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Watson-Jones D, Mugo N LMVNRDASMSG. "Access and Attitudes to HPV Vaccination amongst Hard-To-Reach Populations in Kenya." PLoS One. 2015;2015 Jun 26;10(6)(e0123701.).
Watuha AI. Maudhui ya waadhi katika utenzi wa adili. University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2011. Abstract
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WAUNA MROLUOCHOCHIENG. "2005 "Freedom of Information Legislation in Kenya: Pertinent Issues to the Draft Bill". A paper presented at the ICJ.". In: East African Journal of Human Rights and Democracy, Vol. 3, No. 1 & 2 March/June. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
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WAUNA MROLUOCHOCHIENG. ""Violence Against Women: Towards its Eradication", Issue No. 8, Sheria Magazine, Faculty of Law, University of Nairobi.". In: The Advocate, May 2004. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1996. Abstract
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WAUNA MROLUOCHOCHIENG. "2003"CASE COMMENTARY: NICHOLAS BIWOTT VS. JUDICIAL SERVICE COMMISSION OF INQUIRY INTO TRIBAL CLASHES", The Advocate, November 2003, 14.". In: The Advocate, May 2004. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
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WAUNA MROLUOCHOCHIENG. "2005 "The Right to Information about the Activities of the Government As an Indispensable Component of the Right to Development", a Policy Brief under the ICJ- Kenya Freedom of Information Project.". In: East African Journal of Human Rights and Democracy, Vol. 3, No. 1 & 2 March/June. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
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WAUNA MROLUOCHOCHIENG. ""EMAS & ISO 14001: A Comparison", Environmental Policy and Law, Volume 31, Number 4-5, August, 201, 237.". In: The Advocate, May 2004. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
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WAUNA MROLUOCHOCHIENG. "2004 "IS CKRC ACT ULTRA VIRES THE CONSTITUTION?",.". In: The Advocate, May 2004. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
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WAUNA MROLUOCHOCHIENG. "2005 "The Draft Constitution of Kenya and the Freedom of Information Legislation", a paper presented at the Consultative Forum to Revise the ICJ.". In: East African Journal of Human Rights and Democracy, Vol. 3, No. 1 & 2 March/June. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
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WAUNA MROLUOCHOCHIENG. "2005 'States' Compliance with their Obligations under International Law with Specific Reference to Prohibition of Torture: The Case of Kenya'.". In: East African Journal of Human Rights and Democracy, Vol. 3, No. 1 & 2 March/June. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
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WAUNA MROLUOCHOCHIENG. "2005 "THE CONSTITUTIONAL MAKING PROCESS IN KENYA: A CRISIS OF LEADERSHIP AND ILLEGALITIES?", in Kichana P (eds), Judiciary Watch Reports.". In: East African Journal of Human Rights and Democracy, Vol. 3, No. 1 & 2 March/June. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
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Wawa A, Mulaku GC. "Noise Pollution Mapping in Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of Geographic Information System (USA). 2015;Vol.7(ISSN 2151 – 1969):486-497 .
Waweru JN. "‘Impact of performance contracting on University of Nairobi library services’.". In: Knowledge Management..... Eldoret: Moi University Press; 2017.
Waweru B, Ndeti N. "Decision Making in Community Driven Development: Whose Opinions Count in What?" International Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research. 2015;Vol. 3(Issue 1):246-254.
Waweru G, Ochieng’ DDE. "EFFECTS OF CAPITAL FLOWS ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN KENYA ." African development finance journal. 2017;1(1):1-17. Abstracteffects_of_capital_flows_on_economic_growth_in_kenya.pdf

Purpose -This study investigated the immediate and lagged effects of the various forms of capital flows - FDI flows, portfolio flows and “Other investments capital flows” (which mainly represents corporate, financial institutions and general government borrowings as well as remittances from the diaspora) - on economic growth in Kenya over a 30 year period from 1984 to 2014.
Methodology – The study adopted a quantitative research design in the form of an econometric model known as Auto Regressive Distributed Lag Model (ARDLM). Findings -FDI and portfolio investments flows have a negative impact on the GDP growth rate and that their impact is not statistically significant.However, other investments flows, which mainly represent corporate, financial institutions, general government borrowings and remittances from the diaspora, have a positive impact on GDP growth rate and the impact is statistically significant.Based on the study findings, it can be inferred that a significant slowdown or a reversal in capital flows in form of “Other investments capital flows” into Kenya result into significant slowdown in economic growth in the country. Implications -Policy makers may lay much emphasis on attracting portfolio investment flows and “Other investments capital flows”, while investors and firms should consider the upside opportunities that may be created by increase in other investments capital flows and the downside risks that could results from a significant slowdown or a reversal in these forms of capital flows into the country.

Keywords: Capital flows, Economic growth, FDI flows, portfolio investment flows, Private equity, Diaspora remittances, Auto Regressive Distributed Lag Model.

WAWERU DRGAKUYADANIEL. "Gakuya, D.W., Mbaria, J.M., Mbithi,P.M.F. and Munenge, R.W. 2004. Evaluation of the bioactivity of some traditional medicinal plants using the Brine Shrimp Lethality Test. The Kenya Veterinarian 26: 8-11.". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. Elsevier; 2004. Abstract
The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the bioactivity of extracts of Chrysanthemum cineraraefolium Vis., Albizia anthelmintica A Brgn, Maerua edulis (Gilg) De wolf and Myrsine Africana L. Which are using tratitioanll as anthelmintic as using brine shrimp lethanitly test serial dilutions of 1000 ug/ml and 10 ug / ml of the extracts were put in five test tubes. Ten (10) brine shrimp larvae were immersed into each of the test tubes and the number surviving after 24 hours counted and the percentage mortality and LC for each extract was determined. Cl cinerariaefolium extract (pyrethrins) was active (LC 1000 ug/ml) of 18ug/ml. The methanol extacts of Maerua edulis, Maera subcordata and Myysine Africana were not active (LC 1000 ug/ml) the results indicated that C. cenerareafolium and A. Anthelmintica extracts have bioactivity and is the basis for their use as anthelmintic by pastoral communities. Brine shrimp lethality test was found to be a simple and rapid test and is thus recommended for similar studies.
WAWERU DRGAKUYADANIEL. "EVALUATION OF THE EFFICACY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF ALBIZIA ANTHELMINTICA AND MAERUA EDULIS AGAINST THE NEMATODE HELIGMOSOMOIDES POLYGYRUS INFECTIONS IN MICE. The Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 28,2005.". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. Elsevier; 2005. Abstract
Anthelmintic activity of the water extracts of Albizia anthelmintica bark and Maerua- edulis root was evaluated in mice that had been experimentally infected with the intestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus. The mice were randomly allocated into six treatment groups and one control group. Groups, 2, and 3 were given an oral dose of water extracts of A. anthelmintica at 5gm/kg, 10gm/kg and 20gm/kg bodyweight respectively in a divided dose on day 17 post-infection. Groups 4, 5 and 6 were given water extracts of M. edulis at a dosage of 5gm/kg, 10gm/kg and 20gm/kg bodyweight respectively in a divided dose. Group 7 was the control and was concurrently given a double oral dose of 0.2ml of physiological saline each. Mortality of some mice was observed in four groups after treatment. Five days after treatment, faecal worm egg count reduction was determined. The results showed a percentage faecal H. polygyus egg count reduction of 72%. 69%, 50%, 42% in groups 2,6,3 and 1 respectively. Seven days after treatment there was a reduction in worm counts at postmortem of 68%, 36%, /5%, 19%, 16% and 14% in groups 1,5,2 3,6, and 4 respectively compared to untreated controls. These results indicate that the plant extracts had anthelmintic activity and support the use of these plants as anthelmintics
Waweru JN, Odenyo F. "Innovative content Delivery for library patron 2.0.". In: Digital Technologies for Information and Knowledge Management. Eldoret: Moi University Press; 2019.
Waweru JN. "University should equip freshers with life skills." Saturday Nation (2015):35.
Waweru JN. "Leading versus managing libraries in Kenya ." Maktaba Journal of the Kenya Library Association . 2015;Vol.3 (No.1, ): 105-109.
Waweru KM, Pokhariyal GP, Mwaura MF. "The Signaling Hypothesis: Evidence From The Nairobi Securities Exchange.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

This study investigates the signaling hypothesis by testing the displacement property of dividends. The study uses Ohlson (1995; 2001) model and follows Hand and Landsman (2005) approach. The study however varies the methodology by using pooled Time Series Cross Section data and Panel Corrected Standard Error estimation and also control for size to take care of scale effects. The study’s findings provide further empirical evidence that dividends are used as signals about future earnings prospects of the firm. After following Thakor (2003) approach in testing for the free cashflow hypothesis, the study’s results do not provide evidence in favour of the cashflow hypothesis it is therefore ruled out. The study’s results shed further insights on the controversy regarding the information content of dividend changes about future profitability.

WAWERU DRGAKUYADANIEL. "Gakuya, D.W., Mbithi, P.M.F., Maitho, T.E. and Musimba, N.K.R. 2004. The potential use of plant anthelmintic for the control of livestock helminthoses in Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian 26: 14-26.". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. Elsevier; 2004. Abstract
Helminthoses is a major constraint to livestock production in Kenya. The control of these infections by the use of synthetic anthelmintics is constrained by a number of problems that include; lack of foreign exchange to import them, development of anthelmintic resistance, lack of finance to purchase them, unavailability and misuse due to lack of appropriate information. The use of plant anthelmintics would be a rational alternative to bridge these shortfalls. In some tropical countries, research work has been carried out to validate this possibility. In order to integrate plant anthelmintics in the overall helminth control in Kenya, there is a need to document research findings on indigenous knowledge, through carrying out experiments to determine efficacy, toxicity and optimum dosage rates. In addition, isolation and identification of active ingredients using current laboratory techniques will be a critical milestone.
Waweru N, Borghesio L, Muchai M, Waweru C, Beru MK, Cheserek G, Kiptui M. "The Nesting Success of Taita Thrush Turdus helleri in Afrotropical Fragments, Kenya." Africa Environmental Review Journal. 2018;3:1-10. Abstract
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Waweru JN. "Infopreneurship ideas for Librarians in Kenya.". In: to Kenya Library Association International Conference. Nairobi safari club; 2014.
Waweru JN. Library orientation.; 2014.
Waweru MM;, Ojwang SB;, Kingondu CS;, Karanja JG;, Kamau RK;, Waweru W. A Review Paper of the Cervical Cytology Diagnosis Services at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Laboratories.; 2007. Abstract

Invasive cancer of the cervix is considered a preventable disease because cancers develop slowly through per-cancerous changes to invasive cancer in about 10 - 15 years. Pap smear screening for the early detection of cancer of the cervix contributes to early successful treatment

Waweru J, Njenga H, Omosa L. "Standardization of Commiphora Abyssinica Engl. Gum Resin From Kajiado, Kenya." IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry (IOSR-JAC). 2016;5(9):67-74. Abstract

Abstract
Information on the physical and chemical characteristics of Commiphora abyssinica gum resin is
scanty. The aim of this work was to establish the composition and physicochemical properties of above
mentioned gum resin and on that basis propose its standard specifications for commercial use. Samples from
three sites in Kajiado in Kenya were characterized in terms of parameters commonly used in the evaluation of
the quality of crude oleogumresins and their products. There was no substantial variability with collection
location observed on most physical properties including pH, density, refractive index, viscosity and optical
rotation. Composition parameters such as moisture, ash, nitrogen, metals, extraneous impurities, essential oils,
ethanol and water soluble matter varied from location to location. The ethanol-soluble matter which is crucial
in the formulation of traditional gum resin products varied significantly and ranged between 26.37 and 47.79%.
The gum-resin was found to have 1.31 to 1.87% essential oils and the yield of water soluble matter was high at
82.25-84.50%. In general, the gum resin had relatively low content of extraneous impurities (2.27-3.17%) and
ash (2.24-3.04%) in comparison with gum resins from related Commiphora species. Saponification value, acid
value as well as free fatty acids also varied with location. Values of parameters obtained in this study were
found suitable for proposing standard specifications of local Commiphora abyssinica gum resin from the
location. From the results, standard specifications that can be used in commerce for identification and quality
specification of Commiphora abyssinica gum resin sourced in Kenya were suggested. Magnesium could be used
to identify the gum resin from the area due to its very low variability. It was also recommended that freshly
harvested material be stored for a few months before processing.
Keywords: Commiphora abyssinica; ethanol extract; essential oil; gum resin; myrrh; standard specifications.

