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Waruk JLM, Machuki Z, Mesa C, Juno JA, Anzala O, Sharma M, Ball BT, Julius Oyugi, Kiazyk S. "Cytokine and chemokine expression profiles in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis stimulation are altered in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected subjects with active tuberculosis." Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2015;95(5):555-61. Abstract

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infects nearly 2 million people annually and is the most common cause of death in HIV-infected individuals. Tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics cater to HIV-uninfected individuals in non-endemic countries, are expensive, slow, and lack sensitivity for those most affected. Patterns of soluble immune markers from Mtb-stimulated immune cells are not well defined in HIV co-infection. We assessed immune differences between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals with active TB utilizing IFNγ-based QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) testing in Nairobi, Kenya. Excess QFT supernatants were used to measure cytokine and chemokine responses by a 17-plex bead array. Mtb/HIV co-infected participants were significantly less likely to be QFT+ (47.2% versus 84.2% in the HIV-uninfected group), and demonstrated lower expression of all cytokines except for IFNα2. Receiver operator characteristic analyses identified IL-1α as a potential marker of co-infection. Among HIV-infected individuals, CD4+ T cell count correlated weakly with the expression of several analytes. Co-expression analysis highlighted differences in immune profiles between the groups. These data suggest that there is a unique and detectable Mtb-specific immune response in co-infection. A better understanding of Mtb immunology can translate into much needed immunodiagnostics with enhanced sensitivity in HIV-infected individuals, facilitating their opportunity to obtain live-saving treatment.

