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WAITHIRA MRSMIRIE. "Thuita F. N., Mirie W., Nutrition in the Management of Acquired Immune Deficiency syndrome. East African Medical Journal, Vol 76, No. 9 September 1999.". In: The Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 3223 . ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1999. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
WAITHIRA MRSMIRIE. "Mirie W., Nutrition and Health Survey of Children below five years of Garissa and Ijala Districts, North Eastern Kenya.". In: The Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 3223 . ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2001. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
WAITHIRA MRSMIRIE. "Mirie W., Abstract: An evaluation of the Educational Programme of Breastfeeding Information Group (BIG) in Nairobi. Journal of Gastroenterology and Haematology, 1994.". In: The Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 3223 . ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
Waithira M. An evaluation of the educational programme of Breastfeeding Information Group (BIG) in Nairobi.; 1989. Abstract

The main objective of this study was to
compare the knowledge. attitudes. ,and practices of
mothers and health workers exposed to the educational
programme of the Breastfeeding Information
Group (BIG) with those who have not been exposed to
the programme. In addition. the knowledge. attitudes
and practices of BIG counselors and members
of the executive committee were also assesed with
respect to their knowledge and practices of breastfeeding
and weaning.
The knowledge. attitude and practice (i(AP ;0
study took place in Maternal and Child Health
Clinics (MCHC) in Nairobi, between January and June
1987. A sample of 150 randomly selected B i
Exposed mothers was compared with a similar sample
of randomly selected NON-BIG Exposed rno t her· s .
Similarly a sample of 24 randomly selected B1GExposed
Health Workers was compared with a s l m I lar
number of NON-BIG Exposed health workers. in addition,
12 BIG volunteers and 6 counsellors were
included in the study. Thus a total of
366 interviews were conducted for the study.
The
higher in
BIG-exposed study sample scored
the knowledge test than the Non-BIG
exposed controls.
-
The initiation of breastfeeding was largely
universal among the entire study sample. The duration
of breastfeeding of the youngest child
however, was longer among mothers not exposed to
the BIG educational programme. than among mothers
exposed to it.
The onset of weaning the youngest child of
both groups of mothers was significantly different
between the two groups. The Non-BIG exposed
mothers introduced supplementary foods earlier than
the BIG-exposed mothers.
Questioned on the main message delivered in
BiG's promotional visual aid (poster) designed to
promote and encourage breastfeeding. the majority
of respondents identified it to be: " to breastfeed"

WAITHIRA MRSMIRIE. "Mirie W., An Evaluation of Education Program of Breastfeeding Information Group (BIG) in Nairobi (A Thesis for the Msc. In Applied Human Nutrition, University of Nairobi).". In: The Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 3223 . ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1998. Abstract
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WAITHIRA MRSMIRIE. "Mirie W., Musandu J., Health Practices as Reported by Mothers in a Semi Arid Area of Kenya. International Child Health: A Digest of Current Information, 1999.". In: The Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 3223 . ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1999. Abstract
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WAITHIRA MRSMIRIE. "Mirie W., Et al. A study of knowledge Attitudes and Practices of Weaning of Mothers at Kenyatta National Hospital.". In: The Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 3223 . ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1993. Abstract
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WAITHIRA MRSMIRIE. "Mirie W., Aging and Nutritional Needs, East African Medical Journal, Vol. 74 No. 10, October, 1997.". In: The Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 3223 . ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1997. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
WAITHIRA MRSMIRIE. "Mirie W., The Relationship between Nutrition and Pharmacology. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Services, Vol 1 No. 3, October 1998.". In: The Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 3223 . ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
WAITHIRA MRSMIRIE. "Mirie W., Aging and Nutritional Needs. A chapter in Handbook of Nutrition for the Aged CRC Press, Florida, USA, 2000.". In: The Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 3223 . ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2000. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
WAITHIRA MRSMIRIE. "Mirie W., et al. A study of Knowledge Attitudes and Practices Breastfeeding of Health Workers at Kenyatta National Hospital.". In: The Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 3223 . ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1993. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
WAITHIRA MRSMIRIE. "Kemenwa R., Mirie W., Breastfeeding, Hospital Practices as Reported by Mothers at Kenyatta National Hospital. International Journal of Childbirth Education, Vol. 12 No. 4, December, 1997.". In: The Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 3223 . ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1997. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
WAITHIRA MRSMIRIE. "Mirie W., Maternal Nutritional and Food Security. Nutrition Association of Kenya Newsletter, Vol. 4 December, 1998.". In: The Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 3223 . ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
Waititu AI, Mwangangi EM, Amugune BK, Bosire KO, M M. "Impact of depression on adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV/AIDS patients at a Kenyan referral hospital. ." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther.. 2016;5(1):15-20.
Wakaguara A. "BUDGETARY PRACTICES IN PRIVATE/ MISSION HOSPITALS IN NAIROBI AND ITS ENVIRONS.". 2010. Abstractbudgetary_practices_in_private_mission_hospitals_in_nairobi_and_its_environs.pdf

This paper examines the budgetary practices in private and mission hospitals. The aim is to shed some light on the human behaviour including other activities during budgeting. This research was based on a survey of all private and mission hospitals in Nairobi. Two additional hospitals were included in the study from the environs. Budgeting reflects a conscious effort to plan for certain desirable results and controls to maximise the chances of achieving those results in a company. In a typical private sector, budgeting is a collective and closely coordinated exercise in which each activity is systematically related to the other since the sector is profit motivated. Future planning needs to recognize that sustainable health service provision cannot be achieved by the government health sector alone and active involvement of stakeholders is required. Typically, in the governmental sector, health services are financed primarily through the revenue collected from fees and insurance premiums charged to service users. The main contribution of this paper is to highlight the involvement of senior staff in the budget planning, problems faced during the budgeting process and the effectiveness of the budgeting process. In addition, it guides on possible solutions to problems faced by the organisations.

Wakahiu MW, Gildemacher PR, Kinyua ZM, Kabira JN, Kimenju AW, Mutitu EW. "Occurrence of potato bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum in Kenya and opportunities for intervention.". 2007.
Wakana, S., Siraishi, S., Ondicho, TG, eds. Re-finding African assets and City Environments: Governance, Research and Reflexivity. Tokyo: ILCAA & JSPS; 2016.
Wakasiaka S;, Donna JS;, Hoang TDM;, Jaoko WG;, Anzala O, Priddy FH. "Health-care Providers'perceptions Of Intravaginal Rings For Hiv Prevention In Nairobi, Kenya.". 2013. Abstract

Background: Health-care providers form the backbone of health information and service delivery in many African communities. This study investigated health-care providers' (HCPs) attitudes towards a novel method of HIV prevention for women-a microbicide-embedded intravaginal ring (IVR). Methods: Qualitative interviews were conducted, covering initial attitudes towards IVRs, potential use among female sex workers, herbal practices for sexually transmitted infection (STI) management and the ways in which populations can access the rings should they become available. Twenty HCPs were interviewed in Mukuru and Kibera, which are informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya, with high HIV prevalence, unemployment and commercial sex work. Results: The majority of HCPs had positive attitudes towards IVRs as a method of HIV prevention in this environment. HCPs liked that IVRs are female controlled and can be used covertly. Overall, HCPs reported a willingness to participate in the distribution of IVRs, and favoured distribution through health facilities at no cost. Conclusion: Findings from this study demonstrate that HCPs are willing to serve as the primary source of IVR information in target communities. However, they require adequate knowledge regarding microbicides and IVRs before these products reach the market

Wakasiaka S, Bwayo JJ, Ndinya-Achola JO, Omosa G, Jaoko W, Waruingi W, Ogutu H. Kenya AIDS Vaccine Initiative HIV Vaccine Peer Leaders Training Manual.; 2004. Abstract

MRC Human Immunology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. The IFN-y enzyme-linked immunospot (ELI-Spot) assay is often used to map HIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses. We compared overlapping 15-mer pools with optimized CD8 epitopes to screen ELISpot responses in HIV-infected individuals. The 15-mer pools detected responses to previously undefined epitopes, but often missed low-level responses to predefined epitopes, particularly when the epitope was central in the 15-mer, rather than at the N-terminus or C-terminus. These factors should be considered in the monitoring of HIV vaccine trials.

Wakasiaka S, Smith DJ HTDMJAPFHWO &. "Health-care providers’ perceptions of intravaginal rings or HIV prevention in Nairobi, Kenya." Women’s Health. 2013;7(3):144-50.
Wakhungu JW, Olukoye GA, Wamicha WN, Kinyamario JI, Mwanje JI. Environmental impacts of livestock-wildlife ranching in Laikipia District, Kenya.; 2001.
Wakhungu CN, Okoth S, Wachira P, N.A O. "Mycotoxins contaminating herbs and spices in Africa: A review." African Journal of Biological Sciences. 2021;3(3):10-28.
Wakhungu JW, Badamana MS, Olukoye GA. "Productivity of Indigenous and Exotic Cattle on Kenya Ranches.". 2006. Abstract

A comparison of productivity and adaptability of indigenous (Boran and Small East African Zebu) and the exotic (Sahiwal and Ayrshire) cattle on Kenyan ranches located in semi-arid areas of the Rift Valley Provinces was done. Data sets of the cattle breeds over the 1979-1993 period on Deloraine, Elkarama, Ilkerin, National Sahiwal Stud (NSS) and Oljorai were analyzed by the least squares fixed effects model procedures. The least squares means of productivity component traits of each breed were imputed in PRY model to derive feed energy efficiency (FEE) index and carry out sensitivity analyses. The respective FEE indices were 137, 106, 100, 86, 82, 79, 78, and 65 aggregate value off take per unit of feed energy requirements for NSS Sahiwal, Deloraine Ayrshire, Deloraine Sahiwal, Elkarama Sahiwal, Ilkerin Sahiwal, Elkarama Boran, Oljorai Boran and Ilkerin small East African Zebu. The sensitivity showed that survival and reproductive (fitness) traits of the indigenous cattle were lower than for exotic cattle indicating better adaptability of indigenous cattle. The sensitivity values of milk yield, mature weight and mature age were at near optimal levels for the ranch environments, except for Deloraine Ayrshire and Elkarama Boran. The results suggest that fitness traits and rate of genetic progress by selection in production traits could be further enhanced by improving environmental management on the ranches. The implications on development strategies of indigenous and exotic cattle are also discussed.

