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Martelat JE, G G, D O, Bosse V, Omito E, D I’i, Nyamai CM, Wamunyu A, Monie P. "U/Pb Ages of zircon and monazite from the tsavorite-bearing Neoproterozic rocks of southeastern Kenya, and the significance of static crystallisation of the tsavorite.". In: 13th SGA Biennial Meeting 2015. Nancy, France; 2015. Abstract

Tsavorite, the vanadian variety of green grossular, is hosted exclusively in metasedimentary formations in the Neoproterozoic Metamorphic Mozambique Belt. In order to understand the origin of tsavorite in southeastern Kenya we integrated field investigations, geochemical studies, and dating. Two units are seen in outcrop: 1) a metasedimentary sequence, and 2) a quartz-feldspar migmatitic group. This second group of rocks shows classic "Pan-african geometry" with vertical and horizontal foliation planes. The metamorphism attains granulite facies. The metasedimentary sequence is different and recorded lower metamorphism (high-amphibolite facies, 680 °C), and if static recrystallization occurs, few traces of melting was observed. Landslide with sediment deformation structures of the sedimentary deposition are preserved. Systematic LA-ICPMS U/Pb dating was done on monazite and zircon. The migmatitic rocks recorded ages from 615 Ma to 585 Ma. The metasedimentary rocks recorded ages from 600 Ma to 595 Ma. Older ages of 850-720 Ma seems to be inherited ages from magmatic minerals. The formation of tsavorite is the result of a sedimentary sequence preserved from strain but heated by surrounding granulitic rocks between 600 to 595 Ma. The regional associated tectonic process is unclear but efficient for vertical displacement. We suggest that it is a peculiar event and process, and was unable to completely recrystallize the sedimentary rocks. These last are exceptionally preserved from strain and melt, a case that may be unique in the world.

MAINA DRMBURUJOHN. "ualitative research with a Kenyan flavour.Mburu J, Cogswell L, Crane E, Todreas IL. Essent Drugs Monit. 1991;(11):8-9.". In: Essent Drugs Monit. 1991;(11):8-9. CHAK Times; 1991. Abstract

PIP: The Essential Drugs Program in Kenya's Ministry of Health included a qualitative research phase of focus group discussions (FGDs) to assess the communication needs in educating the public about responsible essential drug use. This article discusses the general parameters of FGDs, and specific outcomes of essential drug FGDs and the evaluation of the health education tools generated in the FGDs. The purpose of the pilot project was to develop effective materials on the correct use of drug regimens and promoting authorized drug providers. FGDs were used as a quick and relatively inexpensive means of gauging a target audience's beliefs and practices. The facilitator of the group directed discussion and probed for participants views on the community's needs, and forms of expression. (Drawing on positive social customs within a culture helps bridge the difference between local perceptions and knowledge.) Pretesting of draft materials in FGDs assured the ability to reach the target audience. These 2 methods contributed to the project's success by involving the target group as experts in providing useful information, fostering a sense of ownership and commitment, and building a relationship between the staff and target group that renewed dedication and willingness to cooperate. Program staff conducted 19 FGDs with 171 clients and 9 FGDs with 63 providers, and also interviewed 36 providers and observed in 4 locations client/provider exchanges. The results showed that client were unaware of the importance of strict compliance with a drug regimen, and consequences of ineffectiveness. Clients were uneasy about side effects, and purchased drugs from unauthorized dealers. The 3 messages to be promoted were 1) return to the clinic or hospital if drug problems arise, 2) use only authorized providers, and 3) follow directions carefully and completely. It was also decided that posters and audio cassette were the communication modes. A description of the materials developed is described. 24 health centers in 3 districts received the materials. A 3 month evaluation was conducted, after which time quantitative information was analyzed. Behavioral changes were observed in the returns to the clinic for more information, and closing of some unauthorized clinics and loss of business, and fewer complaints of lingering illness. Communication, trust, and good health care resulted.

Wamwana EB, Ndavi PM, Gichangi PB, Karanja JG, Muia EG, Jaldesa GW. "uality of record keeping in the intrapartum period at the Provincial General Hospital Kakamega, Kenya." East Afr. Med J. . 2007;84(7).
P J. "Uanuwai wa Lugha na Utaifa Barani Afrika.". In: Kiswahili na Utaifa Nchini Kenya. Nairobi: Twaweza Communications; 2012.
SWALEH AMIRI. "Ubainishi wa Mwanamke katika Natala.". In: Kiswahili language C onference . University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2002.
Tumisang Liphoto MM. "Ubiquitous traffic management with fuzzy logic — Case study of Maseru, Lesotho .". In: IST-Africa Week Conference, 2016.; 2016. Abstract

Maseru is the capital city of Lesotho and is a relatively small city with roughly 67 vehicles registered each day. Traffic lights are used with the intension of effectively managing vehicular traffic at junctions. These traffic lights follow a predetermined sequence usually based on historic data. As a result of this design, they inherently fail to efficaciously manage traffic flow when it is abnormal. Vehicles on one side have to wait even though there are no cars on other sides of the road. The consequences of this include increased congestion and atmospheric air pollution. Technological advancements have resulted in the now widely researched Internet of Things paradigm with one of its applications being vehicular traffic management. The focus of this paper is the design of a prototype reactive system based on Internet of Things whose functionality includes traffic lights that are capable of reacting to prevailing conditions. The system makes use of Radio Frequency IDentifier technology and mobile tools to ubiquitously collect traffic data and disseminate value added traffic information

MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "UC Schaller, KHM Kollmann (book chapter): Onkologie (oncology); In: Importierte Tropenkrankheiten (imported tropical diseases): V Klauss, HJ Trojan (Hrsg.), Kadenverlag (Accepted for publication 2009).". In: PMID: 20164797. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2009. Abstract
{ BACKGROUND: Estimates of intraocular pressure (IOP) are influenced directly by the central corneal thickness (CCT). We assume and apply a single value for CCT (520 mum) in applanation tonometry estimates, although there is compelling evidence that CCT varies between individuals. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of CCT and other factors on IOP among Ethiopians. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted among 300 sampled individuals from June to July 2006. The CCT was measured using OcuScan(R) RxP Ophthalmic Ultrasound and readings of IOP were made with Goldmann applanation tonometer. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 12 and S-Plus 2000 of statistical packages. RESULTS: Out of 300 individuals, 184 (61.3%) were males. The mean age was 42.57 years (SD+/-16.71), mean IOP 13.39 mm Hg (SD+/-2.81), and mean CCT 518.68 mum (SD+/-32.92). There was statistically significant relationship between CCT and IOP (r=0.199, P<0.001) and a borderline statistically significant detectable change of CCT with age (r=0.012
Timammy GBJR&. "Uchanganuzi linganishi wa Suala la Maadili kwa Vijana wa Kiume katika Tenzi mbili: Siraji na Adili in Mwanga wa Lugha ." Jarida la Idara ya Kiswahili na Lugha nyingine za Kiafrika Chuo Kikuu cha Moi Juzuu. 2017;1(2):133-147 .
Kamau K, IRIBEMWANGI PI. "Uchapishaji wa Bunilizi za Kiswahili: Ukweli-kinzani na Umuhimu wa Mwelekeo Mpya.". In: Ukuzaji wa Kiswahili: Dhima na Majukumu ya Asasi Mbalimbali. Nairobi: Focus Publishers Ltd; 2014.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "Uchochoro wa Mauti .". In: Mizungu YaManabii na Hadithi Nyingine. Phoenix; 2010.
ELISABETH DRMULLERMARIE. "Ueber paradoxe Sinnserien, informelle Fakes und Peter Greenaway's Featurefilme (Diss.), Wuerzburg: Koenigshausen & Neumann 1999.". In: Journal of the Kiswahili Department, University of Dar es Salaam.; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Xerophthalmia among Kenyan children aged four to seven years in high risk using Conjuctival Impression Cytology and transfer. DESIGN: A cross sectional community based study. SETTING: Mathare slum in Nairobi and Tiva/Ithiani area of Kitui. SUBJECTS: Children aged four to seven years residing in the above areas were assessed for both clinical and cytological features of vitamin A deficiency. RESULTS: Of the 342 children included in this study, 316 (92.0%) were normal, five (1.5%) had XN, 19 (5.9% had XIA and two (0.6%) had XIB. No signs of corneal Xerophthalmia were seen in this study. Conjuctival impression cytology and transfer (CICT) was used to asses for squamous metaplastic changes associated with Vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Seventy five (23.1%) of the children were normal by CICT while 249 (76.9%) were abnormal. In comparing the two areas of study, only 13.2% of the children in Mathare had normal CICT compared to 50% in Kitui. For each of the age groups studied there was significant difference between the two areas with children from Mathare being more deficient than those from Kitui. CONCLUSION: VAD is a significant health problem in the high risk areas assessed by CICT in this study.
Mungania G. Ufundishaji wa Kiswahili katika shule za upili chini ya mfumo wa 8-4-4 (Kidato cha Kwanza). Anonymous, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi.; Forthcoming.
K DRMUSAMBAYICHRISANTHUSIKALIKHA. "Uganda and Rwanda's involvement in the DRC: The pursuit of national interests.". In: L. uon press; 2000. Abstract
{ The Blantyre coma scale (BCS) is used to assess children with severe falciparum malaria, particularly as a criterion for cerebral malaria, but it has not been formally validated. We compared the BCS to the Adelaide coma scale (ACS), for Kenyan children with severe malaria. We examined the inter-observer agreement between 3 observers in the assessment of coma scales on 17 children by measuring the proportion of agreement (PA), disagreement rate (DR) and fixed sample size kappa (kappa n). We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the scales in detecting events (seizures and hypoglycaemia) in 240 children during admission and the usefulness of the scales in predicting outcome. There was considerable disagreement between observers in the assessment of both scales (BCS: PA = 0.55
R. M, Walker R, P J. "Ugonjwa wa Parkinsons.". In: Nyenzo katika kiswahili. Hesperian.org; 2013.
Wamitila KW. Uhakiki wa Fasihi.; 2002.Website
MUTISO DRKINEENEWA. "Uhakiki Wa Malenga wa Mvita (Literary criticism).". In: Hankuk University Press, March 1st, 1986, 132pp. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1986. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
Kanyinga K. "Uhuru and Raila should sit together, alone, and resolve to unite Kenya." Sunday Nation, October 8, 2017.
"Uhuru Ulioupania.". In: unani Marekani? na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Target Publishers.; 2011.
OMBOGA DRZAJAJAMES. ""Ukewenza Katika Mke Mwenza" an analysis of Nyaigotti Chacha's Mke Mwenza, published in Mwamko no.2, 1984.". In: Energy and Environment in East Africa, ERS-3-80, United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, . Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 1984. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
and A TSR. "Ulimwengu wa Kanga." The University of Nairobi Journal of Language and Linguistics. 2016;5:195-203.
A 8. TSR &. "Ulimwengu wa Kanga." The University of Nairobi Journal of Language and Linguistics . 2016;5(2224-1655):195-203 .
CHAGA MRSMWALIWAHANNAH. ""Ulinganishi wa fonolojia ya Kiswahili na Kidawida" - A dissertation for the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Master of Arts degree in Kiswahili studies at the University of Nairobi 2000.". In: High Ridge Teachers College, Nairobi, Kenya for Ministry of Education, Kenya. University of Birmingham; 2000.
Chaga MH. Ulinganishi wa mofofonolojia ya Kiswahili na Kidawida. Nairobi: University of Nairobi.; 2000.
A. PROFESHIWANIARTHUR. "The Ultra-Vires Axe - Some Reflections, 1979:9 (Commissioned by the Institute of Certified Public Accountants, Kenya, for purposes of launching the first offical journal of the institute.". In: The Kenya Accountant, Vol. 1:14; Vol.2. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 1979. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
Birech Z, Schwoerer M. "Ultrafast dynamics of excitons in tetracene single crystals." The Journal of Chemical Physics. 2014;140:114501.birech_et_al.pdf
Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO. "Ultrasonic Attenuation in Clay Refractories." Discovery and Innovation. 2001;13(1/2):39-47.
Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO. "Ultrasonic Attenuation in Kenyan Clay Refractories." British Ceramic Transactions. 1999;98(6):266-270.
Nyongesa FW. Ultrasonic Characterization of Kenyan Clay refractories. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1994.
Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO. Ultrasonic Characterization of Kenyan Clay Refractories. Nairobi, Kenya: NDT Society of Kenya; 1994.
Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO. "An Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation of Clay Refractories." African Journal of Science and Technology AJST. 1995;7 Series B(2):53-57.
Njogu A, Owiti GO, Persson E, Njoroge EM, Mbithi PMF, Wachira TM, Maxson AD, Zeyhle EE. "Ultrasound in Livestock. A contribution to epidemiology of hydatidosis.". 1999.Website
Njoroge EM, Mbithi PMF;, Gathuma JM, Wachira TM, Maxson AD, Zeyhle EE. "Ultrasound in Livestock. A contribution to epidemiology of hydatidosis.". 1999.
Lobo N, MOULTON, J.E., Lobo, C., Rothschild, L.J., Mwaura, F., Kabaru JM, and Duboise SM. "Ultrastructural and Biochemical Analysis of In Vivo and In Vitro Capsid Assembly of the Alkaliphilic Phage Φ1N2-2 for Applications in Nanomedicine." Microscopy & Microanalysis . 2012;Vol 18, S2:110.
Rothschild L, Mwaura F, Kabaru J, Lobo N, Moulton K, Lobo C, Duboise S. "Ultrastructural and Biochemical Analysis of In Vivo and In Vitro Capsid Assembly of the Alkaliphilic Phage [Phi] 1N2-2 for Applications in Nanomedicine." Microscopy and Microanalysis. 2012;18(2):110. AbstractFull text link