Wasamba P. "Multimedia Research and Documentation of Oral Genres in Africa: Managing the Challenges of Digitalization.". In: Multimedia Research and Documentation of African Oral Genres: Connecting Diasporas and Local Audiences . Rabat, Morocco; 2013.managing_challenges_of_digitization_of_oral_genres_in_africa-1.pdf
Wasamba P. "Trends in the Oral Genres of the Digo of Kenya.". In: African Futures and Beyond: Visions in Transition. Bayreuth University, Germany; 2015.
Wasamba P. "“Conservation for Sustainable Development. The Unexplored Potential of Kenyan Folklore”." African Affairs Journal. 2006;Vol. 19(No. 12):189-200.abstract.pdf
Wasamba P, Wanjiku K. Gender and Constitution: Academicians’ Perspectives. Nairobi: CCGD; 2002.
Wasamba P. Immortal.; 2009.immortal.pdf
Wasamba P. Contemporary Oral Literature Fieldwork: A Researcher’s Guide. Nairobi: Nairobi University Press; 2015.
Wasamba P. "The Humanities and Social Sciences (HSS) in the Age of Disruptions: Boon or Bane?". In: Makerere Humanities and Social Sciences Symposium. Kampala, Uganda; 2018.
Wasamba P. ""The Pedagogical Value of Children's Oral Literature in Kenya." The Nairobi Journal of Literature.. 2007;(No. 4):63-70.abstract.pdf
Wasamba P. "Dustbin." Mwangaza. 2004;Vol. 2(No. 3):16.garbage.pdf
Wasamba P. "Hasty varsity mergers could mess up things." The Standard, July 9, 2019:15.
Wasamba P. "“Centring the De-Voiced: Rethinking Personhood in Oral Literature Field Research.”." The Nairobi Journal of Literature.. 2010;(No. 6):99-115.abstract.pdf
Wasamba P. Introduction to Oral Literature: Lecture Series. Nairobi: Nairobi University Press; 2007.
Wasamba P. "“Going beyond Data Collection in Ethnography: Options for Bridging the Gap between Researchers and Archivists.”." International Journal of African Renaissance Studies. . 2013;Vol. 7 (No. 2):4-17.abstract.pdf
Wasamba P. "Preservation of African Oral Literature through Research.". In: International Society for the Study of Oral Literature in Africa. University of The Gambia, Banjul, The Gambia; 2004.
Wasamba P. "“Conservation for Sustainable Development: The Unexplored Potential of Kenyan Folklore.” .". In: Our Narratives our Landscapes: Relationship between Creativity and Environmental Conservation. Nairobi: Kenya Oral Literature Association; 2006.
Wasamba P, Timammy R, Nyamasyo, G. "Historia za maisha binafsi kutoka kwale.". 1999.Website
Wasamba P, Kanyi W. Making Gender Count in Policy Development. . Nairobi: CCGD; 2001.
Wasamba P. "“Voicing Seoul Metropolis: The Other Side of Urbanization in Korea.”." HEKIMA: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2014;Vol. VI. (No. 1):119-134.abstract.pdf
Wasamba P. Languange in Marjorie Oludhe Macgoye’s Fiction. Chesaina PC, Odari M, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1998.abstract.pdf
Wasamba P, Wanjiku K. Tilda: A Collection of Poems on Girls and Women. Nairobi: CCGD; 1998.
Wasamba P. "Sauti Kutoka Pwani 1 .". 1999.Website
Wasamba P. Storm. Nairobi; 2013.storm.pdf
Wasamba P. "Emerging Trends in Oral Genres Fieldwork in Africa.". In: Ethnographic Research in Africa. Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany; 2015.
Wasamba P. "“Preservation of Oral Literature through Research.”." The Nairobi Journal of Literature.. 2006;(No. 3):1-6.abstract.pdf
Wasamba P. "The Train.". In: Echoes across the Valley. Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers; 2000.
Wasamba P. Morning Star. Nairobi; 2010.morning_star.pdf
Wasamba P. "Prospects for Korean Studies in Africa: The Case of University of Nairobi." African East-Asian Affairs. 2014;(3):38-53.
Wasamba P. "Orality, Fieldwork and Textual production in the 21st Centuryr.". In: Performing Traditions, Travelling Narratives, Living the Diaspora. Hamburg, Germany; 2016.
Wasamba P. ". “Magic or Mirage: The Efficacy of Nvivo7 in Oral Literature Research”." African Affairs Journal. 2007;Vol. 22(No. 8):141-182.abstract.pdf
Wasamba P. "Rest." Mwangaza. 2004;Vol. 2(No. 3):24.rest.pdf
Wasamba P. Pilgrim. Nairobi; 2010.a_pilgrim.pdf
Wasamba P, undefined. "The agony that retiring Professors go through." The Standard, July 2, 2019:15.
Wasamba P. "“Ethnicity and Chronic Poverty in Kenya: A Phenomenological Approach." African Affairs Journal. 2009;Vol. 25(No. 2):185-212.
Wasamba P. Notes on Marjorie Oludhe Macgoye’s Coming to Birth. Nairobi: Marimba ; 2005.
Wasamba P. "“Politics, Ethnicity and Ethics: The Dilemmas of a Fieldworker.” ." International Journal of African Renaissance Studies.. 2009;Vol. 4(No. 2):193-204.
Wasamba P, Wanjiku K, Jane B, Owiti L, Kimani F. Pilot Project on the best Practices in the Management, Structures and Processes of Constituency Development Fund (CDF). Nairobi: Collaborative Center for Gender and Development (CCGD); 2007.
Wasamba P, Muchiri J, kiiru DH. Essay as a Handshake. Nairobi: CHSS; 2012.
Wasamba P, Wanjiku K. Reclaiming Women's Space in Politics. Nairobi: CCGD; 1998.
Wasamba P, Mwangi E. Notes on Margaret Ogolla’s The River and the Source.. Nairobi: Stantex; 1998.
Wasamba P. Tender Touch. Nairobi; 2013.tender_touch.pdf
Wasamba P. "“Quest for Ethnic Tolerance in Kenya: The Role of Oral History”." Journal of Africa Affairs. 2013;33:247-272.abstract.pdf
Wasamba P. "The State of Copyright Protection in Kenya.". In: Copyright Protection in Southern and Eastern Africa. Harare, Zimbabwe; 2010.
Wasamba P. "“Oral Poetry in East Africa: Perspectives and Insights." The Nairobi Journal of Literature.. 2004;(No. 2):1-9.abstract_2.pdf
Wasamba P, Rayya T. Sauti Kutoka Pwani 2. Nairobi: Kenya Oral Literature Association; 2001.
Wasamba P. "The Role of Books in Defining a People’s Future in Africa.". In: Indaba. Harare; 2018.
Wasamba P. "Internalization in University Culture, Campus and Curriculum: Perspectives, Possibilities and Risks .". In: Korea-Africa Collaboration. HUFS, Seoul, Korea; 2016.
Wasamba P. "Marching Backwards into the Future: Oral Literature in the Cyberspace,." Chemchemi: The Journal of the School of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2007;Vol.4(No. 1):114-118.abstract.pdf
Wasamba P. "The Summit." Mwangaza. 2004;Vol. 2(No. 3):32-33.summit.pdf
Wasamba P, Muchiri J. Seoul Speaks: Narratives of Ubanization in Korea. Nairobi: Kenya Oral Literature Association; 2013.
Wasamba P. Down Me. Nairobi; 2009.down_me-1.pdf
Wasamba P. "Oral Literature Scholarship in Kenya: Achievements, Challenges and Prospects.". In: Preservation of Ethiopian Cultural and Literary heritage. Debre Markos, Ethiopia; 2014.oral_literature_scholaship_in_kenya_-wasamba-.pdf
Wasamba P. "Will public service commission Succeed in appointing VCs competatively." The Standard, February 22, 2019:14.
Wasamba P, Shenk E. "“The Need to Move On: Learning from Oral Narratives in Kenya.” ." Rapportage: Journal of Literary Essays, Interviews, and Profiles . 2008;Vol. xi:78-83.
Wasamba P, Indangasi H. Our Narratives our Landscapes: Relationship between Creativity and Environmental Conservation. Nairobi: Kenya Oral Literature Association; 2006.
Wasamba P. "“The Concept of Heroism in Samburu Moran Ethos”." Journal of African Cultural Studies. 2009;Vol. 21(No. 2):145-158.abstract.pdf
Wasamba P, Mugambi H, Bwonya J. Tales from my Motherland. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation; 2010.
Wasamba P, Muchiri J, DH Muchugu Kiiru(eds.). The Essay as a Handshake: Impressions on the Kenyan-Korean Interface. Nairobi: Bridging the Divide: Networking African and Korean Researchers’ Project; 2012.
Wasamba P, Sihanya B. "“What Do they get for their Sweat: Rethinking Compensation for Artists in Poor Cash-based Economies.”." Journal of African Cultural Studies. 2012;Vol. 24, (No. 2):171-183.
Wasamba P. "Preservation of African Oral Literature through Research.". In: International Society for the Study of Oral Literature in Africa. University of The Gambia, Banjul, The Gambia; 2004.
Wasamba P. "An Ethno-linguistic Analysis of Chronic Poverty in Kenya: A Background Paper”.". In: Chronic Poverty in Kenya. Nairobi: Institute for Development Studies; 2009.
Wasamba P, Mutea Z. Curriculum for Trainers on Gender Equality and Women’s Participation in Local Governance. Nairobi: Kenya Oral Literature Association; 2005.
Wasamba P, Muchiri J. Seoul Speaks: Narratives on Urbanisation in Korea. Nairobi: Kenya Oral Literature Association; 2013.
Wasamba P, Situma J. "Problematics of Plato's Aesthetic Theory in Contemporary Society." The Nairobi Journal of Literature. Forthcoming.
Wasamba P. "“Echoes of Dialogue in African and Korean Literatures”." The Nairobi Journal of Literature. . 2013;Vol. 7:1-12.
Wasamba P. "Oral Testimonies (OT) Methodology and the Pedagogy of Hope in the Narratives of IDPs of Mt. Elgon, Kenya.". In: Migration and Displacement. Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Uganda; 2010.
Wasamba P. Gender Perspectives in the Creative Works of Marjorie Oludhe Macgoye.. Chesaina PC, Wendo DS, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2002.abstract.pdf
Wasamba P, Timamy R. Sauti Kutoka Pwani 1. Nairobi: Kenya Oral Literature Association; 1999.
WASIKE MRWEREISAAC. "The traditional pottery: A case study of the Pokot pottery and people of West Pokot District.". In: MSc Thesis of University of New Hampshire. 79 pages. IBIMA Publishing; 1998. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
WASIKE MRWEREISAAC. "Prehistoric Settlements of Nairobi Area.". In: MSc Thesis of University of New Hampshire. 79 pages. IBIMA Publishing; 1999. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
WASIKE MRWEREISAAC. "Europeans verses African: The land question. A case of Kikuyu people of Kenya. Catholic University of Eastern Africa.". In: MSc Thesis of University of New Hampshire. 79 pages. IBIMA Publishing; 1997. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
WASIKE MRWEREISAAC. "The agony of AIDS in the rural areas: The case study of Kapenguria Division in West Pokot District.". In: MSc Thesis of University of New Hampshire. 79 pages. IBIMA Publishing; 1998. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
Wasike AAM, Ogana W. "Periodic solutions of a system of delay differential equations for a small delay." Science and Technology. 2002;7:pp. 295-302.
WASIKE MRWEREISAAC. "A summary Report on Lukenya Ware.". In: MSc Thesis of University of New Hampshire. 79 pages. IBIMA Publishing; 1999. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
Wasike C, Ndavi M, Kigondu CS, Wanjala SM, Qureshi ZP. "Motivation for Reacceptance of Intradermal Implants –Norplant on Removal after using for Five Years." J. Obst. Gynae. East Central. Afr. . 2005;18(1):31-45 .
Wasike NM, Sakwa HN. "1. Nomadic and pastoralist education: Past interventions, challenges and implications for the post 2015 attainment of EFA in Kenya.". In: 2nd AFRICE International Conference on “EDUCATION IN AFRICA: REFLECTIONS BEYOND 2015 MDGs- COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVES. Kenya Science Campus University of Nairobi; 2015.
WASIKE MRWEREISAAC. "An ethno-archaeological study of mortuary practices among the Pokot people.". In: MSc Thesis of University of New Hampshire. 79 pages. IBIMA Publishing; 1996. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
WASIKE MRWEREISAAC. "African Indigenous Education: The case study of the Pokot circumcision ceremonies.". In: MSc Thesis of University of New Hampshire. 79 pages. IBIMA Publishing; 1997. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
WASIKE MRWEREISAAC. "Economic Organisation of the Pre-colonial Pokot Society.". In: MSc Thesis of University of New Hampshire. 79 pages. IBIMA Publishing; 1998. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
WASIKE MRWEREISAAC. "The Bukusu Peace Traditions and Sites.". In: MSc Thesis of University of New Hampshire. 79 pages. IBIMA Publishing; 1999. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
WASIKE MRWEREISAAC. "Archaeological survey of the Athi-Kapiti Plains.". In: MSc Thesis of University of New Hampshire. 79 pages. IBIMA Publishing; 1996. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
Wasike JNM, Ogollah K. "ROLE OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS COMPETENCE IN SUPPLY CHAIN AGILITY IN SERVICE INDUSTRY A CASE OF TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF KENYA ." International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management . 2014;Vol. II( Issue 11).wasike_and_ogollah_ijecm_2014.pdf
WASIKE MRWEREISAAC. "A preliminary report on archaeological excavation: A case study of Pastoral Neolithic sites at Lukenya Hills, University of Nairobi, Department of History.". In: MSc Thesis of University of New Hampshire. 79 pages. IBIMA Publishing; 1997. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
Wasike C, Ndavi PM KCSWSHZQ:. "Motivation for Reacceptance of Intradermal –Norplant on removal after using for five years." J Obst/Gyn. East Cert Afr. . 2005;18(1):31-45.
Wasonga VO, Ngugi RK, Nyariki DM, Kironchi G, Njoka TJ. "Effect of Balanites glabra canopy cover on grass production, organic matter and soil moisture in a southern Kenyan rangeland." African Journal of Range and Forage Science. 2003;20:259-264. Abstract
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Wasonga VO, Nyariki DM, Ngugi RK. "Assessing socioecological change dynamics using local knowledge in the semi-arid lowlands of Baringo district, Kenya." Environmental Research Journal. 2011;5:11-17. Abstract
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Wasonga, et al. "Mushroom polysaccharide extracts delay progression of carcinogenesis in mice." Journal of Experimental Therapeutics and Oncology.. 2008;7(2): 147-152.
Wasonga, V.O. KD, Ngece N. "Community-Based Natural Resource Management.". In: Managing Natural Resources for Development in Africa: A Resource Book. University of Nairobi Press; 2010. Abstract
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Wasonga OV, Musembi J, Rotich K, Jarso I, King-Okumu C. "Vegetation resources and their economic importance in Isiolo County, Kenya.". 2017. Abstract