Wakiaga JM;, Maina SW;, Kisumbi BK. "Incidence Of The Second Canal The Upper Second Premolar.". 1988.
Wakiaga JM, Kaimenyi JT, Kisumbi BK. "Reasons underlying failure to seek dental treatment among Nairobi University students.". 1996. Abstract

A survey of 272 University of Nairobi undergraduate students was undertaken to assess their dental chairside experience and what reasons they gave for failing to seek dental treatment. Most respondents considered dental treatment uncomfortable and painful. The cost of treatment and fear arising from information given by other dental patients were important reasons that kept the respondents from visiting a dental clinic. This paper reveals the need for the dental profession to playa greater role in red ucing costs of treatment and odontophobia.

Wakibi SN. "Factors associated with non-adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy in Nairobi, Kenya." AIDS Research and Therapy 2011. 2011;8(doi:10.1186/1742-6405-8-43).
Wakibi SN. "Evaluation of USAID Capacity Project Human Resources Information System Strengthening.". In: PEPFAR Implementers Meeting Session 31. Windhoek, Namibia; 2009.
Wakibi SN. Prevalence & Predictors of Non-Adherence to free HAART in Nairobi, Kenya. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology; 2010.
Wakibi SN. "Good data, informed decisions: Strengthening HRH information systems.". In: The Global Health Council’s. Washington DC, USA; 2009.
Wakindiki IC, Kinyali S.M. Tirop SK, B.E M, S.K. T. "Influence of some soil physical properties on infiltration rate and hydraulic conductivity of 3 salt-affected soils in Kenya. ." E. Afr.agric. For J.. 2001;2(67):155-120.
Wakoko-Studstill F, Khaitsa ML, Okech SG, Kaneene JB, Pithua P, Blackmon S, Rogers H, Shepelo G, Wambua MD, Komba E, Samson R, Gebrewahde TT, Habimana R, Kibogo A, Kasonev V, Okite A, Aijuka W, Kabasa JD. "Model African Union: experiential pedagogical approach to teaching one health in veterinary medicine and public health. The Pan African Medical Journal." The Pan African Medical Journal. 2017;27(4):18.
Wakoko-Studstill  F, Khaitsa ML, Okech SG, Kaneene JB, Pithua P, Blackmon S, Rogers H, Shepelo G, Wambua MD, Komba E, Samson R, Gebrewahde TT, Habimana R, Kibogo A, Kasonev V, Okite A, Aijuka W, Kabasa JD. "Model African Union: experiential pedagogical approach to teaching one health in veterinary medicine and public health.". 2017.
Wakoli MW, Ottieno JAM. "Mixed Poisson Distributions Associated with Hazard Functions of Exponential Mixtures." Journal of Mathematical Theory and Modeling (. 2015;5(6):209-243. AbstractFull text link

The hazard function of an exponential mixture characterizes an in- nitely divisible mixed Poisson distribution which is also a compound Poisson distribution. Given the hazard function, the probability generating functions (pgf) of the compound Poisson distribution and its independent and identically distributed (iid) random variables are derived.The recursive forms of the distributions are also given. Hofmann hazard function has been discussed and re-parameterized. The recursive form of the distribution of the iid random variables for the Hofmann distribution follows Panjer's model. Key words: Mixed Poisson distributions, Laplace transform, expo- nential mixtures, complete monotocity, in nite divisibility, compound Poisson distribution, Hofmann distributions, Panjer's model.

Wakoli MW, Ottieno JAM. "SUMS OF HAZARD FUNCTIONS OF EXPONENTIAL MIXTURES AND ASSOCIATED CONVOLUTIONS OF MIXED POISSON DISTRIBUTIONS." Journal of Mathematical Theory and Modeling (liSlE). 2015;5(6):209-243. AbstractWebsite

Abstract

A Sum of hazard functions of exponential mixtures characterizes a convolution of in nitely divisible mixed Poisson distributions which is also a convolution of compound Poisson distri- butions. For each sum of two special cases of Hofmann hazard function, the following have been ob- tained: the probability generating function (pgf) of the convolution of the mixed Poisson distri- butions. the pgf of the independent and identically distributed (iid) random variables for the convolution of the compound Poisson distributions. the recursive form of the convolution of the compound Poisson distribution. We also wish to nd out whether Panjer's recursive model holds for all cases.

Key words: convolutions, exponential mixtures, mixed Poisson distribution, Hofmann hazard functions, characterization, compound Poisson distribution, Panjer's recursive model, Laplace transform

Wakolo S, Kihiu J, Kihato P, Njoroge K. "Effect of Angular Position on Power Generation from a Pre-Stressed Piezoelectric Element in a Car Tire." Journal of Engineering Technology and Scientific Innovation. 2018;3(6):264.
WAKONYU DRKANJAL. "Organochlorine pesticide residues in cow.". In: journal.; 1996.
WAKONYU DRKANJAL, ELIAS PROFMAITHOT. "Levels of organochlorine Pesticide residues in milk of Urban Mothers in Kenya.". In: journal.; 1998.
WAKONYU DRKANJAL, ELIAS PROFMAITHOT. "Levels of organochlorine Pesticide residues in milk of Urban Mothers in Kenya.". In: journal. de Gruyter; 1998.
WAKONYU DRKANJAL. "Some factors related to sum-DDT levels in Ugandan mothers.". In: journal.; 1998.
WAKONYU DRKANJAL. "Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Mothers milk of in Uganda.". In: journal.; 1996.
Wakulele SR, Odock SO, Chepkulei B, Kiswili NE. "Effect of eco-design practices on the performance of manufacturing firms in Mombasa County, Kenya." International Journal of Business and Social Science. 2016;7(8):86-104. Abstract

Eco-design is a new approach to products design; it has emerged as a key approach for manufacturing firms seeking to become environmentally sustainable and globally competitive. The purpose of this study was to establish the effect of adoption of Eco-design practices on organizational performance of manufacturing firms in Mombasa County, Kenya. A cross sectional survey research design was adopted for this study. It targeted a population a population of manufacturing firms in Mombasa County listed by Kenya Association of Manufacturers (KAM, 2014). A sample of 65 firms was taken and data was collected using questionnaires. The results obtained indicated that Eco-design practices adoption was at the planning/ implementation stage as most of the manufacturing firms had considered adoption. The study also established that the major challenges of adopting Eco-design practices are Unsuccessful integration of Eco-design, Lack of knowhow in managing changes in design procedures, and Lack of technical knowledge about Eco-design. Lastly the findings show that Eco-design practices have positive influence on organization performance with greatest impact being on environmental impact reduction and financial performance. The study recommends that manufacturing firms should get enough training and empowerment on how to implement Eco-design practices so as to ensure success, reduce fear of failure and encourage environmental sustainability. They should also act fast and implement Ecodesign practices since there are potential benefits after implementation such as improvement in environmental impact reduction and financial performance. Lastly the researcher recommends that since government rules and legislations and organization capabilities are the major drivers of adoption of Eco-design practices they should review their policies and allocate more resources to ensure effective adoption and implementation of Eco-design practices. This is because the bedrock of economic and social development in Kenya is the environment; hence environment sustainability should be given first priority.

Key words: Green supply chain management, Life Cycle Analysis, Design for Disassembly, Design for
Environment, Design for Recycling

and Waldensröm, J., Bensch S, Kiboi S, Hasselquist D, Ottoson U. "Cross-species infection of blood parasites between resident and migratory songbirds in Africa." Molecular Ecology. 2002;11:1545-1554. AbstractWebsite

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We investigated whether resistant pollen genotypes can be selected for when the maternal plants are infected and whether infection can result to changes in the pistil nutrient level influencing reproductive outcome. Both resistance and susceptibility come with costs that may affect pre- and post-fertilization reproductive functions. We performed the study by crossing zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistant and susceptible pollen (from a hybrid donor) to infected and healthy maternal plants. We also analysed the pistil nutrient content in both treatments and found an increase of the susceptible and not resistant genotypes when maternal plants were infected. The level of nutrients K, P and S was higher in the pistils of the infected maternal plants than the healthy ones. Pistil nutrient level did not affect pollen tube growth rates, as indicated by seed siring patterns along the fruit. We propose that the effect on the siring ability of pollen carrying the susceptible and resistant alleles occurred at the post-fertilization stage, possibly as an indirect result of different growth rates of the two embryo genotypes under elevated nutrient conditions. We discuss our results with respect to possibilities of differential selection, costs and reproductive implications.