Bacteriophage 1N2-2 infects a narrow range of alkaliphilic bacterial strains phylogenetically
related to the family Idiomarinacea [1]. Both phage and host bacterium were isolated from alkaline
and saline waters of Lake Nakuru, a soda lake of Kenya’s Great Rift Valley. Virion structures
including capsids must tolerate extreme alkaline environments of pH 10 and above. The phage is
morphologically and genetically related to lambdoid viruses of the family Siphoviridae (Fig. 1B)[1].
Genomic analysis revealed that 1N2-2 genes are organized in functional modules. Capsid
morphogenesis genes are homologous both in order and predicted amino acid sequence to the
corresponding genes of the coliphage HK97 (Fig. 1A )[2]. Like many dsDNA viruses, HK97
assembles multiple subunits of a single gene product into a protocapsid around a transient
protein-scaffolding core that is subsequently cleaved by a protease at the time of DNA packaging
triggering expansion and stabilization of the mature capsid [3]. 1N2-2, like HK97, lacks an
independent capsid scaffolding gene but rather, as we have inferred, the N-terminal 110 residues of
the major head protein (MHP) encoded by gene 10 probably assume a coiled-coil folding typical of
scaffolding proteins.
We cloned the 1N2-2 gene 10 MHP sequence into a pQE-Tri-system plasmid (Qiagen) and have
expressed a 46-kDa MHP protein in Escherichia coli strain SG19003 (Qiagen) that can be
precipitated by 8% PEG treatment in ice and low speed centrifugation (Fig. 1C and 1E).
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis shows the presence of virus-like particles (VLP)
of similar size and shape as empty proheads of naturally formed 1N2-2 (Fig. 1B). Alternatively,
the 3’ end of the gene 10 in the pQE vector was modified to eliminate the stop codon allowing in
frame translation of ten additional codons including eight histidine residues at the C-terminus of
MHP (MHP-his). Based on a Swiss-model prediction of the 1N2-2 MHP protein sequence using
the structure of phage HK97 MHP as template (PDB 1OHG)[4] we inferred that the C-terminus and
its additional modifications would be located on the surface of the recombinant capsid allowing the
purification of fully assembled capsids with Ni-NTA affinity chromatography (data not shown).
SDS-PAGE analysis and UAc-stained protein samples visualized by TEM show that MHP-his
expressed in E. coli is a protein of 46.5 kDa (Fig. 1E) that can assemble into VLPs, possibly
proheads of 46 nm in diameter (Fig. 1D). Other non-closed structures that are seen in the sample are
presumably incomplete capsids (Fig 1 C and 1D). We are currently investigating whether capsid
morphogenesis including incomplete structures and proheads produced from the expression plasmid
in E. coli differ from natural capsid morphogenesis in the alkaliphilic host of 1N2-2. We are
formulating capsid assembly buffers to produce fully closed stable VLP in vitro. We conclude that the Φ1N2-2 MHP protein, either intact or with histidineresidues at the C-terminus, is sufficient to produce VLP in theabsence of other virally-encoded proteins. Weexpectthe MHP C-terminus can be used to
display antigens on the prohead surface while modifications of the N-terminus may be used for
packaging antigens internally providing a versatile VLP platform for vaccine development and
other nanomedicine applications.

Terayama Y, Kaneko Y, Kawamoto K, Sakai N. "Ultrastructural changes of the nerve elements following disruption of the organ of {Corti}. {I}. {Nerve} elements in the organ of {Corti}." Acta oto-laryngologica. 1977;83:291-302. Abstract

3-137 days after disruption of the guinea pig organ of Corti by perilymphatic perfusion with 20% streptomycin (SM), ultrastructural changes of the nerve fibers in the organ were observed. Most of nerve fibers began to degenerate after a latent period of 4 days. On the other hand, a number of fibers survived reactively enlarged and later developed into myelinated and unmyelinated fibers by becoming enclosed in Schwann cells which entered the organ of Corti through the habenula perforata. Regeneration and sprouting of the surviving nerve fibers also occurred. The fibers became mature, but atrophied after 60 days and then gradually disappeared. The regenerating fibers were mainly of the myelinated and unmyelinated efferent type. Retrograde degeneration occurred in both afferent and efferent fibers. In the less damaged organ of Corti perfused with 2% SM or Ringer's solution, Schwann cell invasion was not found.

Lobo N, Moulton KD, Lobo C, Rothschild LJ, Mwaura F, Kabaru JM, Duboise SM. "Ultrastructure and biochemical analysis of in vitro and in vivo capsid assembly of alkaliphilic Phage Ф1N2-2 for application in nanomedicine." Microscopy and Microanalysis. 2012;18(2):110.
Owiti GO, Persson E, Oduor-Okelo D. "Ultrastructure of the chorioallantoic placenta and chorionic vesicles of the lesser bush baby (Ga/ago senega/ensis).". 2005. AbstractWebsite

The ultrastructure of the chorioallantoic placenta of the lesser bush baby (Galago senegalensis) has been studied. The placenta was shown to be of the diffuse, epitheliochorial and adeciduate type. The trophoblasts of the chorionic villi, other than those lining the chorionic vesicles, were characterized by the presence of many lipid droplets. In the later stage of gestation, the fetal capillaries indented the trophoblastic epithelium reducing the distance between fetal and maternal circulations. In addition chorionic vesicles were observed. The trophoblasts lining the chorionic vesicles have outward bulging apical surfaces. There are clefts between these cells and this region is occupied by microvilli of adjacent cells. Several layers of fusiform cells that did not extend up into the cores of the chorionic vesicle villi formed the outer component of the vesicular wall. Granulated cells were observed within the maternal connective tissue and their possible role is discussed

MN W, GN M, LP P, JO O'ech. "The Umbilical Artery Resistive Index and the Cerebro-Placental Ratio as a Predictor of Adverse Foetal Outcome in Patients with Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy during Third Trimester." East and Central African Journal of Surgery. 2013;18(3):94-97. AbstractWebsite

Background: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy causes adverse effects both the maternal and faetal circulations. These circulations can be assessed safely and non-invasively by Doppler `ultrasound using arterial Doppler indices of umbilical artery alone or combining the umbilical
artery with the middle cerebral artery thus attaining the cerebroplacental ratio (ratio of the middle cerebral artery resistive index over that of the umbilical artery). The main objective of this study was to compare the Umbilical Artery Resistive index alone and the cerebroplacental ratio as a predictor of adverse fetal outcome in patients with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in third trimester.
Methods: A prospective cohort study was carried out at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) over a period of nine months. Gravid patients at least 32 weeks gestations by dates were recruited from labor ward. Consecutive sampling method was used. The Umbilical Artery Resistive Index was obtained and the cerebroplacental ratio was also calculated from the Umbilical Artery Resistive Index and Middle Cerebral Artery Resistive index.
Results: A total of 160 patients were recruited into the study. Among neonates of mothers with pregnancy induced hypertension with Umbilical Artery Resistive Index median (0.64), a fetal birth score < 7 was 0.5 (95% CI 0.3, 0.8; p <0.001) times more likely than a score > 7 and 6.6 (Odds Ratio 6.6; 95% CI 2.5, 17.3; p <0.001) times more likely relative to hypertensive mothers with Umbilical Artery Resistive Index > median (0.64). Combining Umbilical Artery Resistive Index and Middle Cerebral Artery Resistive Index (cerebroplacental ratio) improves the prognostic odds ratio from 6.6 to 82. The Umbilical Artery Resistive Index (/> median) had 80% (95% CI 63%, 90%) sensitivity, 62.3% (95% CI 54%, 70%) specificity, 33% positive predictive value, and 93.1% negative predictive value for neonatal adaption after birth as seen from the foetal birth score. Among infants of mothers with hypertensive disorder during pregnancy with Umbilical Artery Resistive Index median (0.64), low birth weight (<10th percentile of expected weight at gestation week) was 0.5 (95% CI 1.9, 7.3) times more likely than normal weight and 9.5 (Odds Ratio 9.5; 95% CI 3.1, 29.2; p<0.001) times more likely relative to infants of hypertensive mothers with Umbilical Artery Resistive Index > median (0.64). Combining Umbilical Artery Resistive Index and Middle Cerebral Artery Resistive Index (cerebroplacental ratio) does not improve the prognostic odds ratio. The Odds Ratio drops from 9.5 to5.6. This implies the Umbilical Artery Resistive Index is a better predictor of low birth weight. The Umbilical Artery Resistive Index (/> median) had 85.2% (95% CI 67.5%, 94%) sensitivity, 62.4% (95% CI 54%, 70%) specificity, 31.5% positive predictive value, and 95.4% negative predictive value for abnormal birth weight.
Conclusion • The Cerebroplacental ratio is a better predictor of faetal birth score < 7 as compared to Umbilical Artery Resistive Index.
• The Umbilical Artery Resistive Index is a better predictor of low birth weight as opposed to cerebroplacental ratio.
• Both cerebroplacental ratio and Umbilical Artery Resistive Index can be used in combination to get the best results on faetal birth score and foetal weight.