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Wasonga, V.O. NNKRKDM, 2005 NTJ. "Effect of Balanites glabra canopy cover on grass production, organic matter and soil moisture in a southern Kenya rangeland." African Journal for Range and Forage Science. 2005;20:265-270. Abstract
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Wasonga C, Okoth S, Mukuria JC, Omwandho CA. "Mushroom polysaccharide extracts delay progression of carcinogenesis in mice." Journal of Experimental Therapeutics and Oncology. 2008;(7):147-152.
Wasonga VO;, Nyariki DM, Ngugi RK. "Assessing Socio-Ecological Change Dynamics Using Local Knowledge in the Semi-Arid Lowlands of Baringo District, Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

A clear understanding of the social and ecological change dynamics in pastoral ecosystems is imperative for formulation of appropriate policies that ensure sustainable resource use and livelihood security of pastoral households. Spatial and temporal ecological knowledge expressed by those with long familiarity with the ecology has been shown to be more superior in quality and resolution than those gathered remotely and modelled digitally. This study adopted a local-perceptions approach in assessing the social and ecological change dynamics in the Njemps Flats of Baringo district over a period of four decades. The results reveal a changing vegetation structure, declining diversity and increasing soil erosion that are attributed to the rise in both human and livestock populations. The results also show a rising trend in diversification of asset portfolios in response to impoverishment as a result of the declining pasture and livestock productivity. These findings suggest that pastoralism in Baringo is a system in transition, attempting to maintain itself while at the same time trying to adapt progressively to a continuously shrinking resource base.

