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2020
Charles AO, Musembi RJ, Aduda BO, Ogacho A, Jain P. "Photo-thermal Conversion Efficiency of Textured and Untextured Aluminum Substrate Coated with Titanium Dioxide (TiO2)-bound CuFeMnO4 Absorber." American Journal of Modern Energy. 2020;6(1):9-15. AbstractJournal Article Website

The possibility of obtaining thermal energy from the sun for household bathing and washing has resulted to growth in market for solar thermal applications with new types of solar absorbers currently being investigated either to compliment or to replace existing ones. This study focuses on CuFeMnO4 absorber paint by addressing aspects which have little attention regarding improvement of optical absorption for higher efficiency such as texturing the metal substrates on which to coat CuFeMnO4 absorber paint. In this study, texturing was done controllably in order to match the incoming solar radiation wavelength and the surface topography and morphology. Textured and untextured aluminum sheets coated with titanium dioxide (TiO2)-bound CuFeMnO4 absorber paint were used to fabricate prototype flat plate solar thermal collectors. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) was chosen here as binder to a spectrally selective CuFeMnO4 absorber paint. The TiO2-bound CuFeMnO4 absorber paint was applied by a simple, cheap and up-scalable dip coating method over the aluminum sheets. The aluminum sheets were electro-chemically textured to enhance optical absorption and photo-thermal conversion efficiency for both the textured and untextured prototypes were compared. The efficiency characterization of the prototype collectors was done by measuring the global solar irradiance, fluid inlet, fluid outlet and ambient temperature. Both instantaneous and steady-state efficiencies were determined mathematically, and it was found that the prototype collector whose absorber plates were textured recorded higher instantaneous and steady-state efficiencies compared to the collector fabricated from untextured aluminum plates.
Keywords: Aluminum, Texturing, Conversion Efficiency, Solar Energy, (TiO2)-bound, CuFeMnO4

and D.K. TKPK. "Photocatalytic Degradation of 4-Chlorophenol by Titanium Dioxide: Role of Annealing Temperature and Morphology." and Journal of Applied Science Environment Management. 2020;24(1):5-12.
DK Inoti, Mbugua PN, Gachuiri CK, Maina JG. "Physical and chemical characteristics of limestone for use in layer feeds in Kenya." Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2020;37(3):242-246.
Langat MK, Djuidje EFK, Ndunda BM, Isyaka SM, Dolan NS, Ettridge GD, Whitmore H, Lopez I, Alqahtani AM, Atiku I, Lobe JS, Mas-Claret E, Crouch NR, Midiwo JO, Mulholland DA, Kamdem AFW. "The phytochemical investigation of five African Croton species: Croton oligandrus, Croton megalocarpus, Croton menyharthii, Croton rivularis and Croton megalobotrys." Phytochemistry Letters. 2020;40:148-155. AbstractPhytochemistry Letters

Description
The chemistry of five African Croton taxa, Croton oligandrus Pierre ex Hutch., Croton megalocarpus Hutch., Croton menyharthii Pax, Croton rivularis Mull.Arg. and Croton megalobotrys Mull.Arg. is described. The undescribed ent-19-hydroxyisopimara-8(9),15-dien-7-one and ent-isopimara-7(8),15-dien-16,19-diol were isolated from the fruits of C. oligandrus, ent-isopimara-7(8),15-dien-19-yl octadecanoate was obtained from both the fruits and leaves, and ent-19-hydroxyisopimara-8(9),15-dien-7-one was isolated from the leaves of this species. The undescribed 3,4,15,16-diepoxy-8α-hydroxycleroda-13(16),14-dien-12S,17-olide and (5S,9R,10S)-7,13-ent-abietadien-2-one were isolated from the leaves and roots of C. megalocarpus respectively. Compounds isolated from C. menyharthii, C. rivularis and C. megalobotrys have been reported from other sources. The structures of the compounds were determined using …

O. A’G, T. M, W. OM, F. N’ang’a, G. O’P, M. MD, D. M, M. A, S G. "Phytochemicals in leaves and roots of selected Kenyan orange fleshed Sweet potato (OFSP) varieties. International Journal of Food Science." International Journal of Food Science . 2020;2020(1-2):1-11.
Awori MN, Mehta NP, Kebba N, Mutie JM. "Possible impairment of surgical decision making and confounded outcome in Fontan surgery by Nakata Index." African Annals of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 2020. AbstractWebsite

Since cardiac structuring dimensions inform surgical decisions making, Z-score systematic error impairs surgical decision making and confounds outcome measurement, hence a similar error may affect the Nakata index. In this study, PubMed was searched using the terms: “pulmonary,” “artery,” “size,” “Nakata,” “Fontan,” and “outcome”. Studies that did not describe the outcome of the Fontan procedure and the size of the branch pulmonary arteries were excluded. Outcome measures of interest, in relation to BPA size, included: Operative mortality, Fontan “take-down”, length of ICU stay, pleural effusions and functional capacity. The results revealed that of 116 papers retrieved, 9 were included representing 1,042 patients who underwent the Fontan procedure. Six out of 9 papers representing 645 (61.9%) patients reported that BPA size had no relationship with the outcome of the Fontan procedure; while 2 out of 9 papers representing 366 (35.1%) patients found that BPA size did affect the outcome. One paper representing 31 (3%) patients was unable to find any relationship. All the papers that concluded that there was no relationship labelled normal sized BPAs as small because of a systematic error introduced by the Nakata index. Papers that found a relationship did not use the Nakata index. Thus, Nakata index systematic error may impair surgical decision making and confound outcome measurement in Fontan surgery. In addition, continued use of the Fontan index may have similar implications for other congenital heart lesions.

BeboraLillyCaroline, OdongoMahacla. Practical Bacteriology and Mycology Manual for Veterinary Students. Mauritius: Lap Lambert Academic Publishing; 2020.
Atilaw Y, Muiva-Mutisya L, Bogaerts J, Duffy S, Valkonen A, Heydenreich M, Avery VM, Rissanen K, Erdélyi M, Yenesew A. "Prenylated Flavonoids from the Roots of Tephrosia rhodesica." Journal of natural products. 2020;83(8):2390-2398. AbstractJournal of Natural Products

Description
Five new compounds—rhodimer (1), rhodiflavan A (2), rhodiflavan B (3), rhodiflavan C (4), and rhodacarpin (5)—along with 16 known secondary metabolites, were isolated from the CH2Cl2–CH3OH (1:1) extract of the roots of Tephrosia rhodesica. They were identified by NMR spectroscopic, mass spectrometric, X-ray crystallographic, and ECD spectroscopic analyses. The crude extract and the isolated compounds 2–5, 9, 15, and 21 showed activity (100% at 10 μg and IC50 = 5–15 μM) against the chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) strain of Plasmodium falciparum.

W Awuor, Muthumbi AWN, Robertson-Andersson DV. "Presence of microplastics in benthic macroinvertebrates along the Kenyan coast." African Journal of Marine Science. 2020;42(4):405-411.
Umuhoza T, Bulimo WD, Oyugi J, Schnabel D, Mancuso JD. "Prevalence and factors influencing the distribution of influenza viruses in Kenya: Seven-year hospital-based surveillance of influenza-like illness (2007-2013)." PLoS One. 2020;15(8):e0237857. Abstractumuhoza_et_al_2020.pdfWebsite

BACKGROUND: Influenza viruses remain a global threat with the potential to trigger outbreaks and pandemics. Globally, seasonal influenza viruses' mortality range from 291 243-645 832 annually, of which 17% occurs in Sub-Saharan Africa. We sought to estimate the overall prevalence of influenza infections in Kenya, identifying factors influencing the distribution of these infections, and describe trends in occurrence from 2007 to 2013. METHODS: Surveillance was conducted at eight district hospital sites countrywide. Participants who met the case definition for influenza-like illness were enrolled in the surveillance program. The nasopharyngeal specimens were collected from all participants. We tested all specimens for influenza viruses with quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay. Bivariate and multivariate log-binomial regression was performed with a statistically significant level of p<0.005. An administrative map of Kenya was used to locate the geographical distribution of surveillance sites in counties. We visualized the monthly trend of influenza viruses with a graph and chart using exponential smoothing at a damping factor of 0.5 over the study period (2007-2013). RESULTS: A total of 17446 participants enrolled in the program. The overall prevalence of influenza viruses was 19% (n = 3230), of which 76% (n = 2449) were type A, 21% (n = 669) type B and 3% (n = 112) A/ B coinfection. Of those with type A, 59% (n = 1451) were not subtyped. Seasonal influenza A/H3N2 was found in 48% (n = 475), influenza A/H1N1/pdm 2009 in 43% (n = 434), and seasonal influenza A/ H1N1 in 9% (n = 88) participants. Both genders were represented, whereas a large proportion of participants 55% were

Muyodi MM, Bhatt KM, KAYIMA JK. "PREVALENCE OF AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE IN OSTEOARTHRITIS PATIENTS AT KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL." EAOJ. 2020;14(2):72-80. Abstractprevalence_of_and_factors_associated_with_ckd_in_osteoarthritis.pdf

