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Dequan S. “An Analysis on Exams of English Intensive and Extensive Reading”, . Tianjin: Tianjin University Press ; 1999.
IRIBEMWANGI PI. "“An Application of NGP and APT to Vowel Harmony in Standard Kiswahili” ." Reyono Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 2012;1(1):45-60. Abstract

Kiswahili is not classified as a harmonic language. However, this paper argues that the language exhibits some harmonic tendencies in so far as vowels are concerned. Consequently, the paper discusses vowel harmony as evident in Standard Kiswahili. The paper applies a segmental and a suprasegmental theory. The discussion proves that vowel harmony in Standard Kiswahili is both a segmental and a suprasegmental property. The two theories used are the natural generative phonological theory and autosegmental phonological theory. The corpus used is drawn from verbs and demonstratives.

"“An Investigation and analysis on the development of Chinese Language Curriculum at Confucius Institutes in African Area”.". In: 10th International Conference on Chinese Language Teaching. Wanjuan Press Ltd, China. ; 2012.
KIRITI-NG'ANG'A T. "“Barriers to Trade: the Case of Kenya”, in Connecting to Global Markets: Challenges and Opportunities.". In: Case Studies Presented by WTO Chair-holders, Edited by Marion Jansen, Mustapha Sadni Jallab and Maarten Smeets, pp. 57-71.; 2014.Connecting to Global Markets
Dequan S. "“Basic Sources of speaking and writing problems for the speakers of non-English vernacular”.". In: 1999 International Symposium on Language Teaching. University of Northern Iowa USA; 2000.
"Michuki G", "Lay J", "Mohamud T". “Boda-boda’s Rule: Non-agricultural Activities and their Poverty and Inequality Implications in Western Kenya”?. Hamburg, Germany: German Institute for Global and Area Studies; 2007.wp48_lay-etal.pdf
Omosa M, Onjala J. "“Business Environment in Kenya.”.". In: in McCormick D., Mary Omosa and Patrick Alila (eds). Business Systems in Africa. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press.; 2007.
Ngugi M. "“Can the media do it alone? Different Stakeholders’ Challenges and the Role of Technology and Citizen Reporting.” .". In: Presentation at Conflict Sensitive Journalism Experts’ Roundtable organized by the International Media Support. Silver Springs Hotel.; 2011.
Wasamba P. "“Centring the De-Voiced: Rethinking Personhood in Oral Literature Field Research.”." The Nairobi Journal of Literature.. 2010;(No. 6):99-115.abstract.pdf
OURU JOHN. "“Challenges Facing Management of Free Primary Education in Kenya” A case of Nyamira County-Kenya”." International Journal of Business and Management Tomorrow. 2011;In IJBMT Vol.1(1).
author Jesse N.K. Mugambi. "“Challenges for Theological Publishing of Scholarly books in Africa”.". In: Handbook of Theological Education in Africa. Oxford: Regnum; 2013.
Onjala J. "“China’s Comparative Trade, Aid and Investment Behaviour in Kenya vis-a-viz India and the European Union (EU)”.". In: in Stephen Marks (ed) Strengthening the Civil Society Perspective: China’s African Impact. Cape Town: Fahamu Networks for Social Justice; 2009.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. "“Conceptual Understanding and Current Policies and practice in Open Learning and Distance Education.". In: Ministry of Education Consultative Forum on Open Learning and Distance . Windsor Country Club ; 2004.
Wasamba P. "“Conservation for Sustainable Development. The Unexplored Potential of Kenyan Folklore”." African Affairs Journal. 2006;Vol. 19(No. 12):189-200.abstract.pdf
Wasamba P. "“Conservation for Sustainable Development: The Unexplored Potential of Kenyan Folklore.” .". In: Our Narratives our Landscapes: Relationship between Creativity and Environmental Conservation. Nairobi: Kenya Oral Literature Association; 2006.
Thuo J K, N KF, et al. "“Customer Relationship Management Practices and the Marketing Productivity of Commercial Banks in Kenya”,.". In: : 3rd African International Business and Management Conference (AIBUMA). Nairobi; 2012.
Ngugi CM. "“Democratic Culture, Political Stability and the Mass Media in Africa” .". In: Paper Presented at the African Studies Association. Washington, DC ; 2005.
W PROFNJENGALYDIAH. "“Determination of labile fluoride in Kenyan soils”." East African Journal of Physical Science 6 (2) (2005) 57-66.. 2005. AbstractWebsite