WANGUI DRGITAURUTH. "Umbilical cortisol levels as an indicator of the fetal stress response to assisted vaginal delivery. Gitau R, Menson E, Pickles V, Fisk NM, Glover V, MacLachlan N.Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2001 Sep;98(1):14-7.". In: Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2001 Sep;98(1):14-7. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: While it is well established that delivery by elective caesarean section is less stressful for the fetus than normal vaginal delivery, little attention has been paid to the effect on the baby of an assisted delivery. STUDY DESIGN: We examined cortisol levels in venous cord blood from seven babies born by forceps, 10 by ventouse extraction, 28 by unassisted normal vaginal delivery, and 12 born by elective caesarean. Paired maternal bloods were taken immediately after delivery. RESULTS: Cord blood cortisol values were significantly different in the different groups (one-way ANOVA, P < 0.0001). The forceps group had the highest values and the caesarean group the lowest; both were different from the normal vaginal delivery group (P=0.019 and P=0.046, respectively). There was no effect of length of labour, or method of pain relief on cortisol levels. Maternal values were similar in the different groups, confirming that the differences observed derived from the fetus. CONCLUSIONS: There is increasing evidence that the stress experienced by the fetus or neonate can have long-term effects on the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in later life. We speculate that the stress caused by some assisted deliveries may contribute to this.
"Umezikumbuka Zabibu.". In: Shingo ya Mbunge na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Vide Mua Publisher; 2007.
Delsol, J. P., Maurel P, Ochanda N. "Un cas D’ Edute la foret tropical de Kakamega – Nandi. Uest Kenya." International Symposium on Remote sensing of Environment. 1986.
Prof. Wamutiso K. "Unafiki wa Dini ." An Institute of Kiswahili Research Journal. 2006:36.
Ondari JN, Masika MM, Ombachi RB, Ating’a JE. "Unblinded randomized control trial on prophylactic antibiotic use in gustilo II open tibia fractures at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya.". 2016. AbstractWebsite

Objective

To determine the difference in infection rate between 24 h versus five days of prophylactic antibiotic use in management of Gustilo II open tibia fractures.
Design

Unblinded randomized control trial.
Setting

Accident and Emergency, orthopedic wards and outpatient clinics at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).
Patients

The study involved patients aged 18–80 years admitted through accident and emergency department with Gustilo II traumatic open tibia fractures.
Intervention

Patients were randomized into either 24 hour or five day group and antibiotics started for 24 hours or five days after surgical debridement. The wounds were exposed and scored using ASEPSIS wound scoring system for infection after 48 h, 5 days and at 14 days.
Outcome measures

The main outcomes of interest were presence of infection at days 2, 5 and 14 and effect of duration to antibiotic administration on infection rate.
Results

There was no significant difference in infection rates between 24-hour and 5-day groups with infection rates of 23% (9/40) vs. 19% (7/37) respectively (p = 0.699). The infection rate was significantly associated with time lapsed before administration of antibiotics (p = 0.004).
Conclusion

In the use of prophylactic antibiotics for the management of Gustilo II traumatic open tibia fractures, there is no difference in infection rate between 24 hours and five days regimen but time to antibiotic administration correlates with infection rate. Antibiotic use for 24 hours only has proven adequate prophylaxis against infection. This is underlined in our study which we hope shall inform practice in our setting. A larger, more appropriately controlled study would be useful.

Omonge E, Otieno CF, Maritim M, Ilovi CS, Achieng L, Otedo A. "Unboosted atazanavir in treatment of HIV infection: Consideration of tolerability and safety while maintaining efficacy- Report of two cases." East African Medical Journal, Supplement . 2013;Vol 90.(12):79-82.
Wamitila KW. Uncle's Joke: A Play.; 2007.Website
Nambati EA, Kiarie WC, Kimani F, Kimotho JH, Otinga MS, Too E, Kaniaru S, Limson J, Bulimo W. "Unclear association between levels of Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) in saliva of malaria patients and blood parasitaemia: diagnostic implications?" Malaria Journal. 2018;17:9. Abstractnambati_et_al_2018.pdfnambati_et_al_2018.pdfWebsite

The use of saliva in diagnosis of infectious diseases is an attractive alternative to procedures that involve blood drawing. It promises to reduce risks associated with accidental needle pricks and improve patient compliance particularly in malaria survey and drug efficacy studies. Quantification of parasitaemia is useful in establishing severity of disease and in assessing individual patient response to treatment. In current practice, microscopy is the recommended technique, despite its limitations. This study measured the levels of Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) in saliva of malaria patients and investigated the relationship with blood parasitaemia.

Bahemuka MJ. "The Undefended Childhood in Global context." The case of East Africa . In Undefended childhood. Published by Michigan State Umiversity. 2013.
Idenya PM. Under the Watchful Eye of Mary: LIVING the MYSTERIES of the HOLY ROSARY. UK: AuthorHouse; 2016. AbstractAuthorHouse UK

As the Lord Jesus faced imminent death upon the Cross, He dedicated all His beloved disciples to a love relationship with His Mother saying, “Behold your mother!” St. John was present at the foot of the Cross, representing all mankind. And from that hour, he took her into his home. This commissioning of the Blessed Virgin Mary as Mother of all mankind illustrates the great love with which the LORD Jesus offered His life for all peoples - by giving us the gift of His mother. All are to comprehend that Mary has an active role to play in our faith and in our spiritual life. We acknowledge that this is how the LORD Jesus wished to bring His Sacrifice to completion by entrusting His mother to His beloved disciple, and in the beloved disciple to all mankind. It is a concrete maternal love relationship between Mary and all who trustingly commend themselves to her care. Under the watchful eye of Mary is a spiritual journey where we learn from the Blessed Mother of God what living a worthy discipleship in the LORD is, and we meditatively pray with the Blessed Mary as the first Christian Community did before Pentecost.

Pertet AM, Kaseje D, Otieno-Odawa CF, Kirika L, Wanjala C, Ochieng J, Jaoko M, Otieno W, Odindo D. "Under vaccination of children among Maasai nomadic pastoralists in Kenya: is the issue geographic mobility, social demographics or missed opportunities?" BMC Public Health. 2018;18(1):1389. Abstract

Nomadic lifestyle has been shown to be a significant factor in low immunization coverage. However, other factors which might aggravate vaccination uptake in nomadic pastoralists are poorly understood. Our study aimed at establishing the relative influence of social demographics, missed opportunities, and geographical mobility on severe under vaccination in children aged less than two years living in a nomadic pastoralist community of Kenya.

Pertet AM, Kaseje D, Otieno-Odawa CF, Kirika L, Wanjala C, Ochieng J, Jaoko M, Otieno W, Odindo D. "Under vaccination of children among Maasai nomadic pastoralists in Kenya: is the issue geographic mobility, social demographics or missed opportunities?" BMC Public Health. 2018;18(1):1389. Abstract

Nomadic lifestyle has been shown to be a significant factor in low immunization coverage. However, other factors which might aggravate vaccination uptake in nomadic pastoralists are poorly understood. Our study aimed at establishing the relative influence of social demographics, missed opportunities, and geographical mobility on severe under vaccination in children aged less than two years living in a nomadic pastoralist community of Kenya.

MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "Under Western Eyes: Western Diplomatic Practices in Africa.A.". In: Review eassy African Review of Foreign Policy, Vol.1 No.2. University of Nairobi; 1999. Abstract

A Review and Analysis' African Review of Foreign Policy, Vol.1 No.1

Theuri A, Kaindi DWM, Mbugua SK, Karuri EG. "Under-fives rickets in a tropical dairy farming region Kiambu County, Kenya." JIARM. 2017;5(5):10-21.theuri_et_al._2017_abstract.pdf
Oucho JO. Undercurrents of Ethnic Conflict in Kenya. Leiden: The Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers; 2002.
Oucho JO. "Undercurrents of Post-Election Violence in Kenya: Issues in the Long-Term Agenda.". In: Tensions and Reversals in Democratic Transitions: The Kenya 2007 General Elections. Nairobi: Society for International Development and Institute for Development Studies, University of Nairobi; 2010.
ABDEL-MALEK AK. "Underfed Developing Purkinje cell.". 1995. Abstract

New-born mice were subjected to a regime of under-nutrition during lactation by doubling the size of the scope by lactating mother. The undernourished mice and controls were sacrificed at 2 and 3 weeks after birth. The brain was fixed in glutaraldehyde. Small blocks of paravermale region were fixed in osmium tetroxide, dehydrated and embedded in Epone. Thin sections of 0.04 microns were cut and stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate and viewed with an electron microscope to detect ultrastructural changes in Purkinje cells undernourished. Purkinje cells of mice controls were well differentiated at 2 and 3 weeks after birth, they had a euchromatic central core surrounded by rich Nissl substance cytoplasm and mitochondria. Purkinje cells were delayed in their differentiation as evidenced by the irregular and rough segmentation of the endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosomes group. These changes with the small number of mitochondria show reduced protein synthesis machinery. Granule cells showed immature glomeruli with less synaptic contacts and few mitochondria compared to control. These changes confirm the delay in differentiation and maturation of Purkinje neurons as a result of postnatal undernutrition. (Age & Nutrition, Volume 6, No. 2, 1995)

Ndung'u I. "The Underlying Reality of Phonological Simplification of Loan Words by Speakers of Kikuyu." Paper Submitted to Applied Linguistics Journal (Attn) Ann Conybeare, Oxford University Press and National Academy of Science Journal; 2011. Abstract
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MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "Understading Conflcit and Its Management with Nakuru & N. Karuru.". In: Nairobi:CCR. University of Nairobi; 1998. Abstract
African Review of Foreign Policy, Vol.1 No. 3, (Cirino Hiteng)
Mugo PM, Sanders EJ, Mutua G, van der Elst E, Anzala O, Barin B, Bangsberg DR, Priddy FH, Haberer JE. "Understanding Adherence to Daily and Intermittent Regimens of Oral HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Kenya." AIDS Behav. 2015;19(5):794-801. Abstract

A qualitative assessment of Kenyan men who have sex with men taking daily and intermittent oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) found stigma, sex work, mobility, and alcohol impacted adherence. We analyzed quantitative data from the same cohort to explore different definitions of intermittent adherence. Volunteers were randomized to daily emtricitabine/tenofovir or placebo, or intermittent (prescription: Mondays/Fridays/after sex, maximum 1 dose/day) emtricitabine/tenofovir or placebo (2:1:2:1), and followed for 4 months. By electronic monitoring, median adherence for daily dosing was 80 %. Median adherence for intermittent dosing was 71 % per a "relaxed" definition (accounting for off-prescription dosing) and 40 % per a "strict" definition (limited to the prescription). Factors associated with lower adherence included travel, transactional sex, and longer follow-up; higher adherence was associated with daily dosing and an income. The definition of intermittent dosing strongly affects interpretation of adherence. These findings suggest interventions should address challenges of mobility, sex work, and long-term PrEP.

S G, E EH, W. A. "Understanding as a Concept in Education: Conceptions and Alternative Interpretations." Journal of Educational and Social Research. 2014;4(1):339-344. Website
Sihanya B. "Understanding copyright." Utafiti News a publication of the Office of the Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Research Production and Extension), University of Nairobi.. 2015.
Wekesa DM. "Understanding Discourse at Word Level." 16th Triennial ACLALS Conference. 2013.understanding_discourse_at_word_level.pdf
WAMBUI MSKIAI. "Understanding Environmental Communication (Co-edited with Margaret Karembu)(published by ACCE-Kenya).". In: ACCE-Kenya. IAHS Press Wallingford, UK.; 1999. Abstract
Evidence indicates that environmental concerns have not been given the critical attention they deserve in many developing countries. The reverse is the case in most countries in the North. In Journalists for example, tend to regard environmental stories as dry and less lively as opposed to political, business, and entertainment stories. Furthermore, there is also a general feeling among many journalists that environmental stories are too technical and therefore, only of interest to international organizations such as UNEP, environmental experts, professionals, academics and some international lobbyists. The media like the public for that matter, have so far, failed to set the environmental agenda consistently. Yet, environmental issues are issues of life and death. They are issues of sustainability of the earth and the future of human beings.   The urgent challenge therefore is for the journalists to take the lead in dealing with environmental questions. The starting point is for them to appreciate these concerns and take them to their readers. This book is an attempt to develop this appreciation in journalists, and it raises fundamental environmental concepts, questions and concerns, and provides an analysis of the functions of the journalist, suggesting what can be done to enhance environmental journalism in Kenya. It is a result of training workshops conducted among journalists in Kenya, and it has a content based approach, seeking to ground journalists in basic environmental concepts, while tackling technical and skills concerns.   The book has various contributions from experts in environmental concept and from environmental journalism specialists including: Environmental journalism; The philosophy and principles of communicating on the environment; Challenges of writing on the environment; Essential elements in communicating on the environment; Environmental issues of arid and semi-arid lands in Kenya; An overview of the media and the environment in Kenya; Chemicals and the environment; Environmental concerns in Kenya.
MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "Understanding Family Planning, Facts and Misconceptions.". In: Family Planning Private Sector, Nairobi. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1992. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. ""Understanding Female Circumcision from the Circumcisers' Perspective.". In: In Program and Abstracts for the Third Annual Meeting of AFRICLEN and PHSWOW at Hotel Equatoria, Kampala. In East African Medical Journal. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1996. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
Njeru EHN. "Understanding Female Circumcision from the Circumcisers' Perspective .". 2006. AbstractWebsite

The resistance of circumcisers can be a substantial obstacle to the eradication of female genital mutilation (FGM). As part of a broader study on FGM conducted in Kenya's Machakos, Nyeri, and Embu districts, in-depth interviews were conducted with 19 circumcisers. 18 were female. FGM is not a full-time activity, so circumcisers were also engaged in farming and small-scale businesses; 5 were traditional birth attendants (TBAs). With the exception of the TBAs, respondents had no formal clinic- or hospital-based training to prepare them for their practice. Although circumcisers identified excessive bleeding and infection as potential sequelae of FGM, they attributed these complications to curses, bad omens, or broken taboos. The main advantage of FGM cited by respondents was the reduction of sexual desire, which is believed to reduce prostitution and promote moral standards. Uncircumcised girls were viewed with contempt. Most circumcisions are performed when girls are 3-11 years of age, contradicting the claim that the practice is performed to prepare young women for marriage. Although fees varied widely, all respondents viewed FGM as an important income source. They felt their work conferred high status within their communities and an opportunity to promote moral standards. Although many circumcisers are unlikely to stop their practice because of the social prestige it confers and their belief they are destined to perform this function, others could be persuaded to take up alternate means of generating an income if provided with start-up capital. Also important would be involvement of circumcisers in the development of alternative coming-of-age rituals.

