low fertility soils common on small scale farmers’ fields generally characterized by a complex constraints rather than a single stress.

FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Advances of Numerical Weather Prediction over the GHA Region.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. IGAD Climate Prediction and Applications Centre; 2004.
BOCHERE MISSOBURUHILDAH. "'Advancing in English' Secondary School Textbooks.". In: Bk 1,2,3 and 4 Published by Longhorn Publishers. MEDICOM; 2003. Abstract
Information on the prevalence of hearing impairment and related ear pathologies in children in sub-Saharan Africa is scarce. A pilot study for a clinical trial of simple treatments for chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) in school children in Kiambu district, Kenya, provided information on the prevalence of hearing impairment and ear pathologies. Five-thousand-three-hundred-sixty-eight children from 57 randomly chosen primary schools in Kiambu district were examined. Simple otoscopy was performed by clinical officers with specialty training in ENT, and hering testing was performed by trained nurses, using a hand held field audiometer. Microbiological specimens were obtained from those children with CSOM. Five-point-six percent of the children had a hearing impairment of > 30 dB HL in one or both ears, with 2.2% having bilateral hearing impairment. Two-point-four percent had at least one perforated tympanic membrane, and 1.1% had CSOM. Eight-point-six percent of the children had wax obstructing the tympanic membrane. There is evidence of a relationship between hearing impairment and both CSOM and wax obstructing the tympanic membrane. The most common organisms found were Pseudomonas spp. (34%), Proteus spp. (34%) and Eschericia coli (19%). These results are comparable with other studies in Africa and indicate a considerable burden of ear disease in Kiambu district, Kenya.
G.M.N, P.K.O. "Advanved Manufacturing Technology and Technical Labour in Manufacturing Companies in Kenya.". In: Nairobi Innovational Week. Nairobi, Kenya; 2016.
Majesky MW, Dong XR, Hoglund V, Daum G, Mahoney, Jr WM. "The adventitia: a progenitor cell niche for the vessel wall." Cells, tissues, organs. 2012;195:73-81. Abstract

Recent observations suggest that the adventitial layer of blood vessels exhibits properties resembling a stem/progenitor cell niche. Progenitor cells have been isolated from the adventitia of both murine and human blood vessels with the potential to form endothelial cells, mural cells, osteogenic cells, and adipocytes. These progenitors appear to cluster at or near the border zone between the outer media and inner adventitia. In the mouse, this border zone region corresponds to a localized site of sonic hedgehog signaling in the artery wall. This brief review will discuss the emerging evidence that the tunica adventitia may provide a niche-like signaling environment for resident progenitor cells and will address the role of the adventitia in growth, remodeling, and repair of the artery wall.

Torsney E, Hu Y, Xu Q. "Adventitial progenitor cells contribute to arteriosclerosis." Trends in cardiovascular medicine. 2005;15:64-68. Abstract

Accumulating evidence indicates the involvement of vascular progenitor cells in the development of arteriosclerosis, including transplant arteriosclerosis, angioplasty-induced restenosis, vein graft atherosclerosis, and spontaneous atherosclerosis. Recently, it was found that the adventitia of the arterial wall contains a large number of progenitor cells, which can differentiate into smooth muscle cells in vitro and in vivo. These progenitor cells were able to migrate from the adventitia into the intima, where they accumulate to contribute to atherosclerotic lesions of vein grafts in apoE-deficient mice. Thus, these cells may be a source of smooth muscle cells and might have implications for cellular, genetic, and tissue engineering approaches to vascular disease.

Masese JO, Rashid JR, Nyamu GD, Ombega JN, Mwangangi EM. "Adverse drug reactions among HIV infected and uninfected adults receiving anti-tuberculous therapy at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Background: Information about the prevalence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) among HIV infected and HIV uninfected patients receiving anti-tuberculous therapy in Africa is limited due to unavailability of local data or publications and hence the basis of this study.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of adverse drug reactions among HIV infected and HIV uninfected adult patients on anti-TB therapy.
Design: A retrospective cohort study.
Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya.
Subjects: HIV infected and HIV uninfected patients receiving anti-TB therapy between January 2006 to December 2007
Main Outcome Measures:Documented adverse drug reactions.
Results: Three hundred and fourteen records were reviewed, 157 for both HIV infected and HIV uninfected. Of the 314 patient files, 96 (30.5%) had ADRs; 70 (44.6%) verses 26 (16.6%) for HIV infected and HIV uninfected respectively. Overall, the most frequent ADR among the two groups was gastrointestinal disturbances (21.7%) verses (10.2%) for HIV infected and uninfected respectively, (RR=2.44 [1.28-4.63], P=0.006). This was followed by peripheral neuropathy (16.6%) verses (4.5%) for HIV infected and uninfected respectively, (RR=4.25 [1.79-10.12], P=0.005). 73(46.49%) of the HIV infected patients were also receiving anti-retroviral therapy, of
which 36(49.31 %) of them had ADRs documented. Twenty five (29.8%) of the HIV infected who were not taking anti-retroviral therapy, had ADRs documented.
Conclusions: Gastrointestinal disturbances and peripheral neuropathy were the most common ADRs in both groups. Surveillance systems should be established in hospitals for ADRs monitoring and control.

Masese JO, Rashid JR, Nyamu GD, Ombega JN, Mwangangi EM. "Adverse drug reactions among HIV infected and uninfected adults receiving anti-tuberculous therapy at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Background: Information about the prevalence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) among HIV infected and HIV uninfected patients receiving anti-tuberculous therapy in Africa is limited due to unavailability of local data or publications and hence the basis of this study.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of adverse drug reactions among HIV infected and HIV uninfected adult patients on anti-TB therapy.
Design: A retrospective cohort study.
Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya.
Subjects: HIV infected and HIV uninfected patients receiving anti-TB therapy between January 2006 to December 2007
Main Outcome Measures:Documented adverse drug reactions.
Results: Three hundred and fourteen records were reviewed, 157 for both HIV infected and HIV uninfected. Of the 314 patient files, 96 (30.5%) had ADRs; 70 (44.6%) verses 26 (16.6%) for HIV infected and HIV uninfected respectively. Overall, the most frequent ADR among the two groups was gastrointestinal disturbances (21.7%) verses (10.2%) for HIV infected and uninfected respectively, (RR=2.44 [1.28-4.63], P=0.006). This was followed by peripheral neuropathy (16.6%) verses (4.5%) for HIV infected and uninfected respectively, (RR=4.25 [1.79-10.12], P=0.005). 73(46.49%) of the HIV infected patients were also receiving anti-retroviral therapy, of
which 36(49.31 %) of them had ADRs documented. Twenty five (29.8%) of the HIV infected who were not taking anti-retroviral therapy, had ADRs documented.
Conclusions: Gastrointestinal disturbances and peripheral neuropathy were the most common ADRs in both groups. Surveillance systems should be established in hospitals for ADRs monitoring and control.