research theories for high school students

Ngugi M. "“Development Communication: A Clarification of Constructs”.". In: in Okigbo, C (ed), 1996: Development Communication Principles. Nairobi: ACCE; 1996.
Atieno R, Jama M, Onjala J. "“Do Think Tanks Benefit from APRM Work? Kenya’s Experience”.". In: Grappling with Governance: Perspectives on the African Peer Review Mechanism. Fanele and SAIIA; 2010.
Wanjala A, Wanjala C. "“East and Central Africa- A Personal Overview”." Journal of Commonwealth Literature. 2005;40(4):253-265.
Wasamba P. "“Echoes of Dialogue in African and Korean Literatures”." The Nairobi Journal of Literature. . 2013;Vol. 7:1-12.
Mwabu G. "“Economic Development and Malaria Prevalence: An Empirical Analysis with Reference to Kenya.". In: Malaria and Development in Africa ,. American Association for the Advancement of Science,; 1991.
(Ed.) IV. "“Elements of Orality in Ngugi wa Thiong’o’s The Wizard of the Crow”.". In: Across borders, Crossing Margins. Lecce: Salento, UP; 2010.
Oucho JO, G. O. "“Estimation of Internal Migration in Kenya.” in John O. Oucho, A. B. C. Ocholla-Ayayo, Elias H. O. Ayiemba, L. Odhiambo Omwanda (eds), pp. 229-257..". In: Population and Development in Kenya: Essays in Honour of S. H. Ominde. Nairobi: Population Studies and Research Institute; 2000.
Wasamba P. "“Ethnicity and Chronic Poverty in Kenya: A Phenomenological Approach." African Affairs Journal. 2009;Vol. 25(No. 2):185-212.
Atieno R. "“Explaining Female Labour Force Participation: The Case of Kenya’s Informal Sector and the Effect of the Economic Crisis”.". In: International Association For Feminist Economics (IAFFE) annual conference. Buenos Aires, Argentina; 2010.
and S. W. Mugo NMJMJM. “Fabrication and Characterization of nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide dye sensitized solar cells. July-4th August 2006, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 2006.
OURU JOHN. "“Factors Influencing Management of Teacher Turnover in Private Secondary Schools of Getembe and Mosocho Divisions in Kisii County,Kenya”;." In Global Journal of Management Sciences and Technology GJMST . 2012;Vol.1(Issue 7).
H.N GATUMU. "“Factors Influencing Secondary School Students’ Attitude towards Physics in Imenti South District, Kenya”." Journal of Research in 14 Education and Society: International Perspective. 2011;Volume 2; Number 2.
Were E. “Fani katika tamthilia ya Kiswahili: Uchanganuzi wa kilio cha Haki na Kijiba cha Moyo” . Mbuthia DE, Musyoka DF, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012.
Reuben M. “Fani katika Utenzi wa Ayubu” . Mbuthia DE, Amiri DS, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2011.
Atieno R. "“Financial Access and Microfinance Development in Kenya”.". In: conference on Economic Development in Africa at the Centre for the Study of African Economies University of Oxford, UK. University of Oxford, UK; 2009.
Atieno R. "“Financial Access and the Performance of Small Scale Enterprises in Kenya”.". In: Centre for the Study of African Economies conference on Economic Development in Africa. University of Oxford, UK; 2007.
Atieno R. "“Financial Services and the Performance of Micro and Small Scale Clothing Enterprises in Kenya”.". In: Industrialising Africa in the Era of Globalisation: Challenges to Clothing and Footwear. University of Nairobi Press; 2009.
Ngugi CM. "“Freedom of Expression in African Constitutions”.". In: Presented at Washington College International Week Faculty Panel.; 2007.
Atieno R, Teal F. "“Gender, Education and Occupational Outcomes: Kenya’s Informal Sector in the 1990s”.". In: Informal Sector in a Globalised Era. Icfai University Press; 2007.
Atieno R. "“Gender, Institutions, Access to Finance and the Development of Small Scale Enterprises in Kenya: Lessons for the Global Economic Crisis”.". In: International Association For Feminist Economics (IAFFE) annual conference. Hangzhou, China; 2011.
Dequan S. “Get Top Results on Your IELTS and Get into the College of Your Choice”. Tianjin: Tianjin Science and Technology Press ; 2003.
(Eds) TB/AA/TO. "“Global Africa: The Question of Language, Identity and Communication”.". In: Teaching African History to the Diaspora and Teaching Diaspora History to Africa. Lagos: CBAAC; 2009.
T.N. O. "“Globalization Theory” (Revised and updated) lecture no 26 in: History of economic doctrines. .". 2008;(Edited by Prof. Kruglov. V.V. “Peter”, St. Petersburg, 2008 ):215-230. (Course lectures - Handbook.
T.N. O. "“Globalization Theory” in: History of economic doctrines. .". 2005;(St. Petersburg state University of economics and Finance, St. Petersburg 2005. ).