Waweru JN. "Infopreneurship ideas for Librarians in Kenya’ ." Maktaba Journal of the Kenya Library Association. 2014; Vol.3 (No.1):15-19.
WAWERU DRGAKUYADANIEL. "Gakuya, D.W. 2000. Indigenous Knowledge and Dryland Resource Management. In: Community Involvement in Sustainable Development in the Drylands of Kenya: Challenges and way forward ( Eds. D.M. Nyariki and N.K. Musimba) pp. 19-20.". In: Proceedings of a National Workshop of the Dryland Husbandry Programme ( DHP-Kenya) held at Mtito Andei, 11 November 1998. Elsevier; 2000.
WAWERU DRGAKUYADANIEL. "THE POTENTIAL USE OF PLANT ANTHELMINTICS FOR THE CONTROL OF LIVESTOCK HELMINTHOSES IN KENYA.The Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 26, 2004.". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. Elsevier; 2004. Abstract
D.W. Gakuya,1 P.M.F. Mbithi 1, T.E. Maitho2 and N.K.R. Musimba3 Department of Clinical Studies, 2. Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology 3 Department of Range Management, University of Nairobi. Kenya. Abstract Helminthoses is a major constraint to livestock production in Kenya. The control of these infections by the use of synthetic anthelmintics is constrained by a number of problems that include; lack of foreign exchange to import them, development of anthelmintic resistance, lack of finance to purchase them, unavailability and misuse due to lack of appropriate information. The use of plant anthelmintics would be a rational alternative to bridge these shortfalls. In some tropical countries, research work has been carried out to validate this possibility. In order to integrate plant anthelmintics in the overall helminth control in Kenya, there is a need to document research findings on indigenous knowledge, through carrying out experiments to determine efficacy, toxicity and optimum dosage rates. In addition, isolation and identification of active ingredients using current laboratory techniques will be a critical milestone
Waweru W. "Histology of endophalmitis.". 2005.
WAWERU DRGAKUYADANIEL. "The Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 29,2005. PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON THE STATUS OF BOVINE MASTITIS IN A MEDIUM SCALE DAIRY FARM IN KABETE AREA, KENYA.". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. Elsevier; 2005. Abstract
The purpose of this investigation was to establish the mastitis status in the dairy herd of 110 cows (genetically heterogeneous Bos Taurus breeds). All the cows were examined by physical inspection of the udder and California Mastitis Test (CMT) carried out on milk from the quarters of the 89 cows in milk. A total of 37 milk samples were collected from affected quarters of 36 cows, which had visibly abnormal secretion or tested positive on CMT, and taken for bacteriological culture and sensitivity tests. The outcome was a prevalence of 40.4 % based on the cows in milk and 18.4% based on their quarters. From the 37 samples that were cultured, 36 had abundant bacterial growth. Of the bacteria isolated, 45 % were Corynebacteria, 30.0 % Staphylococci, 22.5% Streptococci and 2.65% Pseudomonas. Of the twelve antibacterial compounds used in the sensitivity tests, the bacteria were most sensitive to ampi-clox and cefaclor at 98% and lest sensitive to sulphamethoxazole and cotrimoxazole both at 2%. Pseudomonas was only sensitive to gentamycin, norfloxacin and tetracycline. From this investigation the prevalence of mastitis in the herd is fairly high and there is need for a comprehensive monitoring and control program for udder health in this herd
Waweru SE, Meme JS, Kinuthia DM, Kitonyi GW. "Absence of HIV seropositivity in children with sickle cell anaemia at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.". 1987. AbstractWebsite

OBJECTIVE: To find out whether frequent blood transfusions increase the risk of transfusion-related HIV infection in children with Sickle cell anaemia. METHODS: One hundred and ninety-eight children with Sickle cell anaemia were transfused 1-13 times (mean 2,4) between 1982 and 1987. In Kenya routine screening of blood banks for HIV infection began in 1987. The HIV status of these children was compared with 231 non-transfused children: 106 with Sickle cell anaemia and 125 children with haemoglobin AA. In both transfused and non-transfused children age ranges were similar and were 1-12 years. All children were tested with Wellcozyme Elisa test in duplicate. All tests were performed at least 6 months after the last transfusion. Sixty five transfused sicklers were rechecked one year later. RESULTS: All 429 children were HIV negative. CONCLUSIONS: Out findings suggest that HIV seropositivity is low in Kenyan children. Furthermore, even though blood was unscreened in 1982 - 1987 transfusion did not increase the risk of HIV infection in our study children

Waweru JN. "Leading versus managing libraries in Kenya.". In: Kenya Library Association international conference. Nairobi safari club; 2016.
WAWERU DRGAKUYADANIEL. "Gakuya,D.W.,Mbithi,P.M.F.,Mugambi,J.M.,Maitho,T.E.and Musimba,N.K.R.2005. Evaluation of the efficacy of aqueous extracts of Albizia anthelmintica and Maerua edulis against the nematode Heligsomoides polygyrus infections in mice. The Kenya Veterinarian 28:.". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. Elsevier; 2005. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
Waweru JN. "Improving the image of library profession in Kenya: reasons for librarians concern.". In: Kenya Library Association international conference. Nairobi; 2015.
Wawire NW, Bett C, Ruttoh RC, Wambua J, Omari FG, Kisilu R, Kavoi J, Omari J, NasirembW Wanyonyi, Ketiem P. "THE STATUS OF AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION IN KENYA.". 2016.
Wawire MC, Jouvenot D, Loiseau F, Baudin P, Liatard S, Njenga L, Kamau GN, Casida ME. "Density-functional Study Of Luminescence In Polypyridine Ruthenium Complexes." Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry. 2013. Abstract

A density-functional theory (DFT) study of five ruthenium complexes has been carried out with the goal of gaining deeper insight into factors governing luminescence lifetimes. The five compounds are [Ru(bpy)3]2+ (1), [Ru(L1)2]2+ (2), [Ru(tpy)2]2+ (3), [Ru(L1)(tpy)]2+ (4), and [Ru(L2)2]2+ (5), where bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine, tpy = 2,2′;6′,2″-terpyridine, L1 = 1,1′-[2,6-pyridinediylbis(methylene)]bis[3-methylimidazolium] hexafluorophosphate and L2 = 1,1′-[2,6-pyridinediylbis(methylene)]bis[3-methylbenziimidazolium]. Experimental work, including the synthesis and photophysical properties of 5 is also reported in the context of this study. Gas phase geometries optimized using X-ray crystallography geometries as start geometries were found to be close to the start geometries. Gas phase absorption spectra calculated using time-dependent DFT were found to be in good agreement with spectra measured in solution. A partial density of states (PDOS) analysis of the molecular orbitals shows that it is possible to recover a ligand field theory (LFT)-like picture. On the basis of this PDOS-derived LFT-like picture we propose two orbital-based luminescence indices, both motivated by the idea that luminescence quenching results from a low 3MLCT → 3MC barrier. The first luminescence index is ΔE , the difference between the View the MathML sourceeg* and lowest energy π* PDOS bands. The second luminescence index is d × π, the product of the amount of π character in the t2g band with the amount of ruthenium d character in the 1π* band. These luminescence measures are intended as qualitative rather than quantitative predictors. Low values of ΔE and high values of d × π are shown to correlate with lack of luminescence for the five compounds studied in this paper, while high values of ΔE and low values of d × π correlate well with luminescence.

Wawire* MC, Jouvenot D, Loiseau F, Baudin P, Liatard S, Njenga L, Kamau GN, Casida ME. "Density-functional study of luminescence in polypyridineruthenium complexes." Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry. 2013;276 : 8-15. Abstract

A density-functional theory (DFT) study of five ruthenium complexes has been carried out with the goal of gaining deeper insight into factors governing luminescence lifetimes. The five compounds are [Ru(bpy)3]2+ (1), [Ru(L1)2]2+ (2), [Ru(tpy)2]2+ (3), [Ru(L1)(tpy)]2+ (4), and [Ru(L2)2]2+ (5), where bpy = 2,2’-bipyridine, tpy = 2,2’;6’,2”-terpyridine, L1 = 1,1’-[2,6-pyridinediylbis(methylene)]bis[3-methylimidazolium] hexafluorophosphate and L2 = 1,1’-[2,6-pyridinediylbis(methylene)]bis[3-methylbenziimidazolium]. Experimental work, including the synthesis and photo-physical properties of 5 is also reported in the context of this study. Gas phase geometries optimized using X-ray crystallography geometries as start geometries were found to be close to the start geome-tries. Gas phase absorption spectra calculated using time-dependent DFT were found to be in good agreement with spectra measured in solution. A partial density of states (PDOS) analysis of the molecular orbitals shows that it is possible to recover a ligand field theory (LFT)-like picture. On the basis of this PDOS-derived LFT-like picture we propose two orbital-based luminescence indices, both motivated by the idea that luminescence quenching results from a low 3MLCT →3MC barrier. The first luminescence index is ∆E, the difference between the e∗g and lowest energy π *PDOS bands. The second luminescence index is d ×π, the product of the amount of π character in the t2g band with the amount of ruthenium d character in the 1 π* band. These luminescence measures are intended as qualitative rather than quantitative predictors. Low values of ∆E and high values of d ×π are shown to correlate with lack of luminescence for the five compounds studied in this paper, while high values of ∆E and low values of d × π correlate well with luminescence.