Waldhäusl W, Kleinberger G, Korn A, Dudczak R, Bratusch-Marrain P, Nowotny P. "Severe hyperglycemia: effects of rehydration on endocrine derangements and blood glucose concentration." Diabetes. 1979;28:577-584. Abstract
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Wale E;, Mburu J;, Virchow D. "Incentives, Opportunity Costs and Contract Design for On-farm Conservation in Ethiopia."; 2003. Abstract

Among the in-situ and ex-situ conservation options available to conserve crop genetic resources (CGRs), on-farm conservation has recently attracted massive attention from concerned organizations. To make this option operational, placing incentives and removal of perverse incentives are believed to be crucial so that landraces of no immediate interest to farmers can be conserved. However, before placing sound incentives and designing contracts with farmers, we have to understand farmers’ motives for managing portfolio of traditional varieties and the opportunity costs they face when they are expected to use landraces. This paper empirically examines farmers’ incentives and generates the opportunity costs they are facing based on a household survey data collected from 198 sorghum growing farmers in Eastern Ethiopia. To study farmers’ incentives to maintain native varieties, we have adopted a utility-based model that considers on-farm diversity as a positive externality of farmers’ livelihood decisions. Accordingly, on-farm diversity is considered as the derived outcome of farmers’ revealed preferences subject to their concerns and constraints. Using such a framework, Poisson regression model is estimated. Opportunity costs are generated using different homogeneous treatment statistical models and further they are examined using switching regression model. As usual the paper concludes outlining the policy implications of the empirical findings to design contracts for on-farm conservation of CGRs.

Wale E;, Mburu J. "Economic Analysis of Farmers’ Preferences for Coffee Variety Traits — Lessons for on-Farm Conservation and Technology Adoption in Ethiopia."; 2003. Abstract

The knowledge to-date recaps Coffea arabica to have originated in Ethiopia and its genetic diversity in the country is proved to be high. On top of its role in the national economy, Ethiopia’s coffee diversity is important not only nationally but also in international research and conservation centers. However, this diversity is dwindling due to policy, institutional and market failures. Despite a tremendous attention to salvage this degradation through the emerging on-farm conservation, there is no adequate contextual research done as to how this strategy can be harmonized with farmers’ livelihood strategies and how policy can face the potential trade-off with modern technology adoption. To implement sensible on-farm conservation and variety adoption strategies, farmers’ preferences for variety traits and their land allocation behavior should be understood. To this end, the paper aims to study coffee farmers’ preferences for variety traits and examine land use decisions (between traditional and improved coffee trees). A household model that considers farmers’ variety trait preferences as a positive externality of their livelihood decisions is developed drawing from Lancaster’s characteristics model. The data come from 266 coffee growing farmers in South Western Ethiopia. Multinomial logit and two-limit Tobit regression models are estimated to examine farmers’ preferences for coffee variety traits and the proportion of coffee land that they allocate to traditional coffee trees, respectively. The results have shown the factors inducing farmers’ preference for certain variety traits, relative importance of coffee variety traits to farm households of different features, and factors motivating farmers to continue planting traditional coffee trees. Based on the empirical results, the paper derives policy implications in the areas of on-farm conservation, improved variety adoption, and coffee breeding priority setting.

WALELA MRMAONGATIMOTHY. "Using Art and Crafts in the teaching of Geography in Kenya Secondary School (M.ED. thesis at McGill).". In: M.ED. thesis at McGill. World Conference of Phylosophy Proceedings; 1989.
Walker BR, Colledge NR, Ralston SH, Penman I. Davidson's principles and practice of medicine. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2013. Abstract
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Wall KM, Rida W, Haddad LB, Kamali A, Karita E, Lakhi S, Kilembe W, Allen S, Inambao M, Yang AH, Latka MH, Anzala O, Sanders EJ, Bekker L-G, Edward VA, Price MA. "Pregnancy and HIV Disease Progression in an Early Infection Cohort from Five African Countries." Epidemiology. 2017;28(2):224-232. Abstract

Understanding associations between pregnancy and HIV disease progression is critical to provide appropriate counseling and care to HIV-positive women.

Wall DH, Bradford MA, John MGST, Trofymows JA, Behan-Pelletier V, Bignell DE, Dangerfield JM, Parton WM, Rusek, J. FOI, Voight, W., Wolters V, Gardel HZ, Ayuke FO, Bashford R, Beljakova OI, Bohlen PJ, Brauman A, Flemming S, Henschel JR, Johnson DL, Jones TF, Kovarova, M., Kranabetter JM, Kutny L, Kuo-Chuan L, Maryati M, Masse D, Pokarzhevskii A, Rahman H, Sabara MG, Joerg-Alfred S, Swift MJ, Varela A, Vasconcelos HL, White D, Zou X. "Global decomposition experiment shows soil animal impacts on decomposition are climate- dependent." Global Change Biology. 2008;14:2661-2677. Abstract

Climate and litter quality are primary drivers of terrestrial decomposition and, based on evidence from multisite experiments at regional and global scales, are universally factored into global decomposition models. In contrast, soil animals are considered key regulators of decomposition at local scales but their role at larger scales is unresolved. Soil animals are consequently excluded from global models of organic
mineralization processes. Incomplete assessment of the roles of soil animals stems from the difficulties of manipulating invertebrate animals experimentally across large geographic gradients. This is compounded by deficient or inconsistent taxonomy. We report a global decomposition experiment to assess the importance of soil animals in C mineralization, in which a common grass litter substrate was exposed to natural decomposition in either control or reduced animal treatments across 30 sites distributed from 431S to 681N on six continents. Animals in the mesofaunal size range were recovered from the litter by Tullgren extraction and identified to common specifications, mostly at the ordinal level. The design of the trials enabled faunal contribution to be evaluated against abiotic parameters between sites. Soil animals increase decomposition rates in temperate and wet tropical climates, but have neutral effects where temperature or moisture constrain biological activity. Our findings highlight that faunal influences on
decomposition are dependent on prevailing climatic conditions. We conclude that (1) inclusion of soil animals will improve the predictive capabilities of region- or biomescale decomposition models, (2) soil animal influences on decomposition are important at the regional scale when attempting to predict global change scenarios, and (3) the statistical relationship between decomposition rates and climate, at the global scale, is robust against changes in soil faunal abundance and diversity.

Keywords: climate decomposition index, decomposition, litter, mesofauna, soil biodiversity, soil
carbon, soil fauna

de Wallis CL, Papathanasopoulos MA LKKKSABLGSWTFSEAP, W S. "Affordable in-house antiretroviral drug resistance assay with good performance in non-subtype B HIV-1." J Virol Methods. . 2010;163(2):505-8.
Walsh DS, Eyase F, Onyango D, Odindo A, Otieno W, Waitumbi JN, Bulimo WD, Schnabel DC, Meyers WM, Portaels F. "Short report: Clinical and molecular evidence for a case of Buruli ulcer (Mycobacterium ulcerans infection) in Kenya." Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;81:1110-3. AbstractWebsite

Mycobacterium ulcerans infection is an emerging disease that causes indolent, necrotizing skin lesions known as Buruli ulcer (BU) and occasional contiguous or metastatic bone lesions. Buruli ulcer is named after Buruli County in Uganda (east Africa), where an epidemic occurred in the 1960s. Today, BU is most common in central and west Africa. We describe clinical and molecular evidence for a case of BU in Kenya.

Walsh JH, Kariuki J, Stuart-Shor E. "The Meaning of Cross-Cultural Service Learning for Nursing Students: Kenya Heart and Sole (KHAS).". In: NURSING RESEARCH. Vol. 62. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS 530 WALNUT ST, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19106-3621 USA; 2013:. Abstract
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Walter Jaoko, Frederick N Nakwagala OAGOMJ, Birungi, Annet Nanvubya FBKBHOSWLM, Wambui Waruingi, Jane Odada MOJIJN-ACKEM, Patricia Fast, Claudia Schmidt JGTTCSBBLD,, Bruce Johnson AMLNPHMBPHT´aˇs HAMM, Job Bwayo PK. "Safety and immunogenicity of recombinant low-dosage HIV-1 A vaccine candidates vectored by plasmid pTHr DNA or modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) in humans in East Africa." Vaccine. 2008:2788-2795.
Walter Jaoko, Etienne Karita KKGO-MSASTEABMS, Graham, Richard A. Koup RBCSLDBFOAT, Claude M. Muvunyi, Jean Bizimana TT-FPBPHJ, Martin Ho, Kelley Loughran WKGSHTMBJ, Josephine H. Cox, Claudia Schmidt JGGNPFJBJ. "Safety and Immunogenicity Study of Multiclade HIV-1 Adenoviral Vector Vaccine Alone or as Boost following a Multiclade HIV-1 DNA Vaccine in Africa." PLoS ONE . 2010;5( 9):e12873.
Walter Jaoko, Frederick N Nakwagala OAGOMJ, Birungi, Annet Nanvubya FBKBHOSWLM, Wambui Waruingi, Jane Odada MOJIJN-ACK, Emmanuel Mugisha, Patricia Fast CSJGTTCSBBLD, Bruce Johnson, Andrew Muluubya LNPHMB, and Peter Hughes, Tomas Hanke AMMJBPK. "Safety and immunogenicity of recombinant low-dosage HIV-1 A vaccine candidates vectored by plasmid pTHr DNA or modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) in humans in East Africa." Vaccine,. 2008;26(22):2788-95.
Walter Onchere, Weke P, Ottieno J, Ogutu: C. "Graduation of Term Assurance Data using Frailty Approach." Afrika Statistika. 2021;16(3):2805-2817.
Walter Onchere, Weke P, Ottieno J, Ogutu C. "Shared Frailty Model with Application in Joint–Life Annuity Assurance." Advances and Applications in Statistics. 2021;68( 1):23-42.
Walter Onchere, Richard Tinega, Weke P, Otieno JAM. "The Reciprocal Generalized Inverse Gaussian Frailty with Application in Life Annuity Business." Journal of Advances in Mathematics and Computer Science. 2020;35(6):112-131. AbstractWebsite

Aims: As shown in literature, several authors have adopted various individual frailty mixing distributions as a way of dealing with possible heterogeneity due to unobserved covariates in a group of insurers. This research contribution is to generalize the frailty mixing distribution to nest other classes of frailty distributions not in literature and apply the proposed distributions in valuation of life annuity business.