O.D WH. "“Gluttonous Octopuses” in Mwanganza,." Journal of Literature. 1988;Vol.(, No. 3.).
Wasamba P. "“Going beyond Data Collection in Ethnography: Options for Bridging the Gap between Researchers and Archivists.”." International Journal of African Renaissance Studies. . 2013;Vol. 7 (No. 2):4-17.abstract.pdf
Wanjala A. "“Grace Ogot’s The Promised Land as a Pioneer Feminist Text.”." The Nairobi Journal of Literature. 2007;(5).
Dequan S. “Grammar of College English” . Tianjin: Tianjin Science and Technology Press; 1998.
Nzioka C., Kibuka T., Oyugi S., Kimutai E., Orago A., Kilonzo N., Mwesigye I., Alwan F., Hassan A, A K. "“HIV and AIDS in cross border mobile populations: behavioral surveillance survey among truckers in the IRAPP – supported hotspots in Kenya.". 2014.
KABUBO-MARIARA JANE, Linderhof V, Kruseman G, Atieno R, Mwabu G. "“Household Welfare, Investment in Soil and Water Conservation and Tenure Security: Evidence from Kenya”." PREM Working Paper. 2006;PREM 06/06.
R T. "“Huku na Huku.". In: Homa ya Nyumbani na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Phoenix ; 2015.
Osaaji MG. "“Imagi(ni)ng bodies as pleasures: Interrogating sexual identity among the youth in Kenya”, .". In: MILA: A Special Edition on Youth and Sexuality. Nairobi: IAGAS, University of Nairobi; 2009.
OURU JOHN. "“Influence of Economic Empowerment Strategy on Women’s HIV /AIDS Risk Behaviour Change: A case of Omega Foundation, Kisumu County-Kenya”." Global Journal of Management Sciences and Technology. 2012;In GJMST Vol.1(Issue 1, ).
OURU JOHN. "“Influence of Gender Disparity on the Management and Provision of Free Primary And Secondary School Education in Kisumu County- Kenya” ." Global Journal of Management Sciences and Technology; In GJMST. 2012;Vol.1(Issue 2).
Atieno R, Barako D, Bokea C. "“Innovation and Financial Access: The Role of M-pesa”. .". In: Kenya: Policies for Prosperity. Oxford University Press,; 2010.
Seth D. Goldstein, MD1; Dominic Papandria MD2; ALMDMPH3;, ani Georges Azzies, MD4; Eric Borgstein FRCS5; CMD6; SFMDMPH7; PJMBCB;RG, Mary Klingensmith, MD9; Mohamed Labib10 FLMD; MMMD11; EO’F12; RRMDMPH7;A, Fizan Abdullah, MD PD1. “Innovative approaches to educating the global surgical worldforce: A pilot camparison of online curricula for use in low and middle income countries”.; Submitted.
Atieno R. "“Institutional Arrangements and the Performance of Small-Scale Clothing Enterprises in Kenya: Enhancing their role in Growth, Employment and Poverty Reduction”.". In: New Growth and Poverty Alleviation Strategies for Africa-Institutional and Local Perspectives. African Development Perspectives Yearbook Volume 13 ; 2009.
Jefwa JJ. "“Is the Kenyan Child Still Weeping? A Quest for Education within the Backdrop of Colonia and Post Colonial Violations” ." International Perspectives of Race (and Racism): Historical and Contemporary Considerations in Education and Society. 2015:121-136.
Ngugi M. "“Journalism Training in Kenya: Putting a Finger on the Problem.”." Media Focus: Journal of the Media Development Association.. 1996;Vol 1(No 2).
author Jesse N.K. Mugambi. "“Justice, Participation and Sustainability as Prerequisites for Peaceful Coexistence”.". In: Applied Ethics in Religion and Culture: Contextual and Global Challenges. Nairobi: Acton; 2012.
Buregeya A. "“Kenyan English”, in B. Kortmann & K. Lunkenheimer (eds.).". In: The Mouton World Atlas of Variation in English. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter 466-467.; 2012.
Onjala J, Tuju M. "“Kenya’s Implementation of the 5th FOCAC Plan of Action: Hollow Commitments and Lack of In-Country Support”. .". In: In Shikwati James –ed (2012). China-Africa Partnership: The quest for a win-win relationship. Nairobi: Inter Region Economic Network (IREN Kenya); 2012.
Karani P. "“Kenya’s use of the Distance Education Mode of delivery to meet various educational needs”. ." Pan African Colloquium: Educational Innovation in Post Colonial Africa . 1995:18.
Atieno R. "“Kenya”.". In: Agribusiness for Africa’s Prosperity, Country Case Studies. United Nations Industrial Development Strategy; 2011.
R T. "“Kikulacho” a story in Kosa la Nani na Hadithi Nyingine.". In: Kosa la Nani na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Vide Mua publishers ; 2017.
IRIBEMWANGI PI. "“Kikuyu Phonology and Orthography: Any hope for continuity of indigenous languages?”.". In: The Language Loss of the Indigenous. New Delhi: Routledge; 2016. Abstractthe_language_loss_of_the_indigenous.jpg


