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WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Nganga, C.J., Kanyari, P.W.N. and Munyua, W.K. (1994): Isolation of Besnoitia wallacei in Kenya. Vet. Parasitol. 52: 203-206.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Bwangamoi, O., Frank H., Wandera, J.G. and Munyua, W.K. (1971): Gross lesions in natural bovine East Coast Fever at Kabete. Bull. Epiz Dis. Afr. Vol. 19 No. 3; 271-277.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey.; 1971. Abstract
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WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Munyua, W.K. (1992): Serum immunoglobulin response in intact and splenectomised cattle infected with Trypanosoma congolense (Broden, 1904). Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Annual Scientific conference.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1992. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Rutagwenda, T. and Munyua, W.K. (1983): The effects of Panacur (Fenbendazole) on nematode parasites of camels under nomadic conditions in Northern Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. Vol. 33: 63-67.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1983. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
William Maina Muiru, Erick. Ogumo JWKDM. "Potential of green manure crops in suppressing root knot nematodes in French beans." Int. J. Agron. Agri. Res. 2017;11(1):90-97.
William Muiru, Maundu Jane KJGEWP. "Influence of NPK fertilizer on tolerance to damage by root knot nematodes on coffee." Int. J. Agron. Agri. Res. 2017;11(1):81-89.
Williams F, Constantine KL, Ali AA, Karanja TW, Kibet S. "An assessment of the capacity and responsiveness of a national system to address the threat of invasive species: a systems approach." CABI Agriculture and Bioscience. 2021;2(42):1-17.
Williams S, White A, Waiganjo P, Orwa D, Klopp J. "The digital matatu project: Using cell phones to create an open source data for Nairobi's semi-formal bus system." Journal of Transport Geography. 2016;49:39-51. AbstractFull text link

In many of the world's growing cities, semi-formal buses form the basis of public transit systems. However, little open and standardized data exist on these systems. The Digital Matatus project in Nairobi, Kenya set out to test whether the geo-locative capabilities of mobile technology could be used to collect data on a semi-formal transit system and whether that data could be translated into the General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS) data standard for wider use. The results of this work show that mobile technologies, particularly mobile phones, which are increasingly prevalent in developing countries, can indeed be used effectively to collect and deliver data in a modified GTFS format for semi-formal transit. Perhaps more importantly, through our work in Nairobi, we were able to identify the benefits and technical needs for developing data on semi-formal transit. Overall, the work illustrates (1) how the GTFS can be adapted to semi-formal systems and used by other cities with such transit systems, (2) that there is demand from technologists as well as transport communities for comprehensive data on semi-formal transit, (3) that releasing the data openly in the GTFS standard format can help to encourage the development of transportation applications, and (4) that including the entire transit community during the data development can create a community of users and mechanisms for institutionalizing a process of data updating and sharing. The engagement strategies our research team developed around the data collection process in Nairobi became just as important as the resulting data it produced.

Williams F, Constantine KL, Ali AA, Karanja TW, Kibet S. "An assessment of the capacity and responsiveness of a national system to address the threat of invasive species: a systems approach." CABI Agriculture and Bioscience. 2021;2(42):1-17.
Williams F, Constantine KL, Ali AA, Karanja TW, Kibet S. "An assessment of the capacity and responsiveness of a national system to address the threat of invasive species: a systems approach." CABI Agriculture and Bioscience. 2021;2(42):1-17.
Williams N, Bulstrode C, O'Connell RP. Bailey 's {Short} {Practice} of {Surgery}. London; 2004. Abstract
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Williamson P;, Penhale JW;, Munyua SJM;, Murray J. "Acute Reaction Of Mares Uterus Of Bacterial Infection."; 1984.
Willis N Ochilo, Gideon N Nyamasyo, Dora Kilalo WOMOFCTKELK. "Characteristics and production constraints of smallholder tomato production in Kenya." Scientific African. 2019;2:e00014.
Willis N Ochilo, Gideon N Nyamasyo, Dora Kilalo WOMOFCTKELK. "Characteristics and production constraints of smallholder tomato production in Kenya." Scientific African. 2019;2:e00014.
Willmore WS, Hill AG. "Acute appendicitis in a {Kenya} rural hospital." East African medical journal. 2001;78:355-357. AbstractWebsite
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Willy E Mwangi, Eddy M Mogoa JMPMSMNGW. "A systematic review of analgesia practices in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy." Veterinary World. 2018;11:1725-1735. Abstract
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Wilson, et al. "Immunohistochemical approach to understanding branchial ion regulation in the tilapia of Lake Magadi (pH10).". In: The society for experimental biology. Salzburg, Austria; 2012.
WILSON DRGITAU, M PROFMUTUAFRANCIS. "Githui, F., Gitau, W., Mutua, F. and Bauwens, W., 2008: Climate change impact on SWAT simulated streamflow in Western Kenya. Inter. J. Climatol., 29(12), 1823 .". In: journal. International Journal of Climatology; 2008. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
Wilson KS, Deya R, Yuhas K, Simoni J, Vander Stoep A, Shafi J, Jaoko W, Hughes JP, Richardson BA, McClelland SR. "A Prospective Cohort Study of Intimate Partner Violence and Unprotected Sex in HIV-Positive Female Sex Workers in Mombasa, Kenya." AIDS Behav. 2016. Abstracta_prospective_cohort_study_of_intimate_partner_violence_and_unprotected_sex_in_hiv-positive_female_sex_workers_in_mombasa_kenya.pdfPUBMED

We conducted a prospective cohort study to test the hypothesis that intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with unprotected sex in HIV-positive female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya. Women completed monthly visits and quarterly examinations. Any IPV in the past year was defined as ≥1 act of physical, sexual, or emotional violence by the current or most recent emotional partner ('index partner'). Unprotected sex with any partner was measured by self-report and prostate specific antigen (PSA) test. Recent IPV was associated with significantly higher risk of unprotected sex (adjusted relative risk [aRR] 1.91, 95 % CI 1.32, 2.78, p = 0.001) and PSA (aRR 1.54, 95 % CI 1.17, 2.04, p = 0.002) after adjusting for age, alcohol use, and sexual violence by someone besides the index partner. Addressing IPV in comprehensive HIV programs for HIV-positive women in this key population is important to improve wellbeing and reduce risk of sexual transmission of HIV.

WILSON DRGITAU, CHRISTOPHER DROLUDHE. "Oludhe, C., Ogallo, L., Ambenje, P., Atheru, Z. and Gitau, W., 2010: Eastern Africa [in .". In: Bulletin of America Meteorological Society. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 2010.
Wilson KS, Deya R, Masese L, Simoni JM, Vander Stoep A, Shafi J, Jaoko W, Hughes JP, McClelland SR. "Prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence in HIV-positive women engaged in transactional sex in Mombasa, Kenya." Int J STD AIDS. 2015. Abstract

SummaryWe evaluated the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence in the past year by a regular male partner in HIV-positive female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya. This cross-sectional study included HIV-positive women ≥18 years old who reported engagement in transactional sex at the time of enrolment in the parent cohort. We asked 13 questions adapted from the World Health Organization survey on violence against women about physical, sexual, or emotional violence in the past year by the current or most recent emotional partner (index partner). We used standardised instruments to assess socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics as possible correlates of intimate partner violence. Associations between intimate partner violence and these correlates were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Overall, 286/357 women (80.4%) had an index partner, and 52/357 (14.6%, 95% confidence interval 10.9%-18.2%) reported intimate partner violence by that partner in the past year. In multivariate analysis, women with severe alcohol problems (adjusted odds ratio 4.39, 1.16-16.61) and those experiencing controlling behaviours by the index partner (adjusted odds ratio 4.98, 2.31-10.74) were significantly more likely to report recent intimate partner violence. Recent intimate partner violence was common in HIV-positive female sex workers. Interventions targeting risk factors for intimate partner violence, including alcohol problems and partner controlling behaviours, could help to reduce recurrent violence and negative health outcomes in this key population.

Wilson KS, Wanje G, Masese L, Simoni JM, Shafi J, Adala L, Overbaugh J, Jaoko W, Richardson BA, McClelland RS. "A Prospective Cohort Study of Fertility Desire, Unprotected Sex, and Detectable Viral Load in HIV-Positive Female Sex Workers in Mombasa, Kenya." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2018;78(3):276-282. Abstract

Little is known about fertility desire in HIV-positive female sex workers. Fertility desire could increase HIV transmission risk if it was associated with condomless sex or lower adherence to antiretroviral therapy.

Wilson HK, Keuer SP, Lea AS, Boyd AE, Eknoyan G. "Phosphate therapy in diabetic ketoacidosis." Archives of Internal Medicine. 1982;142:517-520. Abstract

To determine the efficacy of phosphate replacement in the therapy for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), 44 patients were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: those who received no phosphate replacement, those who received 15 mmole of sodium phosphate at the fourth hour, or those who received 15 mmole of sodium phosphate at 2, 6, and 10 hours. All patients were treated with intravenous insulin injection (0.1 units/kg/hr), fluids, and potassium. Four hours after a 15-mmole sodium phosphate infusion, the serum phosphate level was 2.8 +/- 0.8 mg/dL vs 2.1 +/- 0.8 mg/dL in the control patients; however, this dose was insufficient to maintain the serum phosphate level at 16 and 24 hours. Forty-five millimoles of phosphate prevented severe hypophosphatemia in all but one patient and produced substantially higher phosphate levels at 8, 16, and 24 hours. Phosphate therapy did not affect the duration of DKA, dose of insulin required to correct the acidosis, abnormal muscle enzyme levels, glucose disappearance, or morbidity and mortality. Although theoretically appealing, phosphate therapy is not an essential part of the therapy for DKA in most patients.