Wasonga DO, Ambuko JL, Chemining’wa GN, Odeny DA, Crampton BG. "Morphological characterization and selection of spider plant (Cleome gynandra) accessions from Kenya and South Africa." Asian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2015;7:36-44. Abstract
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Wasonga O. Carolyne, Sang Rosemary MLOJ. "Characterization and Isolation of Chikungunya Viral antigen for development of ELISA diagnostics.". In:  Virology Africa Conference . Cape Town , South Africa; 2011.
and Wasserman JMMH. "The freedom to be silent? Market pressures on journalistic normative ideals at the Nation Media Group in Kenya, ." Review of African Political Economy. 2014;(10.1080/03056244.2014.928277 ):1-13.
Wässle H. "Parallel processing in the mammalian retina." Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 2004;5:747-757. AbstractWebsite

Our eyes send different 'images' of the outside world to the brain — an image of contours (line drawing), a colour image (watercolour painting) or an image of moving objects (movie). This is commonly referred to as parallel processing, and starts as early as the first synapse of the retina, the cone pedicle. Here, the molecular composition of the transmitter receptors of the postsynaptic neurons defines which images are transferred to the inner retina. Within the second synaptic layer — the inner plexiform layer — circuits that involve complex inhibitory and excitatory interactions represent filters that select 'what the eye tells the brain'.

Wässle H. "Parallel processing in the mammalian retina." Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 2004;5:747-757. AbstractWebsite
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Wässle H. "Parallel processing in the mammalian retina." Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 2004;5:747-757. AbstractWebsite

Our eyes send different 'images' of the outside world to the brain — an image of contours (line drawing), a colour image (watercolour painting) or an image of moving objects (movie). This is commonly referred to as parallel processing, and starts as early as the first synapse of the retina, the cone pedicle. Here, the molecular composition of the transmitter receptors of the postsynaptic neurons defines which images are transferred to the inner retina. Within the second synaptic layer — the inner plexiform layer — circuits that involve complex inhibitory and excitatory interactions represent filters that select 'what the eye tells the brain'.

Wasunna E. "Surgical manpower in Africa.". 1987. Abstract

There is a marked shortage of surgical manpower all over Africa. General surgeons undertake a very wide range of surgical work because of the lack of specialists. Orthopaedic and general surgeons both care for accident injuries. Current training and recruitment programs are inadequate in correcting existing gross manpower deficiencies. The situation is further aggravated by a gross maldistribution of available manpower in favor of large urban centers. In many parts of rural Africa, minor surgical procedures are carried out by suitably trained, non-physician health workers, but facilities and resources for surgery outside urban centers are generally inadequate. The World Health Organization program on essential surgical and anesthetic procedures, which is currently under way in collaboration with the International Federation of Surgical Colleges, the World Federation of Societies of Anesthesiologists, and other professional bodies, should have a significant impact on these urgent needs for basic surgery in rural district hospitals

Wasunna A. "Diarrhoeal diseases in preterm neonates." East Afr Med J. 1990;67(4):221-2.
Wasunna A. "The front line in the African AIDS crisis." Hastings Cent Rep. 2001;31(5):12.
Wasunna AE. "Carcinoma of the oesophagus: alcohol, tobacco and vitamins." East Afr Med J. 1986;63(9):569-70.
Wasunna A, Whitelaw A, Gallimore R, Hawkins PN, Pepys MB. "C-reactive protein and bacterial infection in preterm infants." Eur. J. Pediatr.. 1990;149(6):424-7. Abstract

Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration was measured by a new solid phase ligand-binding radiometric monoclonal antibody immunoassay in a prospective study of 193 consecutively born preterm infants. In 104 with no clinical or laboratory evidence of infection the median CRP in cord serum was 0.125 mg/l (range 0.011-6.0 mg/l), at 24 h it was 1 mg/l (0.016-7.0) and at 48 h 2 mg/l (0.400-8.0). The present highly sensitive assay has enabled these normal ranges to be defined for the first time, at levels below the threshold of non-labelled immunoassays and of all commercially available CRP assays. The values in cord serum were significantly lower than in normal healthy adults (median 0.8 mg/l, range 0.07-29 mg/l, n = 468). Arterial catheterisation and endotracheal intubation, in the absence of infection, did not appear to elevate CRP, nor did cerebral germinal layer or intraventricular haemorrhage. Among nine infants with confirmed septicaemia eight had a serum CRP level raised at least once during the first 48 h and serum CRP in the other one increased 250-fold in 24 h before treatment was started. Using this assay, serum CRP is a useful and rapidly available adjunct to clinical assessment in diagnosis and exclusion of bacterial infection in the early neonatal period, has encouraged us to withhold or discontinue antibiotics and also has a role in monitoring response to treatment.

Wasunna A, Mohammed K. "Low birthweight babies: socio-demographic and obstetric characteristics of adolescent mothers at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East Afr Med J. 2002;79(10):543-6. Abstract

To compare some socio-demographic and obstetric factors between adolescent mothers (aged below 20 years) and older mothers of low birthweight (birthweight < 2000 gm) babies.