MICHIRA DRJ, I.MWANGI. "“Kiswahili as an Official Language in Kenya: Its Past, Present and Future Roles and Challenges”." in Reyono Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies,. 2014;Vol. 3 :42-52.
SWALEH AMIRI. "“Kosa la Nani?”.". In: “Kosa la Nani?” Na Hadithi Nyingine . Nairobi: Vide-Muwa; 2018.
T O, L M. "“Language Learning Catastrophe? Crisis and Impediments in the Free Primary Education (FPE) in Kenya” ." International Journal of Science Arts and Commerce.. 2017;2(10):38-48.
Ngugi M. "“Lessons from Journalism Training in the US”." Expression Today (1998).
Kabira WM. "“Letter to Mariama Ba,” by W.M. Kabira, ." University of Nairobi Press (2005).
Atieno R. "“Linkages and Business Competition in Kenya’s Metal Products Sub sector”.". In: Business in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. University of Nairobi Press ; 2007.
Atieno R. "“Linkages, Access to Finance and the Performance of Small Scale Enterprises in Kenya”." United Nations University (UNU)/WIDER Research Paper. 2009;No. 2009/06.
Atieno R. "“Linkages, Access to Finance and the Performance of Small Scale Enterprises in Kenya”.". In: UNU-WIDER project workshop on Entrepreneurship and Economic Development: Concepts, Measurements and Impacts. Helsinki, Finland; 2008.
Dequan S. “Listening Courses of English Broadcasts”. Tianjin: Tianjin Science and Technology Press; 1997.
Karimurio J. "The “lost Vision” of EAJO.". In: JOECSA Editors workshop. Livingstone, Zambia; 2014.2014_joecsa_board_meeting_zambia_jk_presentation.pdf
Wanjala A. "“L’oeuvre ‘Kouroumanesque’- comment l’enseigner dans une Université Kenyane?” .". In: Research and Teaching in East Africa, Opportunities and Challenges. Nairobi: United States International University -Africa Press; 2006.
Ng'ang'a] JM. “Market Segmentation by Medium and Large Scale Manufacturing Firms in Kenya”. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1992. Abstract