WILSON DRGITAU, N. DRMUTEMIJOSEPH, A. PROFOGALLOLABAN, A. PROFOGALLOLABAN. "Intraseasonal characteristics of wet and dry spells over Kenya.". In: J. Kenya Meteorol. Soc., 2(1), 18 . Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2008. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

Wilson KS, Wanje G, Yuhas K, Simoni JM, Masese L, Vander Stoep A, Jaoko W, Hughes JP, Richardson BA, Scott McClelland R. "A Prospective Study of Intimate Partner Violence as a Risk Factor for Detectable Plasma Viral Load in HIV-Positive Women Engaged in Transactional Sex in Mombasa, Kenya." AIDS Behav. 2016. Abstracta_prospective_study_of_intimate_partner_violence_as_a_risk_factor_for_detectable_plasma_viral_load_in_hiv-positive_women_engaged_in_transactional_sex_in_mombasa_kenya.pdfPUBMED

We conducted a prospective cohort study to evaluate intimate partner violence (IPV) as a risk factor for detectable plasma viral load in HIV-positive female sex workers (FSWs) on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Kenya. IPV in the past year was defined as ≥1 act of physical, sexual, or emotional violence by the index partner (i.e. boyfriend/husband). The primary outcome was detectable viral load (≥180 copies/ml). In-depth interviews and focus groups were included to contextualize results. Analyses included 195 women (570 visits). Unexpectedly, IPV was associated with significantly lower risk of detectable viral load (adjusted relative risk 0.21, 95 % CI 0.05-0.84, p-value = 0.02). Qualitative findings revealed that women valued emotional and financial support from index partners, despite IPV. IPV was not a major barrier to ART adherence. The observed association between IPV and lower risk of detectable viral load in FSWs may be due to unmeasured personal and relationship factors, warranting further research.

Wilson Karibe, Catherine Kunyanga JI. "Storability and Physico-Chemical Quality of Ready to Eat Bovine Tripe Rolls under Different Storage Conditions." International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 2018;7(8):370-382.
WINFRED DR MWANGI. "Ban on Transfer of Land: The Genesis, Good and the Bad." Land and Property Digest. Vol. 3, July 2004 (2004).
WINFRED DR MWANGI. "Role of Land Management Surveyor." Land and Property Digest. volume 1 (2003).
WINFRED DR MWANGI. "The Impacts of poor Governance on Land Development Applications processes: The Case of City of Nairobi.". In: 46th ISOCARP Congress on sustainable City, developing World. Nairobi; 2010.
WINFRED DR MWANGI. "The Economic Survival strategies Among the Youth, Nairobi’s Kasarani Division.". In: Nordic Africa Institute Conference. Iceland; 2005.
WINFRED DR MWANGI. An Evaluation of the administration of Land Development Applications in Nairobi, Kenya.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2008.
WINFRED DR MWANGI. "Land Policy Development and Land Conflicts/Clashes in Kenya: Is there Light at the end of the Tunnel.". In: 10th AFRES Conference. Naivasha, Kenya; 2010.
WINFRED DR MWANGI. Housing Provision; Are the Low Income Earners Catered For? A Case Study of Thika Town. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1991.
WINFRED DR MWANGI. "2003 The Actualization Of Secure Tenure In Kenya: The Evolving Trends In Different Political Governments.". In: ISK / CASLE / HABITAT Workshop On Security Of Land Tenure. Nairobi; 2003.
WINFRED DR MWANGI. "Transfer of Land: Ministry Sowing Fear and Confusion." The East African (2004).
WINFRED DR MWANGI. "Surveyors and Land Policy Development: Can the Two Save the Situation?" Land and Property Digest. Vol. 5 (2008).
WINFRED DR MWANGI. "The Impacts of Organizational culture in the Performance of Land Administration Institutions." Africa Habitat Review Journal. 2009; Vol 3(No3):159-68.
WINFRED DR MWANGI. "A Land Administrators View on the National Land Policy, the Constitution of Kenya (2010) and the National Land Commission Bill (2011).". In: KHRC Breakfast Forum on land reforms Agenda in Kenya. Nairobi; 2011.
WINFRED DR MWANGI. "The Role of Training Institutions in Promoting Sustainable Land Management in Kenya.". In: AFRES conference. Lagos, Nigeria; 2009.
WINFRED DR MWANGI. "The Role of Land Policy in Governance of Land sector in Development.". In: ISK/LSNSA/SIDA Coast Opinion Leaders Forum on Land Reforms. Mombasa, Kenya; 2009.
WINFRED DR MWANGI. "Life Begins at Forty, Even for ISK:." Land and Property Digest. Special Issue No 9 (2010).
WINFRED DR MWANGI. "The Surveyor at Crossroads: Them or I:." The surveyors Journal. 2004;(March, 2004).
WINFRED DR MWANGI. "2006 Homelessness in Nairobi, Kenya: Causes and Interventions.". In: GURU/DFID Homelessness conference . New Delhi, India; 2006.
WINFRED DR MWANGI. "Performance Evaluation of Land administration Systems in Kenya." Africa Habitat Review Journal. 2008;Vol 2(No 2):81-90 .
WINFRED DR MWANGI. "Institutional Reforms the Panacea to Land reforms: The case of Land administration delivery in Kenya.". In: ISK/APSEA Professionals Forum. Nairobi; 2009.
Winfred Sila, Gachuiri CK, John Recha, James Audho, Ojango JMK. "Economic Performance of Small Ruminants on Smallholder Farms in Climate Smart Villages of Nyando.". 2019.
WINIFRED KAMAU W. "Indigenous and State Justice Systems in Kenya: Towards Realization of Justice." Presented at Moving Towards Justice Conference on Indigenous Law in Regina, Saskatchewan; 2006. Abstract
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WINIFRED KAMAU W. "and Discrimination: The Legal Perspective on HIV and AIDS." Health Rights Advocacy Forum (HERAF) Annual Conference on Right to Health: An Assessment of Kenya; 2007. Abstract
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WINIFRED KAMAU W. "Globalization and Third World Women." Presented in at Oxford Round Table Conference in Oxford University, U.K,; 2003. Abstract
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WINIFRED KAMAU W. "Resolution of Succession Disputes in Kenya: The Role of Traditional Leaders." Presented at the International Conference on Traditional Leadership, Durban, South Africa,; 2007. Abstract
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WINIFRED KAMAU W. "Women." Presented at the Graduate Law Students Conference at Osgoode Hall Law School, York University, Toronto; 2003. Abstract
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WINIFRED KAMAU W. "Women, Law and Dispute Resolution in Kenya: The Impact of Legal Pluralism." Presented at the LSA/RCSL International Conference on Law and Society held in Humboldt University, Berlin,; 2007. Abstract
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Winkelmann A. "Anatomical dissection as a teaching method in medical school: a review of the evidence." Medical Education. 2007;41:15-22. AbstractWebsite

Context  Discussions about dissection as a teaching method in gross anatomy are characterised by a lack of objective evidence. Methods  A search for such evidence in the literature produced 14 relevant papers. These were reviewed for objective data on the effect of cadaver dissection on cognitive learning outcomes. Results  All reviewed studies compared groups of students exposed to different teaching approaches, including active dissection, learning on prosected material, or a combination with computerised teaching aids. Study and course designs varied substantially and student groups compared were not always homogeneous. In all studies, compared learning experiences differed in more than 1 variable, and assessment of anatomical knowledge was not standardised. Discussion  It is difficult to interpret and generalise from the results of the reviewed studies. Considering the bias that must be assumed for teachers who develop new course designs and compare these with traditional ones, the review shows a slight advantage for traditional dissection over prosection. Conclusions  More sophisticated research designs may be necessary to solve the general problem of the small measurable impact of educational interventions and to come to scientifically sound conclusions about the best way to teach gross anatomy. Such research will have to include sufficient sample sizes, the use of validated assessment instruments, and a discussion of the educational significance of measured differences. More educational research in anatomy is necessary to counterbalance emotional arguments about dissection with scientific evidence. Anatomical knowledge is too important to future doctors to leave its teaching to the educational fashion of the day.

Winnie SM, Karau P, Mutwiri M, Julius O, Geoffrey M. "Outcome And Complications In Women Undergoing Cervical Cerclage In A Tertiary Hospital In Kenya." Webmed central OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY. 2010;1(9):793.outcome_and_complications_in_women_undergoing.pdf
Winnie Mitullah, Preston Chitere, Dorothy McCormick, Risper Orero, Ommeh. M. "‘Paratransit Business Strategies: A Bird’s Eye View of Matatus in Nairobi.’ Paper presented at the Southern African Transport Conference,." Pretoria, South Africa; 2011.
Winnie Mitullah, Preston Chitere, Dorothy McCormick, Risper Orero, Ommeh. M. "‘Paratransit Operations and Regulation in Nairobi: Matatu Business Strategies and the Regulatory Regime.’ Paper presented at the Southern African Transport Conf." Nairobi - Silver Springs Hotel; 2012.
Winnie Mitullah, Bratton M, Gyimah-Boadi E, Mattes R. "Afrobarometer 3: The quality of democracy and governance in Kenya, 2005.". 2005.Website
Winter RJ, Harris CJ, Phillips LS, Green OC. "Diabetic ketoacidosis. {Induction} of hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia by phosphate therapy." The American Journal of Medicine. 1979;67:897-900. Abstract
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Wirire GG. "Professional Social Work in East Africa: Towards Social Development, Poverty Reduction and Gender Equality.". In: The State of Social Work Education and Practice in Kenya. Kampala : Fountain Publishers; 2014.
With Abunuwasi Mwami(eds.). "The Federo Question of Buganda in Uganda Within the Context ot the East African Political Federation." A Report of the Kituo Cha Katiba Fact- Finding Mission, to Uganda, Fountain Publishers, Kampala,. 2012.
With Frederick Jjuuko(eds.). "Federation Within Federation." The Tanzania Union Experience and the East African Integration Process - A Report of the Kituo Cha Katiba Fact- Finding Mission to Tanzania. 2010.
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Rustagi AS, Gimbel S, Ruth Nduati, de Cuembelo MF, Wasserheit JN, Farquhar C, Gloyd S, Sherr K. "Implementation and Operational Research: Impact of a Systems Engineering Intervention on PMTCT Service Delivery in Côte d'Ivoire, Kenya, Mozambique: A Cluster Randomized Trial." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2016;72(3):e68-76. Abstract

Efficacious interventions to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) have not translated well into effective programs. Previous studies of systems engineering applications to PMTCT lacked comparison groups or randomization.