Wasunna A. "Effects of theophylline administration and intracranial abnormalities on protective head turning response in preterm infants." East Afr Med J. 2003;80(4):204-6. Abstract

To determine effects of theophylline therapy for recurrent apnoea of prematurity and abnormal early (within the first 24 hours) cranial ultrasound abnormalities on protective neck turning response in preterm infants.

Wasunna AE, Wyper DY. "Technology for health in the future.". 1998. Abstract

Developments in biogenetics, medical devices, information and communication technologies, and in environmental technologies will have a profound impact on health in the coming decades. However, there are major barriers to the appropriate and effective utilization of current and future technologies, particularly for developing countries. This paper intends to strike a balance between the exciting potential of technologies and the conditions that need to be fulfilled to ensure that technologies are utilized appropriately and effectively. It will emphasize the significance of knowledge associated with technologies, the importance of technology assessment and the need for a broad and comprehensive technology management policy.

Wasunna A, Whitelaw AG. "Pulse oximetry in preterm infants." Arch. Dis. Child.. 1987;62(9):957-8. Abstract

One hundred and twenty five measurements of arterial oxygen saturation (Stcao2) obtained with a transcutaneous pulse oximeter were compared with direct arterial oxygen tension (Pao2) in 13 preterm infants with predominantly fetal haemoglobin. Stcao2 of 86-92% corresponded to Pao2 of 5-13 kPa. Stcao2 above 92%, however, was sometimes associated with Pao2 above 13 kPa.

Wasunna A, Mohammed K. "Morbidity and outcome of low birthweight babies of adolescent mothers at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East Afr Med J. 2002;79(10):539-42. Abstract

To compare the morbidity and outcome of low birthweight babies (birthweight < 2000 gm) of adolescent (age < 20 years) and older mothers.

WASWA AARONK, Nyamai CM, Mathu EM, Ichang'i D. "Integration of Geological Mapping and Remote Sensed Studies for the Discovery of Iron – Ore Mineralization in Mutomo – Ikutha Area, SE Kenya." Universal Journal of Geoscienc e. 2015;3(2):39-50.
WASWA AARONK, Nyamai CM, MATHU ELIUDM, Ichang’i DW. "Integration of Geological Mapping and Remote Sensed Studies for the Discovery of Iron–Ore Mineralization in Mutomo–Ikutha Area, SE Kenya." Universal Journal of Geoscience. 2015;3(2):39-50. AbstractWebsite

This research integrates geology with remote sensing techniques to establish characteristic features that can be used to discover iron ore mineralization within the Neoproterozoic rocks of Mutomo – Ikutha area in south eastern Kenya. The association of hornblende gneiss and shearing as well as alteration processes near the mineralized regions appear to play an important role in the distribution and localization of the iron mineralization The methods used in this research include Image processing techniques applied on the digital subset ETM+ data that cover Mutomo – Ikutha area and geological field mapping. These techniques generated several products of enhanced satellite imagery, such as colour composite images, ratio images and principal component images. These techniques have been successfully used in the lithological discrimination of iron ore bearing sheared hornblende gneisses. The capabilities of remote sensing data to characterize the iron ore bearing gneisses, in addition to characterization and mapping the hydrothermal alteration zones helped in identification of iron mineralization regions. Extensive field geologic and geochemical investigations to the pronounced zones delineated by the image processing technique, led to discovery of four locations of high iron anomalies with some iron mineralization, mainly connected to the studied Neoproterozoic hornblende gneisses. Chemical studies were carried out using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) and X-Ray florescence, for some selected mineralized samples. Petrographic analysis and physical properties of the iron minerals were carried out as well. These investigations confirm the present iron mineral to be magnetite ore enriched with phosphates. The magnetite is found in close association with apatite chalcopyrite, quartz, and chlorite. Relics of corroded magnetite grains are occur along the Tiva river bed as well as along the road sides.

Waswa F, Ombuki C, Migosi J, Metet J. "Assessment of corporate management practices in public universities in Kenya." International Journal of Educational Administration and Policy Studies. 2013;5(2):22-32.
Waswa AK, Nyamai CM. "THE GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES POTENTIAL OF KENYA .". In: Symposium on Capacity Building in Sustainable Resource Development in Africa. NAIROBI; 2016.
Waswa AK, Nyamai CM. "THE GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES POTENTIAL OF KENYA." Symposium on Capacity Building in Sustainable Resource Development in Africa. 2016.
WASWA AARONK, Nyamai CM, Mathu E, Ichang'i D. "Application of Magnetic Survey in the Investigation of Iron Ore Deposits and Shear Zone Delineation: Case Study of Mutomo-Ikutha Area, SE Kenya." International Journal of Geosciences,. 2015;6(7):729-740.
WASWA AARONK, Nyamai CM, MATHU ELIUDM, Ichang’i DW. "NEW FINDINGS OF THE TECTONIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EAST AFRICAN OROGENY IN THE KITUI – TAITA HILLS, S.E KENYA.". In: 35TH INTERNATIONAL GEOLOGICAL CONGRESS. CAPE TOWN, SOUTH AFRICA; 2016. Abstract