The study contained in this report investigated the use of market segmentation by the medium and large scale manufacturing firms in Nairobi with the aim of generalizing the findings to similar firms’ throughput Kenya. It had a further aim of identifying the specific segmentation variables which influence the production and marketing of the firm’s product and also isolating the problem encountered in the practice of market segmentation.
To achieve these objectives a questionnaire was constructed and administered. The respondents were marketing managers, product managers or any other person conversant with the product and marketing strategies in the particular firm. The respondents had to rate the various segmentation variables indicating the extent to which such variables influence the product and marketing strategy in their firm.
The data so collected was analyzed by use of tables, percentages and proportions. A further statistical test was carried out using the t - test to find out whether the scores for the various variables were statistically different among the different industries.

Nyabuga, Kiai W. "“Media Veterans in Kenya." Media Veterans in Kenya,School of Journalism and Mass Communication Press, University of Nairobi. 2012.
Onjala J, Dorothy MC. “Methodology for Value Chain Analysis in ICT Industry: Frameworks for the Study of Africa”. Nairobi: African Economic Research Consortium; 2008.
Kiriti-Nganga TW. "“Micro - Finance and Poverty Allevia tion – How effective is it in Alleviating Gender Based Poverty.". In: Poverty, Poverty Alleviation and Social Disadvantage: Analysis, Case Studies and Policies , Edited by Clem Tisdell Ph.D. Vol. II. VII, . Serials Publications, New Delhi: India.; 2006.
Atieno R, Mitullah WV. "“Migration Labour Markets and Development: Inward Migration to North and West Africa”." Working Paper, International Labour Organisation, . 2010;Geneva, 2010.
"“Missionary Presence in Inter-religious Encounters and Relationships” ." Studies in World Christianity, August. 2013;Vol. 19(No. 2):162-86 .
Dequan S. “Modern Chinese Dictionary of International Trade”. Tianjin: China Railway Press ; 1995.
Ongarora SO. “Mtindo katika Arusi ya Buldoza na Hadithi Nyingine''. E.M. DM,.M PM, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2007.
Muchiri J. "“Ng’ang’a Mbugua’s Different Colours as an Allegory of the Kenyan Nation.”." Chemchemi – International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2015;10(1):83-95.
Odipo G. "“Nomadism: A Migration Mechanism for Environment and Economic Sustainability: The Pokot of Kenya.”.". In: Third African Population Conference of the Union for African Population Studies. International Convention Centre, Durban, South Africa; 2000.
joshua Kivuva. "“Non-state actors (NSA) and awareness creation on the East African Community (EAC) regional integration]1.". In: “Non-state actors (NSA) and awareness creation on the EasRole of NSA in the EAC, . The Panafric Hotel, Nairobi, ; 2011.
Atieno R. "“Occupational Distribution of Women in the Labour Market in Kenya”.". In: Annual IAFFE Conference. Barcelona, Spain; 2012.
Wasamba P. "“Oral Poetry in East Africa: Perspectives and Insights." The Nairobi Journal of Literature.. 2004;(No. 2):1-9.abstract_2.pdf
Wanjala A. "“Orality in Rebeka Njau’s The Sacred Seed”." The Global South . 2012;5(2):93-106.
Muleka J. "“Our Physical and Oral Heritage: A Link.” In Our Landscapes, Our Narratives" .". In: - Proceedings of the Conference on East African Oral Literature. Kisumu; 2006.
R T. "“Paka Duzi” a story in Siri ya Bwenyenye na Hadithi Nyingine.". In: Siri ya Bwenyenye na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Spotlight Publishers East Africa Limited ; 2016:.
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "“Patrice Lumumba: Voices of Liberation,”." The African Book Publishing Record . 2014;40(2):233-237.voices_of_liberation.pdf
Stigter CJ, den Van B, Daane JRV, Adam HS, Mohammed AE, Ng'ang'a JK, Mungai DN. "The “picnic” model for research training at African Universities: evaluation and preliminary comparison.". 1998. AbstractThe “picnic” model for research training at African Universities: evaluation and preliminary comparison