Background: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a global health problem with an increase in prevalence especially
in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It has a high morbidity and mortality. CKD and osteoarthritis (OA) are related as
they both increase with age and are associated with comorbidities e.g. hypertension, obesity etc. However,
there is limited evidence on the prevalence and associated risk factors of CKD among OA patients.
Objective: To assess the prevalence and factors associated with CKD in OA patients attending Rheumatology
and Orthopaedic clinics at Kenyatta National Hospital.
Design: A hospital-based descriptive cross-sectional study.
Methods: The study was conducted between November 2019 and January 2020 involving patients aged 18
years and above; being followed up in the rheumatology and orthopaedic clinics at Kenyatta National Hospital
with a diagnosis of knee, hip, spine and hand osteoarthritis based on the American College of Rheumatology
criteria. Chronic kidney disease was defined as an eGFR of less than or equal to 60 ml/min/1.73m2
and/or
proteinuria of 30 mg/dl detected on urinary dipstick for three months or more. Descriptive statistics were
used to describe the participants. Association between participants’ characteristics and CKD prevalence were
assessed using chi-square and factors associated with CKD among OA patients using bivariate and multivariable
logistic regressions.
Results: The overall prevalence of CKD among patients with osteoarthritis was 61.9% (56.4–66.3) as per eGFR
using Cockrauft Gault (CG). Most were in CKD stage 3 at 59.2% with 45.5% in G3a and 13.7% in G3b. One point
one percent were in stage 1, 38.3% in stage 2 and 1.4% were in CKD stage 4 and 5. Only 12.1% of the respondents
had persistent proteinuria and thus most of the patients had low and moderate risk for CKD progression at
38% and 38.2% respectively. Only 12.1% and 11.6% had high and very high risk for CKD progression. The CKD
prevalence increased with age, being highest among older adults (65+ years). The prevalence was higher
among men than women (65.9%, 95% CI: 54.7–75.5 vs. 60.2%, 95% CI: 54.4–65.7). The factors associated with
CKD in OA were old age, hypertension and poor and fair self-rated health which increased the odds of CKD
while moderate physical activity, overweight/obesity and use of more than one medication (NSAID/ACEI/ARB)
reduced the odds of CKD.
Conclusion: This study provides evidence that osteoarthritis is associated with a high prevalence of CKD.
However, most of the patients are asymptomatic and in low and moderate risk category based on Kidney
Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) nomenclature. Osteoarthritis patients should be considered a
high-risk group for chronic kidney disease given their older age, chronic use of NSAIDs and high prevalence of
comorbidities e.g. hypertension, overweight/obesity which are known risk factors for CKD. Screening for CKD
in OA patients should therefore be done routinely as is the case in other high risk groups e.g. diabetes.

Mbindyo C, Gitao C, Mulei C. "Prevalence, Etiology, and Risk Factors of Mastitis in Dairy Cattle in Embu and Kajiado Counties, Kenya." Veterinary Medicine International. 2020;Volume 2020 |Article ID 8831172 | 12 pages (https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/8831172):12 pages.
Kiuri J, MARU S, Ndwigah SN. "Product Evaluation of Carbamazepine 200mg Controlled Release Tablets using an in vitro-in vivo Correlation Simulation Model. ." The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2020;23(2):60-66.
Simon Patrick Baenyi, Junga JO, Christian Keambou Tiambo, Ahadi Bwihangane Birindwa, Katcho Karume, Getinet Mekuriaw Tarekegn, Ochieng JW. "Production Systems, Genetic Diversity and Genes Associated with Prolificacy and Milk Production in Indigenous Goats of Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review." Scientific Research Publishing. 2020;10(4):735-749.
Simon Patrick Baenyi, Junga JO, Christian Keambou Tiambo, Ahadi Bwihangane Birindwa, Katcho Karume, Getinet Mekuriaw Tarekegn, Ochieng JW. "Production Systems, Genetic Diversity and Genes Associated with Prolificacy and Milk Production in Indigenous Goats of Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review." Open Journal of Animal Sciences. 2020;10(4):735-749.
Simon Patrick Baenyi, Junga JO, Christian Keambou Tiambo, Ahadi Bwihangane Birindwa, Katcho Karume, Getinet Mekuriaw Tarekegn, Ochieng JW. "Production Systems, Genetic Diversity and Genes Associated with Prolificacy and Milk Production in Indigenous Goats of Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review." Open Journal of Animal Sciences. 2020;10(4):735-749.
Morris Ogero, Rachel Jelagat Sarguta, Malla L, Aluvaala J, Agweyu A, English M, Onyango NO, Akech S. "Prognostic models for predicting in-hospital paediatric mortality in resource-limited countries: a systematic review." BMJ open. 2020;10(10):035045. AbstractWebsite

Objectives
To identify and appraise the methodological rigour of multivariable prognostic models predicting in-hospital paediatric mortality in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs).
Design
Systematic review of peer-reviewed journals.
Data sources
MEDLINE, CINAHL, Google Scholar and Web of Science electronic databases since inception to August 2019.
Eligibility criteria
We included model development studies predicting in-hospital paediatric mortality in LMIC.
Data extraction and synthesis
This systematic review followed the Checklist for critical Appraisal and data extraction for systematic Reviews of prediction Modelling Studies framework. The risk of bias assessment was conducted using Prediction model Risk of Bias Assessment Tool (PROBAST). No quantitative summary was conducted due to substantial heterogeneity that was observed after assessing the studies included.

Morris Ogero, Rachel Jelagat Sarguta, Malla L, Aluvaala J, Agweyu A, English M, Onyango NO, Akech S. "Prognostic models for predicting in-hospital paediatric mortality in resource-limited countries: a systematic review." BMJ open. 2020;10(10):035045. AbstractWebsite

Objectives
To identify and appraise the methodological rigour of multivariable prognostic models predicting in-hospital paediatric mortality in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs).
Design
Systematic review of peer-reviewed journals.
Data sources
MEDLINE, CINAHL, Google Scholar and Web of Science electronic databases since inception to August 2019.
Eligibility criteria
We included model development studies predicting in-hospital paediatric mortality in LMIC.
Data extraction and synthesis
This systematic review followed the Checklist for critical Appraisal and data extraction for systematic Reviews of prediction Modelling Studies framework. The risk of bias assessment was conducted using Prediction model Risk of Bias Assessment Tool (PROBAST). No quantitative summary was conducted due to substantial heterogeneity that was observed after assessing the studies included.

Mwangi IK(2020). "Proposing a Conceptual Model of Planning Methodology in Public Domain." Africa Habitat Review . 2020;Vol. 14, No.3,(ISSB 2519-7851).
"Proverbs and Enculturation: The Gender Convergence of Kiswahili and Ekegusii Proverbs ." Mwanga wa Lugha, Jarida la Idara ya Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrika, Chuo Kikuu cha Moi. 2020;Juzuu 5, (Na.1, April 2020, ):19-36.
Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "Proximate analysis of fruits and vegetables wastes from Nairobi County, Kenya." Research Journal of Food Science and Nutrition. 2020;5(1):9-15. Abstract

Proximate analysis of twenty fruits and vegetable waste from Nairobi County was evaluated. They were obtained from Kangemi and Wakulima markets. Standard procedures were used for the analysis of crude fat, protein,fiber, carbohydrates, moisture, ash, nitrogen-free extract and energy. The results obtained revealed that moisture content was in the range of 82.8 to 95.86% apart from sweet potato and banana which was 62.05 and 74.30% respectively. Protein range was between 0.57 to 3.49% with high-fat content being recorded in avocado at 9.03%. The ash content was highest
in comfrey at 3.46% and lowest in mango at 0.44%. The carbohydrate level obtained by the difference method was lowest in courgette at 1.99% with crude fiber ranging from 0.69 to 2.73%. The total calculated energy ranged from 1.94 to 39.98 Kcal/100g. The macro-nutrient concentrations were 3.59 and 1.53% for potassium and calcium respectively. Lead, iron and zinc were detected at 15.1±3.6, 3742±235 and 176±11 ppm respectively. There is the presence of proximate properties in the edible portion of wasted fruits and vegetable and therefore, this study recommends proper fruits and vegetable handling during harvest, transportation, storage and marketing. Besides, the unavoidable waste should be used as biomass in energy production to deal with landfilling issues in the market places.

Othoo CO, Dulo SO, Olago DO, Ayah R. "Proximity Density Assessment and Characterization of Water and Sanitation Facilities in the Informal Settlements of Kisumu City: Implications for Public Health Planning." Journal of UOEH. 2020;42(3):237-249. AbstractProximity Density Assessment and Characterization of Water and Sanitation Facilities in the Informal Settlements of Kisumu City: Implications for Public Health Planningjstage.jst.go

Access to water and sanitation remain a challenge in many developing countries, especially in pro-poor
urban informal settlements where socioeconomic livelihoods are generally low. The aim of this study was to characterise the water and sanitation facilities in the informal settlements of Kisumu City and to evaluate their effect on
community hygiene and health. The study focussed on the five urban informal settlements of Nyalenda A, Nyalenda
B, Manyatta A, Manyatta B and Obunga, and the three Peri-urban informal settlements of Kogony, Usoma and
Otonglo. Using descriptive techniques, the researcher surveyed 114 water sources and all sanitation facilities within
0-15m and 15-30m radii of the water sources. The findings revealed dominance of shallow wells and traditional pit
latrines as the primary water sources and sanitation facilities, respectively. Out of the water sources studied, 87.7%
(100) were shallow wells (mean depth 1.5 m), 9.6% (11) springs and 2.6% (3) boreholes. Most of these shallow
wells (83%) were within the urban informal settlements where uses range from washing and cleaning, cooking, and
even drinking (13.5%), despite the majority being unprotected. The analysis of the density of sanitation facilities
near the water points showed that 32.3% existed within a 15m radius of the nearest water sources, in violation of
the recommended safe distance of 30m. With an increased density of toilets near critical water sources and other
sanitary practices, public health is highly compromised.

Keywords : density, health, informal settlements, water-source, Sanitation technology.

S W, A K, S K, I M. "A Qualitative Analysis on the Clinical Experiences of Undergraduate Nursing Students in Kenya." Saudi Journal of Nursing and Health Care. 2020:293-238.
Abuga KO, Ndwigah SN, Amugune BK, Ongarora DB, Njogu PM, Okaru AO, Kibwage IO. "Quality Control Report of Drugs Analyzed in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit during the Period 2011-2015." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2020;23(3):79-86. Abstract

During the period 2011-2015, the Drug Analysis and Research Unit (DARU) analyzed 1972 drug samples. The samples consisted of 21.5% locally manufactured and 78.2% imported products while the origin of 0.3% of products was indeterminate. Samples were subjected to compendial and/or in-house analytical specifications. The overall non-compliance rate was 4.5% comprising 2.5% local products and 2.0% imports. High failure rates were recorded for uterotonics (37.5%), hemostatics (33%), anthelmintics (17%) and anticancers (10.5%) while ophthalmic, immunomodulatory, musculoskeletal and endocrine drugs all complied with the quality acceptance criteria. Erectile dysfunction drugs, received by the laboratory for the first time, all complied with specifications. The results obtained demonstrate an improvement in the quality of samples submitted to DARU when compared to previous performance.