Rustagi AS, Gimbel S, Ruth Nduati, de Cuembelo MF, Wasserheit JN, Farquhar C, Gloyd S, Sherr K. "Health facility factors and quality of services to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission in Côte d'Ivoire, Kenya, and Mozambique." Int J STD AIDS. 2016. Abstract

This study aimed to identify facility-level characteristics associated with prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission service quality. This cross-sectional study sampled 60 health facilities in Mozambique, Côte d'Ivoire, and Kenya (20 per country). Performance score - the proportion of pregnant women tested for HIV in first antenatal care visit, multiplied by the proportion of HIV-positive pregnant women who received appropriate antiretroviral medications - was calculated for each facility using routine data from 2012 to 2013. Facility characteristics were ascertained during on-site visits, including workload. Associations between facility characteristics and performance were quantified using generalized linear models with robust standard errors, adjusting for country. Over six months, facilities saw 38,611 first antenatal care visits in total. On-site CD4 testing, Pima CD4 machine, air conditioning, and low or high (but not mid-level) patient volume were each associated with higher performance scores. Each additional first antenatal care visit per nurse per month was associated with a 4% (95% confidence interval: 1%-6%) decline in the odds that an HIV-positive pregnant woman would receive both HIV testing and antiretroviral medications. Physician workload was only modestly associated with performance. Investments in infrastructure and human resources - particularly nurses - may be critical to improve prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission service delivery and protect infants from HIV.

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With McCormick D, Chitere P, Orero R, Ommeh M. "Paratransit Business Strategies : A Bird’s Eye View of Matatu in Nairobi’ ." Journal of Public Transport. Forthcoming.
Wolfgang R. Mukabana, Collins K. Mweresa, Bruno Otieno, Philemon Omusula, Renate C. Smallegange, Joop JA van Loon, Takken W. "A novel synthetic odorant blend for trapping of malaria and other african mosquito species." Journal of Chemical Ecology. 2012;38:235-244.
Wolfgang Richard Mukabana, Janet Achieng Onyango CKM. "Artisanal fishing supports breeding of malaria mosquitoes in Western Kenya." Malaria Journal. 2019;188:77.
Wolfsdorf J, Glaser N, Sperling MA, American Diabetes Association. "Diabetic ketoacidosis in infants, children, and adolescents: {A} consensus statement from the {American} {Diabetes} {Association}." Diabetes Care. 2006;29:1150-1159. Abstract
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Wondimu W, Bogale A, Babege T. "AJPS Articles." Evaluation. 2018.
Wong ROL, Ghosh A. "Activity-dependent regulation of dendritic growth and patterning." Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 2002;3:803-812. AbstractWebsite

One of the most remarkable features of the developing brain is its ability to undergo structural change in response to experience. Among the cellular elements that show this kind of plasticity are dendrites, which are the components that receive and process synaptic information. Recent observations indicate that calcium signalling in neurons can regulate dendritic growth and remodelling by several mechanisms, and these mechanisms are likely to be key mediators of structural plasticity in the developing brain.

Wong KK, Bulimo WD, Magana J, Achilla RA, Schwarcz SK, Simwa M, Majanja JM, Wadegu MO, Osuna FA, Mukunzi SO, Mwangi JK, Wangui JM, Muthoni JN, Njiri JO, Obura BD, Opot BH, Mitei KK, Barani J, Lifumo S, Schnabel DC. "Epidemiology of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A Virus Subtype H1N1 Among Kenyans Aged 2 Months to 18 Years, 2009–2010." Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2012;206:S68-S73. Abstractj_infect_dis.-2012-wong-s68-73.pdfWebsite

Background.The US Army Medical Research Unit–Kenya (USAMRU-K) conducts surveillance for influenza-like illness (ILI) in Kenya. We describe the temporal and geographic progression of A(H1N1)pdm09 as it emerged in Kenya and characterize the outpatient population with A(H1N1)pdm09 infection.Methods.We included patients with ILI aged 2 months to 18 years enrolled during June 2009–August 2010. Respiratory specimens were tested by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for influenza virus. Patients with A(H1N1)pdm09 infection were compared to those with seasonal influenza A virus infection and those with ILI who had no virus or a virus other than influenza virus identified (hereafter, “noninfluenza ILI”).Results.Of 4251 patients with ILI, 193 had laboratory-confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 infection. The first pandemic influenza case detected by USAMRU-K surveillance was in August 2009; peak activity nationwide occurred during October–November 2009. Patients with A(H1N1)pdm09 infection were more likely to be school-aged, compared with patients with seasonal influenza A virus infection (prevalence ratio [PR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3–3.1) or noninfluenza ILI (PR, 3.2; 95% CI, 2.4–4.3).Conclusions.USAMRU-K ILI surveillance detected the geographic and temporal distribution of pandemic influenza in Kenya. The age distribution of A(H1N1)pdm09 infections included more school-aged children, compared with seasonal influenza A virus infection and noninfluenza ILI.

Woo PT. "Cryptobia and cryptobiosis in fishes." Adv. Parasitol.. 1987;26:199-237.
Wood CM, Bergman HL, Bianchini A, Laurent P, Maina J, Johannsson OE, Bianchini LF, Chevalier C, Kavembe GD, Papah MB, Ojoo RO. "Transepithelial potential in the Magadi tilapia, a fish living in extreme alkalinity.". 2012. Abstract

We investigated the transepithelial potential (TEP) and its responses to changes in the external medium in Alcolapia grahami, a small cichlid fish living in Lake Magadi, Kenya. Magadi water is extremely alkaline (pH = 9.92) and otherwise unusual: titratable alkalinity (290 mequiv L(-1), i.e. HCO(3) (-) and CO(3) (2-)) rather than Cl(-) (112 mmol L(-1)) represents the major anion matching Na(+) = 356 mmol L(-1), with very low concentrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) (<1 mmol L(-1)). Immediately after fish capture, TEP was +4 mV (inside positive), but stabilized at +7 mV at 10-30 h post-capture when experiments were performed in Magadi water. Transfer to 250% Magadi water increased the TEP to +9.5 mV, and transfer to fresh water and deionized water decreased the TEP to -13 and -28 mV, respectively, effects which were not due to changes in pH or osmolality. The very negative TEP in deionized water was attenuated in a linear fashion by log elevations in [Ca(2+)]. Extreme cold (1 vs. 28°C) reduced the positive TEP in Magadi water by 60%, suggesting blockade of an electrogenic component, but did not alter the negative TEP in dilute solution. When fish were transferred to 350 mmol L(-1) solutions of NaHCO(3), NaCl, NaNO(3), or choline Cl, only the 350 mmol L(-1) NaHCO(3) solution sustained the TEP unchanged at +7 mV; in all others, the TEP fell. Furthermore, after transfer to 50, 10, and 2% dilutions of 350 mmol L(-1) NaHCO(3), the TEPs remained identical to those in comparable dilutions of Magadi water, whereas this did not occur with comparable dilutions of 350 mmol L(-1) NaCl-i.e. the fish behaves electrically as if living in an NaHCO(3) solution equimolar to Magadi water. We conclude that the TEP is largely a Na(+) diffusion potential attenuated by some permeability to anions. In Magadi water, the net electrochemical forces driving Na(+) inwards (+9.9 mV) and Cl(-) outwards (+3.4 mV) are small relative to the strong gradient driving HCO(3) (-) inwards (-82.7 mV). Estimated permeability ratios are P (Cl)/P (Na) = 0.51-0.68 and [Formula: see text] = 0.10-0.33. The low permeability to HCO(3) (-) is unusual, and reflects a unique adaptation to life in extreme alkalinity. Cl(-) is distributed close to Nernst equilibrium in Magadi water, so there is no need for lower P (Cl). The higher P (Na) likely facilitates Na(+) efflux through the paracellular pathway. The positive electrogenic component is probably due to active HCO(3) (-) excretion.

Wood CM, Bergman HL, Bianchini A, Laurent P, Maina J, Johannsson OE, Bianchini LF, Chevalier C, Kavembe GD, Papah MB, Ojoo RO. "Transepithelial potential in the Magadi tilapia, a fish living.". 2005. Abstract

We investigated the transepithelial potential (TEP) and its responses to changes in the external medium in Alcolapia grahami, a small cichlid fish living in Lake Magadi, Kenya. Magadi water is extremely alkaline (pH = 9.92) and otherwise unusual: titratable alkalinity (290 mequiv L-1, i.e. HCO3 - and CO3 2-) rather than Cl-(112 mmol L-1) represents the major anion matching Na? = 356 mmol L-1, with very low concentrations of Ca2? and Mg2? (\1 mmol L-1). Immediately after fish capture, TEP was ?4 mV (inside positive), but stabilized at ?7 mV at 10–30 h post-capture when experiments were performed in Magadi water. Transfer to 250% Magadi water increased the TEP to ?9.5 mV, and transfer to fresh water and deionized water decreased the TEP to-13 and-28 mV, respectively, effects which were not due to changes in pH or osmolality. The very negative TEP in deionized water was attenuated in a linear fashion by log elevations in [Ca2?]. Extreme cold (1 vs. 28 C) reduced the positive TEP in Magadi water by 60%, suggesting blockade of an electrogenic component, but did not alter the negative TEP in dilute solution. When fish were transferred to 350 mmol L-1 solutions of NaHCO3, NaCl, NaNO3, or choline Cl, only the 350 mmol L-1 NaHCO3 solution sustained the TEP unchanged at ?7 mV; in all others, the TEP fell. Furthermore, after transfer to 50, 10, and 2% dilutions of 350 mmol L-1 NaHCO3, the TEPs remained identical to those in comparable dilutions of Magadi water, whereas this did not occur with comparable dilutions of 350 mmol L-1 NaCl— i.e. the fish behaves electrically as if living in an NaHCO3 solution equimolar to Magadi water. We conclude that the TEP is largely a Na? diffusion potential attenuated by some permeability to anions. In Magadi water, the net electrochemical forces driving Na? inwards (?9.9 mV) and Cl- outwards (?3.4 mV) are small relative to the strong gradient

wood, et al. "Responses to Ammonia Loading in the Magadi Tilapia, a Completely Ureotelic Teleost Fish.". In: Canadian Society of Zoologists meeting. Mount Allison University, Sackville, NB Canada; 2012.
Wood CM, Wilson P, Bergman HL, Bergman AN, Laurent P, Otiang’a‐Owiti, George; Walsh PJ. "Obligatory urea production and the cost of living in the Magadi tilapia revealed by acclimation to reduced salinity and alkalinity.". 2002. Abstract