What distinguishes the “Picnic” model for research training at African universities from more classical models is reviewed and it is shown how the “Picnic” model deals with remaining drawbacks from the now popular “Sandwich” model. Starting with managerial experiences, criteria guiding this evaluation are used as sub-headings: realistic planning; adequate resource provision; partnership instead of aid; long term impact; high quality supervision; quality and quantity of student input; open and interactive communication; willingness to adapt to local circumstances; ongoing critical reflection; gradual expatriate withdrawal. The training output of the “Picnic” model tests in the four TTMI-countries is assessed after the actual and prospective jobs of its former students. The on-farm quantification of protecting systems/structures led in many TTMI PhD-research cases to improved design criteria for such systems/structures, with direct increases of yield or its preservation. In comparison with the “Sandwich” model, the “Picnic” model particularly incorporates institutional strengthening in the aim that the southern countries will become able to provide adequate education at the postgraduate level, teaching their students how to apply knowledge in their own environment. Degrees obtained at southern universities, therefore, have distinct advantages but joint responsibilities of universities for such degrees are difficult to organize, given the presently existing modes of output-related financing of Dutch universities. In a situation of institutional deterioration, such as Africa is experiencing, the best hope probably lies in strengthening networks of individuals and a collective sense of academic commitment, pending the revival of universities themselves. Emergency research related to the protection of the African agricultural environment by African universities, training NARS staff, must in the long run contribute to restoring an agricultural basis for part of the economies of the many poor African countries. Knowledge developed locally remains the most powerful vehicle for change from within.

Wasamba P. "“Politics, Ethnicity and Ethics: The Dilemmas of a Fieldworker.” ." International Journal of African Renaissance Studies.. 2009;Vol. 4(No. 2):193-204.
JANE KABUBO-MARIARA, Linderhof V, Kruseman G, Atieno R, Mwabu G. "“Poverty-environmental Links: The Impact of Soil and Water Conservation and Tenure Security on Household Welfare in Kenya”." Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics. 2010;Vol. 2(1)(February, 2010):041-053.
WAFULA DRCHARLES. "“Practice and Experiences in Development of Distance Learning in Kenya: Case of the Centre for Open and Distance Learning- University of Nairobi, Kenya.”.". In: A paper to be presented to Distance Education and Teacher Education in Africa Conference, 2013 To be held at University of Nairobi, Kenya from 30th July to 1st August 2013 .; 2013. Abstract

This paper is a documentary presentation and discussion of the major Issues and Educational Challenges that face Kenya towards its Fulfillment of Vision 2030 which has been set as Economic development Landmark to turn around this country and how open and distance learning address those challenges.
The paper identifies the magnitude of required capacity to undertake the training and -in-servicing of the working Kenyans for the provision of new skills and change of mindset of the key managers on carrying out their business to be result and outcome oriented without removing them from their jobs or workplace.
It discusses the justification and relevance of the specific Flagship Projects offered by open and distance modes using e-learning and printed modules with online learner support and how they were identified to be part of the performance contract at the College of Education and External Studies.

Wasamba P. "“Preservation of Oral Literature through Research.”." The Nairobi Journal of Literature.. 2006;(No. 3):1-6.abstract.pdf
Wasamba P. "“Quest for Ethnic Tolerance in Kenya: The Role of Oral History”." Journal of Africa Affairs. 2013;33:247-272.abstract.pdf
and Njogu KWMW. "“Reclaiming my Dreams: Oral Narratives,” by W.M. Kabira and W. Njogu,." University of Nairobi Press (2010).
Anselm OJ. "“Reducing War and Terrorism by Mitigation through Knowledge”, .". In: at the Second Annual CUEA Philosophy Conference, Philosophy of War and Peace, 15-17 November 2007. CUEA Nairobi; 2007.
HN G. "“Relationship between Perception of Inter-parental Conflicts and Involvement in Delinquent Behaviours among Selected Kenyan Adolescent Students.”." Journal of Educational and Social Research. 2015;5((ISSN 2239-978X ISSN 2240-0524)):25-34.
(Eds.) TB/AA/TO. "“Remembering through (m)other tongues: A new approach to Pan-Africanism”.". In: Pan-Africanism and the Integration of Continental and Diaspora Africa. Lagos: CBAAC; 2012.
Anselm OJ. “Responsibility and Development”, . Catholic Univeersity of Eastern Africa Nairobi; 2006.
Karimurio J. The “segment knockout” survey method for large trachoma-endemic districts. Melbourne: Melbourne; 2012. Abstract