The research area occurs within the Neoproterozoic Mozambique belt (NMB) in the south-eastern part of Kenya. An enigmatic problem within the polyphase and highly deformed NMB, is the lack of better understanding of the geology and tectonic structures. In order to decipher the aforementioned problem, this study undertook a geological study with the aim of having a better understanding of the petrology and tectono-metamorphic setting, in the study area. The research was carried out using geological field mapping and remote sense investigation. Samples collected in the field were analysed using XRF (X- ray fluorescence) and AAS (Atomic absorption spectrophotometry). The petrological investigation was carried out using petrographic microscopy. An investigation using remotely sensed data established prevalent geological structures, lithology and mineral alteration zones. This study has provided a comprehensive understanding of the tectono-thermal scenario. One of the key findings of this study is the realization that Kitui – Taita gneisses and migmatites represent a thick sequence of meta-sedimentary rocks. The entire protolith sequence was marked by the alternation of thin pelitic, psammitic and limey layers, together with minor thin basic meta-volcanic rocks that were deposited under deep marine conditions. The entire paragneissic sequence was subsequently subjected to multiple phases of successive deformation and metamorphism, which was accompanied by shearing, faulting and folding. Petrochemistry has revealed that Kitui – Taita hills area has remnants of Island alkali tholeiite and calc – alkaline Metabasalts. It has also revealed that Ikutha (south of Kitui) has huge deposit of apatite – iron of Kiruna type. Petrological studies have shown that Mutomo–Ikutha area occurs in an ophiolitic suite and mimics similar lithological and geochemical signatures as those reported in other ophiolite suites occurring in Kenya like in Moyale, Sekerr in West Pokot and Voi, SE Kenya. The field occurrence of this suite has been documented by the lithological and stratigraphic sequence of serpentinite, sheeted dykes, gabbro, limestone, tectonic mélange and remnants of pillow lava found in the type area. The field occurrence of this suite is an indication of the remnants of the obducted oceanic crust during the closure of the paleo- Mozambique Ocean and collision of the East and West Gondwanaland

WASWA AARONK, MATHU ELIUDM, Nyamai CM, Ichang’i DW. "NEW FINDINGS OF THE TECTONIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EAST AFRICAN OROGENY IN THE KITUI – TAITA HILLS, S.E KENYA.". In: 35TH INTERNATIONAL GEOLOGICAL CONGRESS. CAPE TOWN, SOUTH AFRICA; 2016.
WASWA AARONK, D.N M. "EVALUATION OF VOLCANIC ROCKS OF NAIROBI AREA FOR USE AS RAW MATERIALS IN THE CONSTRUCTION AND CEMENT INDUSTRY.". In: Geological Society of Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya; 2009. Abstractabstract_evaluation_of_volcanic_rocks_of_nairobi_area_for_use_as_raw_materials_in_the_construction_and_cement_industry.pdf

Volcanic rocks play an important role in the building and construction industry. Most of the raw materials used by the building industry around Nairobi are the volcanic rocks. The main volcanic rocks considered include Lavas and Pyroclastic rocks. There has been no close monitoring of the proper application of the volcanic raw materials in the construction and cement industry. This might have been resulted due to lack of initiative to study the impacts that results from not applying the right raw materials to the right end use. This has been promoted by fraudulent contractors who could just use this type of rocks without any scientific or mineralogical study. In the world of property valuation, real estate managers have not been able to present objective valuation of such properties due to lack of data on the mineralogical and physical properties of the building materials. Insurance Agencies cannot place realistic premiums on buildings and structures due to lack of geological information of the materials used in the construction.
The aim of this of this research is to provide knowledge on properties of volcanic raw materials and develop their suitable application in construction industry. The method used involved carrying out end use tests which included aggregate test, pozzolanicity tests and building stone tests. Project area is bounded by latitudes 1000’ S and 1030’S and by longitudes 360 30’ and 37000’ E and has an area of approximately 1,200 square miles (31,108 km2). The geological history of Nairobi area is dominated by volcanic activity whereby a thick succession of alkaline lavas associated tuffs began accumulating in Mid-Miocene time and continued into Upper Pleistocene. The result shows that Kapiti phonolites contain zeolites which react with alkalis in concrete to course cracking. It is also noted that most trachytes and tuffs are weak and therefore unsuitable for aggregates. The best material found stronger to be used in aggregate making is the phonolites. It is noted that trachytes and phonolites cannot be used as pozzolana material in cement manufacturing. Most of the volcanic rocks around Nairobi can be used either as walling stones or building stones. The machine cut blocks can only be made from the tuffs because other rocks are harder to be cut.

Waswa F;, Gachene CKK;, Eggers H. "Assessment of erosion damage in Ndome and Ghazi, Taita Taveta, Kenya: Towards an integrated erosion management approach."; 2002. Abstract

Aerial photograph interpretation on erosion trends from 1961 to 1998 showed that by 1998, approximately 17 and 50% of agricultural land in Ndome and Ghazi respectively had been permanently lost due to the combined effect of rill, inter-rill, and gully erosion, and sand deposition. Although abnormally heavy rains received between 1996–98 caused much of the present land damage, the severity of the damage was enhanced by inappropriate and persistent human perturbations in the land-system notably through vegetative degradation and destruction of soil structure through inappropriate tillage practices. With soil organic matter contents of 1.6 and 1.9%, and clay ratios of 10.1 and 10.6 for Ndome and Ghazi, respectively, the areas inherent erodibility was considered as high thus pointing to the need for careful use and management of the soil resource. That farmers appreciated only land quality indicators that were visible to the naked eye and that directly affected their subsistence, revealed a knowledge gap that saw damages from intrinsic processes like rill and inter-rill erosion proceed unnoticed. This paper argues that the spread of erosion damage in rural agro-ecosystems is survival-driven. And as a remedy to this problem, there is need for the diversification of livelihood endeavours to alternative off-farm income sources to reduce pressure on the already fragile land resource. Further, being the ultimate implementers of conservation technologies and by virtue of the multiplicity and inter-relation of rural household needs, adoption of an integrated erosion management approach with food security as paramount presents the most practical entry point for sustainable land management in such rural agro-ecosystems

WASWA AARONK. GEOPHYSICAL MAPPING OF BURIED RIVER CHANNELS AND OTHER SHALLOW STRUCTURES RECHARGING MAJOR AQUIFERS IN THE LAKE NAKURU BASIN, KENYA RIFT: CASE STUDY FROM KABATINI AQUIFER.. J.O B, ed.; 2010. Abstractabstract.pdf