Alcolapia grahami is a unique ureotelic tilapia that lives in the highly alkaline, saline Lake Magadi, Kenya (pH, approximately 10.0; alkalinity, approximately 380 mmol L(-1); Na(+), approximately 350 mmol L(-1); Cl(-), approximately 110 mmol L(-1); osmolality, approximately 580 mosm kg(-1)). The fish survived well upon gradual exposure to dilute lake water (down to 1%, essentially freshwater). Urea excretion continued, and there was no ammonia excretion despite favorable conditions, indicating that ureotelism is obligatory. Levels of most ornithine-urea cycle enzymes in the liver were unchanged relative to controls kept for the same period in 100% lake water. The fish exhibited good abilities for hypo- and hyperregulation, maintaining plasma Na(+), Cl(-), and osmolality at levels typical of marine and freshwater teleosts in 100% and 1% lake water, respectively. Plasma total CO(2) did not change with environmental dilution. Routine oxygen consumption (Mo(2)) was extremely high in 100% lake water but decreased by 40%-68% after acclimation to dilute lake water. At every fixed swimming speed, Mo(2) was significantly reduced (by 50% at high speeds), and critical swimming speed was elevated in fish in 10% lake water relative to 100% lake water. Osmotic and Cl(-) concentration gradients from water to plasma were actually increased, and osmotic and Na(+) gradients were reversed, in 10% and 1% dilutions relative to 100% lake water, whereas acid-base gradients were greatly reduced. We suggest that approximately 50% of the animal's high metabolic demand originates from the cost of acid-base regulation in the highly alkaline Lake Magadi. When this load is reduced by environmental dilution, the energy saved can be diverted to enhanced swimming performance.

wood, et al. "The Magadi Tilapia- Coping with Extremity. .". In: Tropical fish symposium of the fish biology congress (American fisheries society). Madison Winconsin USA; 2012.
Wood CM, Bergman HL, Bianchini A, Laurent P, Maina J, Johannsson OE, Bianchini LF, Chevalier C, Kavembe GD, Papah MB, Ojoo RO. "Transepithelial potential in the Magadi tilapia, a fish living in extreme alkalinity.". 2012. Abstract

We investigated the transepithelial potential (TEP) and its responses to changes in the external medium in Alcolapia grahami, a small cichlid fish living in Lake Magadi, Kenya. Magadi water is extremely alkaline (pH = 9.92) and otherwise unusual: titratable alkalinity (290 mequiv L(-1), i.e. HCO(3) (-) and CO(3) (2-)) rather than Cl(-) (112 mmol L(-1)) represents the major anion matching Na(+) = 356 mmol L(-1), with very low concentrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) (<1 mmol L(-1)). Immediately after fish capture, TEP was +4 mV (inside positive), but stabilized at +7 mV at 10-30 h post-capture when experiments were performed in Magadi water. Transfer to 250% Magadi water increased the TEP to +9.5 mV, and transfer to fresh water and deionized water decreased the TEP to -13 and -28 mV, respectively, effects which were not due to changes in pH or osmolality. The very negative TEP in deionized water was attenuated in a linear fashion by log elevations in [Ca(2+)]. Extreme cold (1 vs. 28°C) reduced the positive TEP in Magadi water by 60%, suggesting blockade of an electrogenic component, but did not alter the negative TEP in dilute solution. When fish were transferred to 350 mmol L(-1) solutions of NaHCO(3), NaCl, NaNO(3), or choline Cl, only the 350 mmol L(-1) NaHCO(3) solution sustained the TEP unchanged at +7 mV; in all others, the TEP fell. Furthermore, after transfer to 50, 10, and 2% dilutions of 350 mmol L(-1) NaHCO(3), the TEPs remained identical to those in comparable dilutions of Magadi water, whereas this did not occur with comparable dilutions of 350 mmol L(-1) NaCl-i.e. the fish behaves electrically as if living in an NaHCO(3) solution equimolar to Magadi water. We conclude that the TEP is largely a Na(+) diffusion potential attenuated by some permeability to anions. In Magadi water, the net electrochemical forces driving Na(+) inwards (+9.9 mV) and Cl(-) outwards (+3.4 mV) are small relative to the strong gradient driving HCO(3) (-) inwards (-82.7 mV). Estimated permeability ratios are P (Cl)/P (Na) = 0.51-0.68 and [Formula: see text] = 0.10-0.33. The low permeability to HCO(3) (-) is unusual, and reflects a unique adaptation to life in extreme alkalinity. Cl(-) is distributed close to Nernst equilibrium in Magadi water, so there is no need for lower P (Cl). The higher P (Na) likely facilitates Na(+) efflux through the paracellular pathway. The positive electrogenic component is probably due to active HCO(3) (-) excretion.

wood, et al. "Transepithelial potential in the Magadi tilapia, a fish living in extreme alkalinity." Journal of Comparative Physiology B. . 2012;182 (2):247-258. AbstractSpringer Link

We investigated the transepithelial potential (TEP) and its responses to changes in the external medium in Alcolapia grahami, a small cichlid fish living in Lake Magadi, Kenya. Magadi water is extremely alkaline (pH = 9.92) and otherwise unusual: titratable alkalinity (290 mequiv L−1, i.e. HCO3 − and CO3 2−) rather than Cl− (112 mmol L−1) represents the major anion matching Na+ = 356 mmol L−1, with very low concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+ (<1 mmol L−1). Immediately after fish capture, TEP was +4 mV (inside positive), but stabilized at +7 mV at 10–30 h post-capture when experiments were performed in Magadi water. Transfer to 250% Magadi water increased the TEP to +9.5 mV, and transfer to fresh water and deionized water decreased the TEP to −13 and −28 mV, respectively, effects which were not due to changes in pH or osmolality. The very negative TEP in deionized water was attenuated in a linear fashion by log elevations in [Ca2+]. Extreme cold (1 vs. 28°C) reduced the positive TEP in Magadi water by 60%, suggesting blockade of an electrogenic component, but did not alter the negative TEP in dilute solution. When fish were transferred to 350 mmol L−1 solutions of NaHCO3, NaCl, NaNO3, or choline Cl, only the 350 mmol L−1 NaHCO3 solution sustained the TEP unchanged at +7 mV; in all others, the TEP fell. Furthermore, after transfer to 50, 10, and 2% dilutions of 350 mmol L−1 NaHCO3, the TEPs remained identical to those in comparable dilutions of Magadi water, whereas this did not occur with comparable dilutions of 350 mmol L−1 NaCl—i.e. the fish behaves electrically as if living in an NaHCO3 solution equimolar to Magadi water. We conclude that the TEP is largely a Na+ diffusion potential attenuated by some permeability to anions. In Magadi water, the net electrochemical forces driving Na+ inwards (+9.9 mV) and Cl− outwards (+3.4 mV) are small relative to the strong gradient driving HCO3 − inwards (−82.7 mV). Estimated permeability ratios are P Cl/P Na = 0.51–0.68 and PHCO3/PNa = 0.10–0.33. The low permeability to HCO3 − is unusual, and reflects a unique adaptation to life in extreme alkalinity. Cl− is distributed close to Nernst equilibrium in Magadi water, so there is no need for lower P Cl. The higher P Na likely facilitates Na+ efflux through the paracellular pathway. The positive electrogenic component is probably due to active HCO3 − excretion.

wood, et al. "Rh Proteins and NH4+ –activated Na+-ATPase in the Magadi Tilapia (Alcolapia grahami), a 100% Ureotelic Teleost Fish." Journal of Experimental Biology. 2013;216:2998-3007 . Abstracthttp://jeb.biologists.org

The small cichlid fish Alcolapia grahami lives in Lake Magadi, Kenya, one of the most extreme aquatic environments on Earth (pH ~10, carbonate alkalinity ~300 mequiv l−1). The Magadi tilapia is the only 100% ureotelic teleost; it normally excretes no ammonia. This is interpreted as an evolutionary adaptation to overcome the near impossibility of sustaining an NH3 diffusion gradient across the gills against the high external pH. In standard ammoniotelic teleosts, branchial ammonia excretion is facilitated by Rh glycoproteins, and cortisol plays a role in upregulating these carriers, together with other components of a transport metabolon, so as to actively excrete ammonia during high environmental ammonia (HEA) exposure. In Magadi tilapia, we show that at least three Rh proteins (Rhag, Rhbg and Rhcg2) are expressed at the mRNA level in various tissues, and are recognized in the gills by specific antibodies. During HEA exposure, plasma ammonia levels and urea excretion rates increase markedly, and mRNA expression for the branchial urea transporter mtUT is elevated. Plasma cortisol increases and branchial mRNAs for Rhbg, Rhcg2 and Na+,K+-ATPase are all upregulated. Enzymatic activity of the latter is activated preferentially by NH4+ (versus K+), suggesting it can function as an NH4+-transporter. Model calculations suggest that active ammonia excretion against the gradient may become possible through a combination of Rh protein and NH4+-activated Na+-ATPase function.

Wosyanju, M.G., Kindiki, J.N., Kalai JM. "Impact of brain drain on quality of education in Moi University. ." Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies (JETERAPS) . 2012;3(3):241-246.impact_of_brain_drain_on_the_quality_of_education.pdf
Woyengo TA;, Gachuiri CK;, Wahome RG;, Mbugua PN. "Economic evaluation of increasing the energy value of Zea mays stover by urea treatment.".; 2004.
Woyengo TA;, Gachuiri CK;, Wahome RG;, Mbugua PN. "Economic evaluation of increasing the energy value of Zea mays stover by urea treatment.".; 2004.
Woyengo TA;, Gachuiri CK;, Wahome RG;, Mbugua PN. "Economic evaluation of increasing the energy value of Zea mays stover by urea treatment.".; 2004.
WR M, Collins K. Mweresa, Philemon Omusula, Benedict O. Orindi, Renate C. Smallegange, Joop JA van Loon, Takken W. "Evaluation of low density polyethylene and nylon for delivery of synthetic mosquito attractants." Parasites & Vectors. 2012;5:202.
Wrightstone RN, Smith LL, Wilson JB, Vella F, Huisman TH. "Some physicochemical properties of hemoglobin-manitoba (alpha2 102Ser replaced by Arg (G9) beta2)." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;412(2):283-7. Abstract

Hb-Manitoba was discovered in 1970 [1] in a Canadian family of British origin. Recently we observed the same variant in a second family, and found that the oxy-derivative of Hb-Manitoba is slightly unstable at 65 degrees C, dissociates less readily at alkaline pH than does Hb-A, and forms asymmetric hybrids with other hemoglobins which are readily detectable by electrophoresis.