WAYA PROFMICHIEKARATEMO. "Co-edited some common weeds of East Africa (Magugu ya Afrika ya Mashariki FAO Publication ISBN 92-5 002426-6).". In: THE ICEMSSP PROGRAMME. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1992.
WAYA PROFMICHIEKARATEMO. "Published several papers in local and international journals.". In: THE ICEMSSP PROGRAMME. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1999.
WAYA PROFMICHIEKARATEMO. "Proceedings of East African Weeds of East Africa.". In: THE ICEMSSP PROGRAMME. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1996.
Wayua FO. Evaporative Cooling and Solar Pasteurization technologies for value addition of Camel (Camelus dromedaries) Milk in Marsabit and Isiolo Counties of Northern Kenya. Okoth MW, Wangoh J, eds. University of Nairobi; 2011. Abstract

Abstract
The potential for evaporative cooling and solar pasteurisation technologies for value addition
of camel milk in Marsabit and Isiolo counties of northern Kenya was investigated. To find
out existing postharvest handling and preservation practices, a survey was conducted using a
semi-structured questionnaire and focus group discussion on 167 came l milk producers, 50
primary and 50 secondary milk traders. Results showed that the camel milk chain was
characterised by poor milk handling infrastructure, including poor roads and lack of cooling
facilities. Camel milk was marketed raw under unhygienic conditions with minimal value
addition, and spoilage was a major problem. Milk traders occasionally boiled milk using
firewood as a means of temporary preservation during times when transport was unavailable.
Provision of appropriate cooling facilities and utilisation of renewable energy technologies
such as solar energy for milk processing were identified as possible intervention strategies to
enhance marketing.
Therefore, a low-cost charcoal evaporative cooler was developed and tested for the storage
of camel milk. The cooler, 0.75 m3 in capacity, was made of galvanised angle iron (25 mm x
25 mm x 4 mm) frame with 10 cm wide charcoal walls which were moistened through a drip
system. Temperature of camel milk inside the cooler did not significantly (p>0.05) change
after storage for 10 hours. However, temperature of control milk at ambient conditions
significantly increased (p=0.05) over the same period, from 22.6 ± 0.08°C to 28.1 ± 0.08°C.
Milk inside the cooler was also significantly cooler (p=0.05) than control milk in the
evening, with a net temperature reduction of 27.0%. Total bacterial count changed from
31.4±2.1 x 104 colony forming units per ml (cfu.ml–1) to 43.1±1.9 x 104 and 1638±81 x 104
cfu.ml–1 for milk inside the cooler and that at ambient conditions, respectively, after storage
for 10 hours. The cooler’s performance was modelled using artificial neural networks
(ANN), with inputs being ambient dry bulb temperature, wet bulb temperature, wind speed
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and temperature of drip water. The outputs were cooled milk temperature and cooling
efficiency. The ANN predictions agreed well with experimental values with mean squared
error (MSE) of 10.2, mean relative error (MRE) of 4.02% and correlation coefficients (R2) in
the range of 0.86-0.93.
The development of the solar milk pasteuriser started with thermal performance testing of
four water heating flat plate solar collectors available in Kenya with the objective of
selecting a suitable one to be used to provide process heat for batch pasteurisation. The
collectors included three commercial solar collectors purchased from local shops in Nairobi,
Kenya and one prototype collector designed and fabricated by the author. The three
commercial solar collectors had effective areas of 1.67, 1.87 and 1.83 m2 while the self-made
collector had an effective area of 1.60 m2. Thermal performance of the collectors was
determined in terms of the Hottel-Whillier-Bliss equation. The FR(ta )e values, obtained
using the effective collector areas and the inlet water temperature, were 0.76, 0.75, 0.73, and
0.82, respectively, for the commercial collectors and the self -made collector. The FRUL
values were 8.33, 12.01, 9.80 and 13.77 W.m–2.°C–1, respectively. The solar collector with
the lowest FRUL value had a black chrome selective absorber surface and was the most cost
effective for delivering temperatures of about 80°C at an efficiency of 15%. It was used to
develop a low -cost batch solar milk pasteuriser consisting of the collector and a cylindrical
milk vat. The milk vat had a 50 mm-wide hot water jacket and an outer layer of 38 mm thick
fibre glass insulation. The water jacket held approximately 30 litres of water, whereas the
milk tank had a capacity of 80 litres. The hot water produced by the collector was used for
pasteurising milk. The optimum quantity of milk which could be pasteurised by this device
under the study conditions was 40 litres, which was pasteurised in approximately 1.3±0. 5
hours at an average insolation and ambient temperature of 22.5±0.9 MJ.m–2.day–1 and
29.8±0.1°C, respectively. The average temperature difference between hot water and milk
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being pasteurised was 8.1±0.6°C. Total bacterial counts in pasteurised milk were less than 10
cfu.ml–1 while coliform counts were negative.
The solar milk pasteuriser was modelled using ANN as described for the cooler. The inputs
of the model were ambient air temperature, solar radiation, wind speed, temperature of hot
water, and water flow rate through the collector, whereas the output was temperature of milk
being pasteurised. The ANN predictions agreed well with experimental values , with MSE,
MRE and R2 of 5.22°C, 3.71% and 0.89, respectively.
It has thus been established that there is both the need and potential for evaporative cooling
and solar pasteurisation along the camel milk value chain in Kenya. The two technologies
augment each other in increasing the quantity and quality of marketed camel milk from
scattered pastoral production sites in Kenya. The devices are of low cost and can be locally
fabricated by village artisans using locally available materials , and their performance can be
successfully modelled using ANNs, which helps to design an appropriate system for any
application.

Wayua FO, Okoth MW, Wangoh J. "Modelling of a locally fabricated flat-plate solar milk pasteuriser using artificial neural network.". 2013. Abstract

The objective of this work was to develop an artificial neural network model to predict milk temperature of a locally fabricated solar milk pasteuriser, based on measures of error deviation from experimental data. A three-layer feed-forward neural network model based on back propagation algorithm was developed using the Neural Network Toolbox for MATLAB®. The inputs of the model were ambient air temperature, solar radiation, wind speed, temperature of hot water, and water flow rate through the collector, whereas the output was temperature of milk being pasteurised. The optimal neural network model had a 4-4-1 structure with sigmoid transfer function. The neural network predictions agreed well with experimental values with mean squared error, mean relative error and correlation coefficient of determination (R2) of 5.22°C, 3.71% and 0.89, respectively. These results indicate that artificial neural network can successfully be used for the prediction of the performance of a locally fabricated solar milk pasteuriser.

Wayua FO;, Wangoh J. "Survey of postharvest handling, preservation and processing practices along the camel milk chain in Isiolo district,Kenya.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Despite the important contribution of camel milk to food security for pastoralists in Kenya, little is known about the postharvest handling, preservation and processing practices. In this study, existing postharvest handling, preservation and processing practices for camel milk by pastoralists in Isiolo, Kenya were assessed through crosssectional survey and focus group discussions. A total of 167 camel milk producer households, 50 primary and 50 secondary milk traders were interviewed. Survey findings showed that milking was predominantly handled by herds-boys (45.0%) or male household heads (23.8%) and occasionally by spouses (16.6%), sons (13.9%) and daughters (0.7%). The main types of containers used by both producers and traders to handle milk were plastic jerricans (recycled cooking oil containers), because they were cheap, light and better suited for transport in vehicles. Milk processing was the preserve of women, with fresh camel milk and spontaneously fermented camel milk (suusa) being the main products. Fresh milk was preserved by smoking of milk containers and boiling. Smoking was the predominant practice, and was for extending the shelf life and also imparting a distinct smoky flavour to milk. The milk containers were fumigated with smoke from burned wood of specific tree species such as Olea africana, Acacia nilotica, Balanities aegyptica and Combretum spp. Boiling was practised by primary milk traders at collection points to preserve milk during times when transport to the market was unavailable. Milk spoilage at the primary collection point in Kulamawe was aggravated by lack of cooling facilities. At the secondary collection point in Isiolo town, milk was refrigerated overnight before onward transmission to Nairobi. The mean quantity of traded milk was 83.2±3.8 litres. The main problems experienced by milk traders in Isiolo included milk spoilage (43.0% of respondents), delayed payments—after one or two days (19.9%), loss of money due to informal courier (12.2%), low prices of fermented milk (10.9%), milk rejection by customers in Nairobi (7.1%), inadequate supply during dry season (3.5%), loss of milk due to bursting of containers (2.1%) and milk not being supplied by producers due to insecurity (1.3%). In-depth understanding of the postharvest handling, preservation and processing practices would help to devise appropriate strategies that would increase the quantity and improve the quality of marketed camel milk. Such strategies should include the improvement of infrastructure such as milk transport, collection, cooling and processing facilities of suitable capacity.

Wayua FO, Okoth MW, Wangoh J. "Thermal Performance of Four Types of Water Heating Flat Plate Solar Collectors for Providing Process Heat for Milk Pasteurisation.". 2012. Abstract

Thermal performance tests were carried out on four water heating flat plate solar collectors with the aim to select a suitable one to be used to provide process heat for milk pasteurisation. The collectors included three commercial solar collectors purchased from local shops in Nairobi, Kenya and one prototype collector designed and fabricated by the author. The three commercial solar collectors had effective areas of 1.67, 1.87 and 1.83 m2 while the self-made collector had an effective area of 1.60 m2. Thermal performance of the collectors was determined in terms of the Hottel-Whillier-Bliss equation, with FR(α)e and FRUL indicating how energy is absorbed and lost from the collector, respectively. The FR(α)e values were 0.76, 0.75, 0.73, and 0.82, respectively, for the commercial collectors and the self-made collector. The FRUL values were 8.33, 12.01, 9.80 and 13.77 W.m–2.C–1, respectively. The instantaneous efficiencies for the four solar collectors ranged from 12 to 87%. The solar collector with the lowest FRUL value had a special (black chrome) selective absorber surface and was also the most cost effective collector for delivering temperatures of about 80°C. This collector is the most suitable for medium temperature applications such as provision of hot water for milk pasteurisation.

Wayumba RN, Mwenda JN. "Impact of Changing Land tenure and land use on Wildlife Migration within Group ranches in Kenya: A case study of the Amboseli Ecosystem.". In: 5th FIG Regional Conference for Africa: Promoting Land Administration and Good Governance. Accra, Ghana; 2006.
Wazid AM, Anyenda OE, Tole NM. "Eye Lens and Thyroid gland dose during CT head scanning in Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." South Africa Journal of Radiology. Submitted.
Webala, P. ON, Afrework B. "The diversity and distribution of bats in Meru National Park, Kenya." African Journal of Ecology 42 (3): 171-178; 2004. Abstract
n/a
Webb T, Maina EN, Soni S, Whittington J, Boer H, Clarke D, Holland A. "In search of the psychosis gene in people with Prader-Willi syndrome." Am. J. Med. Genet. A. 2008;146(7):843-53. Abstract

The two main causes of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are a paternally derived deletion in the maternally imprinted 15q11-q13 region or UPD(15)mat. Both mechanisms result in a loss of the active paternal contribution to the region. The affective psychosis associated with PWS has been found to be mainly confined to the propositi with UPD(15)mat rather than to those with a deletion. This suggests that the psychosis may be related to the presence of two copies rather than a single copy of a gene or genes located in the distal half of the region which is paternally imprinted, but maternally active, and whose loss results in Angelman syndrome (AS). A large population-based study of PWS allowed the identification of 12 people with a 15q11-q13 deletion who had suffered psychotic episodes and four adults with UPD(15)mat who so far had not. When these people were investigated using microsatellite markers, the 12 with a deletion were found to have two maternally derived copies of a narrow region between D15S975 and D15S661 making them effectively disomic for these loci. Thus all of the people with psychosis had two active copies of any imprinted genes in the region while all non-psychotic people (including controls) had only one. Quantitative RT-PCR studies suggest that a lack of expression of FLJ33332, either as a result of or resulting in gene dysregulation, may be associated with psychosis in PWS.

Wegener J;, Gathuma JM. "The role of the marabou stork (Leptoptilos crumeniferus (Lesson)) in Kenya in the spread of echinococcosis from the abattoir.".; 1975. Abstract

In experiments, adult marabou storks were fed with hydatid fluid of viable Echinococcus cysts obtained from sheep and goats. On microscopic examination of the birds' faeces no scolices were found, the only remaining undigested parts of the parasites fed being the chitinous hooks of the rostellum. The feeding trials have shown that the marabou does not play a role in the spread of echinococcosis from the abattoir.