Prevalence surveys are mandatory before new trachoma control projects are funded and existing ones continued. When a large administrative district with >200,000 people is surveyed as one trachoma intervention unit, the survey clusters are widely spaced and it is difficult to establish the distribution of the disease at the sub-district level with certainty. As a result, some trachoma-endemic areas in Kenya have been missed out and non-endemic areas included in mass antibiotic treatment. The other challenge is the large sample size required in standard trachomatous trichiasis (TT) surveys that include participants aged >15 years. The main objective of this study was to develop an effective and efficient survey method to justify administration of mass antibiotic treatment for active trachoma. The other objective was to establish the optimum lower age limit of TT survey participants, to ensure that the time required to complete a TT survey was the same as the time required to complete a TF survey, while ensuring that the sample was adequately representative of the TT backlog. The costs of surveys and administration of mass antibiotic treatment were determined for comparison of the standard and new survey methods. Data sets for previous surveys were re-analysed to calculate the optimum lower age limit of TT survey participants and correction factors to extrapolate the total backlog of TT.

A “Trachoma Survey by Segment” (TSS) method was developed to justify and reduce the cost of mass antibiotic treatment. It was tested in Turkana, a large hyper-endemic district with 543,199 people and Narok, a meso-endemic district with 576,388 people. Each district was divided into five geographical areas (segments). A segment had a population of 100,000–200,000 people. Areas with similar risk of trachoma were aggregated in the same segment. The segments with <10% prevalence of TF in children 1-9 years were excluded (knocked-out) from mass treatment, 10%-30% treated for 3 years and >30% treated for 5 years.

An efficient TT40 survey method was also developed where the backlog of TT was estimated in people >40 years old and correction factors used to extrapolate the total backlog. A TT40 survey required a smaller survey sample than a standard TT survey. The backlog correction factor for the lower age limit of 40 years was 1.1.

In Turkana district 3,962 children aged 1-9 years were examined and the prevalence of TF in the whole district was 38.0% (95%CI: 32.2%-43.9%). If the survey was conducted using the standard survey by administrative district method the whole population would have been treated for 5 years. However, the TSS method revealed that two segments needed treatment for 3 years and three segments for 5 years. After mass treatment the areas will be re-surveyed to justify further treatment.

In Narok district 3,998 children aged 1-9 years were examined and the prevalence of TF was 11.0% (95%CI: 8.0%-14.0%). The entire district had received three rounds of mass antibiotic treatment prior to this study. If this study was conducted by administrative district method, the whole population could have been treated for another three years. The TSS method identified three non-endemic segments which were excluded (knocked-out) from further treatment.

In Turkana district 2,962 people >40 years were examined and 7.8% (95%CI: 6.8%-8.8%) had TT while in Narok 2,996 people >40 years were examined and 2.9% (95%CI: 2.2%-3.6%) had TT. All the segments in both districts needed TT surgical services.

The cost of a survey by the administrative district method was $15,726 to $28,905, while by the TSS method it was $31,917 to $40,610 ($6,383 to $8,122 per segment). In 2009, the unit cost of administration of mass treatment was $0.20 to $0.42 per person treated. In Turkana district (hyper-endemic setting), the total cost of a survey and administration of mass treatment by the TSS method was $11,705 (1.7%) more expensive that by the administrative district method. In Narok district (meso-endemic setting with clustered trachoma) the survey by TSS method and administration of mass treatment was cheaper by $168,275 (53.2%).