WSK Ruto, JI Kinyamario, JI Kanya NKN’etich. "ariation in the Chemical Status of Water and Soil Sediments along Saiwa Swamp Ecosystem, Trans Nzoia County, Kenya." Asian Journal of Water, Environment and Pollution. 2017;14(3):19-26.
Wurzinger M;, Ndumu D;, Baumung R;, Drucker A;, Okeyo AM;, Semambo DK;, Sölkner J. "Indigenous selection criteria in Ankole cattle and different production systems in Uganda."; 2005. Abstract

Ankole cattle are kept in South-Western Uganda, which is part of the cattle corridor, an area that was traditionally communal grazing land and pastoral systems. Currently, the pastoral system is undergoing a dramatic change due to land shortage, market forces and political reasons. Four different regions were identified and 30 farmers each were interviewed. In the two areas with more traditional systems main selection criteria in cows and bulls are body characteristics (coat colour, horn size and colour). Here, herds are generally larger and cattle are the main source of income. During the dry season, some families still move with their cattle in search of water and pasture. In the two other areas farmers are sedentary and both livestock and crop production contribute to the income. Due to increasing population pressure the trend is to keep few but more productive animals. Selection focuses more on production traits like milk yield, growth and fertility. Crossbreeding with exotic cattle breeds is becoming more popular. Farmers mention that Ankole have advantages over exotic breeds in terms of disease resistance, heat tolerance, lower feed requirements and the beauty of the animals. The study reported here was carried out to describe the production system with a focus on indigenous knowledge and the documentation of changes. Implications of the on-going changes on future development and improvement interventions are also discussed.

Wurzinger M;, Ndumu D;, Baumung R;, Drucker AG;, Okeyo AM;, Semambo DK;, Sölkner J. "TitleAssessing stated preferences through the use of choice experiments: valuing (re)production versus aesthetics in the breeding goals of Ugandan Ankole cattle breeders.".; 2006. Abstract

Home Help Thesaurus Okeyo AM Advanced Search Tools Marked records Mark this record Search History Print this record Email this record Export citation Download MARC21 Record Related literature •Other articles by these authors on Google Scholar •Search Google for related articles • Order from the British Library (Artweb-registered users) •Order from the British Library (public order form) •Find this book on Amazon •Search for this title in NRC-CISTI •Add to … Tag in Delic.io.us Tag in Connotea Document details TitleAssessing stated preferences through the use of choice experiments: valuing (re)production versus aesthetics in the breeding goals of Ugandan Ankole cattle breeders. AuthorsWurzinger, M.; Ndumu, D.; Baumung, R.; Drucker, A. G.; Okeyo, A. M.; Semambo, D. K.; Sölkner, J. Book chapter; Conference paperProceedings of the 8th World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 13-18 August, 2006 2006 pp. 31-09 Conference TitleProceedings of the 8th World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 13-18 August, 2006. ISBN85-60088-01-6 URLhttp://www.wcgalp8.org.brRecord Number20063170234 Abstract In this study 240 cattle keepers in four regions in Southwestern Uganda were interviewed and a hypothetical choice experiment was conducted. Each choice-set consisted of 2 profiles with 6 attributes with 2 levels. The attributes for cows were horns, coat colour, size, fertility, milk yield and price. The attributes for bulls were horns, colour, muscularity, temperament, dam's performance and price. Each person got 6 choice-sets for bulls and 6 for cows. Differences in the production systems were reflected in the varying selection criteria. In cows production traits were very important and in bull

Wurzinger M, Okeyo AM, Semambo D, Solkner J. "The sedentarisation process of the Bahima in Uganda: An emic view.". 2009. Abstract

The traditional lifestyle of nomadic pastoralists is vanishing rapidly, because of human population growth which often leads to land scarcity or political pressure on pastoralists to settle. The sedentarisation of the Bahima pastoralists in Western Uganda started in the 1940s and is still going on. In this study former nomadic cattle keepers, who have settled with their families, were interviewed in order to document the decision to settle and the subsequent changes in the lifestyle of these people. All interviewees expressed their satisfaction with their sedentary life. Land scarcity, access to education, better availability of water and the possibility of crop production were given as factors for settlement. The decisions were influenced by Christian missionaries, the government and friends.

Wyckliff N, Kitaa J, Thaiyah A, Maingi N, Muriuki JB, others. "Coprological Study to Determine the Prevalence of Intestinal Helminthes in Dogs of Nairobi, Kenya-A Potential Zoonotic Threat." Int J Vet Sci Res. 2017;3:025-029. Abstract
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Wyckliff N, Kitaa J, Thaiyah A, others. "Community's perception on zoonotic potential of dog helminthes infections in Kangemi slum of Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2017;6:90-95. Abstract
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Wycliffe O, Richard O, Hillary N, Wangia S, Chimoita E. "Farmers knowledge, attitude, and perception of video-mediated learning vis-a-vis Farmers Field School on Striga weed management in Western Kenya." International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology (IJEDICT). 2018;14(2)(ISSN):195-210.
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Xu S, Waiganjo P, Dias PG, Shi B. "Testability Prediction for Sequential Circuits Using Neural Network.". In: Proceedings of the 6th Asian Test Symposium. Washington, DC, USA: IEEE Computer Society; 1997:. ATS '97. Abstract
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Xu Y, Seward P, Gaye C, Lin L, Olago DO. "Groundwater in Sub-Saharan Africa." Hydrogeology Journal. 2019;27(3):815-822. AbstractWebsite

Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA; Fig. 1) refers to an area encompassing the countries in Africa that are fully, or partially, located south of the Sahara. The remaining African countries are generally referred to as belonging in North Africa. Although the socio-economic and hydrogeological conditions in SSA are diverse, they are sufficiently distinct (in general) from the conditions in North Africa to warrant being assessed separately—for example, high-yielding, high-storage, sedimentary aquifers are more common in North Africa than in SSA, while low-yielding, low-storage, basement aquifers are more widespread in SSA than in North Africa. The use of fossil groundwater is more typical in North Africa, while the use or renewable groundwater is more typical in SSA. Other hydrological characteristics associated with SSA include: groundwater resources that are generally under-utilized; lack of research and development that often prevents the optimal use of groundwater rather than over-development; and a heavy reliance by the rural and urban poor on shallow unconfined or semi-confined groundwater for potable water supplies, other domestic uses, and subsistence agriculture. Because of distinguishing characteristics such as these, there are good reasons for treating the hydrogeology of SSA as a whole, and separate from North Africa.

XuEmail Y, Seward P, Gaye C, Lin L, Olago DO. "Preface: Groundwater in Sub-Saharan Africa." Hydrogeology Journal. 2019;27(3):815-822. Abstractxu2019_article_prefacegroundwaterinsub-sahara1.pdfWebsite

Introduction
Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA; Fig. 1) refers to an area encompassing the countries in Africa that are fully, or partially, located south of the Sahara. The remaining African countries are generally referred to as belonging in North Africa. Although the socio-economic and hydrogeological conditions in SSA are diverse, they are sufficiently distinct (in general) from the conditions in North Africa to warrant being assessed separately—for example, high-yielding, high-storage, sedimentary aquifers are more common in North Africa than in SSA, while low-yielding, low-storage, basement aquifers are more widespread in SSA than in North Africa. The use of fossil groundwater is more typical in North Africa, while the use or renewable groundwater is more typical in SSA. Other hydrological characteristics associated with SSA include: groundwater resources that are generally under-utilized; lack of research and development that often prevents the optimal use of groundwater rather than over-development; and a heavy reliance by the rural and urban poor on shallow unconfined or semi-confined groundwater for potable water supplies, other domestic uses, and subsistence agriculture. Because of distinguishing characteristics such as these, there are good reasons for treating the hydrogeology of SSA as a whole, and separate from North Africa.

Xujing. Comparative Study of China-US MBA Education . : Northeast Normal University ; 2008.
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Y E. " Sustainable Materials and Construction Technology.". In: AAK Mombasa Chapter: Seminar. Royal Court Hotel, Mombasa; 2006.
Y E. "Environmental considerations shaping the hospital building and governing its space.". In: AMEK 3rd Scientific Conference & Exhibition,. NHIF Building, Nairobi.; 2005.
Y G, M K, NM I, ILAKO DR. "The Influence of Central Corneal Thickness on Intraocular Pressure Measured by Goldmann Applanation Tonometry Among Selected Ethiopian Communities." J Glaucoma. 2010 Feb 15. 2010. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Estimates of intraocular pressure (IOP) are influenced directly by the central corneal thickness (CCT). We assume and apply a single value for CCT (520 mum) in applanation tonometry estimates, although there is compelling evidence that CCT varies between individuals.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of CCT and other factors on IOP among Ethiopians.
METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted among 300 sampled individuals from June to July 2006. The CCT was measured using OcuScan(R) RxP Ophthalmic Ultrasound and readings of IOP were made with Goldmann applanation tonometer. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 12 and S-Plus 2000 of statistical packages.
RESULTS: Out of 300 individuals, 184 (61.3%) were males. The mean age was 42.57 years (SD+/-16.71), mean IOP 13.39 mm Hg (SD+/-2.81), and mean CCT 518.68 mum (SD+/-32.92). There was statistically significant relationship between CCT and IOP (r=0.199, P<0.001) and a borderline statistically significant detectable change of CCT with age (r=0.012

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JOHN DRYABS, YABS DRJOHN. "Kenya's Role in the Implementation of Industrial Development Decate for Africa (I.D.D.A.). A Paper presented at a Regional Workshop on I.D.D.A in Addis Ababa,.". In: An Article in the Underwriter Journal. SITE; Submitted. Abstract

This paper describes the methodology and presents preliminary results of an economic appraisal of a community based health care project in Kenya. Community health workers, trained for 12 weeks and deployed in two locations in Kenya's Western Province, act as first contact providers of basic health care and promoters of selected health, sanitation and nutrition practices. A Cost Benefit Analysis has been undertaken using the Willingness to Pay approach to compare the costs of the project and its benefits. The benefits are in the form of more easily accessible basic health care and are measured as consumer surplus accruing to the community. Gain in consumer surplus is consequent on the fall of average user costs and rise in utilisation of the project established points of first contact with primary health care. The argument for the economic viability of the project is validated by the large Net Present Value and Benefit Cost Ratio obtained for the whole of the project area and for the two locations separately. Although the evaluation technique used faces the problem of valuation of community time, aggregation of health care services at all points of first contact and the partial nature of cost benefit analysis evaluations, the results are strongly in favour of decentralisation of primary health care on similar lines in the rest of the country.