Othieno J. "Understanding how contextual realities affect African born immigrants and refugees living with HIV in accessing care in the Twin Cities.". 2007. Abstract

The Rapid Assessment, Response, and Evaluation (RARE) portion of the CSAD Project in the Twin Cities (Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota) was designed to identify barriers to care faced by African refugees and immigrants. Data were collected from cultural experts and African people living with HIV (PLWH) who were out of care, who had newly entered care, or who were in and out of care. Findings from RARE can be categorized into five main themes: HIV/AIDS within the African context, experiences of African PLWH, unfamiliarity with HIV and support services that facilitate access to care, cultural and religious dilemmas in seeking or remaining in care, and accessing African PLWH and getting them into care. Most of the issues identified were manifestations of stigma, gender, religion and/or faith, as well as the two main underlying cross-cutting themes of knowledge and fear. The top barriers to care included fatalistic views about HIV, fear of isolation, fear of deportation, lack of knowledge of the care system and HIV-related services, and employment issues

"Understanding Intention to Use Computer Assisted Audit Tools and Techniques (CAATTs) Using UTAUT Model: Perspectives of Auditors in Kenya National Audit Offi ce (KENAO)."; 2010. Abstract

Adoption of computer assisted audit tools and techniques (CAATTs) has become fundamental in many audit methodologies owing to rapid advances in clients' information system usage. Audit standards encourage auditors to adopt CAATTs to improve audit efficiency and effectiveness. However, the pace of adoption has been slow among auditors. We employed a well validated information technology (IT) model, the unifi ed theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) to model the voluntary adoption of technology in auditing. A survey instrument to collect quantitative data on the model’s predictors, intention to use CAATTs and individual characteristics was used. Data was obtained from 70 auditors of Kenya National Audit Offi ce (KENAO). Results indicate that performance expectancy, effort expectancy, facilitating conditions and professional influence, affect the probability that auditors will adopt and use CAATTs. The model explains 69 percent of the variance of the auditors’ behavioral intention to use CAATTs. Though age, gender and experience are moderating influences to many UTAUT predictors, none had a signiicant effect on intention for auditors. These results suggest UTAUT to be a valid model for studying technology adoption decisions among auditors, but other individual characteristics need to be explored. This paper contributes to literature and research on technology acceptance in general, and is also important to auditing research and practice. To increase CAATTs usage, audit firm’s management needs to develop training programs to increase auditors’ degree of ease and enhance their organizational and computer technical support for CAATTs. Regulators need to make a stronger recommendation; and a more direct regulatory intervention in adoption decisions.

Sihanya B. "Understanding IP and related rights." Utafiti News a publication of the Office of the Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Research Production and Extension), University of Nairobi. 2014.
Ndung'u I. "Understanding linguistics, Introductory Survey, Manuscript Reviewed." University of Nairobi Press; 2002. Abstract
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Gaitho D, Kumar M, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, Wambua GN, R. N. "Understanding mental health difficulties and associated psychosocial outcomes in adolescents in the HIV clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2018;10;(17:):29.
Mulwa MM, Waema TM. "Understanding Mobile Banking from a Theoretical Lens: Case Studies of Selected Kenyan m-Banking Products." International Journal of Innovation in the Digital Economy. 2016;7(1):54-68.
Mulwa MM, Waema TM. "Understanding mobile banking from a theoretical lens: Case studies of selected Kenyan m-banking products." International Journal of Management & Information Technology. 2015;10(8):2434-2444.
Martina M, Timothy W. "Understanding Mobile Banking From a Theoretical Lens: Case studies of Selected Mobile Banking Products in Kenya." International Journal of Management and Information Technology. 2015;10(No 8):2434-2444.ijmit.pdf
Muchiri J. "Understanding Modern Korea through Oral Testimonies." HEKIMA Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences. 2014;VI(1):66-85.understanding_modern_korea_through_oral_testimonies.pdf
M. PROFKABIRAWANJIKU. "Understanding Oral Literature, Ed. Kabira, Masheti and Obote; University of Nairobi Press.". In: East African Medical Journal 68(9): 714-9. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1998. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
M. PROFKABIRAWANJIKU. "Understanding Oral Literature: Ed Bukenya, Kabira, Okombo; Nairobi University Press, Nairobi Kenya.". In: East African Medical Journal 68(9): 714-9. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1994. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
A PROFODHIAMBOJACK. "Understanding Philosophy: A text for science based students of Philosophy - 1993.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1993. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
WAMUYU MSNGECHUMARYELLEN. "Understanding research process and methods (2002) for CYP students.". In: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 60:601-608, 1998. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2002. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

Nyarwath O. "Understanding Social Freedom and Humanism in Odera Oruka's Philosophy." Thought and Practice: A Journal of the Philosophical Association of Kenya (PAK). 2012;4(2):75-96.
Avery K, Barham C, Berrisford R, Blazeby J, Blencowe N, Donovan J, Elliott J, Falk S, Goldin R, Hanna G, Hollowood A, Metcalfe C, Noble S, Sanders G, Streets C, Titcomb D, Wheatley T. "Understanding surgical interventions in {RCTs}: the need for better methodology." The Lancet. 2013;381:27-28. AbstractWebsite
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McClelland L, Wanje G, Kashonga F, Kibe L, McClelland SR, Kiarie J, Mandaliya K, Peshu N, Kurth A. "Understanding the context of HIV risk behavior among HIV-positive and HIV-negative female sex workers and male bar clients following antiretroviral therapy rollout in Mombasa, Kenya." AIDS Educ Prev. 2011;23(4):299-312. Abstract

This study explored perceptions of HIV following local introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART), among 30 HIV-positive and -negative female sex workers (FSWs) and 10 male bar patrons in Mombasa, Kenya. Semi-structured interviews were analyzed qualitatively to identify determinants of sexual risk behaviors. ART was not perceived as a barrier to safer sex and in some cases led to decreased high-risk behaviors. Barriers to safer sex included economic pressure and sexual partnership types. Many women reported that negotiating condom use is more difficult in long-term partnerships. These women favored short-term partnerships to minimize risk through consistent condom use. For women living with HIV, concern about maintaining health and avoiding HIV superinfection was a strong motivator of protective behaviors. For HIV-negative women, a negative HIV test was a powerful motivator. Incorporation of context- and serostatus-specific factors (e.g., self-protection for HIV-positive women) into tailored prevention counseling may support high-risk women to reduce risk behaviors.

McClelland L, Wanje G, Kashonga F, Kibe L, McClelland SR, Kiarie J, Mandaliya K, Peshu N, Kurth A. "Understanding the context of HIV risk behavior among HIV-positive and HIV-negative female sex workers and male bar clients following antiretroviral therapy rollout in Mombasa, Kenya." AIDS Educ Prev. 2011;23(4):299-312. Abstract

This study explored perceptions of HIV following local introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART), among 30 HIV-positive and -negative female sex workers (FSWs) and 10 male bar patrons in Mombasa, Kenya. Semi-structured interviews were analyzed qualitatively to identify determinants of sexual risk behaviors. ART was not perceived as a barrier to safer sex and in some cases led to decreased high-risk behaviors. Barriers to safer sex included economic pressure and sexual partnership types. Many women reported that negotiating condom use is more difficult in long-term partnerships. These women favored short-term partnerships to minimize risk through consistent condom use. For women living with HIV, concern about maintaining health and avoiding HIV superinfection was a strong motivator of protective behaviors. For HIV-negative women, a negative HIV test was a powerful motivator. Incorporation of context- and serostatus-specific factors (e.g., self-protection for HIV-positive women) into tailored prevention counseling may support high-risk women to reduce risk behaviors.