Abraham Kipchumba Cherwon, Margaret Mwihaki Wanyoike, Gachuiri CK. "Rabbit production practices in Kiambu County, Kenya." International Journal of Livestock Production. 2020;11(4):114-121.
Mutala TM, Onyambu CK, Aywak AA. "Radiology practice in sub-Saharan Africa during the COVID-19 outbreak: points to consider." Pan African Medical Journal. 2020;37(28):doi: 10.11604/pamj.2020.37.28.23081.
Mugo JW, Opijah F, Ngaina J, Karanja F, Mburu M. "Rainfall variability under present and future climate scenarios using the Rossby Center Bias-corrected Regional Climate Model." American Journal of Climate Change. 2020;9(1):243-265.
Walter Onchere, Richard Tinega, Weke P, Otieno JAM. "The Reciprocal Generalized Inverse Gaussian Frailty with Application in Life Annuity Business." Journal of Advances in Mathematics and Computer Science. 2020;35(6):112-131. AbstractWebsite

Aims: As shown in literature, several authors have adopted various individual frailty mixing distributions as a way of dealing with possible heterogeneity due to unobserved covariates in a group of insurers. This research contribution is to generalize the frailty mixing distribution to nest other classes of frailty distributions not in literature and apply the proposed distributions in valuation of life annuity business.

Methodology: A simulation study is done to assess the performance of the aforementioned models. The baseline parameters is estimated using Bayesian Inference and a better model is suggested for valuation of life annuity business.

Results: As a result of generalizing the frailty some new classes of frailty distributions are constructed such as; the Reciprocal Inverse Gaussian Frailty, the Inverse Gamma Frailty, the Harmonic Frailty and the Positive Hyperbolic Frailty.

From the simulation study, the proposed new frailty models shows that ignoring frailty leads to an underestimation of future residual lifetime since the survival curve shifts to the right when heterogeneity is accounted for. This is consistent with frailty literature.

The Reciprocal Inverse Gaussian model closely represents the Association of Kenya Insurers graduated rates with a slight increase in survival due to longevity risk.

Conclusion: The proposed new frailty models show an increase in the insurers expected liability when unobserved heterogeneity is accounted for. This is consistent with frailty literature and thus can be applied to avoid underestimating the insurer’s liability in the context of life annuity business.

The RIG model as proposed in estimating future liability by directly adjusting the AKI mortality rates shows an increase in longevity risk. The extent of heterogeneity of the insured group determines the level of risk. The RIG frailties should be considered for multivariate cases where the insureds are clustered in groups.

Opiyo R, Muketha S, Omollo W, Mwaniki D. "Responsive Infrastructure and Service Provision Initiatives Framing Smart Environment Attainment in Nairobi.". In: Smart Environment for Smart Cities. Singapore; 2020.
Gathumbi JK, Kemboi DC, Antonissen G, Ochieng PE, Croubels S, Kangethe EK, Okoth S, Faas J, Lindahl JF. "A Review of the Impact of Mycotoxins on Dairy Cattle Health: Challenges for Food Safety and Dairy Production in Sub-Saharan Africa." Toxins 2020. 2020;12(4).
IRIBEMWANGI PI. "A River from Rivulets? A Study of Sheng vis-à-vis Indigenous Kenyan Languages and Modern Technology - Expected." Asian Journal of African Studies (AJAS), Hankuk University. 2020.
Ang'u C, Muthama NJ, Oludhe C, Chitedze I. "The role of diversity, reserve margin and system structure on retail electricity tariffs in Kenya." Heliyon. 2020;6(8):1-11.
J.O'Connell P, Brown M, Chan TM, Granado RC-D, J.Davies S, Eiam-Ong S, H.Hassan M, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Levin A, E.Martin D, Muller E, Ossareh S, Tchokhonelidze I, Trask M, Twahir A, J.O.Were A, Yang C-W, Zemchenkov A, N.Harden P. "The role of kidney transplantation as a component of integrated care for chronic kidney disease." Science Direct. 2020.Website
Nyapela MA. "The Role of Knowledge Management in Life-Saving Initiatives: Case of COVID-19 Pandemic." The Role of Knowledge Management in Life-Saving Initiatives: Case of COVID-19 Pandemic . 2020.
Kithuka, J.M., Irandu EM, Moronge JM. "The role of periodic markets in provision of manufactured goods and creation of income in rural areas: a case study of selected markets in Mukaa Sub County; Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2020;7(5 ):65-79.
Kanoti, Olago, D. O., Akech, Nyamai, C.M., Dulo, Ayah, Taylor, D. "Sanitation challenges, groundwater perspectives and their intertwined relationships in Kisumu." Kenya Policy Briefs . 2020;1(1).
Kanoti J, Olago D, Nyamaoi C, Dulo SI, Ayah R, Taylor R. "Sanitation challenges, groundwater perspectives and their intertwined relationships in Kisumu, Kenya." Kenya Policy Briefs. 2020;1(1):15-16. AbstractSanitation challenges, groundwater perspectives and their intertwined relationships in Kisumu, Kenyauonresearch.org

Groundwater is the preferred alternative water source during times of shortages and in areas not served by piped water supplies. Pit latrines are the main sanitation facilities in Kisumu where sewerage extends over less than 20 per cent of the city. Pit latrines contribute to microbial contamination of shallow groundwater in Kisumu.

Chaurasiya ND, Midiwo J, Pandey P, Bwire RN, Doerksen RJ, Muhammad I, Tekwani BL. "Selective Interactions of O-Methylated Flavonoid Natural Products with Human Monoamine Oxidase-A and-B." Molecules. 2020;25(22):5358. AbstractMolecules

Description
A set of structurally related O-methylated flavonoid natural products isolated from Senecio roseiflorus (1), Polygonum senegalense (2 and 3), Bhaphia macrocalyx (4), Gardenia ternifolia (5), and Psiadia punctulata (6) plant species were characterized for their interaction with human monoamine oxidases (MAO-A and-B) in vitro. Compounds 1, 2, and 5 showed selective inhibition of MAO-A, while 4 and 6 showed selective inhibition of MAO-B. Compound 3 showed~ 2-fold selectivity towards inhibition of MAO-A. Binding of compounds 1–3 and 5 with MAO-A, and compounds 3 and 6 with MAO-B was reversible and not time-independent. The analysis of enzyme-inhibition kinetics suggested a reversible-competitive mechanism for inhibition of MAO-A by 1 and 3, while a partially-reversible mixed-type inhibition by 5. Similarly, enzyme inhibition-kinetics analysis with compounds 3, 4, and 6, suggested a competitive reversible inhibition of MAO-B. The molecular docking study suggested that 1 selectively interacts with the active-site of human MAO-A near N5 of FAD. The calculated binding free energies of the O-methylated flavonoids (1 and 4–6) and chalcones (2 and 3) to MAO-A matched closely with the trend in the experimental IC 50′ s. Analysis of the binding free-energies suggested better interaction of 4 and 6 with MAO-B than with MAO-A. The natural O-methylated flavonoid (1) with highly potent inhibition (IC 50 33 nM; Ki 37.9 nM) and> 292 fold selectivity against human MAO-A (vs. MAO-B) provides a new drug lead for the treatment of neurological disorders. View Full-Text

Leo S. "Semiotic Survey of Kivumba Superstitions." International Journal of Innovative Research And Knowledge (IJIRK). 2020;5(5).
E.S. K, G. G, J. VL, P. K, T.O. A, D. G, J. M, D. M. "Sero-prevalence and risk factors of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (type 1) in Meru County, Kenya." Preventive Veterinary Medicine . 2020;175:104863.
Kipyego ES, Gitau G, Vanleeuwen J, Kimeli P, Abuom TA, Gakuya D, Muraya J, Makau D. "Sero-prevalence and risk factors of Infectious rhinotracheatis virus( type1) in Meru county, Kenya." Preventive Veterinary Medicine . 2020;104863.(175).
Awili H, Gitao C, Muchemi G. "Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Adolescent Blood Donors within Selected Counties of Western Keny." Hindawi BioMed Research International. 2020;Volume 2020, Article ID 8578172,: 6 pages.
Fardolo EK, Bulimo W, Aluora PO, Gachara G. "Seroprevalence of Hepatitis E Virus among Voluntary Blood Donors in Nairobi County, Kenya: A Pilot Study." Journal of Biosciences and Medicines. 2020;8:78-85. Abstractjbm_2020121415213791.pdf

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K. KM, Oleche OM. "Short and Long-Run Impact of Trade Liberalization on Agricultural Growth in Kenya." International Journal of Finance, Insurance and Risk Management. 2020;X(3).
Kamau S, Barrios E, K.Karanja N, O.Ayuke F, Lehmann J. "Short-term casting activity of earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus (Oligochaeta: Glossoscolecidae) after biochar additions." Soil Biology and Biochemistry . 2020;143.
Kamau S, Barrios E, K.Karanja N, O.Ayuke F, Lehmann J. "Short-term casting activity of earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus (Oligochaeta: Glossoscolecidae) after biochar additions." Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 2020;143:107736.
omari HK, Makokha M, Masoud A, Abdalla S. Simplified Arabic Language. Nairobi: Chance Publishers Ltd; 2020.
Ndegwa R, E Ayieta, Simiyu J, Odero N. "A Simplified Method for Parameter Determination of a Photovoltaic Module using Manufacturer’s data." Africa Journal of Physical Science. 2020;5:1-9.
Ndegwa, R., E Ayieta, Simiyu J, Odero N. "A Simplified Simulation Procedure and Analysis of a Photovoltaic Solar System Using a Single Diode Model." Journal of Power and Energy Engineering. 2020;8(9):65-93.
Mbugua M, Nzuma JM, Muange E, Kunyanga C. "Social Networks and Household Food Consumption Smoothing in the Presence of Idiosyncratic Shocks: Insights from Rural Kenya." Development in Practice. 2020;DOI: 10.1080/09614524.2020.1715344.
Ocharo RM, Mukami KL. "Social Predictors of Food Insecurity: The Case of Yatta Constituency, Machakos County, Kenya. ." Current Research Journal of Social Sciences.. 2020;3(1):86-95.
M.Ichami S, J.Stoorvogel KDSJ, Hoffland E, N.Karuku G, J.Stoorvogel J. "Soil spatial variation to guide the development of fertilizer use recommendations for smallholder farms in western Kenya." Geoderma Regional. 2020;22.
Bulinda BM, Inyega HN, Inyega JO. The source book on labour relations. LAP LAMPARD Academic Publishing. ISBN: 978-620-2-67531-4; 2020.
Kieti J, Waema TM, Ndemo EB, Omwansa TK, Baumüller H. "Sources of value creation in aggregator platforms for digital services in agriculture - insights from likely users in Kenya." https://www.journals.elsevier.com/digital-business. 2020. Abstract