Methodology: A simulation study is done to assess the performance of the aforementioned models. The baseline parameters is estimated using Bayesian Inference and a better model is suggested for valuation of life annuity business.

Results: As a result of generalizing the frailty some new classes of frailty distributions are constructed such as; the Reciprocal Inverse Gaussian Frailty, the Inverse Gamma Frailty, the Harmonic Frailty and the Positive Hyperbolic Frailty.

From the simulation study, the proposed new frailty models shows that ignoring frailty leads to an underestimation of future residual lifetime since the survival curve shifts to the right when heterogeneity is accounted for. This is consistent with frailty literature.

The Reciprocal Inverse Gaussian model closely represents the Association of Kenya Insurers graduated rates with a slight increase in survival due to longevity risk.

Conclusion: The proposed new frailty models show an increase in the insurers expected liability when unobserved heterogeneity is accounted for. This is consistent with frailty literature and thus can be applied to avoid underestimating the insurer’s liability in the context of life annuity business.

The RIG model as proposed in estimating future liability by directly adjusting the AKI mortality rates shows an increase in longevity risk. The extent of heterogeneity of the insured group determines the level of risk. The RIG frailties should be considered for multivariate cases where the insureds are clustered in groups.

Walter Onchere, Weke P, Ottieno J, Ogutu C. "Positive Stable Frailty Approach in the Construction of Dependence Life–Tables." s,Open Journal of Statistics. 2021;11( 1):506-523,.
Walter Onchere, Weke P, Ottieno J, Ogutu: C. "Non Central Gamma Frailty with Application to Life Term Assurance Data." Advances and Applications in Statistics. 2021;67( 2):237-253.
Walters, R.S, N.B. P. "Promoting neurosicence research in Kenya: What can we do as a neuroscience community?" Internal. J. Neuroscience. 1999:1-2.
Wamaitha MN, Mogoa EM, Mande JD. "Hematological effects of ketofol in acepromazine or medetomidine sedated dogs." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2018;7 (4):216-222.
Wamaitha MN, Mogoa EM, Mande JD. "Evaluation of anesthesia produced by ketofol in acepromazine-or medetomidine-sedated dogs." Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research . 2019;6 (2):215-221.
Wamaitha MN, Kihurani DO, Kimeli P, Mwangi WE, Mande JD. "Surgical management of a genesis of the vulva with atresia ani-et-distal recti in a heifer calf: A case report Surgical management of agenesis of the vulva with." Journal of Advanced Veterinary Animal Research. 2015;2:369-372. Abstract
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Wamaitha MN, Mogoa EM, Mande JD. "Evaluation of anesthesia produced by ketofol in acepromazine-or medetomidine-sedated dogs." Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research. 2019;6:215. Abstract
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Wamaitha MN, Kihurani DO, Kimeli P, Mwangi WE, Mande JD. "Surgical management of agenesis of the vulva with atresia ani-et-distal recti in a heifer calf: A case report." Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research. 2015;2:369-372. Abstract
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Wamaitha MN, Kihurani DO, Kimeli P, Mwangi WE, Mande JD. "Surgical management of a genesis of the vulva with atresia ani-et-distal recti in a heifer calf: A case report." Journal of Advanced Veterinary Animal Research. 2015;2. Abstract
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Wamalwa H, Kamau P, McCormick D. "How do food processing firms in Kenya learn? Empirical insights from potato processing in Nairobi." . DBA Africa Management Review. 2020;10(5):79-96.
Wamalwa DC, Wafula EM, Munyao TM, Murila FV. "Pattern of use of skin care products in children with and without eczematous skin lesions.". 2002. Abstract

To compare the pattern of use of skin care products between children with eczematous skin lesions and those without. Case control study. Two well baby clinics at the Kenyatta National Hospital and the Mbagathi District Hospital in Nairobi. Eighty nine infants with eczematous skin lesions and 89 age and sex matched controls without skin lesions. Presence and severity of skin lesions related to the type of skin care products used by the child. Exposure to various products was not significantly different between infants with skin lesions and those without. However, more mothers whose children had a skin rash had made a change in the type of soap and or skin cream used for their child (p<0.0001). The principal reason for changing products was skin rash in the baby and most mothers made changes away from scented baby soap products. The study found no significant difference between the cases and controls regarding the type of skin care products used.

Wamalwa DC, Obimbo EM, Farquhar C, Richardson BA, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Inwani I, Benki-Nugent S, John-Stewart G. "Predictors of mortality in HIV-1 infected children on antiretroviral therapy in Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

Among children, early mortality following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) remains high. It is important to define correlates of mortality in order to improve outcome. Methods: HIV-1-infected children aged 18 months-12 years were followed up at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi after initiating NNRTI-based HAART. Cofactors for mortality were determined using multivariate Cox regression models. Results: Between August 2004 and November 2008, 149 children were initiated on HAART of whom 135 were followed for a total of 238 child-years (median 21 months) after HAART initiation. Baseline median CD4% was 6.8% and median HIV-1-RNA was 5.98-log10 copies/ml. Twenty children (13.4%) died at a median of 35 days post-HAART initiation. Mortality during the entire follow-up period was 8.4 deaths per 100 child-years (46 deaths/100 child-years in first 4 months and 1.0 deaths/100 child-years after 4 months post-HAART initiation). On univariate Cox regression, baseline hemoglobin (Hb) <9 g/dl, weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) < -2, and WHO clinical stage 4 were associated with increased risk of death (Hb <9 g/dl HR 3.00 [95% C.I. 1.21-7.39], p = 0.02, WHZ < -2 HR 3.41 [95% C.I. 1.28-9.08], p = 0.01, and WHO clinical stage 4, HR 3.08 [1.17-8.12], p = 0.02). On multivariate analysis Hb < 9 g/dl remained predictive of mortality after controlling for age, baseline CD4%, WHO clinical stage and weight-for-height z-score (HR 2.95 (95% C.I. 1.04-8.35) p = 0.04). Conclusion: High early mortality was observed in this cohort of Kenyan children receiving HAART, and low baseline hemoglobin was an independent risk factor for death.

Wamalwa D, Benki-Nugent S, Langat A, Tapia K, Ngugi E, Slyker JA, Richardson BA, John-Stewart GC. "Survival benefit of early infant antiretroviral therapy is compromised when diagnosis is delayed.". 2007. Abstract

Late presentation is common among African HIV-1-infected infants. Incidence and correlates of mortality were examined in 99 infants with HIV-1 diagnosis by 5 months of age. Twelve-month survival was 66.8% (95% confidence interval: 55.9-75.6%). World Health Organization stage 3 or 4, underweight, wasting, microcephaly, low hemoglobin, pneumonia and gastroenteritis predicted mortality. Early HIV-1 diagnosis with antiretroviral therapy before symptomatic disease is critical for infant survival.

Wamalwa H, Upadhyaya R, Kamau P, McCormick D. "Strategies of Kenyan firms: a case study of food processing firms in Nairobi." African Journal of Economic and Management Studies. 2019;10(4):507-520.
Wamalwa DC, Farquhar C, Obimbo EM, Selig S, Mbori-Ngacha DA, et al. "Medication diaries do not improve outcomes with highly active antiretroviral therapy in Kenyan children: a randomized clinical trial ." Journal of the International AIDS Society Research. 2009. Abstractmedication_diaries_do_not_improve_outcomes.pdf

Abstract
Background: As highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) becomes increasingly available to African children,
it is important to evaluate simple and feasible methods of improving adherence in order to maximize benefits of
therapy.
Methods: HIV-1-infected children initiating World Health Organization non-nucleoside reverse transcriptaseinhibitor-
containing first-line HAART regimens were randomized to use medication diaries plus counselling, or
counselling only (the control arm of the study). The diaries were completed daily by caregivers of children
randomized to the diary and counselling arm for nine months. HIV-1 RNA, CD4+ T cell count, and z-scores for
weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height were measured at a baseline and every three to six months.
Self-reported adherence was assessed by questionnaires for nine months.
Results: Ninety HIV-1-infected children initiated HAART, and were followed for a median of 15 months
(interquartile range: 2–21). Mean CD4 percentage was 17.2% in the diary arm versus 16.3% in the control arm at
six months (p = 0.92), and 17.6% versus 18.9% at 15 months (p = 0.36). Virologic response with HIV-1 RNA of
<100 copies/ml at nine months was similar between the two arms (50% for the diary arm and 36% for the control,
p = 0.83). The weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height at three, nine and 15 months after HAART
initiation were similar between arms. A trend towards lower self-reported adherence was observed in the diary
versus the control arm (85% versus 92%, p = 0.08).
Conclusion: Medication diaries did not improve clinical and virologic response to HAART over a 15-month
period. Children had good adherence and clinical response without additional interventions. This suggests that
paediatric HAART with conventional counselling can be a successful approach. Further studies on targeted
approaches for non-adherent children will be important.