Weinberg GA, Spitzer ED, Murray PR, Ghafoor A, Montgomery J, Tupasi TE, Granoff DM, EM W. "Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Haemophilus isolates from children in eleven developing nations. BOSTID Haemophilus Susceptibility Study Group." Bull. World Health Organ.. 1990;68(2):179-84. Abstract

The antimicrobial susceptibilities of 426 isolates of Haemophilus species, which were collected as part of a worldwide study of the etiology of acute respiratory disease in children in selected developing countries, were determined. Eleven antibiotics were tested using the recently described Haemophilus Test Medium. There was a low prevalence of antibiotic resistance; 6% of strains were resistant to ampicillin, and 1.6% were resistant to chloramphenicol. Strains resistant to both ampicillin and chloramphenicol were recovered only from Thailand. Susceptibility to penicillin G was also determined; the minimum inhibitory concentrations for penicillin and ampicillin were concordant within one 2-fold dilution in 97% of the isolates. Thus, Haemophilus isolates were as susceptible to penicillin G as they were to ampicillin, and penicillin resistance was infrequent overall. These data provide support for the current protocols for the management of acute respiratory infections in children in developing countries, in which penicillin G is a first-line agent.

Weinstein, A. EORTALWAGMCSS, Ebinger, C. ORTALWAGMSSC, Oliva, S. RTALWAGMSCM, Roecker, S. TALWAGMCMC, Tiberi, C. ALWAGMMCE, Aman, M. LWAGMCEJ, Lambert, C. WAGMEJS, Witkin, E. AGMJS, Albaric, J. GMS, Gautier, S. M, Muzuka, A. MKHI-KMFPMRGGR, Mulibo, G. KG, Kianji, G., Hadfield, R. I-KMFPMRFMR, Illsley-Kemp, F. MFPMRMRS, Msabi, M. FPMRRSJ, Ferdinand, R. PMRSJ, Peyrat, S. MRJ, Muirhead, J. R, Rodzianko, A., Fischer T. "Magmatic Co2 assisted rifitng in East Africa : seismicity of the Magadi-Natron-Manyara basins, Africa. Submitted to Tectonics." tectonics. Submitted.
Weis JF, McClelland SR, Jaoko W, Mandaliya KN, Overbaugh J, Graham SM. "Short communication: Fc gamma receptors IIa and IIIa genetic polymorphisms do not predict HIV-1 disease progression in Kenyan women." AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2015;31(3):288-92. Abstract

Genetic polymorphisms of the Fc gamma receptors (FcγR) IIa and IIIa have been implicated in the rate of HIV-1 disease progression, but results are inconsistent. We aimed to determine the association between these polymorphisms and disease progression in a cohort of HIV-1 seroconverters from Mombasa, Kenya. Neither FcγRIIa nor FcγRIIIa genotypes were predictive of set point viral load, viral load increase, CD4 decline, or HIV-1 disease progression (time to CD4 count <200 cells/mm(3), death, or treatment initiation). Our results suggest that FcγR polymorphisms might not be an important indicator of viral control and disease progression in this population.

Weis JF, McClelland RS JMKNOGSMWJ &. "Fc Gamma Receptors IIa and IIIa Genetic polymorphisms do not predict HIV-1 disease progression in Kenyan women. ." AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses (in print). 2014.
Weiss JM, Glazer HI, Pohorecky LA, Brick J, Miller NE. "Effects of chronic exposure to stressors on avoidance-escape behavior and on brain norepinephrine." Psychosom Med. 1975;37(6):522-34. Abstract

A single exposure to a severe stressor (either cold swim or inescapable shock) impairs subsequent performance in a shuttle avoidance-escape task (1), a deficit attributed to reduction in brain noradrenergic activity produced by these stressors. In the present paper, two experiments are described which examine how repeated exposure to such stressors affects (a) shuttle avoidance-escape performance (Experiment 1), and (b) aspects of brain norepinephrine metabolism (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 showed that, whereas subjects receiving the single exposure to cold swim or shock showed a large avoidance-escape deficit, subjects that received repeated exposure to these stressors for 14 days performed similarly to the control group that received no stressor. Experiment 2 showed that, whereas subjects that received one session of the inescapable shock stressor showed a lower level of norepinephrine in hypothalamus and cortex than did subjects that received no shock, subjects that received repeated exposure to inescapable shock or cold swim showed neurochemical "habituation." Subjects that received repeated shock showed elevated tyrosine hydroxylase activity and no depletion of norepinephrine level, and both repeated shock and cold swim caused a decrease in uptake of 3H-norepinephrine by slices of cortex in vitro. Thus, it is concluded that the behavioral and neurochemical changes that were observed after the stressful conditions studied are consistent with the hypothesis that changes in avoidance-escape responding following exposure to these stressful events are due to changes in brain noradrenergic activity.

Weke P, Ntwiga DB, Manene M, Mwaniki I. "Trust and Distrust: A Reputation Ratings Approach." International Advanced Research Journal in Science, Engineering and Technology (IARJSET). 2016;3(2):111-114. Abstract

Agents’ reputation ratings in a social network form a real valued matrix which is discounted with singular value decomposition (SVD) to estimate the trust and distrust levels of agents. SVD eliminates noise as future expected trust and distrust are based on current reputation ratings. A discounting of 20 percent is optimal, further discounting does not improve error reduction. Reputation and trust are closely related. Distrust is different from trust and reputation. Distrust is similar to trust negation; and trust is similar to distrust negation.

Weke, Patrick; Davis Bundi Ntwiga and Kirumbu MK. "Trust Model for Social Network Using Singular Value Decomposition." Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems. 2016;14(3):296-302. Abstract

For effective interactions to take place in a social network, trust is important. We model trust of agents using the peer to peer reputation ratings in the network that forms a real valued matrix.
Singular value decomposition discounts the reputation ratings to estimate the trust levels as trust is the subjective probability of future expectations based on current reputation ratings.
Reputation and trust are closely related and singular value decomposition can estimate trust using the real valued matrix of the reputation ratings of the agents in the network.
Singular value decomposition is an ideal technique in error elimination when estimating trust from reputation ratings. Reputation estimation of trust is optimal at the discounting of 20 %.

Weke P, Aduda J, Ngare P, Mwaniki IJ. "Financial Time Series Modelling of Trends and Patterns in the Energy Markets." Journal of Mathematical Finance. 2016;6:324-337. Abstract

Energy use is behind virtually everything a person comes into contact with. The energy industry has rapidly expanded and become increasingly interdependent. In developed economies, the increase in energy consumption indicates a reliance on energy and its related products for continued and sustainable economic growth and development. Developing economies also rely on the development of energy resources to drive their growth. Energy was once viewed just as a utility, and an enabler with limited consumer interest, but now, it is key in the struggle for sustainable future economic growth [1] [2].
Energy prices, which are largely linked to oil prices, are a major concern for most economies. The recent financial crises and their ripple effects and after shocks have been largely unprecedented in terms of timing, speed and magnitude of impact on the world economies. Forecasting of crude oil prices is important for better investment and risk management and policy development, and econometric models are the most commonly used.

Weke P, Ntwiga DB. "Credit Scoring for M-Shwari Using Hidden Markov Model." European Scientific Journal12. 2016;12(15):176-188. Abstract

The introduction of mobile based Micro-credit facility, M-Shwari, has heightened the need to develop a proper decision support system to classify the customers based on their credit scores. This arises due to lack of proper information on the poor and unbanked as they are locked out of the formal banking sector. A classification technique, the hidden Markov model, is used. The poor customers’ scanty deposits and withdrawal dynamics in the M-Shwari account estimate the credit risk factors that are used in training and learning the hidden Markov model. The data is generated through simulation and customers categorized in terms of their credit scores and credit quality levels. The model classifies over 80 percent of the customers as having average and good credit quality level. This approach offers a simple and novice method to cater for the unbanked and poor with minimal or no financial history thus increasing financial inclusion in Kenya.

Weke P, Ratemo C. "Estimating IBNR Claims Reserves for General Insurance Using Archimedean Copulas." Applied Mathematical Sciences: Journal of Theory and Applications. 2013;7(25):1223-1237.Website
Weke P, Ntwiga DB. "Consumer Lending Using Social Media Data." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2016;3(2):1-8. Abstract

Consumer credit has been around for a long period of time but the dynamics observable from the consumers makes it hard to credit score and lend to the consumers. This difficulty results in the poor being excluded from receiving credit as they lack financial history. We analyze the limitations of the traditional consumer lending models due to use of historical data, and look at the benefits that could arise by incorporating social media data in credit scoring process for consumer lending. A review of the research progress made in using social media data for consumer scoring and lending process is presented. We found that social media data offers rich, vast and attractive information on changing trends and shifting demographics in credit underwriting of existing consumers and new consumers with minimal or no financial history. This data advances the lending process by widening the data set available and capture of new markets that are excluded from financial services.

WEKESA MRMALOBA. "DISCOURSE CONNECTIVITY:THE CASE OF LUBUKUSU.". In: Relevance Theory Circuit - Kaizemeir Dolny Poland. University of Nairobi Press, Open and Distance Learning; 2007. Abstract
Discourse connectivity, according to those who propose discourse and text grammars and leaning towards the code model (Harris 1952, Longacre 1983, Dooley and Levinsohn 2000), say it is a purely linguistic matter. However, discourse connectivity also relies on context, the context of the discourse itself, that of the speaker and that of the hearer. This later position is proposed in an inferential model (Sperber & Wilson 1986/95). This inferential model suggests that sentence structure alone determines only a fraction of what is communicated and context plays a crucial role in the determination of meaning hence to link individual sentences in creating a discourse requires linkages beyond a language code. It is these linkages over and above the code that connect with context and thereby allow for utterance comprehension. Blass 2006:7 argues that, intuitive judgements of well formedness and ill formedness of discourse depend upon the connectivity occurring between and within sentences of a language. The argument by Blass is that to create discourse harmony, it is inevitable to integrate both linguistic and non linguistic features to achieve discourse connectivity which enables utterance comprehension. This paper will examine discourse connectivity linkage as manifested in the particle nono and its allomorphic realization ne of the Lubukusu - a Bantu language spoken in western Kenya. The aim is to show the diversity of use for this particle while emphasizing its idiosyncratic usage that is specific to Lubukusu speakers.
WEKESA MRMALOBA. "TRADITIONAL GRAMMAR.". In: 4th CHOTRO Conference on Language, Literature and Visual Arts for the Indigenous: Theme - Imagining the Intangibe. University of Nairobi Press, Open and Distance Learning; 2010. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This book is designed to address a course unit under the open and distance learning programme. The book specifically addresses basic issues of classical grammar. Students of Linguistics will realize later in their studies that the title of this book is rather ambitious considering the volume of work under Traditionalist linguistics even as this book has specific interest to Syntax. Syntax examines the rules for sentence structure in languages. To understand sentence structure, the book is packaged in a two step way that would help even non linguists to grasp some seminal issues under Syntax within Traditional linguistics.
Wekesa VD, Ogeng’o JA, CV S, H E, Iwaret M. "Pattern of Traumatic Intracranial Bleeds at Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya." East Cent Afr J Surg. 2013;18(2):70-74.
Wekesa MN, Okoth MW, Abong’ GO, Muthoni J, Kabira JN. "Effect of Soil Characteristics on Potato Tuber Minerals Composition of Selected Kenyan Varieties." Journal of Agricultural Science;. 2014;6(12).wekesa_2014a_effect_of_soil_characteristics_potato.pdf
Wekesa V, Mwang'ombe NJM, Musau CK, Kiboi JG. "Causes and Risk Factors of Non-traumatic Sub-arachnoid Haemorrhage among Patients at Kenyatta National Referral Hospital, Kenya ;." East and Central African Journal of Surgery.. 2011;16(3):75-79. Abstract

Background: Subarachnoid Haemorrhage (SAH) has been shown to have a global incidence of 2-49 cases per 100 000 population, and it is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. There is a scarcity of data regarding this condition in Kenya. This paper presents the causes and risk factors for this condition in patients presenting to our hospital.
Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in Kenyatta National Hospital in Kenya. All patients admitted between December 2010 and March 2011 with a diagnosis of SAH, were included in the study. A total of 55 patients with SAH were recruited in the study.
Results: Slightly more females suffered from SAH than men, with a male: female ratio of 1: 1.1. The mean age was 47.6 years with a modal age group being 41-50 years. Intracranial aneurysms were seen in 29% of patients, the commonest location being in the anterior communicating artery (31%). Arterio-venous malformations were seen in 4% of patients. 51% of the patients had poorly controlled hypertension. Other risk factors included alcohol intake (31%), cigarette smoking (15%), and use of hormonal contraceptives was reported in 22% female study subjects.
Conclusion: In our population, the commonest cause of spontaneous SAH is aneurysmal bleeds mainly in the anterior circulation. Further, most of the risks involved in causation of SAH are modifiable therefore interventions such as proper blood pressure control should be put in place so as to reduce the burden of this disease.