Raphael Lotira Arasio, Brigitte Kaufmann DJOOVW. "Understanding the emergence and evolution of pastoral community groups from the perspective of community members and external development actors in northern Kenya." Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics. 2018;Vol. 119(No. 2).
Arasio RL, Kaufman B, Otieno DJ, Wasonga OV. "Understanding the emergence and evolution of pastoral community groups from the perspective of community members and external development actors in northern Kenya. ." Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics (JARTS). 2018;119(2)(ISSN 2363-6033):53-66.
ONYANGO-OUMA DRW. "Understanding the HIV/STI risks and prevention needs of men who have sex with men in Nairobi, Kenya. Horizons Final Technical Report. Washington D.C., Population Council.". In: Nordic Journal of African Studies 15 (3): 393-40. Population Council; 2005. Abstract
Understanding the HIV/STI risks and prevention needs of men who have sex with men in Nairobi, Kenya. Horizons Final Technical Report. Washington D.C., Population Council.
Muthuwatta L, Sood A, McCartney M, Silva NS, Opere A. "Understanding the Impacts of Climate Change in the Tana River Basin, Kenya." Proceedings of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences. 2018;379:37-42. Abstractunderstanding_the_impacts_of_climate_change_in_the_tana_river_basin_kenya.pdfProceedings of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences

In the Tana River Basin in Kenya, six Regional Circulation Models (RCMs) simulating two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) (i.e., 4.5 and 8.5) were used as input to the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to determine the possible implications for the hydrology and water resources of the basin. Four hydrological characteristics – water yield, groundwater recharge, base flow and flow regulation – were determined and mapped throughout the basin for three 30-year time periods: 2020–2049, 2040–2069 and 2070–2099. Results were compared with a baseline period, 1983–2011. All four hydrological characteristics show steady increases under both RCPs for the entire basin but with considerable spatial heterogeneity and greater increases under RCP 8.5 than RCP 4.5. The results have important implications for the way water resources in the basin are managed. It is imperative that water managers and policy makers take into account the additional challenges imposed by climate change in operating built infrastructure.

Collins K Mweresa, Bruno Otieno, Philemon Omusula, Berhane T Weldegergis, Niels O Verhulst, Marcel Dicke, Joop JA van Loon, Takken W, Wolfgang R Mukabana. "Understanding the long-lasting attraction of malaria mosquitoes to odor baits." PloS one. 2015;10(3):e0121533.
Ngugi RW, Were M, Makau P, Mensah J, Macmillan P. "Understanding the Reform Porcess in Kenya.". In: Understanding Economic Reforms in Kenya.; 2006.
R. TRBO &. "UNDERSTANDING THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF SLUM DWELLER: A case of Korogocho slum in Nairobi, Kenya." http://ijirk.com/issue-details/365. 2018;Vol. 3, (12).
Ngugi RW. "Understanding the structure of interest rates in Kenya, KIPPRA Discussion Paper # 40." The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004.
Abebaw D, Holm-Müller. "Understorey light conditions and regeneration with respect to the structural dynamics of a near-natural temperate deciduous forest in Denmark.". 2006. AbstractWebsite

Risk perceptions play a key role in production and investment behavior of farmers. However, insufficient attention has been given to understand its nature and distribution in cash crop farming such as coffee. This study, therefore, attempts to explore patterns of coffee farmers’ perceived sources of risk and the factors associated with them. Data were drawn from a representative sample of 195 farmers residing in southwest Ethiopia. Farmers’ perceptions of risk are uneven and include price or market risks, crop diseases and pests, human illness, financial and natural elements. Farmers’ perceptions of the sources of risk can partly be explained by a combination of family and farm characteristics, location attributes, human capital, access to information and other infrastructure. In all, the results imply that farm advisors and policy makers can use these characteristics in targeting households and farmers’ groups for communicating relevant information about risk in coffee farming.

O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Uneasy Alliance: Party-State Relations in Kenya,".". In: Walter O. Oyugi, (ed.), Politics and Administration in East Africa (Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers). IPPNW; 1994. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
Vuluku G, Wambugu A, Moyi E. "Unemployment and Underemployment in Kenya: A Gender Gap Analysis.". In: Economics. Vol. Vol.2.; 2013:.
Wambugu A, Onsomu E, Munga B. "Unemployment in Kenya: A Situational Analysis." National Economic and Social Council (NESC) Paper No.1/2010 .. 2010.
Wambugu A, Ndirangu L, Onsomu E, Munga B. "Unemployment in Kenya: suggested interventions." National Economic and Social Council (NESC). 2013.
O DROPEREALFRED. "UNEP 2008. Beekman H.E., Abu-Zeid K., Afouda A., Hughes S., Kane A., Kulindwa K.A., Odada E.O., Opere Alfred., Oyebande L. and Saayman, I.C. : .". In: University of Nairobi. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2008. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
Rummel-Bulska I. "UNEP Basel Convention.". 1990.
Rummel-Bulska I. "UNEP Environmental Law."; 1991.
Rummel-Bulska I. "UNEP Environmental Policy.". 1995.
NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "UNEP/UNDP/Kenya Government Project on Environment and Development, 1979. Specialist Paper on Planning for Rural Settlements in Kenya.". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1979. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "Unesco Regional Seminar on Applied Geomorphology and Integrated Surveys of River Basins. Bull. Of Unesco Field Science Office for Africa. Vol.VI. No. 1. Jan-March, pp.26-28, Nairobi.". In: Proceedings of the First World Congress on Water Resources vol.II, pp.19-44. UN-HABITAT; 1971. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
W. PROFNZOMOMARIA. "The Unfinished Democracy: The Gender dimenstion of democratization in Kenya, in the Idenpendent Review: Journal of Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies.". In: Trends and Strategies for advancement, Nairobi June.; 1993. Abstract

Journal of Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies

Hambwe JH. "Ungamo la Janaha .". 2010.Website
WAIRIMU DRWAWERU. "Unge C, S.". In: Proceedings of the Third Conference on Information Technology and Economic Development. 2004 Ghana .INTERCED. MBA; 2008. Abstract
No Abstract
PAUL PROFBAKI. "Unification of Gravitation and Electromagnetism in a Relativistic Version of Finslerian Geometry.". In: African Journal of Science and Technology, Vol.3 No.2,101 (2002). Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2002.
P DRKITHINJIJACOB. "Unified multidimensional microcolumn chromatography.". In: J. Microcoloumn Separations. University of nairobi; 1989. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
Jerono P, Hillary S, Andrew C, O.N. J. A Unified Orthography for Kalenjin Languages of Kenya. South Africa: CASAS; 2012.
Oduor J, Jerono P, Sang H, Chelimo A. A Unified Orthography of Kalenjin Languages (Keiyo, Kipsigis, Marakwet, Nandi, Pokot, Sabaot, and Tugen). Cape Town: Centre for Advanced Studies of African Societies (CASAS).; 2012.
J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY. "Uniform derivative convergence of diagonal Pad.". In: Proceedings of 1st Eastern African Symposium in Applied Mathematics, and Mathematical Education, Nairobi. 1981. Section B, pp. 25-36. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1981. Abstract
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Gradin D, Gichuhi S. "Unilateral axial length elongation with chronic traumatic cataracts in young Kenyans. ." J Cataract Refract Surg . 2008;34(9):1566-1570. AbstractWebsite

PURPOSE:
To assess whether unilateral axial elongation in chronic traumatic cataract is associated with the time interval from trauma to surgery.

SETTING:
PCEA Kikuyu Hospital Eye Unit, Nairobi, Kenya.

METHODS:
This retrospective cohort study analyzed patients with traumatic cataract operated on between 1998 and 2007. Study patients (n = 13) had a delay from trauma to surgery of more than 1 year and an interocular axial length (AL) difference greater than 1.0 mm. Randomly selected age-matched control patients (n = 14) had less than 1 year delay between trauma and surgery. The correlation between interocular AL difference and surgical delay was calculated in each group.

RESULTS:
The median interval from trauma to surgical treatment in study patients was 8 years (range 1 to 27 years). Study patients had a significantly higher median interocular AL difference (3.09 mm; interquartile range [IQR] 2.45 to 4.13 mm) than control patients (0.24 mm; IQR 0.15 to 0.30 mm) (P = .000). The length of delay from trauma to surgical treatment did not correlate strongly with the interocular AL difference in study or control patients (R(2) = 0.0143 and R(2) = 0.1697, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS:
Unilateral AL elongation may occur in young adults with chronic traumatic cataract. Delay of more than 1 year from trauma to surgery was associated with axial elongation, although the degree of elongation did not correlate with duration of delay. Surgeons are advised to implant lower-power intraocular lenses in such patients based on biometry readings to avoid postoperative refractive surprises.