Y
YABS DRJOHN. "Small Business Powers Development. The role of Small Scale Business in Economic Developent in Kenya.". In: Ufanisi Journal No.47. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; Submitted. Abstract

The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  

Yadav G, Saskin R, Ngugi E, Kimani J, Keli F, Fonck K, MacDonald KS, Bwayo JJ, Temmerman M, Moses S, others. "Associations of sexual risk taking among Kenyan female sex workers after enrollment in an HIV-1 prevention trial." JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2005;38:329-334. Abstract
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and Yalla GPPO. "Effect of National Strategy Implemetation on Competitiveness: A case of Kenya's Trade, International Marketing and Investment Strategies." International Journal of Business and Public Management. 2011;Vol 1, No. 1: (April, 2011):60-68.
Yamamoto LG, Morita SY, Boychuk RB, Inaba AS, Rosen LM, Yee LL, Young LL. "Stool appearance in intussusception: assessing the value of the term “currant jelly”." The American journal of emergency medicine. 1997;15:293-298. AbstractWebsite
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Yamoah CF;, Mulongoy K;, Agboola AA;, Ssali H;, Keya SO. "Decomposition and nitrogen contribution by prunings of selected legumes in alley cropping."; 1985.
Yanda PZ, Wandiga SO, Kangalawe RYM, Opondo M. "Adaptation to climate change/variabilityinduced highland malaria and cholera in the Lake Victoria Region." COSTECH Integrated Repository. 2016. AbstractWebsite

Global climate change and its interactive components, such as water availability, related vulnerability of natural and socio-economic systems and health, changes in land use, as well as availability, quality, quantity of water and related policies, affects human wellbeing. The apparent correlation between disease outbreaks, such as malaria, cholera, rift valley fever, and meningitis—all of which are sensitive to climate variability (McCarthy et al., 2001)—and the strong El Niño years, e.g., 1982–1983 and the 1997–1998 events indicates a causal link between climate and health. Integrated climate-disease models show that rates of infections can be affected by climatic anomalies.

Yanda PZ, Wandiga SO, Kangalawe RYM, Opondo M, Olago D. "Adaptation to Climate Change - Induced Malaria and Cholera in the Lake Victoria Region.". 2018. Abstractrepository.costech.or.tz

AIACC Working Papers, published on-line by Assessments of Impacts and Adaptations to Climate Change (AIACC), is a series of papers and paper abstracts written by researchers participating in the AIACC project. Papers published in AIACC Working Papers have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication in the on-line series as being (i) fundamentally sound in their methods and implementation, (ii) informative about the methods and/or findings of new research, and (iii) clearly written for a broad, multi-disciplinary audience. The purpose of the series is to circulate results and descriptions of methodologies from the AIACC project and elicit feedback to the authors. The AIACC project is funded by the Global Environment Facility, the Canadian International Development Agency, the U.S. Agency for International Development, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The project is co-executed on behalf of the United Nations Environment Programme by the global change SysTem for Analysis Research and Training (START) and The Academy of Sciences for the Developing World (TWAS).

Yanda P, Wandiga S, Kangalawe R, Opondo M, Olago D, Githeko A, Downs T, Robert Kabumbuli, Opere A, Githui F, Kathuri J, Olaka L, Apindi E, Marshall M, Ogallo L, Mugambi P, Kirumira E, Nanyunja R, Baguma T, Sigalla R, Achola P. "Climate, Malaria and Cholera in the Lake Victoria Region: Adapting to Changing Risks.". In: Climate Change and Adaptation. Routledge; 2012. Abstract

In the East African countries, malaria is ranked as the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in both children and adults. It causes about 40,000 infant deaths in Kenya each year; in Uganda annual cases of malaria range between 6 to 7 million, with 6500 to 8500 fatalities, and in Tanzania the annual death toll is between 70,000 and 125,000 and accounts for 19 per cent of health expenditure (De Savigny et al, 2004a and b). In the case of cholera, the first epidemic in Africa was reported as far back as 1836 (Rees, 2000). Major outbreaks were next reported in 1970 and affected West Africa (Guinea), the horn of Africa (Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan) and Kenya (Waiyaki, 1996). The most severe cholera outbreak on the African continent was in 1998, accounting for more than 72 per cent of the global total number of cholera cases and acutely affecting the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Mozambique, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania. Cholera outbreaks in East Africa have been reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) since 1972. In the Lake Victoria region of East Africa both malaria and cholera are common, with malaria endemic in the lowlands and epidemic in the highland areas and cholera endemic in the basin since the early 1970s (Rees, 2000).

Yang X, He Z, Zheng Y, Wang N, Mulinge M, Schmit J-C, Steinmetz A, Seguin-Devaux C. "Chemical Constituents of and Their Anti-HIV-1 Activity." Molecules. 2021;26(9). Abstract

Three new (-) and 25 known compounds were isolated from the crude extract of . The chemical structures of new compounds were established by extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS. Cassiabrevone () is the first heterodimer of guibourtinidol and planchol A. Compound was a new chalcane, while was a new naphthalene. Cassiabrevone (), guibourtinidol-(4α→8)-epiafzelechin (), taxifolin (), oleanolic acid (), piceatannol (), and palmitic acid (), exhibited potent anti-HIV-1 activity with IC values of 11.89 µM, 15.39 µM, 49.04 µM, 7.95 µM, 3.58 µM, and 15.97 µM, respectively.

Yangyuoru PM, Bradburn DA, Liu Z, Xiao TS, Russell R. "The G-quadruplex (G4) resolvase DHX36 efficiently and specifically disrupts DNA G4s via a translocation-based helicase mechanism." Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2017:jbc. M117. 815076.
Yangyuoru PM, Antonio MD, Ghimire C, Biffi G, Balasubramanian S, Mao H. "Dual Binding of an Antibody and a Small Molecule Increases the Stability of TERRA G‐Quadruplex." Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 2015;54(3):910-913.
Yangyuoru PM, Dhakal S, Yu Z, Koirala D, Mwongela SM, Mao H. "Single-molecule measurements of the binding between small molecules and DNA aptamers." Analytical chemistry. 2012;84(12):5298-5303.
Yangyuoru PM, Latanya Hammonds-Odie, Mwongela SM. "Fluorescent lipids as probes for sphingosine kinase activity by capillary electrophoresis." Capillary Electrophoresis of Biomolecules. 2013:329-340.
Yangyuoru PM, Otieno AC, Mwongela SM. "Determination of Sphingosine Kinase 2 Activity using Fluorescent Sphingosine by Capillary Electrophoresis." Electrophoresis. 2011;32(13):1742-9.
Yangyuoru PM, Zhang AYQ, Shi Z, Koirala D, Balasubramanian S, Mao H. "Mechanochemical Properties of Individual Human Telomeric RNA (TERRA) G‐Quadruplexes." ChemBioChem. 2013;14(15):1931-1935.
Yaouba S, Koch A, Guantai EM, Derese S, Irungu B, Heydenreich M, Yenesew A. "Alkenyl cyclohexanone derivatives from Lannea rivae and Lannea schweinfurthii." Phytochemistry letters. 2018;23:141-148. AbstractJornal article

Abstract
Phytochemical investigation of the CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1) extract of the roots of Lannea rivae (Chiov) Sacleux (Anacardiaceae) led to the isolation of a new alkenyl cyclohexenone derivative: (4R,6S)-4,6-dihydroxy-6-((Z)-nonadec-14′-en-1-yl)cyclohex-2-en-1-one (1), and a new alkenyl cyclohexanol derivative: (2S*,4R*,5S*)-2,4,5-trihydroxy-2-((Z)-nonadec-14′-en-1-yl)cyclohexanone (2) along with four known compounds, namely epicatechin gallate, taraxerol, taraxerone and β-sitosterol; while the stem bark afforded two known compounds, daucosterol and lupeol. Similar investigation of the roots of Lannea schweinfurthii (Engl.) Engl. led to the isolation of four known compounds: 3-((E)-nonadec-16′-enyl)phenol, 1-((E)-heptadec-14′-enyl)cyclohex-4-ene-1,3-diol, catechin, and 1-((E)-pentadec-12′-enyl)cyclohex-4-ene-1,3-diol. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of compound 1 was established by quantum chemical ECD calculations. In an antibacterial activity assay using the microbroth kinetic method, compound 1 showed moderate activity against Escherichia coli while compound 2 exhibited moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Compound 1 also showed moderate activity against E. coli using the disc diffusion method. The roots extract of L. rivae was notably cytotoxic against both the DU-145 prostate cancer cell line and the Vero mammalian cell line (CC50 = 5.24 and 5.20 μg/mL, respectively). Compound 1 was also strongly cytotoxic against the DU-145 cell line (CC50 = 0.55 μg/mL) but showed no observable cytotoxicity (CC50 > 100 μg/mL) against the Vero cell line. The roots extract of L. rivae and L. schweinfurthii, epicatechin gallate as well as compound 1 exhibited inhibition of carageenan-induced inflammation.

Graphical abstract

Yaouba S, Valkonen A, Coghi P, Gao J, Guantai EM, Derese S, Wong VKW, Erdélyi Máté, Yenesew A. "Crystal Structures and Cytotoxicity of ent-Kaurane-Type Diterpenoids from Two Aspilia Species." Molecules. 2018;23(12):31-99. Abstract

A phytochemical investigation of the roots of Aspilia pluriseta led to the isolation of ent-kaurane-type diterpenoids and additional phytochemicals (1–23). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. The absolute configurations of seven of the ent-kaurane-type diterpenoids (3–6, 6b, 7 and 8) were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Eleven of the compounds were also isolated from the roots and the aerial parts of Aspilia mossambicensis. The literature NMR assignments for compounds 1 and 5 were revised. In a cytotoxicity assay, 12α-methoxy-ent-kaur-9 (11), 16-dien-19-oic acid (1)(IC 50= 27.3±1.9 µM) and 9β-hydroxy-15α-angeloyloxy-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (3)(IC 50= 24.7±2.8 µM) were the most cytotoxic against the hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep-G2) cell line, while 15α-angeloyloxy-16β, 17-epoxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (5)(IC 50= 30.7±1.7 µM) was the most cytotoxic against adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial (A549) cells.