WEKESA MRMALOBA. "Aspects of Discourse Structure.". In: 4th CHOTRO Conference on Language, Literature and Visual Arts for the Indigenous: Theme - Imagining the Intangibe. Upcoming (Orient Blackswan); 2012. Abstract
It is debatable whether speakers of any language are wholly responsible for discourse organization of an utterance or whether recipients indirectly impose on speakers an organizational paradigm for the success in communication. While some linguists  advocate for the latter position, the former argument is embraced by those who see communication as fundamentally designed for recipients who indirectly impose structure to it. This former position is held by scholars who see recipient design as a fundamental principle for any interaction. This paper argues for a blending of both positions using illustration from Lubukusu language while arguing that milieu informed by the application of politeness principles is responsible for discourse organization. The paper will focus on the use of particles in Lubukusu and show how relevance theory proposed by Sperber & Wilson (1986/95/2002/2004) captures this blend.
WEKESA MRMALOBA. "THE NOTION OF FAITHFULNESS vs CONTEXT IN TRANSLATION. BY, MALOBA WEKESA,.". In: PUBLISHED PAPER FOR CONFERENCE IN LAPAMPA ARGENTINA. University of Nairobi Press, Open and Distance Learning; 2009. Abstract
Translations being representations of texts in other languages can be communicatively successful if these texts are faithful representations of the originals. This means that the posterior text must resemble the anterior text closely enough in respects relevant to the target audience.  The relevance theory, using the notions of interpretive resemblance and interpretive use, constraints the divergence of possible text interpretations between anterior and posterior texts. However, the notions of interpretive use and resemblance make assumption that each utterance will carry along a context that can faithfully be carried over to the posterior text. This paper will argue that "full meaning" of an utterance is a mirage even with interpretive resemblance and use since context is not replicable between languages.  The paper will explore how unfaithful a posterior text can be especially when translators "invent" new context to illustrate a previously unknown concept in the posterior text from the anterior text. The paper will use for illustration, excerpts from the Ten Commandments of the bible as translated in the Lubukusu version of the same - Endakano Empia.
WEKESA MRMALOBA. "ADVANCED ENGLISH STRUCTURE.". In: 4th CHOTRO Conference on Language, Literature and Visual Arts for the Indigenous: Theme - Imagining the Intangibe. University of Nairobi Press; 2011. Abstract

At what point does language structure become advanced? This is a legitimate question since language necessarily is a very advanced concept of human beings. Moreover, having taken years learning language as a student is an indictment to this advanced concept. However, the mention of an advanced course sends wrong signals to students to mean that a course is complicated. The notion of 'advanced courses' being deemed complicated needs to be disabused by the simple understanding that the finer details that may have been overlooked previously take center stage at the advanced stage. The thrust of this book is to look at the finer details of the English language within certain theoretical bearings.

Wekesa VD, Ogeng’o JA, Siongei CV, Elbusaidy H, Iwaret M. "Demographics of patients admitted with Traumatic Intracranial Bleeds in Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya." East Cent Afr J Surg. 2013;18(3):67-70.
Wekesa B, Miriti E, Moturi CA. "Agent-based Vulnerability Assessment of Government Web Applications." NNGT Int. J. on Internet and Web Applications. 2015;2( International Journals of N&N Global Technology(IJNNGT)):1-6. Abstract

While most governments, including the government of Kenya, have improved their performance through allowing more information exchange using web support, there is increased spread of information crimes targeting government web applications. Structured Query Language (SQL) injection and Cross Site Scripting attack (XSS) are ranked as the two top most vulnerability attacks by the Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) top 10, 2013 vulnerability list. Recently there have been massive attacks on a number of websites including the government of Kenya. Agent orientation is emerging as a dominant research area and as a new paradigm in provision of solutions to problems. Agents provide developers and designers with a way of structuring applications around autonomous and communicative elements. In this paper, we present a solution that uses multi-agents to detect both SQL injection and XSS attacks vulnerabilities on web applications. The system has been developed using Java programming language and Prometheus methodology as an Agent Oriented Software. It will specifically target websites in development environment
for testing the vulnerabilities before being hosted in the production environment. We have also incorporated the testing of already hosted websites for the two vulnerabilities. The proposed system will help web developers and owners of websites to fix the vulnerabilities and enhance the entire security.

WEKESA MRMALOBA. "THE BIBLIC LANGUAGE DILEMMA: THE COMPETING INTERESTS OF ENGLISH vs LUBUKUSU.". In: Published paper By Orient Blackswan 2008: Indegeneity:Representation and Intepretation, Edited by G.N Devy, Geoffrey V. Davis,K.K Chakravarty. University of Nairobi Press, Open and Distance Learning; 2008. Abstract
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WEKESA MRMALOBA. "COHESION AND DEIXIS IN PRACTICE: The Case of an Opinion Column.". In: 4th CHOTRO Conference on Language, Literature and Visual Arts for the Indigenous: Theme - Imagining the Intangibe. VDM Verlag, Saarbrucken, Germany.; 2011. Abstract
Readers of Newspapers may regard an opinion column text by a specific writer as popular and judge another opinion column text as bland. Granted, the basis of judgement by readers may be extra linguistic. However, it is possible to track and attribute part of the judgement by some readers as having a basis on language use. If the argument to choose one text over another exists in language, then we can account for this using linguistic tools.Such an account can give a glimpse to the judgement on how one text is popular while another is not.This book exploits linguistic tools in examining a journalese text to show how the smallest details that enable sentences to glue together have an impact in overall textual harmony.
Wekesa DM. "Understanding Discourse at Word Level." 16th Triennial ACLALS Conference. 2013.understanding_discourse_at_word_level.pdf
Wekesa V, Mwang'ombe NJM, Musau CK, Kiboi JG. "Causes and Risk Factors of Non-traumatic Sub-arachnoid Haemorrhage among Patients at Kenyatta National Referral Hospital, Kenya Wekesa, V.; Mwang'ombe, N.J.M.; Musau, C.K. & Kiboi, J.G." East and Central African Journal of Surgery. 2011;16(3):75-79. Abstract

Background: Subarachnoid Haemorrhage (SAH) has been shown to have a global incidence of 2-49 cases per 100 000 population, and it is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. There is a scarcity of data regarding this condition in Kenya. This paper presents the causes and risk factors for this condition in patients presenting to our hospital.
Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in Kenyatta National Hospital in Kenya. All patients admitted between December 2010 and March 2011 with a diagnosis of SAH, were included in the study. A total of 55 patients with SAH were recruited in the study.
Results: Slightly more females suffered from SAH than men, with a male: female ratio of 1: 1.1. The mean age was 47.6 years with a modal age group being 41-50 years. Intracranial aneurysms were seen in 29% of patients, the commonest location being in the anterior communicating artery (31%). Arterio-venous malformations were seen in 4% of patients. 51% of the patients had poorly controlled hypertension. Other risk factors included alcohol intake (31%), cigarette smoking (15%), and use of hormonal contraceptives was reported in 22% female study subjects.
Conclusion: In our population, the commonest cause of spontaneous SAH is aneurysmal bleeds mainly in the anterior circulation. Further, most of the risks involved in causation of SAH are modifiable therefore interventions such as proper blood pressure control should be put in place so as to reduce the burden of this disease.

Welch 1 RW, Njoroge K, Habgood RM. "Selection for increased grain protein production in Barley.". In: Barley Genetics IV (Chapter 5), Pp 271-278. Edinburgh University Press; 1981.
Wellington, N; Ekaya, Joseph; Gathuma M, Boniface; Makau F;, Dickson, M; Nyariki. Guidelines For Emergency Livestock Off -take Handbook.; 2005. AbstractWebsite

Kenya’s agricultural sector accounts for 20–30% of the gross domestic product (GDP). Of this, the livestock sector alone makes a contribution of about 50%. Thus, livestock contributes heavily to the GDP and food security of its population. It also provides the necessary thrust for other forms of development in the country. Recent statistics indicate that currently over 50% of the country’s livestock population is based in the arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs), which form about 80% of the country’s land area. However, comparative international statistics show that livestock contributes 88% of the total agricultural output in Botswana even though the country has half Kenya’s livestock population and is of less agricultural potential. Thus, there is a huge potential contribution that livestock can make to the Kenyan national economy. Unfortunately, this sector receives only 10% of the government’s agricultural expenditure and less than one per cent of total spending, yet it is estimated that Kenya’s potential to export livestock products if adequately exploited would earn more than the earnings from tea and coffee combined. This then calls for new thinking about livestock development strategies to harness the arid landsThe livestock sector accounts for 90% of employment and more than 95% of household incomes in the ASALs. Most of the livestock slaughtered in major urban centres originates in these areas, with an annual slaughter of about 1.6 million Tropical Livestock Units. Kenya’s livestock from the ASALs is worth Kshs 60 billion (US$800 million). The internal livestock trade in trade in thepastoral areas alone nets in about 6 billion shillings (US$80 million )a yearIn the arid areas of the ASALs, arable crop production is not possible without some form of irrigation; while in semi-arid areas rainfall may be sufficient for certain types of crops, requiring special management techniques. Therefore, except for the areaunder cropping, the rest of the arid areas is used for livestock......

WENWA-AKINYI DRODINGA. "The Relationship Between Pyrethrins And The Yellow Pigmentation in Pyrethrum Flowers.". In: African Journal of Science and Technology (AJST) Vol.4, No. 2, pp. 113-119. MBA; 2003. Abstract
o Odinga W.O, Angendu C: ;
Wepukhulu M, Kimenju J, Anyango B, Wachira P.M, G.K K. "Effect of soil fertility manangement practices and Bacillus subtilis on plant parasitic nematodes associated with common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystem. 2011;13(1):27-34.
WERE DRWANJALAGENEVIEVE, WERE DRWANJALAGENEVIEVE. "Wanjala G., .". In: The Fountain : Journal of Educational Research Vol. 4 Issue 2,2010 Pp. 10-35, ISSN 2079 - 3383. School of Education, UoN; 2010. Abstract
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Were O, Benn M, Munavu R. "Chinchona Alkaloid from Dendrosenecio kilimanjari subsp. cottonii." Planta medica. 1997;63(1):90-92. AbstractFull text link

Investigation of the Tanzanian Dendrosenecio kilimanjari subsp. cottonii resulted in
the isolation of the cinchona alkaloid, cinchonidine (2). Conversion of cinchonidine to deoxy-
cinchonidine was achieved in high yield using zinc dust in aqueous sulphuric acid. This
illustrates the first reduction of a quinoline system using these reagents.