MARTIN DROGUTU. "Advertising Agencies in Kenya: Their Nature and Operations (MBA Research Project,).". In: Journal of Vocational Behaviour. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1983. Abstract
Summing multipliers is an important class of operators in the geometric theory of general Banach spaces. They are particularly useful in the study of the structure of the classical spaces. The work done by Grothendieck and Pietsch provides a good basis for the study of this class of operators. The topic of this study is Aspects on (p,q)-summing multipliers. (p,q)-summing multipliers are sequences of bounded linear operators mapping weakly p-summable sequences into strongly q-summable sequences. This study is concerned with using the concepts of absolute and p-summing multipliers to characterize the space of all (p,q)-summing multipliers. In particular we show that the space of all (p, q)-summing multipliers is complete. This is accomplished through a detailed study of the concepts of the summing operators and absolute and p-summing multipliers
OYUNGE MRMONAYOALBERTV. "Advertising of cigarettes in Jabalpur City (M.P) India "A dissertation for a post graduate Diploma in Marketing and Sales Management.". In: Bull. Int. Dairy Fed. 221:32-46. Elsevier; 2005. Abstract
PIP: The efficacy and complication rate of menstrual regulation with the hand-held Karman cannula was tested on 223 women with amenorrhea up to 56 days in the Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya from October 1982-January 1983. 195 women had positive pregnancy tests, while menstrual regulation was done on the others because of concern over late menses. the procedures were done without anesthesia with a 50 ml vacuum syringe fitted with a self-locking plunger, a rubber adaptor and stop cock, 5-8 mm flexible plastic Karman cannula and a toothless volsellum, using hibitane solution and savlon antiseptic. The average procedure time was 7 minutes. Bleeding lasted over 1 week in 4%, total blood loss was over 50 ml in 3.1%, and immediate side effects were syncope in 1.3%, nausea and vomiting in 1.8% and pain in 5.4%. There were 2 (0.8%) cases of endometritis. In Kenya where 60% of all gynecological hospital admissions are for septic abortions, it is essential to provide safe termination as a backup for family planning method failures.
"ADVISING THE STUDENT OF COLOR.". In: The Ohio NACADA Regional Conference. The Ohio State University, Columbus; 1987.
Kebenei P. J, Khatete I. W, M C, S C, Khatete D. L. "Advisory Role of Education Standards and Quality Assurance Council on Provision of Quality Education at Primary Schools in Kenya, A Case Of Bomet County." The Cradle of Knowledge African Journal of Educational and Social Science Research. 2016;4(1):21-26.abstract_7.doc
Jaldesa G, Ogutu O, Johnson A, Ndavi P, Karanja J. "Advocacy Towards Changes and Laws Governing Access to Abortion in Kenya." Gynecol and Obstet. 2015;Vol 4( Issue 9, 2015).
JOHN PROFADWOK. "Adwok, J.A. Thyroid 1– Endemic Goitre.". In: Surgery in Africa Monthly Review (May, 2006). AIBUMA Publishing; 2006. Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
JOHN PROFADWOK. "Adwok, J.A. Thyroid II– Thyroidectomy.". In: Surgery in Africa- Monthly Review (January, 2007). AIBUMA Publishing; 2007. Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
JOHN PROFADWOK. "Adwok, J.A., Current Management of Breast Cancer. (Editorial) E. Afr. Med. J. 1996; 73: 81.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1996; 73: 81. AIBUMA Publishing; 1996. Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
JOHN PROFADWOK. "Adwok, J.A., Evaluation and Surgical treatment of the Solitary thyroid nodule. E. Afr. Med. J. 1995; 72:191.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1995; 72:191. AIBUMA Publishing; 1995. Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
JOHN PROFADWOK. "Adwok, J.A., Rebound Tenderness in the Clinical Diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1995; 72: 544. AIBUMA Publishing; 1995. Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
JOHN PROFADWOK. "Adwok, J.A., The Munchausen.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1995; 72: 540. AIBUMA Publishing; 1995. Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
JOHN PROFADWOK. "Adwok, J.A., The Solitary Thyroid Nodule .". In: A surgical option Proceedings of the Association of Surgeons of East Africa vol. 15, 1992. AIBUMA Publishing; 1992. Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
JOHN PROFADWOK. "Adwok, J.A., Toroitich, P. Fissure-in-Ano .". In: Proceedings of the Association of Surgeons of East Africa, vol. 15, 1992. AIBUMA Publishing; 1992. Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
JOHN PROFADWOK. "Adwok, J.A., Treatment of Thyroid Cancer.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1994; 70: 524. AIBUMA Publishing; 1994. Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
JOHN PROFADWOK. "Adwok, J.A., Treatment of urethral strictures.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1986; 63: 651. AIBUMA Publishing; 1986. Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
JOHN PROFADWOK. "Adwok, J.A., Urethral Strictures at the Kenyatta National Hospital.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 63:175. AIBUMA Publishing; 1986. Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
JOHN PROFADWOK. "Adwok, J.A., Urethral Strictures at the Kenyatta National Hospital.A prospective study. A dissertation as part of fulfillment for the degree of Master of Medicine in Surgery.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1986; 63: 651. AIBUMA Publishing; 1983. Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS. "AEO-1 Chapter 2, Atmosphere, Eastern Africa [E. Kituyi, theme author].". In: Africa Environment Outlook, UNEP. BEP Electronic Press; 2002. Abstract
Kituyi, E. and Kirubi, C. ()
Odhiambo FA, Wamola IA, Ndinya-Achola JO. "Aerobic and facultative bacterial isolates from blood cultures of children with clinically diagnosed septicaemia.". 1991. AbstractWebsite

A total of 120 sets of blood cultures were performed aerobically from 60 children with clinically diagnosed septicaemia at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. Out of these, 36 (30%) sets from 19 (31.7%) patients yielded bacterial growth while 84 (70%) sets from 41 (68.3%) were negative. Salmonella typhimurium was the most frequently isolated bacteria (63%), followed by SlIlphylococcus aureus (15.8%). Salmonella typhimurium isolates were mostly multi-antibiotic resistant, most of them only sensitive to amlkacln and cefotaxime, while all were resistant to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole, the most frequently used antibiotic in this hospital.