A fragmented digital agriculture ecosystem has been linked to the slow scale-out of digital platforms and other digital
technology solutions for agriculture. This has undermined the prospects of digitalizing agriculture and increasing sectoral outcomes in sub-Saharan African countries. We conceptualized an aggregator platform for digital services in agriculture as a special form of digital platforms that can enhance the value and usage of digital technologies at the industry
level. Little is known about how such a platform can create value as a new service ecology in agriculture. We set out to
examine the underlying structure and prioritizations of value creation sources in such a platform from the perspective
of likely users in Kenya. We used a parallel convergent mixed methods approach to the study. Confirmatory factor analysis of data from 405 respondents supported a two-factor structure, being an adaptation of the framework on value creation sources in e-Business by Amit, R., & Zott, C. (2001). We conceptualized the two factors as platform-wide efficiency
and loyalty-centeredness. User experience related search costs were most impactful on platform-wide efficiency, while
loyalty-centeredness was impacted most by providing guarantees for quality and reliability to platform users. Thematic
analysis of 369 qualitative responses obtained platform inclusivity - comprising value chain coverage and digital inclusivity,
as additional considerations for amplifying sector-wide benefits of an aggregator platform for digital services in agriculture. We discuss implications for policy and practice in the light of resource constraints and the promise to digitally
transform agriculture in SSA countries.

Harris DCH, Davies SJ, Finkelstein FO, Jha V, Bello AK, Brown M, Caskey FJ, Donner J-A, Liew A, Muller E, Naicker S, O’Connell PJ, Filho RP, Vachharajani T, behalf of the Groups OSPW. "Strategic plan for integrated care of patients with kidney failure." International Society of Nephrology. 2020;98(5):1067-1070.Website
Arunga, Nyenze. "Strengthening eye health research output in the region." JOECSA. 2020;24(1):1-3.
Moturi CA, Ogoti G. "Strengthening technology risk management in mobile money lending." International Journal of Financial Services Management. 2020;10(3):217-238. AbstractWebsite

Innovative mobile money services have grown tremendously in the East African market. While there are positive effects of technology-enabled financial inclusion, risks exist. This study sought to strengthen the capacity of technology risk management by proposing practices and strategies that can protect the financial technology ecosystem. Applying the ISACA Risk IT Framework, data was collected in June 2019 from the leading digital lenders in Kenya. The study found that while regulated mobile lenders have an IT risk management environment that is viewed as a critical success factor, unregulated entities have minimal integration of IT risk management essentials. This study is useful to many developing countries where governments are working towards having secure and strong financial systems that contribute to the Millennium Sustainable Development Goals. Regulators and practitioners must ensure the financial technology lending ecosystem is protected from risks that could reverse gains made from witnessed developments in financial inclusion.

Fidelis Mukudi, Justus Mile, Lucy Chikamai, Aywa S. "Strong Commutativity of Unbounded Self-adjoint Operators on a Separable Hilbert space." Mathematical Theory and Modeling. 2020;10(8). AbstractWebsite

The unbounded Self-adjoint operators that strongly commute on a common dense subset of their domain
commute pointwise. When the operators commute pointwise on the same dense subset, there is to guarantee that
they will commute strongly. By imposing some conditions, we on the operators as well as the underlying space,
we get pointwise commuting unbounded operators that commute strongly. This article shows that by suitably
selecting two unbounded positive Self-adjoint operators with compact inverses we get a set of pointwise
commuting self-adjoint operators that commute on common core. then prove that it strongly commutes on the
same subspace.

Muasya J, Muasya I. "A Study of Children's Perceptions of Gender Identity and Stereotype in Public Pre-Primary Schools in Nairobi County, Kenya." International Journal of Elementary Education . 2020;9(1):1-7.
SO Pambo, Moindi SK, Nzimbi BM. "A study of eta-Ricci soliton on W_5-semi symmetric LP sasakian manifolfds." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics 2. 2020;5(5):25-29. AbstractWebsite

In this paper, we study ƞ-Ricci solitons on Lorentzian para-Sasakian manifold satisfying
R(ξ,X)•W_5(Y,Z)U=0 and W_5(ξ,X)•R(Y,Z)U=0 conditions.
We prove that on a Lorentzian para-Sasakian manifold (M,ξ,ƞ,g), the Ricci curvature tensor satisfying
any one of the given conditions, the existence of ƞ-Ricci soliton then implies that (M,g) is Einstein
manifold. We also conclude that in these cases, there is no Ricci soliton on M, with the potential vector
field ξ (the killing vector)

SO Pambo, Moindi SK, Nzimbi BM. "A study of eta-Ricci soliton on W_5-semi symmetric LP sasakian manifolfds." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2020;5(5):25-29. AbstractWebsite

In this paper, we study ƞ-Ricci solitons on Lorentzian para-Sasakian manifold satisfying
R(ξ,X)•W_5(Y,Z)U=0 and W_5(ξ,X)•R(Y,Z)U=0 conditions.
We prove that on a Lorentzian para-Sasakian manifold (M,ξ,ƞ,g), the Ricci curvature tensor satisfying
any one of the given conditions, the existence of ƞ-Ricci soliton then implies that (M,g) is Einstein
manifold. We also conclude that in these cases, there is no Ricci soliton on M, with the potential vector
field ξ (the killing vector).

Muthini, D., Nzuma, M.J., Qaim, M. "Subsistence Production, Markets, and Dietary Diversity in the Kenyan Small Farm Sector." Food Policy. 2020;DOI: 10.1016/j.foodpol.2020.101956.
Mugo JW, Opijah FJ, Ngaina J, Karanja F, Mburu M. "Suitability of Green Gram Production in Kenya Under Present and Future Climate Scenarios Using Bias-corrected Cordex RCA4 Models." Agricultural Sciences. 2020;11:882-896.
Nyamweya NN, Abuga KO. "A Survey of Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers in Nairobi: Packaging, Labelling and Regulatory Compliance." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. 23 (2020). 2020;23(2):72-76. Abstract

Alcohol based hand sanitizers are currently recommended for routine use in curbing the spread of the COVID-19 global pandemic. The present survey examined hand sanitizers marketed in Nairobi County with regards to product appearance, packaging, labelling and declared composition. Seventy-six samples were collected from five sites within the Nairobi metropolis - Central Business District, Kibera, Kilimani/Karen, Ngong and Thika. A wide range of non-conformities were observed for the criteria applied. Many samples had incomplete or missing label information, ingredient lists, cautionary warnings, Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS) standardization marks and permit numbers. Glycerin, fragrances and carbomers were the most common added ingredients. Poor formulation indicators such as haziness and phase separation were encountered in some products. The median price of the products was KES 250 (USD 2.36) per 100 ml although there was considerable variation in pricing of samples. None of the samples evaluated fully met all the standards for the parameters evaluated. Strict adherence to regulatory standards by producers of hand sanitizers is required to ensure that only compliant products are available on the market.

Cecilia OM, John W, Gubbels P, Mokaya PO. Surviving COVID-19: The neglected remedy. A mini Barefoot Guide. South Africa: Alliance for Food Sovereignty In Africa ; 2020.
Joseph SK, Ralwala AO. "Sustainable construction literacy: A study of the Kenyan interior design market segment of the construction industry." Africa Habitat Review. 2020;14(3):1999-2009. AbstractWebsite

Due to the widespread calls for the construction industry to adopt sustainable approaches, the various stakeholders are now engaging in the sustainability agenda more than before. This study investigated how the Kenyan construction industry is engaging the sustainability agenda. Specifically, this study sought to establish sustainable construction (SC) literacy levels, key sustainability considerations and SC literacy avenues in the interior design market segment of the Kenyan construction industry. Key project stakeholders in the interior design market segment of the Kenyan construction industry were the target population. A total of 60 (12 architects/interior designers, 12 electrical engineers, 12 mechanical engineers,12 quantity surveyors and 12 contractors) structured questionnaires were distributed, out of which 46 (10 architects/interior designers, 9 electrical engineers, 9 mechanical engineers, 8 quantity surveyors and 10 contractors) were received back. Collected data was analysed using frequencies, percentages, mean item scores (MIS) and standard deviations (SD). The study revealed an average level of sustainability literacy with a composite mean score of 3.7102 and mismatch between SC literacy levels and key sustainability considerations in interior design projects. Additionally, the respondents rated standard SC approaches, legislation, policies and construction trade associations as the least effective contributors to their current SC literacy levels. On the other hand, informal learning, construction professional associations influence, collaboration amongst firms, and formal learning were largely attributed to the respondent’s SC literacy levels. The implication of the findings was that there is need to fine-tune SC literacy drives to the peculiarities of the various industry market segments to ensure their effectiveness in informing practice. Additionally, there is the need to leverage standard SC approaches, legislation, policies and construction trade associations as avenues to improve the overall sustainability literacy levels.