Were FH. "Intensified Campaigns to End Use of Lead-Based Paints." The Architect, the Official Magazine of the the Architects Chapter,AAK 10 (2016):28-30.Website
Were FH. Use of human nails as a bio-indicator of heavy metals overload in children. Njue W, Murungi J, Wanjau R, eds. Nairobi: Kenyatta University; 2011. Abstract

Metal pollution and its health effects present a challenge currently facing developing countries. Hair and nail were suggested as more attractive biomarkers among various biopsy materials (teeth, bone, urine, blood and other body fluids) in assessing human metal environmental exposure especially in developing countries because the analysis is economical and not susceptible to contaminations. Recent studies have indicated increasing levels of Pb and Cd in urban and agricultural areas. Studies have identified children as a special risk group as absorption and toxicity of toxic metals is inversely proportional to the age. Absorption of these metals in their gastrointestinal tract also depends on nutritional factors and interaction with other dietary components such as those of Zn, Fe and Ca. This study was therefore set to evaluate the concentration of Pb, Ca, Zn, Cd and Fe in the nails of children (n=200) under the age of six years as bioindicators of risk exposure. The concentrations of these metals were compared in toenails and fingernails samples of children (n=33). The sampling covered schools in both urban and rural settings. Factors that were suspected to influence the accumulation of Pb and Cd in children were obtained using a questionnaire. The atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the concentrations of the metals. The heavy metal levels in fingernails of children in urban areas were significantly higher than those of rural areas (P < 0.05; df = 168). The mean levels in urban areas were 27.5±1.8mg/g Pb and 0.73±0.08 mg/g Cd while those of rural areas were 19.7±0.9 mg/g Pb and 0.44±0.06 mg/g Cd. The correlation results indicated that high levels of Pb in the fingernail samples negatively correlated with Zn and Fe (R = -0.256 Zn; -0.188 Fe) but not Ca levels while high levels of Cd had a negative relationship with Fe (R = -0.241) only. Other factors that were found to have significant influence were socio-economic background, dietary habits and environmental risk exposure. The results also showed that the school location had more influence on the heavy metals level than the area of residence. The children in a school near the highway were found to have a mean of 34.4±3.5 NLm/g Pb as compared to those whose residence was near the highway (31.6±2.8 mg/g Pb), implying that the contaminants are from a common source. The study established that the mean metal levels were generally higher in the toenail than in fingernail samples. However, the difference was not significant (P > 0.05), therefore either the toenail or the fingernail could be used as bio-indicator. The association of toxic metals in the nails of children with environmental exposure and nutritional factors implies that policies and strategies to reduce the heavy metal levels should be implemented and reinforced to address the health issues affecting children in this country. This could be facilitated by improving the conditions of the schools and residential areas and sensitizing the general public on nutrition and effects of heavy metals.

Were FN, Mukhwana BO, Musoke RN. "Neonatal survival of infants less than 2000 grams born at Kenyatta National Hospital." East Afr Med J. 2002;79(2):77-9. Abstract

Survival of patients is regularly used as a measure of the level and appropriateness of medical care provided by institutions. Newborn services have been evaluated in this manner since the 1960s. Though Kenyatta National Hospital has provided neonatal services for over 25 years, no survival data for the low birth weight infants has been published since 1978.

Were HK, Kabira JN, Kinyua ZM, Olubayo FM, Karinga JK, J.Aura, Lees AK, Cowan GH, Torrance L. "Occurrence and Distribution of potato pests and diseases. ." Potato Research, online publication.. 2014.
Were S;, Olubayo F;, Nderitu JH;, Kilalo D;, Koech A. "Resistance of potato varieties to potato tubermoth (phthorimaea opercullela (Zeller).".; 2011.
Were FH, Wafula GA, Wairungu S. "Phytoremediation Using Bamboo to Reduce the Risk of Chromium Exposure from a Contaminated Tannery Site in Kenya." Journal of Health and Pollution. 2017;Vol. 7(16):12-25.
Were S,; Olubayo, F.; Nderitu KKJH; D;, Nderitu JH;, Kilalo D;, Koech A;. " Resistance of potato varieties to potato tubermoth (phthorimaea opercullela (Zeller). ). .". In: UON Agro 2011. C.A.V.S; 2011.
Were E. “Fani katika tamthilia ya Kiswahili: Uchanganuzi wa kilio cha Haki na Kijiba cha Moyo” . Mbuthia DE, Musyoka DF, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012.
Were FH, Njue W, Murungi J, Wanjau R. "Use of human nails as bio-indicators of heavy metals environmental exposure among school age children in Kenya." Science of The Total Environment. 2008;393(2-3):376-384. AbstractWebsite

Metal pollution and its health effects present a challenge currently facing the developing countries. Metal poisoning is usually difficult and expensive to assess or screen in these countries due to limited resources, which means that policies, guidelines, regulations and institutional managements are limited. Hair and nail as biopsy materials were suggested as more attractive biomarkers in assessing heavy metals environmental exposure. This paper deals with quantitative determination of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) in fingernails of children (n = 200) in urban and rural areas using atomic absorption spectrometry. Factors that were suspected to influence the accumulation of Pb and Cd in children were obtained through a questionnaire. The mean levels of heavy metals in children in urban areas were found to be higher (27.5 ± 1.8 μg/g Pb and 0.73 ± 0.08 μg/g Cd) than in rural areas (19.7 ± 0.9 μg/g Pb and 0.44 ± 0.06 μg/g Cd). The difference was significant (P < 0.05; DF = 168, t-test). Other factors that were found to have significant influence were socio-economic background, health conditions, dietary habits and environmental risk exposure. The results also showed that the school location has more influence on the heavy metals level than the area of residence. The children in a school near the highway were found to have a mean of 34.4 ± 3.5 μg/g Pb as compared to those who lived near the highway (31.6 ± 2.8 μg/g Pb), however the difference was not significant (P > 0.05), suggesting a common source of contaminants in the areas. The correlation results also indicated that a high level of Pb in the nail influenced negatively Zn and Fe but not Ca levels (R = − 0.256 Zn; − 0.188 Fe) while high levels of Cd had a negative relationship with Fe only (R = − 0.241). The association of toxic metals in the nails of children with environmental exposure, and nutritional status implies that policies and actions to reduce heavy metal levels must be implemented and reinforced to address the health issues affecting children and by extension the general public in this country.

Were FH. Assessment of Levels of Selected Heavy Metals among Industrial Workers and Related Occupational Health Effects in the City of Nairobi and Athi River Township in Kenya. Kamau GN, Shiundu PM, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013. Abstract

The study assessed the concentrations of heavy metals among factory workers (N = 282) and their related adverse health effects in Nairobi and Athi River Township in Kenya. Sets of whole blood, spot urine, scalp hair and personal breathing zone air samples were collected from these workers in various sections of 6 different plants, and analysed for cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr) levels using atomic absorption spectrophotometery. This method of analysis was validated using certified reference whole blood samples, BCR®-635 and BCR®-636. The results indicated mean airborne Pb levels ± standard deviation (SD) in production sections as follows: 183.2 ± 53.6 ug/rrr' in battery recycling, 133.5 ± 39.6 ug/m' in battery manufacturing, 126.2 ± 39.9 ug/rrr' in steel and scrap welding, 76.3 ± 33.2 ug/nr' in paint manufacturing, 27.3 ± 12.1 ug/rn" in leather and tannery, and 5.5 ± 3.6 !!g/m3 in the pharmaceutical plant. The average airborne Pb levels in production sections were significantly high (P < 0.05) when t·.... .• compared to those in their respective office areas, which was: 23.9 ± 6.9 ug/rrr', 18.8 ± 1.6 ug/m", 23.5 ± 5.8 ug/m:', 13.8 ± 3.0 ug/rn", 8.0 ± 2.7 ug/m" and 2.1 ± 0.2 ug/nr'. In all cases, the average airborne Pb levels in production areas markedly exceeded the U.S. Occupational Safety Health Administrations' Permissible Exposure Limit of 50 ug/rrr' ~ over an 8-hour Time-Weighted Average except for leather and tannery, and pharmaceutical plant. Blood lead (BPb) levels of all employees correlated positively (r = 0.86) with airborne Pb. All the determined mean BPb values in production workers exceeded 30 ug/dl, proposed by of the American Conference of Governmental for Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) biological exposure indices (BEls), except for employees in leather and tannery, and pharmaceutical plant. Similarly, levels of Cd, Ni and Cr in the ambient air correlated positively (r = 0.99 Cd, 0.89 Ni and 0.84 Cr, N = 282) with those in the urinary samples. The production areas of steel and scrap welding plant had the highest mean levels of 0.13 ± 0.05 ug/rrr' Cd and 10-:-3±4.3 ug/rrr' Ni in the breathing zone air compared to those in the other plants. In this* facility, 50% (20 of 40) and 27.5% (11 of 40) of employees had urinary Ni and Cd levels that exceeded the ACGIH BEls. The average airborne Cr levels of 23.4 ± 11.6 ug/rrr' were highest in production areas of leather and tannery industry, where urinary mean Cr levels of 35.2 ± 12.1 ug/g exceeded the BEIs. Nearly 71% (22 of 31) and 27.5% (11 of 40) of leather tanners and steel and v scrap welders, respectively had urinary Cr levels that exceeded this limit. A positive correlation of r = 0.55 Cr; 0.61 Pb; 0.58 Cd and 0.30 Ni was also observed in the levels between these metals in the ambient air and hair samples. The relationship between levels of heavy metals in the hair and other biomarkers of exposure further indicated correlation coefficient values (r) of 0.57 for urinary-Cr; 0.51, urinary-Cd; 0.21, urinary- Ni; 0.59, blood-Pb; and 0.42 for blood-Cd. The results also established that a high proportion of steel and scrap welders (47.3%, N 19), battery recyclers (39%, N = 16) and battery manufacturers (37.5%, N = 15) had hypertensive range of blood pressure with high incidences of cardiovascular diseases and related symptoms, which were associated with significantly high levels of Pb and Cd. Almost 10.7% of production workers (N = 233) were anaemic, which was associated with elevated levels of BPb. Leather tanners (48.3%, N = 15) and steel and scrap welders (47.5%, N = 19) had high prevalence of respiratory illnesses that were marked by severely reduced forced' vital capacity (FVC) .' . and forced expiratory volume of air in thi -(l.i;t second (FEV i). These were indication of airway obstructions. It was further observed that leather tanners (41.9%, N = 13) and steel and scrap welders (40.0%, N = 13) had high occurrences of dermatological conditions that manifested in the form of rashes and itching and which were associated with elevated airborne levels of Cr and Ni.

Were E, Curran K, Delany-Moretlwe S, Nakku-Joloba E, Mugo NR, Kiarie J, Bukusi EA, Celum C, Baeten JM. "A prospective study of frequency and correlates of intimate partner violence among African heterosexual HIV serodiscordant couples." AIDS. 2011;25(16):2009-18. Abstract

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is common worldwide and is an important consideration in couples HIV voluntary counseling and testing (CVCT), especially for HIV-serodiscordant couples (i.e. in which only one member is HIV-infected).