Wamalwa RN, Nyamai CM, Ambusso WJ, Mulwa J, WASWA AARONK. "Structural Controls on the Geochemistry and Output of the Wells in the Olkaria Geothermal Field of the Kenyan Rift Valley." International Journal of Geosciences. 2016;7(11):1299. AbstractFull Text

The Olkaria geothermal field is located in the Kenya Rift valley, about 120 km from Nairobi. Geothermal activity is widespread in this rift with 14 major geothermal prospects being identified. Structures in the Greater Olkaria volcanic complex include: the ring structure, the Ol’Njorowa gorge, the ENE-WSW Olkaria fault and N-S, NNE-SSW, NW-SE and WNW-ESE trending faults. The faults are more prominent in the East, Northeast and West Olkaria fields but are scarce in the Olkaria Domes area, possibly due to the thick pyroclastics cover. The NW-SE and WNW- ESE faults are thought to be the oldest and are associated with the development of the rift. The most prominent of these faults is the Gorge Farm fault, which bounds the geothermal fields in the northeastern part and extends to the Olkaria Domes area. The most recent structures are the N-S and the NNE-SSW faults. The geochemistry and output of the wells cut by these faults have a distinct characteristic that is the N-S, NW-SE and WNW-ESE faults are characterized by wells that have high Cl contents, temperatures and are good producers whereas the NE-SW faults, the Ring Structure and the Ol’Njorowa gorge appear to carry cool dilute waters with less chloride concentration and thus low performing wells. Though the impacts of these faults are apparent, there exists a gap in knowledge on how wide is the impact of these faults on the chemistry and performance of the wells. This paper therefore seeks to bridge this gap by analysis of the chemical trends of both old wells and newly drilled ones to evaluate the impacts of individual faults and then using buffering technique of ArcGis estimate how far and wide the influence of the faults is. The data was obtained after the sampling and analysis of discharge fluids of wells located on six profiles along the structures cutting through the field. Steam samples were collected with a stainless steel Webre separator connected between the wellhead and an atmospheric silencer on the discharging wells whereas the analysis was done in house in the KenGen geochemistry laboratory. The results indicates that Olkaria field has three categories of faults that control fluid flow that is the NW-SE trending faults that bring in high temperature and Cl rich waters, and the NE-SW trending Olkaria fracture tend to carry cool temperature waters that have led to decline in enthalpies of the wells it cuts through. The faults within the Ol Njorowa gorge act to carry cool, less mineralized water. Though initially, these effects were thought to be in shallow depths, an indication in OW-901 which is a deeper at 2200 m compared to 1600 m of OW-23 well that proves otherwise. This is, however, to be proved later as much deeper wells have been sited.

Wamalwa H, McCormick D. "Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), Trade and Development in Africa.". In: Paper prepared as a background document for the International Trade Centre’s (ITC) Flagship Report, ‘SME Competitiveness 2015: SMEs, Trade and Development’ and for presentation at the ITC Workshop . Geneva, Switzerland; 2015.
Wamalwa DC, Obimbo EM, Farquhar C, Richardson BA, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Inwani I, Benki-Nugent S, John-Stewart G. "Predictors of mortality in HIV-1 infected children on antiretroviral therapy in Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

Among children, early mortality following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) remains high. It is important to define correlates of mortality in order to improve outcome. Methods: HIV-1-infected children aged 18 months-12 years were followed up at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi after initiating NNRTI-based HAART. Cofactors for mortality were determined using multivariate Cox regression models. Results: Between August 2004 and November 2008, 149 children were initiated on HAART of whom 135 were followed for a total of 238 child-years (median 21 months) after HAART initiation. Baseline median CD4% was 6.8% and median HIV-1-RNA was 5.98-log10 copies/ml. Twenty children (13.4%) died at a median of 35 days post-HAART initiation. Mortality during the entire follow-up period was 8.4 deaths per 100 child-years (46 deaths/100 child-years in first 4 months and 1.0 deaths/100 child-years after 4 months post-HAART initiation). On univariate Cox regression, baseline hemoglobin (Hb) <9 g/dl, weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) < -2, and WHO clinical stage 4 were associated with increased risk of death (Hb <9 g/dl HR 3.00 [95% C.I. 1.21-7.39], p = 0.02, WHZ < -2 HR 3.41 [95% C.I. 1.28-9.08], p = 0.01, and WHO clinical stage 4, HR 3.08 [1.17-8.12], p = 0.02). On multivariate analysis Hb < 9 g/dl remained predictive of mortality after controlling for age, baseline CD4%, WHO clinical stage and weight-for-height z-score (HR 2.95 (95% C.I. 1.04-8.35) p = 0.04). Conclusion: High early mortality was observed in this cohort of Kenyan children receiving HAART, and low baseline hemoglobin was an independent risk factor for death.

Wamalwa RN, Nyamai CM, Ambusso WJ, Mulwa JK, WASWA AARONK. "Structural controls on the Geochemistry and output of the Wells in the Olkaria Geothermal Field of the Kenyan Rift Valley." International Journal of Geoscience. 2016;7:1299-1309. Abstract

The Olkaria geothermal field is located in the Kenya Rift valley, about 120 km from Nairobi. Geothermal activity is widespread in this rift with 14 major geothermal prospects being identified. Structures in the Greater Olkaria volcanic complex in- clude: the ring structure, the Ol’Njorowa gorge, the ENE-WSW Olkaria fault and N-S, NNE-SSW, NW-SE and WNW-ESE trending faults. The faults are more prom- inent in the East, Northeast and West Olkaria fields but are scarce in the Olkaria Domes area, possibly due to the thick pyroclastics cover. The NW-SE and WNW- ESE faults are thought to be the oldest and are associated with the development of the rift. The most prominent of these faults is the Gorge Farm fault, which bounds the geothermal fields in the northeastern part and extends to the Olkaria Domes area. The most recent structures are the N-S and the NNE-SSW faults. The geoche- mistry and output of the wells cut by these faults have a distinct characteristic that is the N-S, NW-SE and WNW-ESE faults are characterized by wells that have high Cl contents, temperatures and are good producers whereas the NE-SW faults, the Ring Structure and the Ol’Njorowa gorge appear to carry cool dilute waters with less chlo- ride concentration and thus low performing wells. Though the impacts of these faults are apparent, there exists a gap in knowledge on how wide is the impact of these faults on the chemistry and performance of the wells. This paper therefore seeks to bridge this gap by analysis of the chemical trends of both old wells and newly drilled ones to evaluate the impacts of individual faults and then using buffering technique of ArcGis estimate how far and wide the influence of the faults is. The data was ob- tained after the sampling and analysis of discharge fluids of wells located on six pro- files along the structures cutting through the field. Steam samples were collected with a stainless steel Webre separator connected between the wellhead and an atmospher- ic silencer on the discharging wells whereas the analysis was done in house in the KenGen geochemistry laboratory. The results indicates that Olkaria field has three categories of faults that control fluid flow that is the NW-SE trending faults that bring in high temperature and Cl rich waters, and the NE-SW trending Olkaria frac- ture tend to carry cool temperature waters that have led to decline in enthalpies of the wells it cuts through. The faults within the Ol Njorowa gorge act to carry cool, less mineralized water. Though initially, these effects were thought to be in shallow depths, an indication in OW-901 which is a deeper at 2200 m compared to 1600 m of OW-23 well that proves otherwise. This is, however, to be proved later as much deeper wells have been sited.

Wamalwa DC, Farquhar C, Obimbo EM, Selig S, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Richardson BA, Overbaugh J, Emery S, Wariua G, Christine Gichuhi, Dalton Wamalwa, Bosire R, John-Stewart G. "Early response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected Kenyan children." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2007;45(3):311-7. Abstract

To describe the early response to World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-1-infected Kenyan children unexposed to nevirapine.

Wamalwa DC, Lehman DA, Benki-Nugent S, Gasper MA, Gichohi R, Maleche-Obimbo E, Farquhar C, John-Stewart GC, Overbaugh J. "Long-term virologic response and genotypic resistance mutations in HIV-1 infected Kenyan children on combination antiretroviral therapy." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2013;62(3):267-74. Abstract

HIV-infected children may require the use of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) into adulthood. However, regimens are limited to first line and second line in many African settings. Therefore, understanding the long-term rate of virologic failure and drug resistance during prolonged antiretroviral treatment is important for establishing treatment strategies in African pediatric cohorts.

Wamalwa D, Benki-Nugent S, Langat A, Tapia K, Ngugi E;, Slyker JA, Richardson BA, John-Stewart GC. "Survival benefit of early infant antiretroviral therapy is compromised when diagnosis is delayed.". 2007. Abstract

Late presentation is common among African HIV-1-infected infants. Incidence and correlates of mortality were examined in 99 infants with HIV-1 diagnosis by 5 months of age. Twelve-month survival was 66.8% (95% confidence interval: 55.9-75.6%). World Health Organization stage 3 or 4, underweight, wasting, microcephaly, low hemoglobin, pneumonia and gastroenteritis predicted mortality. Early HIV-1 diagnosis with antiretroviral therapy before symptomatic disease is critical for infant survival.