Odhiambo FA, Wamola IA, Ndinya-Achola JO. "Aerobic and facultative bacterial isolates from blood cultures of children with clinically diagnosed septicaemia.". 1991. Abstract

A total of 120 sets of blood cultures were performed aerobically from 60 children with clinically diagnosed septicaemia at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. Out of these, 36 (30%) sets from 19 (31.7%) patients yielded bacterial growth while 84 (70%) sets from 41 (68.3%) were negative. Salmonella typhimurium was the most frequently isolated bacteria (63%), followed by SlIlphylococcus aureus (15.8%). Salmonella typhimurium isolates were mostly multi-antibiotic resistant, most of them only sensitive to amlkacln and cefotaxime, while all were resistant to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole, the most frequently used antibiotic in this hospital.

KYALO PROFKIEMAJOHNBOSCO. "Aerolevantamento com Laserscanning .". In: Congresso Brasileiro de Cartografia. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2001. Abstract
This paper examines the influence of multisensor data fusion on the automatic extraction of topographic objects from SPOT panchromatic imagery. The suitability of various grey level co-occurence based texture measures, as well as different pixel windows is also investigated. It is observed that best results are obtained with a 3x3 pixel window and the texture measure homogeneity. The synthetic texture image derived together with a Landsat TM imagery are then fused with the SPOT data using the additional channel concept. The object feature base is expanded to include both spectral and spatial features. A maximum likelihood classification approach is then applied. It is demonstrated that the segmentation of topographic objects is significantly improved by fusing the multispectral and texture information.
Senerwa D;, Diamiano AW;, M K;, Kayihura M. "Aeromonas species from fish from Kenyan waters. .".; 1989.
Senerwa D;, Diamiano AW;, M K;, Kayihura M. "Aeromonas species from fish from Kenyan waters. .".; 1989.
Ang'u C, Muthama NJ, Mutai BK. "Aerosol Optical Depth Patterns Associated with Urbanization and Weather in Nairobi and Lamu." Journal of Meteorology and Related Sciences. 2015;8(3):26-40.
Ngaina JN, Opere A, Ininda JM, Muthama N. "Aerosol-Cloud Interactions in Deep Convective Clouds Over Equatorial East Africa." AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts. 2015. AbstractThe SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System

Deep convective clouds (DCCs) associated with tropical convection, are significant sources of precipitation in Equatorial East Africa. The DCCs play a fundamental role in hydrological and energy cycle. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with detailed bin-resolved microphysics are used to explore the diurnal variation of DCCs under maritime/clean and continental/polluted conditions. The sign and magnitude of the Twomey effect, droplet dispersion effect, cloud thickness effect, Cloud Optical Depth (COD) susceptibility to aerosol perturbations, and aerosol effects on clouds and precipitation is evaluated. Twomey effect emerges as dominant in total COD susceptibility to aerosol perturbations. The dispersion effect is positive and accounts for 3-10% of the total COD susceptibility at nighttime, with greater influence on heavier drizzling clouds. The cloud thickness effect is positive (negative) for a moderate/heavy drizzling (light thickness) clouds. The cloud thickness effect results in 5-22% of the nighttime total cloud susceptibility. Cloud microphysical properties and accumulated total precipitation show a complex relationship under varied aerosol conditions. The mean of core updraft and maximal vertical velocity increased (decreased) under low (high) CCN scenarios. Overall, the total COD susceptibility ranges from 0.28-0.53 at night; an increase in aerosol concentration enhances COD, especially with heavier precipitation and in a clean environment. During the daytime, the range of magnitude of each effect is more variable owing to cloud thinning and decoupling. The ratio of the magnitude of cloud thickness effect to that of the Twomey effect depends on cloud thickness and base height in unperturbed clouds while the response of precipitation to increase in aerosol concentration was non-monotonic.

Ngaina JN, Opere A, Ininda JM, Muthama N. "Aerosol-Cloud Interactions in Deep Convective Clouds Over Equatorial East Africa." AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts. 2015. Abstract SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep convective clouds (DCCs) associated with tropical convection, are significant sources of precipitation in Equatorial East Africa. The DCCs play a fundamental role in hydrological and energy cycle. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with detailed bin-resolved microphysics are used to explore the diurnal variation of DCCs under maritime/clean and continental/polluted conditions. The sign and magnitude of the Twomey effect, droplet dispersion effect, cloud thickness effect, Cloud Optical Depth (COD) susceptibility to aerosol perturbations, and aerosol effects on clouds and precipitation is evaluated. Twomey effect emerges as dominant in total COD susceptibility to aerosol perturbations. The dispersion effect is positive and accounts for 3-10% of the total COD susceptibility at nighttime, with greater influence on heavier drizzling clouds. The cloud thickness effect is positive (negative) for a moderate/heavy drizzling (light thickness) clouds. The cloud thickness effect results in 5-22% of the nighttime total cloud susceptibility. Cloud microphysical properties and accumulated total precipitation show a complex relationship under varied aerosol conditions. The mean of core updraft and maximal vertical velocity increased (decreased) under low (high) CCN scenarios. Overall, the total COD susceptibility ranges from 0.28-0.53 at night; an increase in aerosol concentration enhances COD, especially with heavier precipitation and in a clean environment. During the daytime, the range of magnitude of each effect is more variable owing to cloud thinning and decoupling. The ratio of the magnitude of cloud thickness effect to that of the Twomey effect depends on cloud thickness and base height in unperturbed clouds while the response of precipitation to increase in aerosol concentration was non-monotonic