Joseph SK, Ralwala AO. "Sustainable construction transition: A Kenyan interior design market segment perspective." Africa Habitat Review. 2020;14(3):2035-2044. AbstractWebsite

Construction industry has been identified as key to the sustainability agenda. Efforts towards improved sustainability compliance in the construction industry involve a socio-technical transformation. Such transitions are said to be purposive, of a wider perspective, multi-dimensional in nature and are influenced by numerous factors. This paper focused on establishing sustainable construction (SC) uptake levels, including identification of key SC drivers and barriers with specific reference to the interior design market segment of the Kenyan construction industry. The study employed a quantitative research approach. For quantitative attributes, the study employed structured questionnaires to collect data from actively practicing architects/interior designers, electrical engineers, mechanical engineers, quantity surveyors and contractors drawn from the interior design market segment of Kenyan construction industry in Nairobi City County. Data analysis employed the descriptive statistics of distribution (frequencies), proportions (percentages), central tendency (mean) and dispersion (standard deviation). Generally, the respondents ranked the overall uptake of the three dimensions of sustainability (economic, environmental and social) as average- ranking as social, environment and economic in a decreasing order of uptake levels. The study findings ranked sustainability driver categories as organization related drivers, stakeholder related drivers, economic related drivers and management related drivers; in order of decreasing influence. Lastly, barrier categories were ranked as economic related barriers, professional/capacity related barriers, technology related barriers and societal/cultural related barriers, in order of decreasing influence. With the average sustainable construction practices uptake in the Kenyan construction industry, there is an implied call to action to leverage known sustainability drivers, while at the same time suppressing the known barriers. This implies significant room for improvement and an appropriate starting point for key construction project stakeholders as above identified.

Warinda Enock, Dickson M. Nyariki, Stephen Wambua, Reuben M. Muasya, Hanjra. MA. "Sustainable development in East Africa: impact evaluation of regional agricultural development projects in Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda." Natural Resources Forum. 2020;44:3-39.
Derese S. "Synergistic anti-inflammatory activities of a new flavone and other flavonoids from Tephrosia hildebrandtii vatke." Natural Products Research. 2020. AbstractWebsite

Synergistic anti-inflammatory activities of a new flavone and other flavonoids from Tephrosia hildebrandtii vatke
Owor, R. O., Bedane, K. G., Openda, Y. I., Zühlke, S., Derese, S., Ong’amo, G., Ndakala, A., & Spiteller, M.
Abstract
A new flavone, named hildeflavone (1) along with 7 other known flavonoids were isolated from the aerial parts of Tephrosia hildebrandtii Vatke. Their characterisation was based on NMR and MS data analysis. The anti-inflammatory properties of the crude extract, isolated compounds and combination of the compounds were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Treatment of the LPS-stimulated PBMCs with the isolated flavonoids at a concentration of 100 µM significantly reduced the production of interleukins (IL-1β, IL-2 and IL-6), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). It was also found that the combination of a flavone and flavanones exhibited remarkable synergistic anti-inflammatory effects on the production of the cytokines.

Owor RO, Bedane KG, Openda YI, Zühlke S, Derese S, Ong’amo G, Ong’amo G, Ndakala A, Spiteller M. "Synergistic anti-inflammatory activities of a new flavone and other flavonoids from Tephrosia hildebrandtii vatke." Natural Product Research. 2020:1-4. AbstractNatural Product Research

Description
A new flavone, named hildeflavone (1) along with 7 other known flavonoids were isolated from the aerial parts of Tephrosia hildebrandtii Vatke. Their characterisation was based on NMR and MS data analysis. The anti-inflammatory properties of the crude extract, isolated compounds and combination of the compounds were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Treatment of the LPS-stimulated PBMCs with the isolated flavonoids at a concentration of 100 µM significantly reduced the production of interleukins (IL-1β, IL-2 and IL-6), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). It was also found that the combination of a flavone and flavanones exhibited remarkable synergistic anti-inflammatory effects on the production of the cytokines.

Masila VM, Ndakala AJ, Midiwo JO, Byamukama R, Kamau RW, Kumarihamy M, Muhammad I. "Synthesis of a pyrrolidine derivative of a carvotacetone and monoterpenes for anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and anti-cryptococcal properties." Natural Product Research. 2020:1-8. AbstractNatural Product Research

Description
Monoterpene derivatives are of great biological relevance in the pharmaceutical industry. In the present study, pyrrolidine derivative of a carvotacetone, 3-O-benzylcarvotacetone (1), and selected monoterpenes (3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone (3) and cis-piperitol (5)) were prepared to provide (R)-1-(4-(benzyloxy)-5-isopropyl-2-methylcyclohexa-1,3-dien-1-yl)-pyrrolidine (2), 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-3,6-dioxocyclohexa-1,4-dien-1-yl acetate (4), cis-3-hydroxypiperitone (6) and carvacrol (7). Structure of 2 was determined based on NMR and HRMS spectral data. Compound 4 exhibited activity against fungi Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of < 0.8 µg/mL. In addition, this compound 4 had an IC50 value of 14.97 µg/mL against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Previous to the current study, both compound 6 and 7 had been reported to have anti-microbial and anti …

Mbugua SN, Njenga LW, Odhiambo RA, Wandiga SO, Meyer M, NS, Lalancette RA, Onani MO, Onani MO. "Synthesis, Characterization, And DNA-Binding Kinetics Of New Pd(II) And Pt(II) Thiosemicarbazone Complexes: Spectral, Structural, And Anticancer Evaluation." Journal of Chemistry . 2020;2020:1-17. Abstract

In a bid to come up with potential anticancer agents, a class of thiosemicarbazone ligands bearing substituted thiophene were synthesized followed by complexation with various Pd(II) and Pt(II) metal precursors. The ligands
(E)-1-((thiophen-2-yl) methylene)thiosemicarbazide (L1),
(E)-1-((4-bromothiophen-2-yl)methylene)thiosemicarbazide (L2),
and (E)-1-((5-bromothiophen-2-yl)methylene)thiosemicarbazide (L3) were synthesized by condensation reactions and obtained in good yields. Complexation of L1 andL2 with Pd(cod)Cl2 gave C1(C6H7Cl2N3PdS2) and C2(C6H6BrCl2N3PdS2),respectively. Complexation of L1 with K2PtCl4 gave C3(C6H7Cl2N3PtS2),while L3 with K2PtCl2[(PPh)3]2 gave C4(C24H21BrClN3PPtS2).The structures and coordination for all compounds were established by FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, UV-Vis, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies for ligand L1. Tuning of the spectral and anticancer activity of the compounds was investigated by changing the position of the bromide substituent, metal center, and the σ or π-donor/acceptor strength of the groups surrounding the metal center. The compounds had low to moderate anticancer potency with their spectral and structural properties correlating with the corresponding anticancer activity profiles. DNA binding modes were studied by spectroscopy and were comparable to known DNA intercalators. Structure-activity profiles were evident especially between C1and C2 differing by the presence of a Br in position 5 of thiophene ring, which caused a remarkable increase in IC50 values,from14.71±0.016(C1)to43.08±0.001(C2)in Caco-2 cells, 1.973±0.048 (C1) to 59.56±0.010 (C2) in MCF-7 cells, 16.65±0.051 (C1) to 72.25±0.003 (C2) in HeLa cells, 14.64±0.037 (C1) to 94.34±0.003 (C2) in HepG2, and 14.05±0.042 (C1) to>100(C2) in PC-3 cells.

Masila VM, Ndakala AJ, Byamukama R, Midiwo JO, Kamau RW, Wang M, Kumarihamy M, Zhao J, Heydreich M, Muhammad I. "Synthesis, structural assignments and antiinfective activities of 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone and 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone." Natural Product Research. 2020:1-9. AbstractJournal Abstract

Description
In an attempt to synthesize carvotacetone analogues, new 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone (10) and previously reported 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone (11) were synthesized from piperitone (7). In this work, we describe the synthesis of 10 and other analogues from 7. Luche reduction of 7 to cis-piperitol (8), followed by benzylation yielded 3-O-benzyl-piperitol (9). Riley oxidation of 9 afforded corresponding ketone 10, 11 and 3-benzyloxy-4-isopropylcyclohex-1-enecarbaldehyde (12). Structures of these compounds were determined based on NMR, IR and LC-MS spectral data. Compound 11, exhibited antiplasmodial activities against chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 0.697 and 0.653 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, compound 11 was active against Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of 3.11 µg/mL, compared to reference …

Masila VM, Ndakala AJ, Byamukama R, Midiwo JO, Kamau RW, Wang M, Kumarihamy M, Zhao J, Heydreich M, Muhammad I. "Synthesis, structural assignments and antiinfective activities of 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone and 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone." Natural Product Research. 2020:1-9. AbstractNatural Product Research

Description
In an attempt to synthesize carvotacetone analogues, new 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone (10) and previously reported 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone (11) were synthesized from piperitone (7). In this work, we describe the synthesis of 10 and other analogues from 7. Luche reduction of 7 to cis-piperitol (8), followed by benzylation yielded 3-O-benzyl-piperitol (9). Riley oxidation of 9 afforded corresponding ketone 10, 11 and 3-benzyloxy-4-isopropylcyclohex-1-enecarbaldehyde (12). Structures of these compounds were determined based on NMR, IR and LC-MS spectral data. Compound 11, exhibited antiplasmodial activities against chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 0.697 and 0.653 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, compound 11 was active against Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of 3.11 µg/mL, compared to reference …

Barasa L. "Teacher Quality and Mathematics Performance in Primary Schools in Kenya." African Journal of Research in Mathematics, Science and Technology Education. 2020;24(1):53-64.
"Teaching Canadian Literature in the University of Nairobi." Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies. 2020:1-17.
Ntwiga DB. "Technical Efficiency in the Kenyan Banking Sector: Influence of Fintech and Banks Collaboration." Journal of Finance and Economics. 2020;8(1):13-20. AbstractWebsite

Efficient banks increase financial stability, intermediation and value to the shareholders. As Fintech innovations continue to alter the financial landscape in Kenya, banks will leverage on Fintech to enhance efficiency. This study investigates if Fintech and bank collaboration has an influence on efficiency in the banking sector. A two step data envelopment analysis is applied with input-orientation based on three intermediation dimension models. Efficiency scores are decomposed into technical, pure technical and scale efficiencies. Financial statement data from 2009-2018 for five banks with Fintech collaborations form the analysis. The study period is segmented into Pre-Fintech, 2009-2014 and Post Fintech, 2015-2018. Descriptive statistics summarize the data with Panel regression model testing the selected financial variables influence on efficiency of banks in the Pre-Post Fintech period. In the ten year period, technical inefficiency based on the three models for the Pre-Post Fintech period is failure to operate at the most productive scale, poor input utilization and managerial inefficiencies. For the Panel regression, loan intensity in model M1, return on asset in model M2, and cost of intermediation in model M3 had a significant and positive influence on technical efficiency. Fintech and banks collaboration has had a positive influence on efficiency in the Kenyan banking sector.