Wamalwa RW, Awino ZB. "A Study of Challenges Facing the Implementation of Differentiation Strategy in the Operations of the Mumias Sugar company Limited." Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management (BAM). 2011;1(5):154-162.
Wamalwa CM, Nasambu WC, Karimi PN, Ogonyo KB, Wandolo G. "Factors that influence adequacy of asthma control in children residing in Naivasha, a flower growing area in Kenya." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2016;5(4):221-228. AbstractWebsite

Background: In Kenya, asthma affects 10% of the population. One of the modifiable risk factors contributing to asthma morbidity and mortality is environmental exposure.Naivasha flower farms introduce pesticides persistently into the environment and thesemay drift onto residential property or other areas where children play. Proximity of households to the pesticide treated farms may also increase exposure of children to thepesticides. Pesticide exposure has been shown to exacerbate already existing asthma, a relationship that has not been studied in Kenya.
Objectives:To identify risk factors that exacerbate asthma and influence adequacy of Asthma control in children residing in a flower growing area in Kenya.
Methodology: The design was a cross-sectional study that involved 150 asthmatic children aged 5-12 years residing a flower growing area. The study was conducted between May and July, 2014 in Naivasha, which home to Kenya’s largest horticultural flower farms. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire while asthma control was measured using a validated Asthma control tool. Logistic regression was done to identify variables that affected asthma control.
Results: Majority of the asthmatic children weremales (56.7%) while females were 43.33%. Riskfactors that were found to be significantly associated with asthma control were; duration of stay in or near a flower farm (OR = 0.723, 95%CI (0.538-0.975), presence of a smoker in the family (OR = 0.463, 95%CI (0.094-22.629) and presence of household pet (OR = 4.358, 95%CI (1.182-16.057). There was no significant relationship between the child’s asthma control and age of child, sex of child, distance of school from flower, guardian’s level of education, guardian’s income, and guardian’s occupation as a flower farm worker, child’s age of diagnosis and use of indoor pesticides.
Conclusion: The use of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) should be promoted as it keeps environmental exposure pesticides to a minimum.

Wamalwa K, Massimo C, Munyua, Solomon M. "PPP: An Appraisal of efficiency, effectiveness and Success in the Meat Sector in States Recovering from Civil Instability: A Case Study of Somaliland.". 2011. Abstract

The objective of the investigation was to establish the economy, efficiency, effectiveness and importance of slaughterhouses’ management by companies established through public-private partnership (PPP) process in countries that are recovering from ravages of civil war. The study focused on two slaughter houses in North Western (Somaliland) republic of Somalia. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to the management of one privately managed and one publicly managed slaughterhouse in Somaliland. A visual and organoleptic appraisal of the two slaughterhouses was further done. To collaborate and validate the findings, 160 surface meat swab samples were collected from small ruminant carcasses slaughtered in the two slaughterhouses. The samples were analyzed at Analabs laboratories in Nairobi, Kenya for total viable counts, total coliforms count and presence of Salmonella species. Meat contamination risk factors and compliance with hygiene meat handling practices in the two slaughterhouses were identified through visual appraisal, organoleptic tests and transect walks around the slaughterhouses. The results showed that Hargeisa slaughterhouse that is managed through PPP process produced meat of high quality with low levels of contamination as opposed to Berbera slaughterhouse that was managed by the local municipality. Microbiological laboratory analysis results were in agreement with results from questionnaire administration and visual appraisal and organoleptic tests. The study concluded that in fragile states recovering from civil war, PPP is the best way out for the management of meat production facilities.

Wamalwa RN, WASWA AARONK, Nyamai CM, Mulwa JK, Ambuso WJ. "Evaluation of the factors controlling concentration of non-condensable gases and their possible impact on the performance of geothermal systems: Case study of Olkaria Wells in the Kenyan Rift Valley." International Journal of Geosciences. 2016;7:257-279. Abstract

The Olkaria geothermal field is located in the Kenyan Rift valley, about 120 km from Nairobi. Development of geothermal resources in the Olkaria area, a high temperature field, started in the early 1950s. In the subsequent years numerous expansions have been carried out with additional power plants being installed in Olkaria. These include a binary plant at Olkaria South West (Olkaria III) in 2000, a condensing plant at Olkaria North East (Olkaria II) in 2003, another binary plant at Olkaria North West (Oserian) in 2004 and finally condensing plants in the year 2014 within East production field (EPF) and Olkaria Domes (OD) areas. The total generation from this field is about 730 Mw. The study considered samples from 4 producing wells from 3 fields of the Olkaria geothermal area (OW-44 from the Olkaria East, OW-724A from the Olkaria North East, and OW-914 and OW-915 from the Olkaria Domes field). The chemical data were first analyzed using SOLVEQ. This helped in the determination of the equilibrium state of the system, the reservoir temperatures and the total moles to be run through CHILLER. The run CHILLER considered the processes that have been proven to be occurring in the Olkaria field i.e., boiling and condensing processes, fluid-fluid mixing rocks and titration resulting from water-rock interaction. The effects on gas evolution were evaluated based on the resulting recalculated gas pressures. The results indicate that the gas species are not in equilibrium with the mineral assemblages. The CHILLER evaluation shows boiling as the major process leading to the evolution of gases. OW-44 had the least gas concentrations, arising from the considered reservoir processes due to degassing, and near surface boiling, besides the removal of NH3 , H2 and H2S are through the reaction with steam condensate. The gas breakout is most likely in OW-914 and least in OW-44. The study proposes different reservoir management strategies for the different parts of the Olkaria geothermal field. That is by increasing hot reinjection in the eastern sector around well OW-44. The reservoir around OW-914 is to be managed by operating the wells at a minimum flow rate (or even to close them) or the use of chemical inhibitors to prevent calcite scaling.

Wamalwa D, Lehman DA B-NGGSM, Benki-Nugent S, Gasper M GR, Maleche-Obimbo E, John-Stewart G OJ. " Long-term Virologic Response and Genotypic Resistance Mutations in HIV-1 Infected Kenyan Children on Combination Antiretroviral Therapy." J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012 Nov 28. [Epub ahead of print]. 2012. Abstract

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
HIV-infected children may require the use of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) into adulthood. However, regimens are limited to first- and second-line in many African settings. Therefore, understanding the long-term rate of virologic failure and drug resistance during prolonged antiretroviral treatment is important for establishing treatment strategies in African pediatric cohorts.
METHODS:
Children ages 18 months to 12 years initiated first-line cART and were followed every 1-3 months, for up to 5.5 years. Treatment was switched to second-line based on clinical and immunologic criteria according to national guidelines. Virologic failure was determined retrospectively as defined by ≥2 viral loads >5000 copies/mL. Drug resistance was assessed during viral failure by population-based sequencing.
RESULTS:
Among 100 children on first-line cART followed for a median 49 months, 34% experienced virologic failure. Twenty-three (68%) of the 34 children with viral failure had detectable resistance mutations, of whom 14 (61%) had multi-class resistance. Fourteen (14%) children were switched to second-line regimens and followed for a median of 28 months. Retrospective analysis revealed that virologic failure had occurred a median of 12 months prior to the switch to second-line. During prolonged first-line treatment in the presence of viral failure, additional resistance mutations accumulated, however, only 1 (7%) of 14 children had persistent viremia during second-line treatment.
DISCUSSION:
Virologic suppression was maintained on first-line cART in two-thirds of HIV-infected children for up to 5 years. Switch to second-line based on clinical/immunologic criteria occurred ∼1 year after viral failure, but the delay did not consistently compromise second-line treatment.

and Wamalwa K., Castiello M. OJNGJM. "Investigation of hygiene standard of carcasses slaughtered in five local slaughterhouses of Somaliland, Somalia." Proceedings of the 7th Bieannual Scientific Conference. 2010.
Wamboi P, Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Bebora LC. "Haemato-biochemical changes and prevalence of parasitic infections of indigenous chicken sold in markets of Kiambu County, Kenya, ." International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine. 2020;8(1):18-25.
Wamboi P, Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Nguhiu JM, Bebora LC. "Haemato-biochemical changes and prevalence of parasitic infections of indigenous chicken sold in markets of Kiambu County, Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine. 2020;8(1):18-25.abstract1.pdf
Wambu EW, Attahiru S, Shiundu PM, wabomba J. "Removal of heavy-metals from wastewater using a hydrous alumino-silicate mineral from Kenya." Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia. 2018;32(1):39-51. AbstractAJOL Journal

Description

Heavy metals’ discharge into the environment continues to pose grave concerns around the world. The efficacy of a hydrous alumino-silicate clay (AlSiM) coming obtained from some regions of Kenya to sorb heavy-metal ions from water has been evaluated in batch tests taking into account changes in adsorbent dose, pH, contact time, and temperature. Complete metal removals, from water containing up to 66 mg/L of Pb (II) was achieved using this material at pH value of 5 over a temperature range of 289–333 K. The adsorption data fitted both the Langmuir and the Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms with R 2> 0.99. The DR adsorption energy (− 11.7 kJ/mol) indicated that chemisorption was the primary reaction in the adsorption process and the derived∆ G 0 value (− 7.45 kJ/mol) was consistent with the spontaneity of the adsorption process. The kinetic analyses indicated a film-diffusion and surface-chemisorption controlled process. Verification of the initial results on heavy metals-containing wastewaters obtained from a tannery and a leather processing industries revealed excellent adsorption efficacies of AlSiM for Cr 3+(99− 100%), Fe 3+(96− 98%), Mn 2+(85− 97%) and Zn 2+(78− 86%). The use of AlSiM as a plausible low-cost adsorbent for heavy-metal decontamination of industrial effluents has therefore been demonstrated.