PETER DRODOCHJOHN. "Aesthetic Persuasion: The Role of the Military in Restructuring Acholi Art.". In: African Studies Association Annual Meeting November 6-9, Baltimore. University of Nairobi Press; 1990. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
Okasha T, Mrumbi K, Kilonzo G, Musisi S, Szabo CP, editor Ndetei, D.M. "Aetiology in Psychiatry."; 2006.
Wafula EM, Tukei PM, Bell TM, Nzanze H, Ndinya-Achola JO, Hazlett DT, Ademba GR, Pamba A. "Aetiology of acute respiratory infections in children aged below 5 years in Kenyatta National Hospital.". 1985.Website
Wafula EM, Tukei PM, Bell TM, Nzanze H, Ndinya-Achola JO, Hazlett DT, Ademba GR, Pamba A. "Aetiology of acute respiratory infections in children aged below 5 years in Kenyatta National Hospital.". 1985.Website
Maitai CK. "Aetiology of cancer." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2011;14(2):32-33.
Okoth FA, Bowry TR, Shah MV, Gatei DG. "Aetiology of liver cirrhosis in Kenya.". 1986.Website
G PROFGATEIDAVID. "Aetiology of liver cirrhosis in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1986 Nov;63(11):724-30.". In: Br Heart J. 56(3): 285. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1986. Abstract
No abstract available. 
Magoha GAO. "Aetiology, diagnosis and management of haemospermia." East Afr Med J. 2007 . 2007;(Dec;84(12):):589-94. Abstract

To provide an overview of the aetiology, investigations and the various treatment methods currently available in the management of haemospermia. DATA SOURCE: Review of literature was effected through medline and index medicus search of major published indexed journals and books. DATA SELECTION: Published data on haemospermia, hemospermia, haematospermia and semen over the last five decades (1967-2007) were utilised. DATA EXTRACTION: Abstracts of selected articles were read and analysed to determine their possible contribution and relevance to this article. DATA SYNTHESIS: All relevant articles were reviewed in full and contribution extracted for this review as necessary. CONCLUSION: Haemospermia (haematospermia) is a relatively frequent, distressing and frightening symptom in sexually active men. It is usually a benign self-limiting condition resolving within several weeks except for the few with underlying aetiology including prostate malignancy and idiopathic. Patients presenting with haemospermia should have a detailed medical history, physical examillation including blood pressure measurement, genital and digital rectal examination. Persistent and recurrent haemospermia is best investigated by TRUS, CT, MRI, urethrocystoscopy, and biopsy and histological confirmation of malignancies. Specific treatment depends on the underlying pathological cause but often involves only minimal investigations and simple reassurance

Ngethe N, Subotzk G. "Afeti George.". 2008.Website
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Afework Aklilu, L. Eturu; and C. Ackello-Ogutu, (2005). Evaluation of AfDB Bank Group Assistance Strategy for the Agriculture and Rural Development Sector of Kenya. August, AfDB/Tunis. July.". In: COMESA Secretariat, Lusaka, Zambia; November. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2005.
Njeru EHN. "Affective Neutrality as a Missing Factor in African Kinship and Gender Dynamics.". 2002. AbstractWebsite

This paper is an anthropological presentation of the social structure, inequalities, kinship and gender dynamics incorporating the contextualisation of the five pattern variables as envisaged by Talcott Parsons. The background focuses generally on the African social exchange and property ownership relations. Attempts are made to establish a gendered relationship in which women are constantly on the receiving end, hence their predominance at the bottom of social ladder positions. In all cases, the application of the rules on the ground is seen to be dominated by cultural ethnocentrism. Particularistic considerations, or affectiveness, are lacking in the more universalistic, merit oriented and objective determinants, while the affective-neutrality criteria are essentially lacking in the mainstream African kinship ethos.