tranc, K, wa Gachigi. "Testing." Testing. 2020;12:23. Abstract

This Testing

Karanja P, Mbugua L, Riungu J, Mulaku M, Okalebo F. "Time series analysis of consumption and short term forecasting of female contraceptives in the Kenyan public health sector." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics . 2020;9(1):9-17.
"Time to tumour detection in familial retinoblastoma patients: a retrospective study." JOECSA- Journal of Ophthalmology for Eastern, Central and southern Africa. 2020;24:12-17.joecsa-time_to_tumour_detection-_july_2020.pdf
Ouko A, Okoth S, l. N NE, Altus V, Lindy JR. "Tolerance to Fusarium verticillioides infection and fumonisin accumulation in maize F1 hybrids and subsequent F2 population. ." Agronomy journal. 2020;112(4):2444-2432.
Kinyungu TN, Muthomi JW, Subramanian S, Miano DW, Olubayo FM. "Transmission of viruses causing maize lethal necrosis disease through seed in commercial hybrids and effect on growth in the subsequent crop." Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 2020;DOI:10.1080/03235408.2020.1826720.
W1 G, Ongondi M2, GO1 O. "Treatment Approaches for Multiple Myeloma: A Review." Journal of Kenya Association of Physicians. 2020;3(1):29-34.
Chiorean GE, Nandakumar G, Fadelu T, Temin S, Alarcon-Rozas AE, Bejarano S, Croitoru A-E, Grover S, Lohar PV, Odhiambo A, Park SH, Garcia ER, Teh C, Rose A, Zaki B, Chamberlin MD. "Treatment of Patients With Late-Stage Colorectal Cancer: ASCO Resource-Stratified GuidelineTreatment of Patients With Late-Stage Colorectal Cancer: ASCO Resource-Stratified Guideline." Journal of Global Oncology. 2020;6(2020):414-438.
Duke Gekonge Omayio, Abong’ GO, Okoth MW, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Mwang'ombe AW. "Trends and Constraints in Guava (Psidium Guajava L.) Production, Utilization, Processing and Preservation in Kenya." International Journal of Fruit Science. 2020:1-12.
W K, A A, A K. "Trends and determinants of contraceptive method choice among women aged 15-24 years in Kenya." F1000Research . 2020;9(197). AbstractWebsite

Studies show a gap in addressing the reproductive health goals of younger women whose inconsistent use of contraception is high in spite of their great need for it. The women aged 15-24 present high potential for unintended pregnancy and increase the challenge for retention of users which is key in maintaining and pushing up the current gains in contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR)

V O, Otieno A, A K. "Trends in fertility preference implementation among selected Eastern African countries." F1000Research 2020. 2020;9(79). AbstractWebsite

There has been continuous debate among scholars regarding fertility transition in Africa. Two conclusions emerge: slow pace of decline because of weak facilitating social programs and high demand for large families amidst weak family planning programs. Accelerated fertility decline is expected to occur if there is both substantial decline in desired fertility and increased level of preference implementation. Despite these conclusions, there are also emergent exceptions in Africa, even among the Eastern African countries. Our motivation for the study of this region therefore lies in this context. First, the East African countries share some similarities in policy framework. Secondly, Rwanda and Kenya appear as exceptional in the drive towards accelerating further fertility decline. Fertility change therefore in any one country may have implications in the neighbouring country due to the commonalities especially in language, cultural traits, diffusion and spread new models of behaviour.

Owino EA. Trends in Parasitology: Protozoology. Mumbai: Exceller Books; 2020.
Tubadilishe Jinna . London: Oxford University Press ; 2020.
Nchiozem-Ngnitedema V-A, Omosa LK, Derese S, Tane P, Heydenreich M, Spiteller M, Ean-JeongSeo, Efferth T. "Two new flavonoids from Dracaena usambarensis Engl." Phytochemistry Letter. 2020;36:80-85.alex_et_al_2020.pdf
Derese S. "Two new flavonoids from Dracaena usambarensis Engl." Phytochemistry Letters. 2020;36:80-85. AbstractWebsite

Two new flavonoids from Dracaena usambarensis Engl.
Vaderament-A.Nchiozem-Ngnitedem, Leonidah Kerubo Omosa, Solomon Derese, PierreTane, Matthias Heydenreich, Michael Spiteller, Ean-Jeong Seo, Thomas Efferth

Investigations of the root extract of Dracaena usambarensis Engl. for anticancer principles led to the characterization of one new homoisoflavonoid, (3S)-3,4ʹ,5,6-tetrahydroxy-7-methoxyhomoisoflavanone (1) and a new retrodihydrochalcone, 4ʹ,4-dihydroxy-2,3-dimethoxydihydrochalcone (2) along with six previously reported compounds, including two homoisoflavonoids, 7-O-methyl-8-demethoxy-3-hydroxy-3,9-dihydropunctatin (3) and loureiriol (4); a phenolic amide, 3-(4ʹʹʹ-hydroxyphenyl)-N-[2ʹ-(4ʹʹ-hydroxyphenyl)-2ʹ-methoxyethyl]acrylamide (5); a spirostane, 25S-spirosta-1,4-dien-3-one (6) and two steroids, stigmasterol (7) and stigmasterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8). The structures of 1-8 were determined using spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques. The absolute configurations of compounds 1 and 3 were achieved using circular dichroism spectroscopy. Using the resazurin reduction assay and doxorubicin as reference anticancer drug, 1 showed moderate cytotoxicity against drug sensitive CCRF-CEM but was inactive against all the other tested drug sensitive, resistance phenotypes and normal cells. The crude extract and 2-8 were inactive in the preliminary screening against CCRF-CEM and drug resistant CEM/ADR5000 cell lines. Interestingly, the activity of the standard drug, doxorubicin was comparable to those of inactive compounds against CEM/ADR5000 cells. Future studies should focus on structure modifications of 1-3, in order to obtain more potent analogues.

Ongarora SO, Michira JN, TIMAMMY RAYYA, wa Mutiso K. "Uchanganuzi wa Toni katika Ushairi wa Kithaka wa Mberia ." Jarida la Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrika . 2020;Volume 5(1):195-212.
Ongarora S, Michira JN, Timmamy R, wa Mutiso K. "Uchanganuzi wa Toni Katika Ushairi wa Kithaka wa Mberia." Mwanga wa Lugha. 2020;Vol. 4 (No. 2):195-211.
Galvin KA, Trevor Even, Robin S. Reid, Jesse Njoka, Joana Roque de Pinho, Philip Thornton, Saylor K. "Understanding Climate from the Ground Up: Knowledge of Environmental Changes in the East African Savannas." Changing Climate, Changing Worlds. 2020:221-242.
Ongadi Patrick Mudavadi, Mpolya Abraham Emmanuel, Lukuyu Adubwa Bernard, Haule Alphonse, David Peter Ngunga, Gachuiri Charles, Muyekho Francis Namasake, Wolde-meskel E. "Urea-molasses Pre-treatment to Enhance Nitrogen Gain, Digestibility, Intake and Milk Yield from Crop-Residues in Smallholder Dairy Farms in Eastern Africa." Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences. 2020:28-43.
Vogel JP, Comrie‐Thomson L, Pingray V, Gadama L, Galadanci H, Goudar S, Rose Laisser, Lavender T, Lissauer D, Misra S, Pujar Y, Qureshi ZP, Amole T, Berrueta M, Dankishiya F, Gwako G, Homer CSE, Jobanputra J, Meja S, Nigri C, Mohaptra V, Osoti A, Roberti J, Solomon D, Suleiman M, Robbers G, Sutherland S, Vernekar S, Althabe F, Bonet M, Oladapo OT. "Usability, acceptability, and feasibility of the World Health Organization Labour Care Guide: A mixed‐methods, multicountry evaluation." Wiley Online Library . 2020. AbstractWebsite

Introduction
The World Health Organization’s (WHO) Labour Care Guide (LCG) is a “next‐generation” partograph based on WHO’s latest intrapartum care recommendations. It aims to optimize clinical care provided to women and their experience of care. We evaluated the LCG’s usability, feasibility, and acceptability among maternity care practitioners in clinical settings.

Methods
Mixed‐methods evaluation with doctors, midwives, and nurses in 12 health facilities across Argentina, India, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, and Tanzania. Purposively sampled and trained practitioners applied the LCG in low‐risk women during labor and rated experiences, satisfaction, and usability. Practitioners were invited to focus group discussions (FGDs) to share experiences and perceptions of the LCG, which were subjected to framework analysis.

Results
One hundred and thirty‐six practitioners applied the LCG in managing labor and birth of 1,226 low‐risk women. The majority of women had a spontaneous vaginal birth (91.6%); two cases of intrapartum stillbirths (1.63 per 1000 births) occurred. Practitioner satisfaction with the LCG was high, and median usability score was 67.5%. Practitioners described the LCG as supporting precise and meticulous monitoring during labor, encouraging critical thinking in labor management, and improving the provision of woman‐centered care.

Conclusions
The LCG is feasible and acceptable to use across different clinical settings and can promote woman‐centered care, though some design improvements would benefit usability. Implementing the LCG needs to be accompanied by training and supportive supervision, and strategies to promote an enabling environment (including updated policies on supportive care interventions, and ensuring essential equipment is available).