Wambu EW, Attahiru S, Shiundu PM, wabomba J. "Removal of heavy-metals from wastewater using a hydrous alumino-silicate mineral from Kenya." Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia. 2018;32(1):39-51. AbstractBulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia

Description
Heavy metals’ discharge into the environment continues to pose grave concerns around the world. The efficacy of a hydrous alumino-silicate clay (AlSiM) coming obtained from some regions of Kenya to sorb heavy-metal ions from water has been evaluated in batch tests taking into account changes in adsorbent dose, pH, contact time, and temperature. Complete metal removals, from water containing up to 66 mg/L of Pb (II) was achieved using this material at pH value of 5 over a temperature range of 289–333 K. The adsorption data fitted both the Langmuir and the Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms with R 2> 0.99. The DR adsorption energy (− 11.7 kJ/mol) indicated that chemisorption was the primary reaction in the adsorption process and the derived∆ G 0 value (− 7.45 kJ/mol) was consistent with the spontaneity of the adsorption process. The kinetic analyses indicated a film-diffusion and surface-chemisorption controlled process. Verification of the initial results on heavy metals-containing wastewaters obtained from a tannery and a leather processing industries revealed excellent adsorption efficacies of AlSiM for Cr 3+(99− 100%), Fe 3+(96− 98%), Mn 2+(85− 97%) and Zn 2+(78− 86%). The use of AlSiM as a plausible low-cost adsorbent for heavy-metal decontamination of industrial effluents has therefore been demonstrated.

Wambua BN, shadrack Kithiia M. "Effects of soil erosion on sediment dynamics, food security and rural poverty in Makueni District, Eastern Kenyan." International Journal of Applied science and Technology. 2014;vol 4(No 1:January 2014):101-107.ijast_publication_2014.pdf
WAMBUA MUSILI. "The challenges of controlling African maritime zones: command, control and co-operation: how do we do it?". In: Sea power for Africa symposium. Cape Town South Africa; 2005.
Wambua BN. "Lakes Chala and Jipe and Umba river ecosystems transboundary integrated natural Resource management programme.". In: lakes challa and Jipe and umba river ecosystem transboundary management. Kilimanjaro crest Hotel- moshi Tanzania; 2013.
Wambua RN, Oboko R. "ELearning for Persons with Visual Disabilities: Case of Low Vision.". In: Handbook of Research on Educational Technology Integration and Active Learning. United States of America (USA): IGI Global; 2015.
Wambua PM. "Piracy.". 2010.Website
WAMBUA MUSILI. "Building collaborative peace and security arrangements in IGAD.". In: challenges and prospects. Intercontinental Hotel Nairobi; 2010.
Wambua BN. "Uplifting the poor .". 2005.Website
WAMBUA MRMUASYAISAAC, OKURO DRGUNGASAMSON. "Study on Education and Health of the Under Three year old Children, Ministry of Health, Kenya.". In: Kenya Adult Education Association. 2003; 1994. Abstract

This paper argues that problems in education are caused by non-professional teachers who are employed when trained teachers move in search of promotion friendly activities or financially rewarding duties. This shift of focus means that policy makers in education act without adequate professional guidance. The problems in education, therefore, result from demands made on mainstream education based on misconceptions about what education can offer. It is argued that the implementation of e-learning in education faces the risk of developing on the basis of unproven theories. This scenario increasingly sees the replacement of formal education activities in institutions of learning with non-formal and informal education practices. Given that the contents and influences of non-formal and informal education are not under the control of the teacher, the experiences that learners bring to education settings are increasingly difficult to manage. The paper proposes that by integrating e-learning in teacher education and rewarding 'good teaching', there is a potential for a successful e-learning revolution in education.

Wambua, P.M., Okoth, S.A, Kalai, J.M. "Influence of Principals’ Involvement of Students in Decision Making on Discipline in Secondary Schools, Kenya." European Scientific Journal. 2017;13(22).7.pdf
WAMBUA MUSILI. "Piracy.". In: Piracy, maritime security and the environment in the Eastern African coast. Continental Resort, Mombasa; 2010.
WAMBUA MRMUASYAISAAC, OKURO DRGUNGASAMSON. "Wang'ombe, J.K et al (1998) Capacity of Non .". In: University of Nairobi. 2003; 1998. Abstract

This paper argues that problems in education are caused by non-professional teachers who are employed when trained teachers move in search of promotion friendly activities or financially rewarding duties. This shift of focus means that policy makers in education act without adequate professional guidance. The problems in education, therefore, result from demands made on mainstream education based on misconceptions about what education can offer. It is argued that the implementation of e-learning in education faces the risk of developing on the basis of unproven theories. This scenario increasingly sees the replacement of formal education activities in institutions of learning with non-formal and informal education practices. Given that the contents and influences of non-formal and informal education are not under the control of the teacher, the experiences that learners bring to education settings are increasingly difficult to manage. The paper proposes that by integrating e-learning in teacher education and rewarding 'good teaching', there is a potential for a successful e-learning revolution in education.

WAMBUA MUSILI. "Kenyan jurisprudence in the fight against corruption.". In: Integrity in Kenya’s Public Service. Nairobi: Claripress; 2008.
WAMBUA MUSILI. "Interagency challenges in enforcing maritime safety and security in Africa.". In: expert workshop on maritime safety and security. African Union (AU) headquarters, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2010.
WAMBUA MUSILI. "The challenge of controlling African maritime zones: command, control and co-operation; how do we do it?" Law Society of Kenya journal. 2006;Vol.3 2006 No.1 (ISBN 91966-7121-7-8).
WAMBUA MRMUASYAISAAC, OKURO DRGUNGASAMSON. "Teachers Manual for "MSINGI BORA" Careers Guidance and Counseling a Gender Component. A project of Plan International.". In: CHAKITA. EAEP; 1998. Abstract
The author illustrates how qualitative data from open-ended interviews, pile sorts, and triad sorts can be used to test quantitatively for intracultural variation in norms. Specifically, the author tests whether Gusii men and women in the Suneka Division of Kisii District in southwest Kenya have developed a common set of standards in response to symptoms of malaria. In this small sample, the focus is on internal, rather than external, validity. While the findings about Gusii responses to malaria are not generalizable beyond the village where the data were collected, the method described may be used to study cultural similarities across socioeconomic, gender, and other groups.
Wambua PM. "An overview of civil procedure as applied in Kenya.". In: rent restriction department orientation and performance seminar program. Kenya Institute of Highways and building technology, Nairobi,; 2004.
Wambua L, Agaba M, Kemp SJ, Valentini A. "Acute-phase Trypanosomiasis: Role of parasite surface glycoprotein and DNA in immune response dysregulation.". In: European Science Foundation Conference on Cutting edge Immunology. Netherlands; 2011.abstract_esf-jsps.pdf
WAMBUA MUSILI. "Enhancing regional maritime co-operation in Africa: the planned end state.". In: Sea power for Africa symposium. Cape Town; 2009.
Wambua L, Bernd Schneider, Fischer-Jores A. "Saving livestock fodder in East Africa: development of a rapid penside diagnostic assay for detection of napier grass stunt phytoplasma." Phytopathogenic Mollicutes. 2015;5(1s):S23-S24.
WAMBUA DBONIFACEN. "Completed a PhD research on analysis of social-economic and institutional factors on food security in semi-arid areas of Makueni District." Completed a PhD research on analysis of social-economic and institutional factors on food security in semi-arid areas of Makueni District. 2007.
WAMBUA MUSILI. "Terrorism and piracy: new threats to geopolitical stability.". In: diplomats appointed by the Somalia‟s Transitional Federal Government-TFG. Kenya Institute of Administration (KIA); 2010.
Wambua BN, Omoke KJ, Mutua TM. "effects of socio - economic factors on food security situation in kenyan drylands ecosystem." Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food science(ISSN:2321-1571). 2014;02(01 february 2014).893-4145-1-pb.pdf
WAMBUA MUSILI. "Addressing Maritime Security Challenges;Lessons from Kenya’s Model Legislative Framework.". In: Building Local Capacity for Maritime security.; 2011.
WAMBUA DBONIFACEN. "Problems of sustainable development of agricultural production in the semiarid areas of Machakos-Makueni districts- Seminar paper." Problems of sustainable development of agricultural production in the semiarid areas of Machakos-Makueni districts- Seminar paper. 2003.
WAMBUA MUSILI. "Challenges of prosecuting piracy offences in Kenya.". In: international trade and challenges of piracy. Coral Key Hotel, Malindi; 2010.
WAMBUA MRMUASYAISAAC, OKURO DRGUNGASAMSON. "Study on Early Childhood Education and Health in Kenya.". In: Kenya Adult Education Association. 2003; 1994. Abstract

This paper argues that problems in education are caused by non-professional teachers who are employed when trained teachers move in search of promotion friendly activities or financially rewarding duties. This shift of focus means that policy makers in education act without adequate professional guidance. The problems in education, therefore, result from demands made on mainstream education based on misconceptions about what education can offer. It is argued that the implementation of e-learning in education faces the risk of developing on the basis of unproven theories. This scenario increasingly sees the replacement of formal education activities in institutions of learning with non-formal and informal education practices. Given that the contents and influences of non-formal and informal education are not under the control of the teacher, the experiences that learners bring to education settings are increasingly difficult to manage. The paper proposes that by integrating e-learning in teacher education and rewarding 'good teaching', there is a potential for a successful e-learning revolution in education.