Were M, Ngugi RW, Makau P, Wambua J, Oyugi L. "Kenya’s reform experience: What have we learnt? KIPPRA Working Paper #12."; 2005.
Were HK;, Narla RD, Nderitu JH, Weidemann HL. "The status of potato leafroll virus in Kenya. Journal of Plant Pathology." Journal of Plant Pathology. 2003;3( 85 ): 153-156.the_status_of_potato_leafroll_virus_in_kenya.pdf
Were SA, Narla R, Mutitu EW, Muthomi JW, Munyua LM, Roobroeck D, Vanlauwe B, E J. "Biochar and vermicompost soil amendments reduce root rot disease of common bean (Phaseolous Vulgaris L.)." African Journal of Biological sciences. 2021;3(1):176-196.
Were FH. "Take the Lead on Lead." UN Environment; OurPlanet (2017):44-45.Website
Were O, Munavu R. "Cinchona alkaloid from Dendrosenecio kilimanjari subsp cottonii ." Planta Medica. 1997;63(6):578.
Were F, bwibo. "THE CONTRIBUTION OF VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT DEATHS TO INFANT MORTALITY.". 2009;8:374-377. Abstractcontribution_of_vlbw_infants.pdf

Background: Infant mortality remains high in many developing countries in which the contribution of deaths among infants born very low birth weight (VLBW) may be considerable. This contribution has however not been quantified in most such countries. This paper explores a model that can be used in this respect.
Objective: To determine the contribution of very low birth weight infants towards the overall infants deaths in Kenya.
Design: Prospective cohort study.
Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital, Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kilifi District Hospital.
Subjects: Very low birth weight infants followed up for a period of one year.
Results: The neonatal, post-neonatal and infant mortalities for the cohort were 442, 139 and 581/1000 respectively. These were thirteen, three and seven times higher than the national averages respectively. Of the national birth cohort of 1,300,000 during that year, it was estimated that between 15,600 (1.2%) and 24,700 (1.9%) were born VLBW. Given this VLBW infant burden and extrapolating the infant mortality observed in this study to the general population, between 9,064 (8.9%) and 14,351(14.2%) of the 101,400 (78/1000) infants who die during infancy in the country are born VLBW.
Conclusion: The cohort reports very high infant mortality for VLBW infants when compared to the general population. Despite constituting less than 2% of the birth cohort, these infants contribute between 8.9% and 14.2% of all infant deaths.

Were F, Ayieko P, English M, Githanga D. "Characteristics of admissions and variations in the use of basic investigations, treatments and outcomes in Kenyan hospitals within a new Clinical Information Network ." Archives of Diseases of Childhood. 2016;101:223-229. Abstractarch_dis_child-2016-ayieko-223-9.pdf

Background Lack of detailed information about hospital activities, processes and outcomes hampers planning, performance monitoring and improvement in low-income countries (LIC). Clinical networks offer one means to advance methods for data collection and use, informing wider health system development in time, but are rare in LIC. We report baseline data from a new Clinical Information Network (CIN) in Kenya seeking to promote data-informed improvement and learning. Methods Data from 13 hospitals engaged in the Kenyan CIN between April 2014 and March 2015 were captured from medical and laboratory records. We use these data to characterise clinical care and outcomes of hospital admission. Results Data were available for a total of 30 042 children aged between 2 months and 15 years. Malaria (in five hospitals), pneumonia and diarrhoea/dehydration (all hospitals) accounted for the majority of diagnoses and comorbidity was found in 17 710 (59%) patients. Overall, 1808 deaths (6%) occurred (range per hospital 2.5%–11.1%) with 1037 deaths (57.4%) occurring by day 2 of admission (range 41%–67.8%). While malaria investigations are commonly done, clinical health workers rarely investigate for other possible causes of fever, test for blood glucose in severe illness or ascertain HIV status of admissions. Adherence to clinical guideline-recommended treatment for malaria, pneumonia, meningitis and acute severe malnutrition varied widely across hospitals. Conclusion Developing clinical networks is feasible with appropriate support. Early data demonstrate that hospital mortality remains high in Kenya, that resources to investigate severe illness are limited, that care provided and outcomes vary widely and that adoption of effective interventions remains slow. Findings suggest considerable scope for improving care within and across sites.

Were S;, Olubayo F;, Nderitu JH;, Kilalo D;, Koech A. "Resistance of potato varieties to potato tubermoth (phthorimaea opercullela (Zeller).".; 2011.
Were J. H. MJK. "Classification of Operators With the Property ." GJPAM. 2013;vol.9(no.1):13-24 .
and Werikhe, G. KORCNMW. "Status and process analysis of koche, a traditional pastoral meat product in Kenya." Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice. 2019;9(6).
Werner G, Oduor-Okelo D, Otiang'a-owiti GE, Wango EO, Onyango DW. "Morphological characterization of the seminiferous cycle in the goat (Capra hircus): A histological and ultrastructural study.". 2000. Abstract

The cycle of spermatogenesis/seminiferous cycle was investigated in the goat testis using both light and electron microscopy techniques. Using the various cell associations and the accompanying changes in spermatid shape and location, the cycle was divided into eight (8) successive stages. The cycle began with the accomplishment of spermiation (stage 1) and ended with apical migration and close attachment of late maturation phase spermatids at the Sertoli cell apex accompanied by adluminal retention of residual bodies with dense staining inclusions (stage 8). The early stages of the cycle (stages 1–4) were therefore characterized by the presence of only one generation of spermatids, the second one appearing only after the division of secondary spermatocytes in stage 4. Consequently, stages 5–8 had two generations of spermatids; Golgi or cap phase as well as maturation phase spermatids. Although stages 5 to 7 appeared as distinct entities, stages 6 and 7 were rather short-lived and considered as continuations of stage 5. Therefore, the 8 stages of the cycle in the goat were further condensed into 6 main divisions. The duration of each stage was estimated by the frequency of occurrence in sections. Among these, stage 1 had the highest frequency (34%) followed by stages 5–7 (27%). Stages 8 and 4 had the shortest frequency (up to 9%) while stages 2 and 3 had 13% and 12% respectively. These results indicate that, like most domestic species, goats have a cycle of 8 stages with 6 main divisions, the longest being stage 1.

Werunga KP, Khainga SO, Musau P, Emarah M, Lumarai L. "Use of combined paracetamol and low dose ketamine in pain control during change of dressings in burn patients.". 2011. Abstract

To determine the effectiveness of Paracetamol and low dose Ketamine in controlling burn pain during dressings. Setting: The burns ward of Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, a 750 bed capacity tertiary centre in Western Kenya. Subjects: Consenting patients were recruited to the study on admission. Babies and minors had consent given by their parents or guardians. Results: Of the Fifty nine patients who were recruited into the study, seventy percent of them were children. Male to Female ratio was 1.2:1. There was statistically significant change in the pain score on both FLACC and VAS (both p<0.001) after the introduction of low dose Ketamine with Paracetamol. The patients and healthcare providers were satisfied with the new mode of pain management during change of dressings for burn wounds. Conclusion: The use of oral Paracetamol combined with the low dose intravenous Ketamine, is effective in controlling burn pains during change of dressings. It is a safe and cheap alternative, that can be applied in remote and resource limited medical facilities.

Wesonga FD;, Kitala PM;, Gathuma JM;, Njenga MJ;, Ngumi PN. "An assessment of tick-borne diseases constraints to livestock production in a smallholder livestock production system in Machakos District, Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

The principle objective of the study was to determine the tick- borne diseases constraints to livestock production in Machakos District. The survey was carried out in eight randomly selected sub- locations spread across the district. Two hundred farmers were recruited into the study. All cattle from the selected farms were bled to determine the prevalence of tick- borne diseases. Clinical examination of sick animals was carried out during the survey. Questionnaires with questions designed to identify and rank various tick- borne disease production constraints, occurrence of tick- borne diseases, mortality and disease control strategies were administered. A total of 634 zebu and 15 cross- breed (Friesian-zebu crosses) cattle were sampled on the 200 farms for blood parasite infections (serology and direct parasite detection) and tick infestation. From the farmers’ perceptive, East Coast fever (ECF) and anaplasma were ranked as the main tick -borne diseases prevalent in the district. Although babesia was not ranked as one of the main tick-borne diseases in the district by the farmers, serological analysis did indicate a high prevalence of the disease. Tick challenge was high in seven of the eight sub-locations where the survey was carried out. The most common tick species were Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Amblyomma variegatum, Rhipicephalus evertsi, Rhipicephalus pulchellus and Boophilus decoloratus. Veterinary services in the district are inadequate with up to 92 % of the farmers in one of the sub-locations treating their sick animals without the assistance of qualified veterinary personnel.

Wesonga, P.W, Mukoya-Wangia S, Njoka JT, Maina JG. "PROFITABILITY OF ECONOMIC STIMULUS PROGRAM (ESP) FISH FARMING ADOPTERS IN MAKUENI COUNTY, KENYA." European American Journals. 2016;2(3):1-12.
Wesongah JO, Guantai AN. "Isolation and Characterization of Antichloramphenicol Antibodies using SDS Page." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2016;5(3):174-180. Abstract2016_-_isolation_and_characterization_of_antichloramphenicol_antibodies.pdf

Background: Antichloramphenicol antibodies can be produced in small or large animals depending on the requirement of the researcher. Previously most researchers have raised antibodies in small animals such as rabbits due to their easy availability and handling. In the present study antichloramphenicol antibodies were produced in large animals because large volumes of serum was needed for various studies.

Objective: The objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize antichloramphenicol antibodies produced in camels, donkeys and goats for development of a CAP Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay.

Methods: The methods employed were SDS-PAGE electrophoresis which involved the analysis of crude and purified goat, camel and donkey antichloramphenicol antibodies. Purification of the antichloramphenicol antibodies was carried out by precipitation using ammonium sulphate. Immunization of experimental animals was carried out using standard immunological methods.

Results: The results indicated that the crude anti-CAP antibody produced in camels, goats and donkeys showed 7 protein bands of molecular sizes 11.7, 40, 61.6, 134.3, 145, 169.5 and 182 kda. However the protein band of molecular weight 11.7 kda was not observed in the purified antibody from the 3 animal species. The protein bands of the camel appeared smaller and were more distinct as compared to those of donkeys and goats.

Conclusion: From this study it was concluded that purified camel antibodies are smaller and more specific followed closely by goat antibodies and donkey antibodies.