Njeri GL, Zaja JO, TIMAMMY RAYYA. "Usawiri wa Familia ya Kisasa katika Fasihi ya Watoto Nchini Kenya." Jarida la Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrika . 2020;Volume 5(1):185-194.
Gatere Lucy Njeri, Omboga Zaja and Rayya Timmamy. "Usawiri wa Familia ya Kisasa katika Fasihi ya Watoto Nchini Kenya, ." Mwanga wa Lugha, Jarida la Idara ya Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrika, Chuo Kikuu cha Moi. 2020;Juzuu 5,(Na.1, April 2020,):185-196.
and 4 Emmanuel Wesonga Atsango, William Maina Muiru AWM’ombe LG. "Use of Amino Oligosaccharins and Alternaria Fine Protein in the Management of Crown Gall Disease in Roses." Current Agriculture Research Journal. 2020;8(2).
Atsango EW, Muiru WM, Mwang’ombe A, Gaoqiong L. "Use Of Amino Oligosacharins And Alternaria Fine Protein In The Management Of Crown Gall Disease On Roses." Researchjournali’s Journal of Agriculture. 2020;Vol. 7,( No. 1 January).use_of_amino_oligosacharins_and_alternaria_fine_protein.pdf
A N, GO O, C O. "The use of musculoskeletal ultrasound of the wrist and hand in the assessment of treatment response in rheumatoid arthritis patients." Afr J Rheumatol. 2020;8(1):3-7. Abstract

Objective: Rheumatoid arthritis is a
debilitating disease with accrual of joint damage during each flare of the disease that progresses to considerable functional disability. Early treatment is
thus aimed to achieve remission status so as to reduce the progression of joint
damage. Currently the disease activity parameter DAS28 (amongst others)
is used to define a remission status and thus demonstrate the efficacy
of a treatment regimen, however musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) is
proving to be superior at determining the amount of inflammation within joints by grading synovial hypertrophy and neo-vascularization of the
inflamed synovium. This article is thus intended to shed light on the usefulness of musculoskeletal ultrasound
both greyscale and Doppler in the determination of treatment response
in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Design: This article will elaborate
the importance and effectiveness of musculoskeletal ultrasound. Thus it will involve a discussion on the need for an effective tool to detect inflammatory activity, the ability of ultrasound to detect and grade the disease activity i.e.
being sensitive to change, the various scoring systems currently used, and
lastly a comparison of musculoskeletal ultrasound to other modalities and
clinical and serological evaluation. Data source and extraction:
Published studies, reviews and guidelines regarding the use of
musculoskeletal ultrasound of the wrist/hand in assessing treatment
response in rheumatoid arthritis patients were sourced through the
internet and library searches and the relevant data extracted. Conclusion:
status of the patient or a high initial ESR with significant serological and clinical
improvement, which will again not be portrayed in the DAS28 results. There may also be variability when assessing joints that are swollen or tender in between different examiners4. Moreover, there is a subset of
patients who still have disease progression despite achieving clinical remission status5.
  Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and radiographic evaluation have also been used as adjuncts to clinical exam but both have their drawb

Gichuhi L, Kalai J, Mutegi R, Okoth U, Njagi L. "Use of Social Media Platforms and Content Delivery in Higher Education." journal of Education and Leadership Studies. 2020;1(2):25-39.use_of_social_media_platforms_and_content_delivery_in_higher_education.pdf
M T, N G, A M. "Utilization of extension services and performance of hybrid sweet potato projects IN Kenya. a case of Njoro Sub-county, Nakuru County." Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development. 2020;(1144).
Kedogo JL, Eyase F, Bulimo W, Asudi G, Kimani F, Muhia DM, Aluvaala E. "Validation of a Biomeme Smartphone-Based DNA Real-Time PCR Assay for Diagnosis of Human Malaria at the Point of Care ." African Journal of Health Sciences. 2020;33(3):31-44.202032-article_text-506081-1-10-20201207.pdf
Okaru AO, Scharinger A, de Rezende TR, Teipel J, Kuballa T, Walch SG, Lachenmeier DW. "Validation of a Quantitative Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Screening Method for Coffee Quality and Authenticity (NMR Coffee Screener)." Foods 2020. 2020;9(1):47.
Ouko I, Obimbo MM, Kigera J, Ogeng’o JA. "Valve distribution of the popliteal vein: A structural basis for deep venous thrombosis?". 2020. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Objective

To describe the relationship between number and distribution of valves.
Methods

Sixty-six popliteal vein specimens were used for the study after routine dissection at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. The extents of the popliteal vein were identified at the adductor hiatus and soleal arch, cut at these points and then longitudinally sliced open. The number and distribution of valves were then recorded. Data were presented using photomacrographs and tables.
Results

The median number of valves was 1 (mean 0.8; range 0–2), with the lower part of the popliteal vein as the most consistent valve position. Most striking was the valve absence noted in 27 (41%) of the veins.
Conclusion

These findings suggest that a significant proportion of popliteal veins do not have valves thus providing a credible structural link that may predispose the popliteal vein to deep venous thrombosis in the study population.

Tembe K, Lagat S, Ambuko J, Chemining'wa G, Owino W. "Variation in Morphological and Agronomic Traits of Selected African Eggplant Accessions." Journal of Medicinally Active Plants . 2020;9(2):34-46.abstract
A. W, S. W, C. O’, S. F, van S. D. "Variation in the carbon footprint of milk production on smallholder dairy farms in Central Kenya, Journal of Cleaner Production." Journal of Cleaner Production 265:121780. 2020.
Nalyanya KM, Rop RK, Onyuka AS, Birech Z, Okonda JJ. "Variation of elemental concentration in leather during post-tanning operation using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy: principal component analysis approach." International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry. 2020:1-13.
Chesaro MK, Maina SM, Makunda CS. "Waste Minimization Strategy for Sustainable Interior Design." Africa Habitat Review Journal. 2020;14(2):1831-1841.
Maxwell CO, Dulo SI, Olago DO, Odira PMA. "Water Availability Analysis of Multiple Source Groundwater Supply Systems in Water Stressed Urban Centers: Case of Lodwar municipality, Kenya." Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering. 2020;10(2). Abstractresearchgate.net

Ensuring water security to urban population in fragile environments through interlinked systems of groundwater abstraction, storage and distribution of sufficient quantity is challenging especially to urban utilities situated in arid and semi-arid regions. The purpose of this research was to evaluate water delivery challenges for water utilities in fragile environment in Kenya. A systematic analysis of availability from each supply sub-components from source to consumer was carried out through water audit and network analysis by employing water flow measurement equipments and through pump performance analysis and by employing continuity equation and Bernoulli’s principle to sections of the network. Results showed that water availability within a utility in such environments is contributed by seasonal variations between wet and dry affecting quantity at source, optimal design of supply infrastructure
in this case better matching of solar power with the pump, using standard pipes and on optimal operational strategies employed to reduce losses within the network. Based on these findings, we conclude that with clear understanding of each subcomponent’s contributions to entire water supply system and optimizing their design and operations, more people will be made water secure in all seasons in the fragile environments.

Keywords: Borehole • Availability • Water supply infrastructure

B.M. Nzimbi, Luketero SW. "Weyl and Browder theorems for operators with or without SVEP at zero." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2020;5(3):11-24. AbstractWebsite

The study of operators having some special spectral properties like Weyl's theorem, Browder's theorem
and the SVEP has been of important interest for some time now. The SVEP is very useful in the study of
the local spectral theory. In this paper, we explore the single-valued extension property (SVEP) for some
operators on Hilbert spaces. We characterize operators with or without SVEP at zero and those where
Weyl's and Browder's theorems hold. It is shown that if a Fredholm operator has no SVEP at zero, then
zero is an accumulation point of the spectrum of the operator. It is also shown that quasi similar Fredholm
operators have equal Weyl spectrum.

Onyango G. "Whistleblowing behaviours and anti-corruption approaches in public administration in Kenya.". 2020. Abstract

This article demonstrates that whistleblowing often receives little attention in public administration due to ambivalence regarding administrative roles held by public administrators, the fluid scalar chain and horizontal linkages, and competitive and intricate public, organisational and private interests. Drawing on comparative analysis to elucidate the broader scope of anti-corruption reforms and whistleblowing in public administration, the article explores the influence of the administrative culture on the relationship between whistleblowing behaviours and implementation of anti-corruption reforms in public administration in Kenya. It illustrates how bureaucratic oversight mechanisms such as internal auditing procedures and ethical guidelines tend to underperform where administrative environments largely feature autocratic bureaucratic authority, parochial management styles and centralised decision-making processes. Despite the functional specialty of public institutions, these cultural composites potentially elicit administrative behaviours that generally make whistleblowing anti-organisational, anti-social and an outright illegality in public administration. The absence of whistleblowing legislation or weak whistleblowing laws exacerbate these conditions. Whistleblowing becomes even more complex at the local-state level as social networks and working groups tend to be strengthened by the collectivist associational culture in public administration. Consequently, non-performance of anti-corruption reforms were found to stem from the collective chastisement of whistleblowing practices in public organisations in Kenya. Furthermore, institutional deficits typical in local-state administration seemingly made it riskier for potential whistleblowers to come forth, mainly attendant to loose and inconsistent legislation on corruption. Therefore, to enhance whistleblowing, there is a need to insulate potential whistleblowers from legal retaliation, including cultural retaliations that come in forms of emotional and professional ‘attacks’.