Yarmoshuk AN, Gauntai A, Mwangu M, Cole D, Zarowsky C. "Resilient and responsive Global Health partnerships of East African universities in a changing world.". In: Fourth Global Symposium on Health Systems Research.; 2016.resilient_and_responsive_global_health_partnerships_of_east_african.pdf
Yarmoshuk AN, Guantai AN, Mwangu M, Cole DC, Zarowsky C. "Mapping International University Partnerships Identi fi ed by East African Universities as Strengthening Their Medicine, Nursing, and Public Health Programs." Annals of Global Health. 2016;82(5):665-677. Abstract2016_-_mapping_international_university_partnerships.pdf

Background: International university partnerships are recommended for increasing the capacity of sub-Saharan African universities. Many publications describe individual partnerships and projects, and tools are available for guiding collaborations, but systematic mappings of the basic, common characteristics of partnerships are scarce.

Objective: To document and categorize the international interuniversity partnerships deemed significant to building the capacity of medicine, nursing, and public health programs of 4 East African universities.

Methods: Two universities in Kenya and 2 in Tanzania were purposefully selected. Key informant interviews, conducted with 42 senior representatives of the 4 universities, identified partnerships they considered significant for increasing the capacity of their institutions' medicine, nursing, and public health programs in education, research, or service. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed. Partners were classified by country of origin and corresponding international groupings, duration, programs, and academic health science components.

Findings: One hundred twenty-nine university-to-university partnerships from 23 countries were identified. Each university reported between 25 and 36 international university partners. Seventy-four percent of partnerships were with universities in high-income countries, 15% in low- and middle-income countries, and 11% with consortia. Seventy percent included medicine, 37% nursing, and 45% public health; 15% included all 3 programs. Ninety-two percent included an education component, 47% research, and 24% service; 12% included all 3 components.

Conclusions: This study confirms the rapid growth of inter-university cross-border health partnerships this century. It also finds, however, that there is a pool of established international partnerships from numerous countries at each university. Most partnerships that seek to strengthen universities in East Africa should likely ensure they have a significant education component. Universities should make more systematic information about past and existing partnerships available publicly.

Yaşargil MG. Clinical {Considerations}, {Surgery} of the {Intracranial} {Aneurysms} and {Results}. Thieme; 1984. Abstract

Clinical Considerations, Surgery of the Intracranial Aneurysma and Results

Yaşargil MG. Clinical {Considerations}, {Surgery} of the {Intracranial} {Aneurysms} and {Results}. Newyork: Thieme; 1984. Abstract

Clinical Considerations, Surgery of the Intracranial Aneurysma and Results

Yazan A.M. Elhadi, D.M. Nyariki WVO, Ekaya WN. "Transient Poverty among Pastoral Households in the Semi-Arid Lowlands of Baringo District, Kenya." . Ozean Journal of Social Sciences. 2012;5:9-19. Abstract
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Yazan A.M. Elhadi, D.M. Nyariki WVO, Ekaya WN. "Factors Influencing Transient Poverty among Agro-pastoralists Semi-Arid areas of Kenya." African Crop Science Journal. 2012;20:113-122. Abstract
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Yazan Elhadi A, Nyariki DM, Wasonga VO. "Food Poverty among Pastoral Communities in Dryland Kenya.". In: RUFORUM Third Biennial Conference, Entebbe, Uganda, 24-28 September 2012. RUFORUM; 2012. Abstract
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Yebouet M-FA, Diby AK, Kaduki KA, Zoueu JT. "Unstained blood smear contrast enhancement using spectral time multiplexing super resolution." Journal of Spectral Imaging. 2020;9. Abstract
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Yenesew A, Gumula I, Erdélyi M, Patrick. A, J Isaiah Omolo Ndiege PS, Omolo, N, Sunnerhagen P. "Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Flemingins G-P from the Leaves of Flemingia grahamiana." Journal of Natural Products . 2014. Abstractpaper_76_ivan_et_al_jnp_2014_77_2060_2067.pdf

The known flemingins A-C (1-3) and nine new chalcones, named flemingins G-O (4-12), along with deoxyhomoflemingin (13) and emodin (14) were isolated from a leaf extract of Flemingia grahamiana. The isolated chalcones were found to have a geranyl substituent modified into a chromene ring possessing a residual chain, as shown by spectroscopic methods. The leaf extract showed an IC50 value of 5.9 μg/mL in a DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay. The chalcones flemingins A, B, C, G, and H were active in the DPPH radical scavenging assay (ED50 4.4-8.9 μM), while flemingins A and C showed cytotoxicity against MCF-7 human breast cancer cells (IC50 8.9 and 7.6 μM, respectively).

Yenesew A. "C-Methylated and C-prenylated isoflavonoids from root extracts of Desmodium uncinatum." Phytochemistry 68, 646-651.. 2007;68(5):646-651. Abstractpaper_44_guchu_et_al_phyto_2007_68_646.pdf

A pterocarpan, 1,9-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-2-methylpterocarpan (named uncinacarpan) and two isoflavanones, 5,7-dihydroxy-2',3',4'-trimethoxy-6-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)isoflavanone (named uncinanone D) and ,4'-dihydroxy-7,2'-dimethoxy-6-methylisoflavanone (named uncinanone E), were isolated from the CH(2)Cl(2) root extract of Desmodium uncinatum (Jacq.) DC and characterised by spectroscopic methods. In addition, a rare pterocarpan edudiol and two known abietane diterpenes, 7-oxo-15-hydroxydehydroabietic acid and 7-hydroxycallitrisic acid were identified. The fraction of the root extract that was analysed induced germination of Striga hermonthica seeds, but none of the isolated compounds showed this activity.

Yenesew A. "8-Methoxyneorautenol and Radical Scavenging flavonoids from Erythrina abyssinica." Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiopia . 2009;23:205-210. Abstractpaper_47_yenesew_et_l_bull_chem_soc_ethiop-2009-23-205.pdf

A new pterocarpan (named 8-methoxyneorautenol) was isolated from the acetone extract of the
root bark of Erythrina abyssinica. In addition, the known isoflavonoid derivatives eryvarin L, erycristagallin and
shinpterocarpin were identified for the first time from the roots of this plant. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. The new compound showed selective antimicrobial activity against
Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The acetone extract of the root bark of E. abyssinica showed radical scavenging activity towards 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH). The pterocarpenes, 3-hydroxy-9-methoxy-10-(3,3-dimethylallyl)pterocarpene and erycristagallin, were the most active constituents of the roots of this plant and showing dose-dependent activities similar to that of the standard quercetin.

KEY WORDS: Erythrina abyssinica, Root bark, Leguminosae, Pterocarpan, 8-Methoxyneorautenol,
Pterocarpenes, 3-Hydroxy-9-methoxy-10-(3,3-dimethylallyl)pterocarpene, Erycristagallin, Antimicrobial, Radical scavengers, DPPH

Yenesew A. "Three dimeric anthracene derivatives from Bulbine abyssinica." Tetrahedron . 2005;61:2667-2674. Abstractpaper_37_wanjohi_et_al_tetra_2005_61_2667.pdf

From the fruits of Bulbine abyssinica three new dimeric anthracene derivatives, (P)-8,9,10,80-tetrahydroxy-3,30-dimethyl[10,70-bianthracene]-1,4,90,100-tetraone (trivial name abyquinone A), (10R)-1,4,8,10,80-pentahydroxy-3,30-dimethyl-[10,70-bianthracene]-9,90,100(10H)-trione (trivial name abyquinone B), and (10R)-30,40-dihydro-1,4,8,30,80,90-hexahydroxy-3,30-dimethyl-[10,70-bianthracene]-9,10(10H,20H)-dione (trivial name abyquinone C) were isolated. Despite their structural differences, these three compounds are connected to each other by the apparently biomimetic conversion of abyquinone
C (a preanthraquinonylanthrone with two stereogenic centers) into
B (an anthraquinonylanthrone with one stereogenic center) and finally into A (an axially chiral bianthraquinone) under mild conditions, involving a highly efficient center-to-axis chirality transfer. In addition, the known anthraquinones islandicin and chrysophanol were identified. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopical evidences, chemical transformations, and quantum chemical CD calculations.

Yenesew A. "Antimicrobial activities of a new schizozygane indoline alkaloid from Schizozygia coffaeoides and the revised structure of isoschizogaline." Journal of Natural Products. 2002;65:566-569. Abstractpaper_28_kariba_et_al_j.nat_._prod._2002.pdf

Extracts from Schizozygia coffaeoides showed antimicrobial activity against fungal and bacterial species. Alkaloids isolated using bioassay-guided fractionation were isoschizogaline, schizogynine, and a new indoline alkaloid, 7,8-dehydro-19beta-hydroxyschizozygine, shown to be the most active antifungal compound. The structure of isoschizagaline, the only active antibacterial, is revised on the basis of NMR analysis.

Yenesew A. "Four Isoflavanones from the stem bark of Platycelphium voënse." Phytochemistry Letters . 2012;5:150-154. Abstractpaper_54_ivan_et_al_phytol-2012.pdf

From the stem bark of Platycelphium voe¨nse (Leguminosae) four new isoflavanones were isolated and
characterized as (S)-5,7-dihydroxy-20,40-dimethoxy-30-(300-methylbut-200-enyl)-isoflavanone (trivial
name platyisoflavanone A), ()-5,7,20-trihydroxy-40-methoxy-30-(300-methylbut-200-enyl)-isoflavanone
(platyisoflavanone B), 5,7-dihydroxy-40-methoxy-200-(2000-hydroxyisopropyl)-dihydrofurano-[400,500:30,20]-
isoflavanone (platyisoflavanone C) and 5,7,20,300-tetrahydroxy-200,200-dimethyldihydropyrano-[500,600:30,40]-isoflavanone (platyisoflavanone D). In addition, the known isoflavanones, sophoraisoflavanone A and glyasperin F; the isoflavone, formononetin; two flavones, kumatakenin and isokaempferide; as well as two triterpenes, betulin and b-amyrin were identified. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Platyisoflavanone A showed antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the microplate alamar blue assay (MABA) with MIC = 23.7 mM, but also showed cytotoxicity (IC50 = 21.1 mM) in the vero cell test.