Kanyinga K. "The affidavit relating to graft is elaborate – we should use it!" Daily Nation, February 28, 2016.
M. PROFKABIRAWANJIKU. "Affirmative Action .". In: East African Medical Journal 68(9): 714-9. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1999. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
"AFFIRMATIVE ACTION AND MINORITY AND WOMEN FACULTY.". In: NAWDAC Annual Convention. San Francisco, California; 1981.
"AFFIRMATIVE ACTION AND MINORITY WOMEN: PROMISE OR DISSAPOINTMENT?". In: NAWE Annual Conference. San Antonio, Texas; 1991.
OWINO MISSOKETCHEMMA. "Affirmative Action and the Gender Agenda.". In: Strathmore University Press, 2006. Kisipan, M.L.; 2004. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) occurs in up to one fourth of patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). Some of the factors implicated in its causation include hypergastrinaemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism, drugs and, recently, Helicobacter pylori infection. Studies on the latter have been few, with none having been carried out in Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopic findings and to determine the prevalence of H. pylori in CRF patients with dyspepsia. STUDY DESIGN AND POPULATION: A prospective study of seventy seven consecutive patients with CRF and dyspepsia compared with consecutive age, sex and socio-economically matched seventy seven controls (no CRF) with dyspepsia. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), the major referral and teaching hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: In both the study population and the controls, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was carried out. H. pylori was tested for using the biopsy urease test and histology. Patients were considered to have H. pylori if they tested positive on both tests. OUTCOME MEASURES: Findings at endoscopy and presence of H. pylori. RESULTS: Inflammatory lesions (gastritis, duodenitis) (42%) and duodenal ulcers (18.4%) were the commonest findings in the two groups combined. The prevalence of H. pylori in the 154 subjects studied was 54.5%. There was no statistically significant difference between the prevalence of H. pylori in CRF patients (53.2%) and the controls (55.8%) (p = 0.746). Patients with endoscopically proven PUD had a very high prevalence of H. pylori (87.3%) regardless of their renal function status. CONCLUSION: Dyspepsia in patients with or without CRF was due to multiple causes and over 50% were attributable to H. pylori. The prevalence of H. pylon in dyspeptic CRF patients was similar to that in dyspeptic patients with normal renal function.
MUSEMBI MRNUNGUJOSEPH. "Affirmative Action and the Quest for University Education: The Case of Kenya.". In: Globalisation, Societies and Education, 6(4),409 - 414. Elimu Publishers; 1999. Abstract
Malaria is a major public health problem that is presently complicated by the development of resistance by Plasmodium falciparum to the mainstay drugs. Thus, new drugs with unique structures and mechanism of action are required to treat drug-resistant strains of malaria. Historically, compounds containing a novel structure from natural origin represent a major source for the discovery and development of new drugs for several diseases. This paper presents ethnophytotherapeutic remedies, ethnodiagnostic skills, and related traditional knowledge utilized by the Digo community of the Kenyan Coast to diagnose malaria as a lead to traditional bioprospecting. The current study was carried out in three Digo villages of Diani sub-location between May 2009 and December 2009. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, and open and close-ended questionnaires. A total of 60 respondents (34 men and 26 women) provided the targeted information. The results show that the indigenous knowledge of Digo community on malaria encompasses not only the symptoms of malaria but also the factors that are responsible for causing malaria, attributes favoring the breeding of mosquitoes and practices employed to guard against mosquito bites or to protect households against malaria. This knowledge is closely in harmony with scientific approaches to the treatment and control of the disease. The Digo community uses 60 medicinal plants distributed in 52 genera and 27 families to treat malaria. The most frequently mentioned symptoms were fever, joint pains, and vomiting while the most frequently mentioned practices employed to guard against mosquito bites and/or to protect households against malaria was burning of herbal plants such as Ocimum suave and ingestion of herbal decoctions and concoctions. The Digo community has abundant ethnodiagnostic skills for malaria which forms the basis of their traditional bioprospecting techniques. Keywords: malaria, antimalarials, ethnopharmacology, ethnodiagnostic skills, Digo community, bioprospecting
de Wallis CL, Papathanasopoulos MA LKKKSABLGSWTFSEAP, W S. "Affordable in-house antiretroviral drug resistance assay with good performance in non-subtype B HIV-1." J Virol Methods. . 2010;163(2):505-8.
Mwabu G, Arrow K, Danzon P, Gelband H, Jameson D, Laxminarayan R, Mills A, Panosian C, Peto R, White N. "Affordable Medicines Facility--malaria: killing it slowly." The Lancet. 2012;380(9857).
Mwanda OW. "Aflatoxicosis: health implications.". 2005. AbstractWebsite

Author:

Mwanda OW

Source:

East African Medical Journal. 2005 Jun; 273-274.

Abstract:

Aflatoxicosis remains unrecognised by medical professional experts till several people are involved yet the global scale would show that approximately 4-5 billion people living in developing countries are chronically exposed to unacceptable aflatoxin levels. There is also no comprehensive data set from which to evaluate the exact extent and severity of biological exposure and direct measurements(1). Aflatoxin is a common contaminant of food particularly the staple diets of many developing countries. The toxin is produced by a fungal action during food production, harvest, storage and processing. The most affected are grains, rice, maize/corn; others are cassava, nuts, peanuts, chilies and spices. The toxins are produced as secondary metabolites by Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus parasiticus fungi when the temperatures are between 24°C and 35°C and the moisture content exceeds 7% to 10%. These conditions are prevalent in geographical latitudes between 40° N and 40° S of the equator.

Sirma AJ, Senerwa DM, Lindahl. JF, D G, K M, Mtimet N, EK K’ethe. "Aflatoxin B1 occurrence in Millet, Sorghum, and maize from four agro-ecological zones in Kenya. ." African Journal of Food Nutrition and Development. 2016;16:10991-11003:10991-11003.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Aflatoxin contamination in fermented and germinated products in Kenya. Proceedings 3rd Biennial Seminar on African fermented foods. In Traditional fermented food processing in Africa. Ed. M.Halm and M. Jakobsen, pp 103 .". In: 30th European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition (ESPGAN). 22nd May 1997. Thessaloniki, Greece. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1996. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Kibwage IO, Hausler T, Luy B, Kuballa T, Rehm J, Lachenmeier DW. "Aflatoxin contamination in unrecorded beers from Kenya – A health risk beyond ethanol." Food Control. 2017;79:344-348. Abstract

Samples of unrecorded opaque beers (n=58; 40 based on maize, 5 on sorghum and 13 on other plants) and recorded wines (n=8) in Kenya were screened for aflatoxins using a rapid ELISA technique followed by confirmation using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Six of the maize beers were obtained from Kibera slums in Nairobi County. Aflatoxin contamination was detected in six unrecorded beers (10%), but in none of the recorded wines. Remarkably, three of the aflatoxin positive samples were from the Kibera slums.
The concentration of aflatoxins in the positive samples had a mean of 3.5 µg/L (range 1.8–6.8 µg/L), corresponding for an average consumption of 500 mL (1 standard drink) to a margin of exposure (MOE) of 36 (range: 15–58), which is considered as risk. On the other hand, the alcoholic strength of the aflatoxin positive samples had a mean of 4.3% vol (range 3.5-4.8%) corresponding to a MOE of 2.5 (range of 2.2-3.0) for the equivalent consumption volume. While aflatoxins pose a risk to the consumer, this risk is about 10 times lower than the risk of ethanol.
The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives sets no acceptable daily intake for aflatoxins since they are genotoxic carcinogens and instead recommends for the reduction of aflatoxin dietary exposure as an important public health goal, particularly in populations who consume high levels of any potentially aflatoxins contaminated food. Nevertheless, ethanol still posed a considerably higher risk in the unrecorded beers examined. However, consumers should be informed about aflatoxins, as these are an involuntary and unknown risk to them. In addition, producers should be educated about measures to reduce aflatoxins.

Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Kibwage IO, Hausler T, Luy B, Kuballa T, Rehm J, Lachenmeier DW. "Aflatoxin contamination in unrecorded beers from Kenya – A health risk beyond ethanol." Food Control. 2017;79(9):344-348.Website
Udomkun P, Wiredu AN, Mutegi C, Atehnkeng J, Nagle M, Nielsen F, Müller J, Vanlauwe B, Bandyopadhyay R. "Aflatoxin distribution in crop products from Burundi and Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.". 2017:1.
Autrup H, Seremet T, Wakhisi J, Wasunna A. "Aflatoxin exposure measured by urinary excretion of aflatoxin B1-guanine adduct and hepatitis B virus infection in areas with different liver cancer incidence in Kenya." Cancer Res.. 1987;47(13):3430-3. Abstract

Two major etiological agents, hepatitis B virus and aflatoxin B1, are considered to be involved in the induction of liver cancer in Africa. In order to elucidate any synergistic effect of these two agents we conducted a study in various parts of Kenya with different liver cancer incidence in order to establish the rate of exposure to aflatoxin and the prevalence of hepatitis infections. Of all tested individuals 12.6% were positive for aflatoxin exposure as indicated by the urinary excretion of aflatoxin B1-guanine. Assuming no annual and seasonal variation, a regional variation in the exposure was observed. The highest rate of aflatoxin exposure was found in the Western Highlands and Central Province. The incidence of hepatitis infection nationwide as measured by the presence of the surface antigens was 10.6%, but a wide regional variation was observed. A multiplicative and additive regression analysis to investigate if hepatitis and aflatoxin exposure had a synergetic effect in the induction of liver cancer was negative. However, a moderate degree of correlation between the exposure to aflatoxin and liver cancer was observed when the study was limited to certain ethnic groups. The study gives additional support to the hypothesis that aflatoxin is a human liver carcinogen.

Laila A, Mwangi C, Uku J, Ndirangu S. "Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. 2012 . 1 (1): 19-23 A KeSoBAP Publication ©2012 . All rights reserved. 19 Antimicrobial activity of various extracts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla (Echinoidea).". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Background: Marine invertebrates rely solely on innate immune mechanisms, the cellular component of which is characterized by hemocytes that phagocytize microbe s and secrete soluble antimicrobial and cytotoxic s ubstances. In this regard, marine invertebrates are a potential s ource of promising antimicrobial compounds with nov el mechanisms of action. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate extrac ts of the gut, gonad, spines and mouth parts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla for antimicrobial and haemolytic activities in vitro . Methods: Potentially bioactive metabolites were extracted u sing methanol and chloroform and tested for activit y against Salmonella typhi , Escherichia coli , Shigella sonnei , Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Penicillium spp. using the agar disc diffusion method. Toxicity was determined by a ssaying for hemolysis against human red blood cells . Results: Bioactivity against the tested bacteria was observ ed mainly with the methanol and chloroform extracts of the gonads and gut. Higher antibacterial activity was p resent in the methanol extracts compared to chlorof orm extracts. Activity against the Penicillium spp was detected only in the methanol extracts, while the chloroform extracts showed no activity. The various extracts of the sea urchin lacked any detectable hemolytic activity against h uman erythrocytes. Discussion: These research findings suggest that marine echino derms are a potential source of novel antimicrobial compounds.

M DRKEMOLIARTHUR. "AFRAS, Journal of African and Asian Studies, University of Sussex.". In: UoN Press. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1972. Abstract

n/a

R.S. O. "Africa."; 2011. Abstract
n/a
M DRKEMOLIARTHUR. "Africa and Diaspora, Teaching Literature in Kenya Schools.Kenya Literature Bureau.". In: UoN Press. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1980. Abstract

n/a

Dorothy McCormick. "Africa and Its Emerging Development Partners: Helping or Hindering Industrialisation.". In: OECD Development Centre. Paris.; 2011.
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Africa and the Global Economic System: The Dependency syndrome.". In: in Kivuto Ndeti and Kenneth R. Gray (ed.), The |Second Scramble for Africa: A Response and a Critical Analysis of the Challenges facing Contemporary Sub-Saharan Africa. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1992. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
P. PROFSITUMAFRANCISD. "Africa and the Implementation of International environmental Law in University of Iowa College of Law Journal (Fall 2000,forthcoming)."; 2000. Abstract

New Directions in water legislation in Kenya?. A Paper presented as the National Workshop on environmental Governance in kenya, held at the UNEP Headquarters Gigiri, Nairobi, March 29-30. 2000

F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "Africa and the Islands by R.J. Harrison Church of Others.". In: A Review in Journal of Modern African Studies Vol. 3 No.1, pp.145-147, March 1965. UN-HABITAT; 1965. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
Mwega F, Muga KL, Oyejide A, Lyakurwa W, Njinkeu D. "Africa and the World Trading System: The Case of Kenya." New Jersey: Third World Press; 2007.
O DROPEREALFRED. "Africa Environment Outlook-2 (AEO-2), 2006: Chapter 4: Freshwater; p119-154 Lead Authors: Kevin Pietersen, Hans Beekman Contributing Authors: Allali Abdelkader, Hesham Ghany, Alfred Opere, Eric Odada, Tenalem Ayenew, Dagnachew Legesse, Luc Sigha-Nkamdjou,.". In: Vulnerability to Climate-Induced Highland Malaria in East AIACC Working Paper No.25; 47pp. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2006. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
Kevin Pietersen, Hans BeekmanAllali Abdelkader HGAOEOTADLLS. Africa Environment Outlook2 (AEO2).; 2006.
O DROPEREALFRED. "Africa Global Change Synthesis (AGS) book, 2006: Chapter 8: Water resources and global change. Global Change Processes and Impacts in Africa; pp.152-172. Lead Author: A. Opere; Contributing Authors: I. Saayman and F. Githui.". In: Vulnerability to Climate-Induced Highland Malaria in East AIACC Working Paper No.25; 47pp. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2006. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
Mureithi L, Wilson P, Sall A. "Africa In The Global Scenarios.". 2005.Website
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Africa in the World Economy". Paper Presented at an OAU Workshop on Africa's Priorit Programme for Economic recovery (APPER) in Mombasa, Kenya.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1987. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
Genga EK, Oyoo O, Espinoza LR, Adebajo A. "Africa Journal of Rheumatology: enhancing the visibility of rheumatology in Africa.". 2017. Abstractajr_enhancing_the_visibility_of_rheumatology_in_africa_2017-clinical_rheumatology.pdf