Abstract
Buried river channels are increasing becoming the target for groundwater exploration due to the unreliability of surface river channels that have been affected by climate changes. Areas located in urban centers like Nakuru town have high population that dictates the higher demand of water. This research covered the geophysical mapping of buried river channels and other shallow structures recharging major aquifers in the upper Nakuru basin of Kenya rift and in particular the Kabatini area. The project aimed at unveiling scientific knowledge of the subsurface geology using resistivity and magnetic geophysical methods. Solving of water shortages and improvement of livelihood for the people of Nakuru and its neighbor hood through proper and more precise geophysical ground water exploration methods was of great importance. The ultimate goal of the report is to provide guidance to policy makers in decision making especially for ground water extraction in Kabatini aquifer. Geology and hydro-geology of the area have been discussed in the report. The field methods used included vertical electrical sounding, electrical resistivity tomography and magnetic survey. Data processing was done using Earth imager software, RES2DINV, and Euler. The findings of the research ascertain that Kabatini area has underground river channel that flows in the north – south direction. The research also shows that the area has some shallow structures which contain low resistivity materials in different locations. It has also been ascertained that the thickness of Kabatini aquifer is more than 150 m.

WASWA AARONKUTUKHULU. Petrology and iron ore mineralization in the Neoproterozoic Mozambique belt rocks of Mutomo-Ikutha area, in Kitui county, S.E. Kenya. Nyamai DCM, Mathu PE, ICHANG'I DD, eds. Nairobi, Kenya: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2015. Abstractabstract.docxabstract.pdf

PETROLOGY AND TECTONO - METAMORPHIC SETTING OF IRON DEPOSITS IN THE MOZAMBIQUE BELT SEGMENT IN MUTOMO - IKUTHA AREA, SOUTH- EASTERN KENYA

Abstract
The study area is bounded by longitudes 380 4’E to 38020’E and latitudes 1048’S to 208’S in South Kitui within the Kitui County occupying about 100 Km2. This area can be accessed from Nairobi-Thika - Kitui ,Nairobi – Machakos-Kitui roads, or from Mombasa –Kibwezi – Ikutha – Mutomo road. Mineral deposits in Kenya occur in different geological settings, such as those associated with Tertiary rocks (Turkana sapphire deposit). Most of the mineral deposits like iron ore located within the Neoproterozoic Mozambique orogenic belt have not been properly evaluated in geological and metallogenical context. This work intends to relate, evaluate and scientifically place the geological framework of iron deposits in Mutomo – Ikutha area of Kitui County, Kenya to the specific events within the litho and tectonothermal evolution of the Mozambique mobile Belt. A thorough investigation of the major and minor geological structures as well as metamorphism will be elucidated in the project area on their role in the formation of iron deposits. The establishment and economic and scientific investigation of iron deposits in the study area for purposes of mining and wealth creation in the region is of great importance in this research work. The application of the research to exploration and development of artisanal mining in Kenya will be successful in terms of prospecting at the regional and scale, by determining the lithological, geochemical and tectonic controls for the mineralization.
The Mozambique Belt has a long and complex history, marked by a succession of major tectonothermal events. This belt runs from Egypt through, Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania and ends in Mozambique. The methods to be used to achieve the aim of this research will include; geological, geochemical and geophysical investigations. Preliminary investigation will be carried out using remote sensed data. Laboratory analysis will include X-ray florescence, X-ray defractometry, and electron Microprobe. The data obtained will be analyzed using Oasis montaj software, Matlab and any other relevant software. The updated geological and structural maps will be compiled using Arc GIS software. This study is expected to provide comprehensive understanding of the tectonothermal scenario and its associated economic mineralization in the Mozambique belt.

WASWA AARONK, Wamalwa RN, Nyamai CM, Ambusso WJ, Mulwa J. "Structural Controls on the Geochemistry and Output of the Wells in the Olkaria Geothermal Field of the Kenyan Rift Valley." International Journal of Geosciences. 2016;7(11):1299. AbstractFull Text

The Olkaria geothermal field is located in the Kenya Rift valley, about 120 km from Nairobi. Geothermal activity is widespread in this rift with 14 major geothermal prospects being identified. Structures in the Greater Olkaria volcanic complex include: the ring structure, the Ol’Njorowa gorge, the ENE-WSW Olkaria fault and N-S, NNE-SSW, NW-SE and WNW-ESE trending faults. The faults are more prominent in the East, Northeast and West Olkaria fields but are scarce in the Olkaria Domes area, possibly due to the thick pyroclastics cover. The NW-SE and WNW- ESE faults are thought to be the oldest and are associated with the development of the rift. The most prominent of these faults is the Gorge Farm fault, which bounds the geothermal fields in the northeastern part and extends to the Olkaria Domes area. The most recent structures are the N-S and the NNE-SSW faults. The geochemistry and output of the wells cut by these faults have a distinct characteristic that is the N-S, NW-SE and WNW-ESE faults are characterized by wells that have high Cl contents, temperatures and are good producers whereas the NE-SW faults, the Ring Structure and the Ol’Njorowa gorge appear to carry cool dilute waters with less chloride concentration and thus low performing wells. Though the impacts of these faults are apparent, there exists a gap in knowledge on how wide is the impact of these faults on the chemistry and performance of the wells. This paper therefore seeks to bridge this gap by analysis of the chemical trends of both old wells and newly drilled ones to evaluate the impacts of individual faults and then using buffering technique of ArcGis estimate how far and wide the influence of the faults is. The data was obtained after the sampling and analysis of discharge fluids of wells located on six profiles along the structures cutting through the field. Steam samples were collected with a stainless steel Webre separator connected between the wellhead and an atmospheric silencer on the discharging wells whereas the analysis was done in house in the KenGen geochemistry laboratory. The results indicates that Olkaria field has three categories of faults that control fluid flow that is the NW-SE trending faults that bring in high temperature and Cl rich waters, and the NE-SW trending Olkaria fracture tend to carry cool temperature waters that have led to decline in enthalpies of the wells it cuts through. The faults within the Ol Njorowa gorge act to carry cool, less mineralized water. Though initially, these effects were thought to be in shallow depths, an indication in OW-901 which is a deeper at 2200 m compared to 1600 m of OW-23 well that proves otherwise. This is, however, to be proved later as much deeper wells have been sited.