Yenesew A. "Antimicrobial flavonoids from the stem bark of Erythrina burttii." Fitotherapia . 2005;76:469-472. Abstractpaper_38_yenesew_et_al_fito_2005_76_469.pdf

The chloroform extract of the stem bark of Erythrina burttii showed antifungal and antibacterial activities using the disk diffusion method. Flavonoids were identified as the active principles. Activities were observed against fungi and Gram(+) bacteria, but the Gram() bacteria Escherichia coli was resistant.

Yenesew A. "The Antiplasmodial and Radical Scavenging Activities of Flavonoids of Erythrina burttii." Acta Tropica . 2012;123:123-127. Abstract

The acetone extract of the root bark of Erythrina burttii showed in vitro antiplasmodial activity against
the chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and chloroquine-resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with
IC50 values of 0.97 ± 0.2 and 1.73 ± 0.5 g/ml respectively. The extract also had radical scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical with an EC50 value of 12.0 g/ml. The isoflav-3-enes burttinol-A and burttinol-C, and the 2-arylbenzofuran derivative burttinol-D were identified as the most active antiplasmodial (IC50 < 10 M) and free radical scavenging (EC50 ca. 10 M) principles. The acetone extract of E. burttii at 800 mg/kg/day, in a 4-day Plasmodium berghei ANKA suppressive test, showed in vivo antimalarial activity with 52% hemosuppression. In the same in vivo test, marginal activities were also
observed for the extracts of the root and stem bark of Erythrina abyssinica and the root bark of Erythrina
sacleuxii.

Yenesew A. "Two unusual rotenoid derivatives, 7a-O-methyl-12a-hydroxydeguelol and spiro-13-homo-13-oxaelliptone, from the seeds of Derris trifoliata." Phytochemistry. 2006;67:988-991. Abstractpaper_40_yenesew_et_al_derris-phyto-2006.pdf

The crude methanol extract of the seeds of Derris trifoliata showed potent and dose dependent larvicidal activity against the 2nd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. From this extract two unusual rotenoid derivatives, a rotenoloid (named 7a-O-methyl-12a-hydroxydeguelol) and a spirohomooxarotenoid (named spiro-13-homo-13-oxaelliptone), were isolated and characterised. In addition a rare natural chromanone (6,7-dimethoxy-4-chromanone) and the known rotenoids rotenone, tephrosin and dehydrodeguelin were identified.
The structures were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. The larvicidal activity of the crude extract is mainly due to rotenone.

Yenesew A. "Phtytochemical evaluation of Kenyan medicinal plants. .". In: The 11th NAPRECA Symposium. Antananarivo, Madagascar; 2005.midiwo_et_al-11th_napreca_proceedings.pdf
Yenesew A. "Vangueria, infausta, root bark: in vivo and in vitro antiplasmodial activity." British Journal of Biomedical Science . 2006; 63,:129-133. Abstractpaper_42_abosi_et_al-2006.pdf

Vangueria infausta burch subsp. infausta (Rubiaceae) produces fruits eaten by humans and animals. The leaf, fruit, stem bark and root bark are used as a remedy for many ailments and the roots are used to treat malaria. In this study, concentrations of fractions of the V. infausta root bark extract that produce 50% inhibition (IC50) are determined using the ability of the extract to inhibit the uptake of [G3H]-hypoxanthine by P. falciparum cultured in vitro. The root bark extract showed antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei in mice. It gave a parasite suppression of 73.5% in early infection and a repository effect of 88.7%. One fraction obtained from a chloroform extract gave an IC50 value of 3.8±1.5 μg/mL and 4.5±2.3 μg/mL against D6 and W2 strains of P. falciparum, respectively, and another from the butanol extract gave an IC50 value of 3.9±0.3 μg/mL against the D6 strain. Chloroquine had an IC50 value of 0.016 μg/mL and 0.029 μg/mL against D6 and W2 strains, respectively. The plant showed the presence of flavonoids, coumarins,
tannins, terpenoids, anthraquinones and saponins.

Yenesew A, N A, Heydenreich M, Midiwo JO, Ndakala A, Majer Z, Neumann B, Stammler H-G, Sewald N. "8-Hydroxy-6-methylxanthone-1-carboxylic acid and 6',8-O-dimethylknipholone from the roots of Bulbine frutescens." Phytochemistry Letters . 2014;9:67-73. Abstractpaper_70_abdissa_et_al_phyto_2014.pdf

Phytochemical investigation of the dichloromethane/methanol (1:1) extract of the roots of Bulbine frutescens led to the isolation of a new xanthone, 8-hydroxy-6-methylxanthone-1-carboxylic acid (1) and a new phenylanthraquinone, 6′,8-O-dimethylknipholone (2) along with six known compounds. The structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR and MS spectral data analyses. The structure of compound 1 was confirmed through X-ray crystallography which was then used as a reference to propose the revision of the structures of six seco-anthraquinones into xanthones. The isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against human cervix carcinoma KB-3-1 cells with the phenylanthraquinone knipholone being the most active (IC50 = 0.43 μM). Two semi-synthetic knipholone derivatives, knipholone Mannich base and knipholone-1,3-oxazine, were prepared and tested for cytotoxic activity; both showed moderate activities (IC50 value of 1.89 and 2.50 μM, respectively).

Yenesew A, Muiva-Mutisya L, Macharia B, Heydenreich M, Andreas Koch, Hoseah M. Akala SDLOK. "6α-Hydroxy-α-toxicarol and (+)-Tephrodin with antiplasmodial activities from Tephrosia species." Phytochemistry Letters . 2014. Abstractpaper_75_muiva_et_al_phyto_2014.pdf

The CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1) extract of the roots of Tephrosia villosa showed good antiplasmodial activity against the chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and chloroquine-resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 3.1 ± 0.4 and 1.3 ± 0.3 μg/mL, respectively. Chromatographic separation of the extract yielded a new rotenoid, 6α-hydroxy-α-toxicarol, along with five known rotenoids, (rotenone, deguelin, sumatrol, 12a-hydroxy-α-toxicarol and villosinol). Similar treatment of the extract of the stem of Tephrosia purpurea (IC50 = 4.1 ± 0.4 and 1.9 ± 0.2 μg/mL against D6 and W2 strains of P. falciparum, respectively) yielded a new flavone having a unique substituent at C-7/C-8 [trivial name (+)-tephrodin], along with the known flavonoids tachrosin, obovatin methyl ether and derrone. The relative configuration and the most stable conformation in (+)-tephrodin was determined by NMR and theoretical energy calculations. The rotenoids and flavones tested showed good to moderate antiplasmodial activities (IC50 = 9 − 23 μМ). Whereas the cytotoxicity of rotenoids is known, the flavones (+)-tephrodin and tachrosin did not show significant cytotoxicity (IC50 > 100 μМ) against mammalian African monkey kidney (vero) and human larynx carcinoma (HEp2) cell lines.

Yenesew A. "Antinocieptive Activities of the Root Extracts of Rhus natalensis Kraus and Senna singueana." Phytopharmacology . 2012;2:1-6. Abstractpaper_59_karuki_et_al-2012.pdf

Rhus natalensis and Senna singuaenae are traditional African plants commonly used as medicinal plant in East Africa for the management of pain. The plants are used for management of rheumatism among others. This study investigated the antinociceptive activities of R. natalensis and S. singuaenae in Swiss albino mice using the tail-flick and hot plate tests. Extract solvent (vehicle), morphine and aspirin were employed as controls. Root extract of R. natalensis (100 and 200 mg /kg) and 100 mg /kg of S. singuaenae showed no significant antinociceptive activity in the hot plate while the 200mg /kg of S. singuaenae showed significant antinociceptive activity (p<0.05). In the tail flick tests, root extract of R. natalensis (100 and 200 mg / kg) showed highly significant antinociceptive activity (p<0.01) while 200mg / kg of S. singuaenae showed significant antinociceptive activity (p<0.05) compared to the controls. The 100 mg /kg of S. singuaenae showed no significant antinociceptive activity in the tail flick. This study lends support to the anecdotal evidence for use of R. natalensis and S. singuaenae in the management of painful conditions.

Keywords: Rhus natalensis; Senna singuaenae; analgesic; Rhus natalensis; Senna singuaenae; rheumatism

Yenesew A. "Joziknipholones A and B: The First Dimeric Phenylanthraquinones, from the Roots of Bulbine frutescens." Chem. Eur. J. . 2008; 14:1420-1429. Abstractpaper_45_Bringmann_et_al_joziknipholones.pdf

From the roots of the African plant Bulbine frutescens (Asphodelaceae), two unprecedented novel dimeric
phenylanthraquinones, named joziknipholones A and B, possessing axial and centrochirality, were isolated,
together with six known compounds. Structural elucidation of the new metabolites was achieved by spectroscopic and chiroptical methods, by reductive cleavage of the central bond between the monomeric phenylanthraquinone and -anthrone portions with sodium dithionite, and by quantum chemical CD
calculations. Based on the recently revised absolute axial configuration of the parent phenylanthraquinones, knipholone and knipholone anthrone, the new dimers were attributed to possess the P-configuration (i.e., with the acetyl portions below the anthraquinone plane) at both axes in the case of joziknipholone A, whereas in joziknipholone B, the knipholone part was found to be M-configured. Joziknipholones A and B are active against the chloroquine resistant strain K1 of the malaria pathogen, Plasmodium falciparum, and show moderate activity against murine leukemic lymphoma L5178y cells.

Yenesew A, Gumuia I, Heydenreich M, Derese S, Okalebo FA, Ndiege IO, Erdelyi M. "Bioactivity of 'Flemingin A' and other Natural Products from the leaves of Flemingia grahamiana.". 2011.yenesew.pdfWebsite
Yenesew A. "7a-O-Methyldeguelol, a modified rotenoid with an open ring-C, from the roots of Derris trifoliata.." Phytochemistry . 2005;66:653-657. Abstractpaper_36_yenesew_et_al_phyto_2005_66_653.pdf

From the acetone extract of the roots of Derris trifoliata an isoflavonoid derivative, named 7a-O-methyldeguelol, a modified rotenoid with an open ring-C, representing a new sub-class of isoflavonoids (the sub-class is here named as rotenoloid), was isolated and characterised. In addition, the known rotenoids, rotenone, deguelin and a-toxicarol, were identified. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Rotenone and deguelin were identified as the larvicidal principles of the acetone extract of the roots of Derris trifoliata.

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