Africa Journal of Rheumatology: enhancing the visibility
of rheumatology in Africa
Eugene K. Genga1,2 & Omondi Oyoo1,2 & Luis R. Espinoza3 & Adewale Adebajo4
Received: 5 July 2017 /Accepted: 10 July 2017
# International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR) 2017
Clinical Rheumatology welcomes the African Journal of
Rheumatology as an important development for the furtherance
of rheumatological scholarship and education on the
African continent and for rheumatology research in
Africans. It is hoped that this development will in turn raise
the profile of rheumatological conditions in Africa and among
Africans. In particular, it is hoped that this will lead to the
much needed collection of African musculoskeletal epidemiological
and health services data, assist in the training of
African rheumatologists, help to open up African rheumatology
to the global rheumatology community, and ultimately
improve the quality of care for myriads of Africans with rheumatic
disorders.
The current population of Africa is 1,241,858,354
which is equivalent to 16.36% of the total world population
based on the latest United Nations estimates [1].
There are many challenges facing Africa including limited
financial resources, misuse of finances, malnutrition, poor
water, and sanitation among others. Despite these many
challenges faced in Africa, in recent times, the continent
has undergone rapid economic growth and development.
The available healthcare resources are overburdened by
the high burden of communicable diseases and the rising
prevalence of non-communicable diseases. Rheumatic
diseases are therefore not considered a high priority by
the various African governments. Part of the reason for
this is due to the limited epidemiological data on rheumatic
diseases and their burden in Africa. Scientific
journals play a central role in the dissemination of research
results which will ultimately impact on policy
change. Horton et al. [2] noted that researchers and policy
makers in developing countries believe that the main way
to solve problems of developing countries is by using
information from Western research rather than using local
data to solve regional problems. He, however, noted that
in Africa “there is already a well-developed local information
culture that needs support, not swamping,” noting,
moreover, the lack of African journals in MEDLINE [2].
Researchers in Africa and the developing world require
access not only as readers but also as authors: for them
to feel part of the global science community, they need
not only to obtain information but also to be able to contribute
to it and take part in the global discourse. The
continent’s resources are prioritized towards infectious
diseases like HIV and malaria over the now increasing
non-communicable diseases. Data on rheumatic diseases
in Africa has been limited partly due to lack of infrastructure
thus under diagnosis but also due to low scholarly
output. Thus, the Africa Journal of Rheumatology was
born. Since its inception 5 years ago, it has provided an
uninterrupted forum through which medical practitioners
and scientists from Africa and beyond can publish their
rheumatology research. It has become a rich source of
information about rheumatic disorders in the continent
and a timely addition to our worldwide rheumatology
community [3]. The journal has published various research
articles on diseases once thought to be rare in Africa. They
* Adewale Adebajo
a.o.adebajo@sheffield.ac.uk
1 Department of Clinical Medicine and Therapeutics, College of
Health Sciences, University of Nairobi/Kenyatta National Hospital,
Nairobi, Kenya
2 Nairobi Arthritis Clinic, Nairobi, Kenya
3 Louisiana State University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA,
USA
4 Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health, University of Sheffield,
Sheffield, UK
Clin Rheumatol
DOI 10.1007/s10067-017-3761-z
range from rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, gout, myositis to rheumatology
in HIV. Research articles published in the journal
shows rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, systemic
lupus erythematosus, and antiphospholipid syndrome to
be increasing in frequency in the indigenous populations of
East, West, Central, and Southern Africa [4–7]. The HIV pandemic
has changed the epidemiological spectrum of diseases
in Africa. It has led to an increase in a variety of previously
rarely seen conditions like spondyloarthropathies, fibromyalgia,
pyomyositis, and scleroderma. Various scholars have
shared their experiences in the journal [8–12]. The journal
has also provided a forum through which scholars have been
able to share their experiences in management of the rheumatic
diseases with biologic therapy. The results have been similar
to data from around the world [13, 14]. Case reports of rare
diseases and review articles have not been left out and have
enriched the content of the journal bringing diversity in the
articles published.
The visibility of the journal is hampered by the low scholarly
output. This is in part due to severe limitations in the
overall economic development and especially in research infrastructure.
Researchers have limited access to funding for
research as most African countries have no national agencies
that are responsible for research. This is compounded by limitations
in scientific writing, designing, and conducting research
and in reporting the results. Partnership with international
journals like the African Journal Partnership Project is
welcome to bridge that gap by training African health researchers
to improve the quality and visibility of their research
and make the Africa journal of rheumatology a better resource
for local researchers and policy makers [15].
This journal has become a site for exchange of knowledge
of local rheumatic diseases, research, and debate and providing
a forum through which international research can be made
applicable to the African set-up. The Africa Journal of
Rheumatology encourages international agencies, which conduct
research in the region to support the journal through
submission of research and subscription to the publication. It
is our hope that this journal will provide a big step to bridge
the big gaps in rheumatology in Africa.
Compliance with ethical standards
Disclosures None.
References
1. Worldometers (2017) (www.Worldometers.info)
2. Horton R (2000a) Development aid: manna or myth? Lancet 356:
1044–1045
3. Espinoza LR (2014) Welcoming an African asset: African Journal
of Rheumatology. Afr J Rheumatol 2(2):47–48
4. Otieno FO, Moots RJ, Oyoo GO (2017) Rheumatoid arthritis in
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Antiphospholipid syndrome in Africa: a review. Afr J Rheumatol
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pain at Comprehensive Care Clinic, Kenyatta National
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Libyan patients with rheumatic diseases. Afr J Rheumatol 5(1):19–
23
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countries. Croat Med J 49:681–683