Waswa G. A, I. M, Abong'o D. A, Mbugua J. K., D. A, Aluoch A. O. "Dissipation and Sorption of Urea on Eburru Soils in Kenya." Journal of Physical Chemistry and Biophysics. 2018;8(3):271.
Wata DE, Osanjo G, Oluka M, Guantai A. "Predictors of Breast Cancer Treatment Outcomes in Kenyan Women." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2013;2(4):109-115.predictors_of_breast_cancer_treatment_outcomes_in_kenyan_women.pdf
Wata DE, Osanjo GO, Oluka M, Guantai AN. "Predictors of Breast Cancer Treatment Outcomes in Kenyan Women." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2013;2(4):109-115.
Wata DE, Osanjo GO, Oluka MN, Guantai AN. "Predictors of Breast Cancer Treatment Outcomes in Kenyan Women." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther.. 2013;2(4):109-115.
Watete PW, Wambui-Kogi Makau, Njoka JT, MacOpiyo LA, Mureithi SM. "Are there options outside livestock economy? Diversification among households of northern Kenya." PastoralismPastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice. 2016.
Watete PW, Makau WK, Njoka JT, MacOpiyo LA, Wasonga OV. "Moving in and out of poverty: a case of the Somali and Turkana of Northern Kenya." Nomadic Peoples. 2016;20:123-140. Abstract
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Watete PW, Wambui-Kogi Makau, Njoka JT, MacOpiyo LA, Mureithi SM. "Are there options outside livestock economy? Diversification among households of northern Kenya." PastoralismPastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice. 2016.
WATHATA MSMUCHIRIPATRICIA. "A Study of Participatory Processes Used by Head Teachers to Enhance Student Discipline in Public Secondary Schools in Nairobi Province (M.Ed Thesis 1998).". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; 1998. Abstract
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Watkins B, Kokwaro G, Galinski M, Mutabingwa TK, Trape JF. "WHO, the Global Fund, and medical malpractice in malaria treatment.". 2004.
Watkins WM;, Winstanley PA;, Mberu EK;, Kokwaro GO;, Murphy SA;, Mwangi I;, Waruiru C;, Foster D;, Marsh K. "Halofantrine pharmacokinetics in Kenyan children with complicated and uncomplicated falciparum malaria.". 1995. Abstract

1. Kenyan children with uncomplicated malaria given oral halofantrine (HF; non-micronised suspension; 8 mg base kg-1 body weight 6 hourly for three doses) showed wide variation in the disposition of HF and desbutylhalofantrine (HFm). 2. Eight Kenyan children with severe (prostrate) falciparum malaria who were receiving intravenous quinine, were given the same HF regimen by nasogastric tube. One patient had undetectable HF and two had undetectable HFm at all times after drug administration. 3. The mean AUC(0,24 h) of HF in prostrate children was half (7.54 compared with 13.10 micrograms ml-1 h) (P = 0.06), and that for HFm one-third (0.84 compared with 2.51 micrograms ml-1 h) (P < 0.05) of the value in children with uncomplicated malaria. 4. Oral HF may be appropriate for some cases of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Africa, but in patients with severe malaria, the bioavailability of HF and HFm may be inadequate

Watson-Jones D, Mugo N LMVNRDASMSG. "Access and Attitudes to HPV Vaccination amongst Hard-To-Reach Populations in Kenya." PLoS One. 2015;2015 Jun 26;10(6)(e0123701.).
Watuha AI. Maudhui ya waadhi katika utenzi wa adili. University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2011. Abstract
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WAUNA MROLUOCHOCHIENG. ""EMAS & ISO 14001: A Comparison", Environmental Policy and Law, Volume 31, Number 4-5, August, 201, 237.". In: The Advocate, May 2004. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
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WAUNA MROLUOCHOCHIENG. "2004 "IS CKRC ACT ULTRA VIRES THE CONSTITUTION?",.". In: The Advocate, May 2004. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
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WAUNA MROLUOCHOCHIENG. "2005 "The Draft Constitution of Kenya and the Freedom of Information Legislation", a paper presented at the Consultative Forum to Revise the ICJ.". In: East African Journal of Human Rights and Democracy, Vol. 3, No. 1 & 2 March/June. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
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WAUNA MROLUOCHOCHIENG. "2005 'States' Compliance with their Obligations under International Law with Specific Reference to Prohibition of Torture: The Case of Kenya'.". In: East African Journal of Human Rights and Democracy, Vol. 3, No. 1 & 2 March/June. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
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WAUNA MROLUOCHOCHIENG. "2005 "THE CONSTITUTIONAL MAKING PROCESS IN KENYA: A CRISIS OF LEADERSHIP AND ILLEGALITIES?", in Kichana P (eds), Judiciary Watch Reports.". In: East African Journal of Human Rights and Democracy, Vol. 3, No. 1 & 2 March/June. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
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WAUNA MROLUOCHOCHIENG. "2005 "Freedom of Information Legislation in Kenya: Pertinent Issues to the Draft Bill". A paper presented at the ICJ.". In: East African Journal of Human Rights and Democracy, Vol. 3, No. 1 & 2 March/June. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
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WAUNA MROLUOCHOCHIENG. ""Violence Against Women: Towards its Eradication", Issue No. 8, Sheria Magazine, Faculty of Law, University of Nairobi.". In: The Advocate, May 2004. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1996. Abstract
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WAUNA MROLUOCHOCHIENG. "2003"CASE COMMENTARY: NICHOLAS BIWOTT VS. JUDICIAL SERVICE COMMISSION OF INQUIRY INTO TRIBAL CLASHES", The Advocate, November 2003, 14.". In: The Advocate, May 2004. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
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