It was concluded that the TSS is an effective trachoma survey method to identify the areas that need mass antibiotic treatment. For short term (<3 years) mass treatment in a hyper-endemic district like Turkana, the TSS method has no advantage over the administrative district method. For long term treatment, the TSS method is recommended because some segments may not require treatment for >3 years. The TT40 is an efficient trachoma survey method to determine the backlog of people with TT.

Mukhwana A. "“Sheng and Engsh: What They Are and What They Are Not”." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2015;2(1).
Njihia JM, Mbeche IM. "“Soft" Systems Analysis: Road Construction and Maintenance: A Soft Systems Approach.". In: All Africa Engineers Conference. Kenyatta Conference Centre, Nairobi, Kenya; 1994. Abstract
Osaaji MG. "“Subverting the patriarchal ideology: A case study of a Samburu Woman oral narrative performer” ." Research in African Literatures. 2009;Volume 40 (Number 1):19-28.
Lydia W. Njenga, Lydia W. Njenga, Kariuki DK, Yusuf AO, Wendt OF. "“Synthesis and Characterization of Tris-Cyclometalated Iridium (III) 2-(1-naphthyl)-pyridine Complexes for Photoredox Catalysis.". In: 3rd Nordic Meeting on Organometallic Chemistry. Lund, Sweden; 2015.
Mwendarani B. “Taswira ya mwanamke katika tamthilia mbili za kiswahili’’. Mbuthia DE, Musyoka DF, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; Submitted.
Dr. Oduor J. "“The Anticipated Benefits of Multilingualism in Education in Kenya” .". In: Africa: Challenges of Multilingualism. Africa: Peter Lang - International Academic Publishers; 2013.
(Eds) HI/MO. "“The Child Reader as Writer”." Nairobi Journal of Literature. 2006;4:30-41.
Wasamba P. "“The Concept of Heroism in Samburu Moran Ethos”." Journal of African Cultural Studies. 2009;Vol. 21(No. 2):145-158.abstract.pdf
Ngugi M. "“The Dangers of Disciplinary Knowledge.”." Expression Today (1999).
author Jesse N.K. Mugambi. "“The Environmental Crisis from an African Perspective,”.". In: Peace on Earth and Peace with the Earth. Geneva: World Council of Churches; 2008.
Onjala J. "“The Experience of Chinese Support for Infrastructure: How Relevant is it for Kenya?”.". In: Shikwati James (ed) China-Africa Partnership: The quest for a win-win relationship. Nairobi: Inter Region Economic Network (IREN Kenya); 2012.
Atieno R. "“The Financial System”.". In: Business in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. University of Nairobi Press ; 2007.
"“The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Tiriki Circumcision Rites." in Mizizi, University of Nairobi Press. 2009.
Ngugi CM. "“The Kikuyu of Kenya” .". In: Encyclopedia of the African Diaspora. Los Angeles: ABC-CLIO; 2008.
Muleka J. "“The Knell of Readership: A Case of Censorship in Children’s Literature.”." Nairobi Journal of Literature. 2007;1(5):55-65.
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Wanjala G. "“The Meaning of Quality in Teacher Education : Some Policy Implications for Educational Planning .”." The Fountain : Journal of Educational Research . 2011;5 (1): 1-10 . Abstract

Decline in quality education has become one of the major challenges facing the education sector as the government tries to widen access to basic education. To address these challenges , the major thrust has been to develop feasible policies , objectives , strategies , programmes and activities to guide the development of the sector. For instance , the strategies proposed by MPET for primary education included increasing access and participation as well as raising relevance and quality. However , the quality of education cannot be improved without improving the teacher. Consequently , many primary school teachers went back to school and enrolled in degree courses at universities.This paper discusses the attempt to assess the extent to which the teachers who enrolled in the B.Ed.(Arts) programme of the University of Nairobi have been able to expand their knowledge and pedagogical skills in different subjects. Can these teachers contribute to improved efficiency and effectiveness with respect to the provision and delivery of education? In what ways have they contributed to increased quality in education at the primary school level?

Wasamba P, Shenk E. "“The Need to Move On: Learning from Oral Narratives in Kenya.” ." Rapportage: Journal of Literary Essays, Interviews, and Profiles . 2008;Vol. xi:78-83.

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