Getrude PS. "Zoonotic Anaplasma and Ehrlichia Infections and their Potential Reservoirs: A Review." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2020;9(1):1-9.
and Naomi A. “Kuwa Smart” .; 2020.
“Kibui ER”, “Manga E”, “Michuki G”. "“New Wine in an Old Wineskin? Socio-Political Context and Participatory Budgeting in Kenya” ." Journal of East African Studies. 2020.
Mwangi WE. "Epidural Lidocaine and Medetomidine-Ketamine Anaesthesia in Feline Orthopaedic Surgery." International journal of veterinary sciences. 2020;9:164-167. Abstract
n/a
Lachenmeier DW, Teipel J, Scharinger A, Kuballa T, Walch SG, Grosch F, Bunzel M, Okaru AO, Schwarz S. "Fully automated identification of coffee species and simultaneous quantification of furfuryl alcohol using NMR spectroscopy." Journal of AOAC International. 2020;103:306-314. Abstract
n/a
Achwoka D, Oyugi JO, Mutave R, Munywoki P, Achia T, Akolo M, Muriuki F, Muthui M, Kimani J. "High prevalence of non-communicable diseases among key populations enrolled at a large HIV prevention & treatment program in Kenya." Plos one. 2020;15:e0235606. Abstract
n/a
Wambugu JW, Kyalo D, Mbugua J, Mutave R. "Influence of Access to Quality Services on Performance of Family Planning Programs in Kuresoi North Sub-County, Nakuru County, Kenya." European Journal of Business and Management Research. 2020;5. Abstract
n/a
Wambugu JW, KYALO DOROTHYNDUNGE, Mbugua J, Mutave R. "Influence of Quality Counseling on Performance of Family Planning Programs in Kuresoi North Sub-County, Nakuru County, Kenya." American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2020;9:88-98. Abstract
n/a
Ndeke AN, Mutembei HM, Kaingu CK, Muthee JK. "International Journal of Veterinary Science.". 2020. Abstract
n/a
Gichure M, Kitala P, Kihurani D, Mande J, Munene N. "Sero-prevalence and risk factors of African Horse Sickness among donkeys in a highland area of Kenya." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health. 2020;12:125-131. Abstract
n/a
2019
Ntwiga DB. "Fintech and Banks Collaboration: Does it Influence Efficiency inthe Banking Sector?". In: Kenya Bankers Association 8th Banking Research Conference. Radisson Blu Hotel Nairobi Kenya; 2019. Abstract

The efficiency of the banking sector in Sub-Saharan Africa is low compared to rest of the world and Fintech is taunted to alter this scenario. Efficient banks increase financial stability, intermediation and value to the shareholders. As Fintech innovations continue to alter the landscape in the banking sector, banks in Kenya are forming collaborations that are envisioned to shape the evolution of credit allocation and delivery of services. The study investigates the influence of Fintech on a bank’s efficiency in credit allocation using thedata envelopment model with input-orientation based on the intermediationdimension. Efficiency scores are decomposed as technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency.Secondary data for the period 2009-2018 is extracted from thirteen banks sampled from the top fifteen banks in Kenya based on their market share. The banks are either locally owned or listed in Nairobi Securities Exchange, of which five have Fintech collaborationswith a Pre-Fintech and Post Fintechperiod. Panel regression model tested the effect of financial ratios on technical efficiency of the banks. Fintech collaborating banks are more technically efficient based on models M1, M2 and M3 in Pre-Fintech. In Post Fintech, the Fintech banks are more efficient based on models M2, M3 and M4 but with decreasing returns to scale which is due to the banks being overly large, thus non-optimal in their operations. The positive effect on technical efficiency is observed from the ratios, liquidity, loan intensity, return on assets and cost of income. Cost of intermediation and credit risk had a negative effect on technical efficiency. Therefore, Fintech and banks collaborations did not significantly influence efficiency in the banking sector.

Ondiba IM, Oyieke FA, Athinya DK, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. "Larval species diversity, seasonal occurrence and larval habitat preference of mosquitoestransmitting Rift Valley fever and malariain Baringo County, Kenya.". In: C.B.P.S. Annual conference.; 2019.
M. KD, M. MI. "Strain level metagenomic analysis of Nairobi Market fermented camel milk.". In: University of Nairobi, AGRO2019 conference and Exhibition. FOA,CAVS-University of Nairobi; 2019.
Ogutu K. "High Court chose safe route in gay sex case." The Standard, May 28, 2019.
Oredo J, Njihia J, Iraki XN. "Institutional Pressures and Cloud Computing Adoption.". In: IST-Africa 2019 . Nairobi; 2019.
Sila MJ, Nyambura MI, Abong’o DA, Mwaura FB, Iwuoha E. "Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Eucalyptus Corymbia Leaf Extract at Optimized Conditions.". In: Nano Hybrids and Composites Vol. 25. Vol. 25. South Africa; 2019:. Abstract

Abstract:

This study reports the biosynthesis of narrow range diameter silver nanoparticles at optimum conditions using Eucalyptus corymbia as a reducing and stabilizing agent. Optimal conditions for biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were found to be; an extraction temperature of 90°C, pH of 5.7 a Silver Nitrate concentration of 1mM and AgNO3 to plant extract ratio of 4:1. UV-Visible spectroscopy monitored the formation of colloidal AgNPs. The UV-Visible spectrum showed a peak around 425 nm corresponding to the Plasmon absorbance of the AgNPs. The size and shape characterization of the AgNPs was done using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) techniques which revealed narrow range diameter (18-20 nm), almost monodispersed AgNPs, spherical in nature and with minimal agglomeration. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) results showed the presence of two peaks at 3.0 and 3.15 keV in the silver region. The Fourier Transform Infrared-Spectra (FTIR) of the plant extract and the AgNPs gave rise to vibrational peaks at 3260 and 1634 wavenumbers which are due to the presence of OH and –C=C-functional groups respectively.

Wasamba P. "Hasty varsity mergers could mess up things." The Standard, July 9, 2019:15.
‘Writing and Publishing: My Personal Experience’. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2019.
"Nafasi ya Kiswahili katika Elimu na Maendeleo.". In: CHAKAMA. Maasai Mara University; 2019.
MWANGI IK, Muketha SM. "Deriving Value Chain Model Applications in Planning From Skills Audit In Rwandan Urbanization Sector. Presented at 2019 Annual National Planners Convention.". In: Annual National Planners Convention. Organized by the Kenya Institute of Planners (KIP). Diana Reef Beach Resort and Spa, Kwale, Kenya; 2019.
Gichuyia LN. "INDOOR OVERHEATING RISK ANALYSIS OF OFFICE BUILDINGS IN NAI- ROBI IN A CHANGING CLIMATE.". In: Annual Eastern Africa Architecture Workshop and Exhibition. ADD Building - University of Nairobi; 2019.
Gichuyia LN. "LESSONS LEARNT FROM THERMAL DATA-LOGGING OF BUILDINGS IN NAIROBI OVER THE YEARS; HIGHLIGHT- ING THE DEMAND FUNCTIONS FOR DECI- SION-SUPPORT.". In: Annual Eastern Africa Architecture Workshop and Exhibition. ADD Building - University of Nairobi; 2019.
Dulo. "Onset and Cessation of Rainfall in East Africa.". In: NBCBN training Workshop. Dar es Salaam University; 2019.
Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Nyamori J, Gachago M, Rono H, Gichangi M, Mwangi A, Kefa R. "Is task-shifting of screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR) from eye specialists to technicians accurate?". In: East African Community East African Health Research Commission 7th East African Health and Scientific Conference. Dar es Salaam; 2019.invitation_letter_7th_eahsc_pg1_jefitha_karimurio1.pdfuse_of_technology_to_taskshift__prof_jefitha_karimurio.pdf
Kanoti J, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dulo SI, Taylor R. "Characterisation of geogenic controls on groundwater quality in a volcano-sedimentary aquifer in Kenya using graphical and statistical methods.". In: 46th IAH Congress. Malaga, Spain; 2019. Abstractcontribution.pdf

Geogenic controls on groundwater quality are often dominant but remain inadequately characterized for many aquifer systems. The volcano-sedimentary aquifer of Kisumu (Kenya) is used widely to provide safe water to the informal settlements and acts as a strategic, supplementary supply to the city during interruptions in service from the main piped water supply network drawing from Lake Victoria. Little is known, however, of the geogenic controls on groundwater quality in the Kisumu aquifer. We characterize the origin and composition of solutes in groundwaters sampled from the Kisumu aquifer using a range of techniques. Classical graphical methods (i.e. Durov, Piper, Schoeller, Stiff and Ternary plots) were used as interpretative tools of the main hydrogeochemical processes whereas principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) methods were used to assess hydrochemical variations and water types. An agglomeration schedule with five cluster solutions and between-groups linkage method of clustering using the squared Euclidian distance was employed. Variables were standardized to z-scores so that each variable contributed equally to the clusters. The study identifies three main groundwater geochemical signatures in the Kisumu study area: cation exchange (Ca-Na, Ca-Mg) between aqueous and solid phases, the chemistry of recharge water, and groundwater mixing. The concentration of major ions in groundwater varies with geology and also seasonally. The dominant water facies is Na-Ca-HCO3 type; other hydrochemical facies include Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Na-HCO3. Hydrochemical plots suggest that dissolution of carbonates and halite are the other major chemical processes, in addition to cation exchange, that control the groundwater chemistry in the Kisumu aquifer. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the main cations and anions discriminated satisfactorily the various water types in the study area.

MWANGI IK. "Making Devolution and Decentralization Work n Kiambu through Institutional Framework of Boards of Municipalities.". In: Training Workshop for Capacity Building for Boards of Municipalities. Organized by Kiambu County Government and Kenya Urban Support Programme (KUSP). Lake Naivasha Resort, Naivasha; 2019.
Muricho DN, Otieno DJ, Oluoch-Kosura, Jistrom M. "Building on local pastoralists’ knowledge for effective management of the arid and semi-arid areas.". In: 20th Annual World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty. Washington DC, USA; 2019.
Ruto LC, Otieno DJ, Oluoch-Kosura W, Mureithi S, Nyberg G. "Emerging forms of land market participation and implications on pastoralists’ livelihoods in Kenya.". In: 20th Annual World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty. Washington DC, USA; 2019.
Gitao, C.G., Toroitich, K, Khalif, Field, C, Wario, S. Mass Livestock Deaths In EL-HADI Of North-Horr Sub-County, MARSABIT COUNTY. Nairobi: RPLP; 2019.marsabit_camel_deaths-paper_-1.docx
omari HK, Kayeli E. "Comprehensive sex education in Kenya: Islamic perspective.". In: THE 2ND ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE MACHAKOS UNIVERSITY, KENYA. machakos university; 2019.
Oredo J. "Personal Cloud Computing Adoption: The Effect of Individual IT Mindfulness.". In:  African International Business Management (AIBUMA) Conference . Nairobi; 2019.
Gitao C. "Role of Academia and Researchers in the Agricultural sector in Kenya’.". In: Kenya Private Sector Agricultural sector. Intercontinental Hotel, Nairobi; 2019.
Akach JA. "Unearth tourism assets through co-design: Creative methods to engage the youth .". In: 2nd Annual Architecture and Engineering Conference. University of Nairobi; 2019.
Gichuyia LN. "THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE INDOOR OVERHEATING RISK LANDSCAPE OF NAIROB.". In: In Proceedings of the Annual Architecture and Engineering Conference - Business opportunities in Energy, Manufacturing, Infrastructural and Environmental Research. School of Engineering, University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2019.

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