Keywords: anti-chloramphenicol (CAP) antibodies, camels, goats and donkeys

West K, Bugenyi F, Kulindwa K, Olago D, Odada EO. "East African RiĞ alley Lakes.". 2004.Website
West K, Bugenyi F, Kulindwa K, Olago DO, Odada EO. "East African RiĞ alley Lakes.". 2004.Website
West KW, Stephens B, Vane DW, Grosfeld JL. "Intussusception: current management in infants and children." Surgery. 1987;102:704-710. Abstract
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Westercamp M, Agot KE N-ABRCJ. "Circumcision preference among women and uncircumcised men prior to scale-up of male circumcision for HIV prevention in Kisumu, Kenya." AIDS Care. . 2012;24(2):157-66. AbstractWebsite

Following the endorsement by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) of male circumcision as an additional strategy to HIV prevention, initiatives to introduce safe, voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) services commenced in 2008 in several sub-Saharan African communities. Information regarding perceptions of circumcision as a method of HIV prevention, however, is largely limited to data collected before this important endorsement and the associated increase in the availability of VMMC services. To address this, we completed a community-based survey of male circumcision (MC) perceptions in the major non-circumcising community in Kenya, which is the current focus of VMMC programs in the country. Data was collected between November 2008 and April 2009, immediately before VMMC program scale-up commenced. Here we present results limited to women (n = 1088) and uncircumcised males (n = 460) to provide insight into factors contributing to the acceptability and preference for MC in those targeted by VMMC programs. Separate multivariable models examining preference for circumcision were defined for married men, unmarried men, and women. Belief in the protective effect of circumcision on HIV risk was strongly associated with preference for MC in all models. Other important factors included education, perceived improvement in sexual pleasure, and perceptions of impact on condom utilization. Identified barriers to circumcision were the belief that circumcision was not part of the local culture, the perception of a long healing period following the procedure, the lack of a specific impetus to seek out services, and the general fear of pain associated with becoming circumcised. A minority of participants expressed beliefs suggesting that behavioral risk compensation with increased MC prevalence and awareness is a possibility. This work describes the early impact of a large-scale VMMC program on beliefs and behaviors regarding MC and HIV risk. It is hoped that our findings may offer guidance into anticipating potential impacts that similar programs may observe in populations throughout Eastern Africa.

Westermann C JJ, Kitonyi GW LTJ. "Is hereditary telangiectasia rare in the black race? The first sub-Saharan mutation Haemophilia ." Haemophilia. 2011;(17):244.
Wetendea E, Olago D, Ogarac W. "Perceptions of climate change variability and adaptation strategies on smallholder dairy farming systems: Insights from Siaya Sub-County of Western Kenya." Environmental Development. 2018;27:14-25. AbstractWebsite

Climate change and variability is bound to impact Smallholder Dairy Farming Systems as a result of overreliance on rainfed fodder production; yet climate models project increased frequencies of droughts that have a bearing on the Length of Growing Period. Similarly higher environmental temperatures are partly attributed to biome-range shifts, implying a likelihood of emerging and re-emergence of livestock and fodder diseases and pests. Nonetheless not much is documented of perceptions and adaptation strategies employed by Smallholder Dairy Farming Systems geared towards resilience to climatie shocks. By employing a mixed method approach that included household surveys, focused group discussions and statistical data analysis using SPSS package, this study aimed to bridge some of the existing gaps in adaptation strategies on Smallholder Dairy Farming Systems in Siaya Sub-County of Western Kenya. Survey results obtained from 100 households and Focused Group Discussions revealed that the climate of the study location was perceived to have changed, with droughts singled out as the most frequent. These perceptions were consistent with long-term climate data analysis which affirmed that all seasons, i.e. MAM, JJA, and DJF with the exception of SON showed longterm drying trends. Similarly, environmental temperature showed upward trends in both maximum and minimum temperatures that were perceived to be the cause of proliferation of noxious weeds previously associated with hotter areas of the Sub-County. Typologies of adaptation strategies used in the study showed that adaptation options were limited since these were viewed through a narrow lens of disease control by regular spraying and maize stovers as supplementary livestock feed during fodder dearth periods. This study recommends that besides awareness creation of adverse impacts of climate change and variability, facilitation for ease of access to technologies that ameliorate its adverse effects ought to be put in place. Additionally, empirical studies on consequences of biome range shifts on pasture and fodder productivity, and future possible impacts of diseases on Bos taurus breeds associated with climate change and variability should be undertaken.

WHITELAW, D.D., KAAYA, G.P., MOULTON, J.E., Moloo SK, MURRAY M. "Susceptibility of different breeds of goats in Kenya to experimental infection with Trypanosoma congolense. ." Tropical Animal Health and Production . 1985;17:155-165.
Whittow GC, Mathiu PM. "SEABIRD TEMPERATURE REGULATION.". 1992.
Whitworth JA, Kokwaro G, Kinyanjui S, Snewin VA, Tanner M, Walport M, Sewankambo N. "Strengthening capacity for health research in Africa.". 2008.
WHO. {WHO} {\textbar} {Visual} impairment and blindness.; Submitted. Abstract

WHO fact sheet on blindness and visual impairment providing key facts, definitions, causes, who is at risk, global and WHO response.

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Vogel JP, Souza JP, Gülmezoglu MA, Mori R, Lumbiganon P, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Carroli G, Laopaiboon M, Fawole B, Ganchimeg T, Zhang J, Torloni MR, Bohren M, Temmerman M. "Use of antenatal corticosteroids and tocolytic drugs in preterm births in 29 countries: an analysis of the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health." Lancet. 2014;384(9957):1869-77. Abstract

Despite the global burden of morbidity and mortality associated with preterm birth, little evidence is available for use of antenatal corticosteroids and tocolytic drugs in preterm births in low-income and middle-income countries. We analysed data from the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health (WHOMCS) to assess coverage for these interventions in preterm deliveries.

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Rouet F, Foulongne V, Viljoen J, Steegen K, Becquart P, Valéa D, Danaviah S, Segondy M, Verhofstede C, Van de Perre P. "Comparison of the Generic HIV Viral Load assay with the Amplicor HIV-1 monitor v1.5 and Nuclisens HIV-1 EasyQ v1.2 techniques for plasma HIV-1 RNA quantitation of non-B subtypes: the Kesho Bora preparatory study." J. Virol. Methods. 2010;163(2):253-7. Abstract

The implementation of cost effective HIV-1 RNA quantitation assays in resource-poor settings is of paramount importance for monitoring HV-1 infection. A study comparing the analytical performance of three HIV-1 RNA assays (Generic HIV Viral Load, Amplicor v1.5 and Nuclisens EasyQ v1.2) was performed on 160 plasma samples from 160 consecutive antiretroviral treatment naive HIV-1-infected pregnant women assessed for eligibility in the Kesho Bora trial aimed at prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in three African countries (Burkina Faso, Kenya and South Africa). Correlation and agreement of results of the three assays were assessed for plasma HIV-1 RNA quantitation in specimens harbouring mainly sub-subtype A1, subtype C, and circulating recombinant form (CRF) 02_AG and CRF06_cpx. Good degrees of correlation and agreement were observed between these HIV-1 RNA assays. However, nine (9/160, 5.6%) strains detectable with the Generic HIV Viral Load assay were not detected by either the Amplicor (n=7) or EasyQ (n=2) test. One strain (0.6%) was missed with the Generic HIV Viral Load assay. Further, concordantly positive plasma samples harbouring CRF02_AG and CRF06_cpx yielded significantly higher HIV-1 RNA concentrations when tested by Generic HIV Viral Load, as compared to Amplicor v1.5 (mean differences, +0.33 and +0.67 log(10) copies/ml; P=0.0004 and P=0.002, respectively). The Generic HIV Viral Load assay accurately quantified the majority of the non-B HIV-1 subtypes assessed in this study. Due to its low cost (approximately 10 US $/test), this assay performed with open real-time PCR instruments is now used routinely in the Kesho Bora trial and may be recommended in other African settings.

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Widmann M, Warsame AH, Mikulica J, Johannes von Beust, Ndetei D. "Khat use, PTSD and psychotic symptoms among Somali refugees in Nairobi: a pilot study." Frontiers in public health. 2014;2:71. AbstractWebsite

n East-African and Arab countries, khat leaves are traditionally chewed in social settings. They contain the amphetamine-like alkaloid cathinone. Especially among Somali refugees, khat use has been associated with psychiatric symptoms. We assessed khat-use pat-terns and psychiatric symptoms among male Somali refugees living in a disadvantaged urban settlement area in Kenya, a large group that has not yet received scientific atten- tion. We wanted to explore consume patterns and study the associations between khat use, traumatic experiences, and psychotic symptoms. Using privileged access sampling, we recruited 33 healthy male khat chewers and 15 comparable non-chewers. Based on extensive preparatory work, we assessed khat use, khat dependence according to DSM- IV, traumatic experiences, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and psychotic symptoms using standardized diagnostic instruments that had been adapted to the Somali language and culture. Hazardous use patterns like chewing for more than 24 h without interruption were frequently reported. All khat users fulfilled the DSM-IV-criteria for dependence and
85% reported functional khat use, i.e., that khat helps them to forget painful experiences. We found that the studied group was heavily burdened by traumatic events and post- traumatic symptoms. Khat users had experienced more traumatic events and had more often PTSD than non-users. Most khat users experience khat-related psychotic symptoms and in a quarter of them we found true psychotic symptoms. In contrast, among control group members no psychotic symptoms could be detected. We found first evidence for the existence and high prevalence of severely hazardous use patterns, comorbid psychiatric symptoms, and khat use as a self-medication of trauma-consequences among male Somali refugees in urban Kenyan refugee settlements. There is a high burden by psychopathology and adequate community-based nterventions urgently need to be developed.
Keywords: khat, PTSD, psychotic symptoms, khat-related psychosis, Somali refugees in Kenya

Widmer M, Piaggio G, Nguyen TM, Osoti A, Owa OO, Misra S, Coomarasamy A, Abdel-Aleem H, Mallapur AA, Qureshi Z, Lumbiganon P. "Heat-Stable Carbetocin versus Oxytocin to Prevent Hemorrhage after Vaginal Birth." New England Journal of Medicine. 2018;379(8):743-752. AbstractWebsite

Background: Postpartum hemorrhage is the most common cause of maternal death. Oxytocin is the standard therapy for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage, but it requires cold storage, which is not available in many countries. In a large trial, we compared a novel formulation of heat-stable carbetocin with oxytocin.

Methods: We enrolled women across 23 sites in 10 countries in a randomized, double-blind, noninferiority trial comparing intramuscular injections of heat-stable carbetocin (at a dose of 100 μg) with oxytocin (at a dose of 10 IU) administered immediately after vaginal birth. Both drugs were kept in cold storage (2 to 8°C) to maintain double-blinding. There were two primary outcomes: the proportion of women with blood loss of at least 500 ml or the use of additional uterotonic agents, and the proportion of women with blood loss of at least 1000 ml. The noninferiority margins for the relative risks of these outcomes were 1.16 and 1.23, respectively.

Results: A total of 29,645 women underwent randomization. The frequency of blood loss of at least 500 ml or the use of additional uterotonic agents was 14.5% in the carbetocin group and 14.4% in the oxytocin group (relative risk, 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95 to 1.06), a finding that was consistent with noninferiority. The frequency of blood loss of at least 1000 ml was 1.51% in the carbetocin group and 1.45% in the oxytocin group (relative risk, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.25), with the confidence interval crossing the margin of noninferiority. The use of additional uterotonic agents, interventions to stop bleeding, and adverse effects did not differ significantly between the two groups.

Conclusions: Heat-stable carbetocin was noninferior to oxytocin for the prevention of blood loss of at least 500 ml or the use of additional uterotonic agents. Noninferiority was not shown for the outcome of blood loss of at least 1000 ml; low event rates for this outcome reduced the power of the trial. (Funded by Merck Sharpe & Dohme; CHAMPION Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12614000870651 ; EudraCT number, 2014-004445-26 ; and Clinical Trials Registry-India number, CTRI/2016/05/006969 .).

Wien, H.C., S.C. Stapleton, D.N. Maynard, C. McClurg, and R.O. Nyankanga, Riggs D. "Regulation of female flower development in pumpkin (Cucurbita spp) by temperature and light.". 2002.

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