Wambua, E. M; Nderitu OWJH; F;. Evaluation of variety resistance as amangement srategy for thrips (megalurothrips sjostedti trybom and frankliniella occidentalis pergrande) on french beans (phaseolus vulgaris l.).; 2004. Abstract

French bean, phaseolllus vulgaris l. is a major horticultural crop in kenya mainly grown for fresh export market. A major contraint in succesfull production of the crop is pests and diseases. thrips are considered as one of the major inscect pests attacking mainly flowers and causing losses of above 60percentage A lot of pesticides use and hence pesticide resideu has been attributed to thrips control. In view of the introduction of maximum pesticides level by importing countries, there is need to develope intergrated thrips mangement strategy with less pesticide use . Towards this goal, nine french beans varieties were evaluated for resistance to thrips (megalurothrips sjostedti frankliniella occidentalis)during the period (november 2001 to april 2002). This was done in two planting phases using randomised complete block design in four replicates. It was evident from the study that there significant diffrences in resistance to thrips by varieties. monel variety was found to be the most susceptibleand impala the least.Frankliniella occidentalis was more abadunt than megalurothrips sjostedti during the study period. The ratio of M . sjostedti to F. occidentalis on flowers was 1.5and 1.7 during the 1st and 2nd planting respectively.

WAMBUA MUSILI. "Enhancing regional maritime cooperation in East Africa.". In: maritime safety and security organized. the Leisure Lodge, Mombasa; 2010.
WAMBUA MUSILI. "Enhancing regional maritime co-operation in africa; the planned end state." African Security Review. 2009;Vol 18 No 3 September 2009.
WAMBUA MUSILI. "The legislative framework for adjudication of piracy cases in kenya; review of the jurisdictionaland procedural challenges and the institutional capacity.". In: sea piracy law-selected national legal frameworks and regional legislative approaches. Germany: Duncker and Humblot; 2010.
WAMBUA MUSILI. "Maritime security.". In: issues in piracy and terrorism. Neptune Hotel, Mombasa; 2010.
Wambua L, Bernd Schneider, Allan Okwaro, Joseph Odhiambo Wanga, Olive Imali, Peninah Nduku Wambua, Lavender Agutu, Cassandra Olds, Chris Stephen Jones. "Development of field-applicable tests for rapid and sensitive detection of Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae." Molecular and cellular probes. 2017;35:44-56.
WAMBUA MRMUASYAISAAC, OKURO DRGUNGASAMSON. "Study on Early Childhood Education and Health in Kenya.". In: CHAKITA. EAEP; 1994. Abstract
The author illustrates how qualitative data from open-ended interviews, pile sorts, and triad sorts can be used to test quantitatively for intracultural variation in norms. Specifically, the author tests whether Gusii men and women in the Suneka Division of Kisii District in southwest Kenya have developed a common set of standards in response to symptoms of malaria. In this small sample, the focus is on internal, rather than external, validity. While the findings about Gusii responses to malaria are not generalizable beyond the village where the data were collected, the method described may be used to study cultural similarities across socioeconomic, gender, and other groups.
WAMBUA MUSILI. "Corporate Governance and Corruption in Kenya.". In: Integrity in Kenya‟s Public Service. Nairobi: Claripress; 2008.
WAMBUA MUSILI. "Prosecution of pirates in regional states: an overview of the legal frameworks.". In: multinational law enforcement and sea piracy. Max Planck Institute of Foreign and International Criminal Law, Freiburg, Germany; 2009.
Wambua L, Villinger J, Moses Yongo Otiende, Maamun Jeneby, Morris Kilewo, David Schindel, Scott M. "End of the road for illegal bushmeat trade in East Africa: Transboundary surveillance by high resolution melting analysis of vertebrate molecular barcodes.". 2015.
Wambua L, Westhead DR, McConkey GA. "Discovery of novel drug targets against pathogenic protozoa: The promise of metabolic reconstruction." Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 2009;9(3):375-376.
WAMBUA MUSILI. "Governance of Kenya’s living and non-living marine resources: a review of the existing policy, legal and institutional frameworks.". In: worldwide colloquium of the IUCN academy of environmental law. Rio de Janiero/Paraty, Brazil; 2007.
Wambua BN. "The status and the effects of food insecurity on the livelihood opportunities and options in semi-arid parts of Makueni District, Kenya." Asian Journal of Agriculture anf food science(ISSN:2321_1571). 2013;vol 01(04,october 2013).491-2303-1-pb.pdf
WAMBUA MUSILI. "An overview of civil procedure as applied in Kenya.". In: rent restriction department orientation and performance seminar. Kenya Institute of Highways and building technology; 2004.
Wambua RN. SCHOOL OF COMPUTING AND INFORMATICS. University of NAIROBI; 2007. Abstract
n/a
WAMBUA MUSILI. "The challenges of Piracy and terrorism in the horn of Africa.". In: the intervening role of diplomats and protocol officers. IGAD Liaison offices in Nairobi; 2011.
WAMBUA DBONIFACEN. "Droughts and floods associated with the Great Elnino episodes over parts of Kenya eastern Africa." Droughts and floods associated with the Great Elnino episodes over parts of Kenya eastern Africa. 1998.
WAMBUA DBONIFACEN. "Research on resource mobilization and management for National development in Lake Basin region, university project." Research on resource mobilization and management for National development in Lake Basin region, university project. 2002.
WAMBUA MUSILI. "The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.". In: Exclusive Economic Zone vis a vis fishing rights in the East African coastline. Continental Resort Hotel, Mombasa; 2010.
WAMBUA DBONIFACEN. "The urban growth of Mombasa coastal town and its implication for surface and ground water resources." The urban growth of Mombasa coastal town and its implication for surface and ground water resources. 1999.
WAMBUA MUSILI. "Combating piracy and maritime crime in the Indian Ocean.". In: Indian Ocean Naval Symposium. Abu Dhabi (UAE; 2010.
Wambua PM. "India-Africa Security Cooperation: Gains, Challenges and Future Prospects.". In: India-Africa Strategic Dialogue. New Delhi; 2011.abstract.pdf
WAMBUA MUSILI. "Combating piracy and maritime crime in the Indian Ocean.". In: Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (IONS. Abu Dhabi (UAE); 2010.
WAMBUA MRMUASYAISAAC, OKURO DRGUNGASAMSON. "Teachers Manual for "MSINGI BORA" Careers Guidance and Counseling a Gender Component. A project of Plan International.". In: University of Nairobi. 2003; 1998. Abstract

This paper argues that problems in education are caused by non-professional teachers who are employed when trained teachers move in search of promotion friendly activities or financially rewarding duties. This shift of focus means that policy makers in education act without adequate professional guidance. The problems in education, therefore, result from demands made on mainstream education based on misconceptions about what education can offer. It is argued that the implementation of e-learning in education faces the risk of developing on the basis of unproven theories. This scenario increasingly sees the replacement of formal education activities in institutions of learning with non-formal and informal education practices. Given that the contents and influences of non-formal and informal education are not under the control of the teacher, the experiences that learners bring to education settings are increasingly difficult to manage. The paper proposes that by integrating e-learning in teacher education and rewarding 'good teaching', there is a potential for a successful e-learning revolution in education.

WAMBUA MRMUASYAISAAC, OKURO DRGUNGASAMSON. "Study on Education and Health of the Under Three year old Children, Ministry of Health, Kenya.". In: CHAKITA. EAEP; 1994. Abstract
The author illustrates how qualitative data from open-ended interviews, pile sorts, and triad sorts can be used to test quantitatively for intracultural variation in norms. Specifically, the author tests whether Gusii men and women in the Suneka Division of Kisii District in southwest Kenya have developed a common set of standards in response to symptoms of malaria. In this small sample, the focus is on internal, rather than external, validity. While the findings about Gusii responses to malaria are not generalizable beyond the village where the data were collected, the method described may be used to study cultural similarities across socioeconomic, gender, and other groups.
Wambua L, Agaba M, Valentini A, Kemp SJ. "Macrophage activation by Trypanosoma congolense variant surface glycoprotein.". In: International Society for Computational Biologists conference. South Africa; 2011.iscb_abstract-2011.pdf
WAMBUA MUSILI. "The legislative framework for adjudication of piracy cases in Kenya; review of the jurisdictional and procedural challenges and the institutional capacity.". In: review of the jurisdictional and procedural challenges and the institutional capacity. Max Planck Institute of Foreign and International Criminal Law, Freiburg, Germany; 2009.
Wambua L, Peninah Nduku Wambua, Allan Maurice Ramogo, Domnic Mijele, Moses Yongo Otiende. "Wildebeest-associated malignant catarrhal fever: perspectives for integrated control of a lymphoproliferative disease of cattle in sub-Saharan Africa." Archives of virology. 2016;161(1):1-10.
Wambua BN, Muhigirwa E. "An Assessment of the Causes of Tick Resistance to Acaricides use on Cattle in kazo County Kiruhura District, Uganda." International Journal of Applied Science and Technology. 2019;Vol. 9( No. 2):doi:10.30845/ijast.v9n2p5.

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