Dorothy McCormick. "Africa Productive Capacity Initiative.". In: Africa Productive Capacity Initiative. Vienna: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2003. Abstract

n/a

ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "Africa Regional Development Forum: A Synthesis of Policy Issues and Responses To Local and Regional Development Forum Convenor UNCRD Global Forum on Regional Development Policy 1 to 4 December, 1998, Nagoya, Japan.". In: Reflections on Management of Drainage Basins in Africa, IDS Occasional Paper No.51. International Union of Crystallography; 1998. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
M ENGDROGOLAJULIUS. "Africa Technology Policy Studies (ATPS) workshop of Researchers, Harare, Zimbabwe June 15.". In: E.A. Medical J. 58: 593-600. The Kenya Medical Association; 1992. Abstract

The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.

author Jesse N.K. Mugambi. ""Africa".". In: Atlas of Global Christianity. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press; 2010.
O. OL. "Africa's Poverty Trap: What Role the Mass Media?". Peter Desbarats and Phillis Giroux (eds.) Encounter 91. London, ON.: The University of Western Ontario; 1992. Abstract
n/a
"Africa's Resurgence and International Migration: An Overview.". 2006. Abstract

In this issue, geography, market integration and institutions are identified as the fundamental constraints on Africa's future prosperity. It is pointed out that, in line with the recommendations of The Report of the Commission for Africa, African governments and international partners can ameliorate the effects of these constraints through: investing in governance, peace and security; improving the investment climate by articulating and implementing suitable policies; improving the infrastructure; diversifying the economic base; and removing trade and non-trade barriers to intra-African trade as well as Africa's beneficial integration into the global economy. Also in this issue, the point is made that the widening gaps between Africa's economies and those of the industrialized nations contribute to the high levels of migration from Africa to the developed world. It is concluded that the developed nations need to support Africa's resurgence in order to reduce the poverty levels and improve economic growth prospects in Africa thereby reduce the pressure on the developed countries to control the influx of (unwanted) low skilled Africans to their countries, save them the cost and consequences of preventing the surge, and ameliorate other negative externalities associated with such migrants. Supporting Africa's resurgence will ensure that Africa does not lag behind yielding the associated benefit of reduced pressure for skilled and unskilled persons to migrate out of Africa and avoidance of perverse spatial distribution of people; the consequences of which can only be imagined.

IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Africa-USA Trade.". In: The Fourth annual East African-American Studies Colloqium, Thika. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1993. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. ""Africa: An Economic Outlook": Paper presented at an SGS International Trade Seminar at Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1988. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
Nzioka C. "Africa: HIV and AIDS in Higher Education." International Institute for Educational Planning Newsletter . Vol. XXV No. 1: (2009):7-8.
J. DRMAINASYLVESTER. "Africa: The Art of a continent. Deutschland. A magazine on politics, culture, business an science.". In: Bonn, Germany. Elsevier; 1996. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
Magutu PJ. "AFRICAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES WORKSHOP Naivasha, Kenya.". In: Scientific Research in Africa, Anecdotes on Field Research and Experience in Africa: Findings and Prospects, in Whydah,. in Whydah, Vol. 2, No.3. ; 1990.
Thairu PK. The African and The AIDS Holocaust. Nairobi: Phoenix Publishers ; 2007.
Nyamongo I(ed.)K. "The African Anthropologist.". 1994.Website
MASU DRSYLVESTER. "African Architecture and Planning in the 21st century. The challenge of our time November, 24-25, 1994.". In: journal. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1994. Abstract
Bovine foscioliosis coused by F. giganticais widespread in   There is a large collection of reports of fasciolosis in Kenya based on  abattoir data records from veterinary investigation laboratories (VILS) as well as reports on a few farm study was carried out to improve on the reports.  Diagnosis of fasciola infection has traditionally been based on detection of typical eggs in the faeces.  A variety of other techniques are now available eg enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which has shown to be sensitive and useful. Three agro-ecological zoned were defined depending on the reported prevalence; high risk, medium risk and low risk zones.  Two study districts were picked at random from each zone.  The study farms were selected using the two stage cluster sampling. Faecal and blood samples were collected on the farm.  Serum was later harvested.  ELISA and faecal sedimatation tests (FST) were carried out. A total of 2434 faecal and blood samples were screened.  ELISA achieved the highest (66%) positive rate of the samples from Kwale district and the lowest (23%) rate in Nakuru.  An overall positive prevalence of (43%) for fasciolosis was achieved.  The faecal sedimentation test showed prevalence of 19%.  In both tests high prevalence were observed in Kwale and Kilifi districts.  ELSA was always positive when FST was positive but not the converse. The on-famr survey utilizing two reliable diagnostic tests was meant to improve on existing abattoir reports.  Both tests showed fair to good agreements.  The higher detection by ELISA might be due to deworming and other reasons.  It was concluded that on-farm surveys are better than retrogressive studies; thought the latter are cheaper and faster.,  the current prevalence of fasciolosis are different from past reports with coastal showing higher than expected prevalences.
J. DRMAINASYLVESTER. "African Art.". In: Emory, USA. Elsevier; 1993. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
M. MJ, Tiagha WE, Mwaura M. "African Banking Systems." a chapter in a book titled MANAGEMENT OF ORGANISATIONS IN AFRICA . 1995;Vol.2 .
Odada E, Crossland JJM, Kremer HH, Salomons W, Arthurton RS. African Basins: LOICZ Global Change Assessment and Synthesis of River Catchment-Coastal Sea Interactions and Human Dimensions.. The Netherlands: LOICZ, Texel, The Netherlands; 2002. AbstractLOICZ

The Land ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ)core project of the International Geosphere Biosphere Project, IGBP, is evaluating the physical, biogeochemical and human interactions influencing coastal change.

Oucho JO. "African Brain Drain and Gain, Diaspora and Remittances: More Rhetoric than Action.". In: International Migration and National Development in sub-Saharan Africa. Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers; 2008.
Dorothy McCormick. "African Business Systems in a Globalising World.". In: Firm-Level Institutions in Small-Scale Garment Producers in Nairobi. Machakos, Kenya: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1999. Abstract

n/a

African Capacity Enhancement Programme (ACEP) leading to Post Graduate Certificate in Material Development in Open, Distance and e-Learning. African Virtual University (AVU) and Association of Colleges and Universities of Canada; Submitted.
African Capacity Enhancement Programme (ACEP),. Dakar: Distance Material Development and Delivery through e-learning; 2008.

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