Brunjes P. "Unilateral naris closure and olfactory system development." Brain Research Reviews. 1994;19:146-160. AbstractWebsite

In most animals there is bilateral access of odorants to the olfactory sensory epithelium. Air enters the nose through two external nares and passes back through the nasal cavity, which is divided down the midline by a cartilaginous nasal septum. The olfactory mucosa, a sheet of ciliated bipolar receptor cells, is found in the caudal two thirds of the nasal cavity. Axons from the sensory cells project to an ipsilateral extension of the telencephalon known as the olfactory bulb. If a single external naris of a rat pup is surgically closed (usually via brief cauterization) on the day after the day of birth (P1) and the subject is examined on P30, the size of the ipsilateral olfactory bulb is reduced by approximately 25%. The large reduction in size, coupled with the clear lamination and other features of the olfactory system, indicates that the manipulation is an ideal preparation for examining the regulation of early growth. We know that both olfactory bulbs are of equal size at the time of occlusion, but that 30 days later there is a large discrepancy. What series of events produces the changes? The present paper outlines what is known about the anatomical, biochemical and physiological changes introduced by naris occlusion in order to lay a framework for further work.

AN P, PA M, KW O, J K, Omondi O. "Unilateral spontaneous tubal twin ectopic pregnancy: a rare occurrence." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2017;6:819-823.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "UNIMIX quality evaluation and development. A consultancy report for UNICEF Somalia Country Office June 1992. Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Workshop initiated by UNACC Subcommittee on Nutrition ACC/SCN), UNHCR and WFP with support by GTZ, 5 . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1992. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
Obiero JA, Mburu MN, Ndung’u BM, Waititu KK, Farah IO, Mwethera PG. "UniPron is A Fully Effective Non-hormonal Reversible Contraceptive in Baboon Model (Papio Anubis).". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Objective To determine the safety and efficacy of UniPron as a reversible contraceptive. Methods Vaginal swabs were obtained before and after UniPron administration, cultured onto appropriate culture media and bacteria identification was done based on type of media used, Gram stain reactions, colony morphology and biochemical tests. Vaginal biopsy tissues were processed using paraffin wax method, stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined under light microscopy to determine the effect of the product on vaginal tissues. The effect of UniPron on sperm was examined by mixing the product with electroejaculated spermatozoa in vitro at different concentrations. For efficacy studies, male baboons of proven fertility were mated with UniPron treated or untreated females of proven fertility during the fertile stages. Results All the five females (100%) that were treated with UniPron did not conceive and they regained total fertility when the treatment was stopped while all the controls conceived. At a concentration of 40%,UniPron completely immobilized spermatozoa in an in-vitro system. UniPron mechanism of action was by lowering the vaginal pH and on application in baboon, the pH was lowered for at least 3 h after which it went back to normal. Conclusions As we plan for a study to test UniPron as a microbicide to prevent STIs including HIV, our current study has established that this novel product is effective in contraception and harmless to vaginal tissues and vaginal microbial flora in a baboon model (Papio anubis).

Shibata S. "Unique vasocontraction of okadaic acid isolated from black sponge, independent of extracellular Ca2+." Blood Vessels. 1987;24(3):104-7. Abstract

Okadaic acid (OA) isolated from black sponge (Halichondria) caused tonic contractions of human umbilical arteries and rabbit aorta both in the presence and absence of Ca2+. This tonic contraction was not affected by Ca2+ chelator, Ca2+ entry blockers and La3+. In addition, the antagonists of alpha-adrenoceptors, histamine, serotonin and ACh receptors had no effect on the OA-induced contraction. High K, ouabain and indomethacin failed to inhibit the response to OA. However, the combination of anaerobic conditions and absence of glucose abolished the response to OA. OA had no effect on the myosin B ATPase and saponin-treated skinned fibers of rabbit aorta. The contractile action of OA may not also be related to calmodulin-related PDE and mitochondrial respiration. In conclusion, although the precise mode of action is not evident at the present time, OA, in its unique pharmacological action--that of producing sustained contraction independent of extracellular Ca2+--may alter the handling of Ca2+ to intracellular store sites.

Ouma G, Ogallo L. "UNISDR Scientific and Technical Advisory Group Case Studies - 2014 Community-based Climate Monitoring Services and Early Warning System: The Case of the Nganyi Community.". 2010;1(1):19-30. Abstractunisdr_scientific_and_technical_advisory_group_case_studies_-_2014_community-based_climate_monitoring_services_and_early_warning_system-the_case_of_the_nganyi_community.pdfResearchGate

Recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports [1] indicate that disasters associated with current climate extremes are impacting negatively on livelihoods and socio-economic systems. Extreme weather events such as floods and droughts are negatively impacting on agricultural production and other socio-economic sectors in the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) region [2]. It is expected that climate change will increase the severity and frequency of these extreme weather events with adverse effects particularly on vulnerable and poor communities.

Ouma G, Ogallo L. "UNISDR Scientific and Technical Advisory Group Case Studies-2015." U. NIS f. DR Reduction (Ed.). 2015. AbstractPreventionWeb

Recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports [1] indicate that disasters associated with current climate extremes are impacting negatively on livelihoods and socio-economic systems. Extreme weather events such as floods and droughts are negatively impacting on agricultural production and other socio-economic sectors in the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) region [2]. It is expected that climate change will increase the severity and frequency of these extreme weather events
with adverse effects particularly on vulnerable and poor communities.

Mile J. K., Simiyu RANGKR. "Unitary Equivalence of the Unilateral Shift." East African Journal of Pure and Applied Science. 2008;vol.1:121-124.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. "The United Nations and use of force by states: aspects of war and peace in the Middle East Crisis"; paper delivered at a Symposium Organised by the United Nations Youth Associations to Mark UN Day, October 24, University of Nairobi.". In: East African Law Journal (10). Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1973. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
Ryan T, K'Oyugi BO. The United Nations Common Country Assessment for Kenya 2001. Nairobi: UNDP Kenya Country Office; 2001.
WAMBUA MUSILI. "The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.". In: Exclusive Economic Zone vis a vis fishing rights in the East African coastline. Continental Resort Hotel, Mombasa; 2010.
MOCHACHE DRJASONMOSOMI. "United Nations Environment Programm Annual Evaluation Report 1997: UNEP Publications, Nairobi, 1998.". In: issueProceedings of the 5th Biennial Scientific conference, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, September 6th . University of Nairobi; 1998. Abstract
Seventeen cows of various breeds with varying degrees of severity of advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma were treated by radical surgery, which included enucleation and extirpation of the surrounding ocular muscles and tissues. The degree of severity and the extent of the carcinoma lesion was correlated with the outcome of treatment for each case. It was observed that: 1. eyeball involvement, 2. ulceration and subsequent infection of carcinoma lesion involving the eyelids and 3. involvement of the regional lymphnodes especially the parotid , are some of the main factors that could be used to draw prognosis of such cases. Although the initial surgery may not be costly, the overall cost of managing postoperative complications is prohibitive and results to vast economic losses that should not be ignored.
MOCHACHE DRJASONMOSOMI. "United Nations Environment Programm Annual Evaluation Report 1998: UNEP Publications, Nairobi, 1999.". In: issueProceedings of the 5th Biennial Scientific conference, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, September 6th . University of Nairobi; 1999. Abstract
Seventeen cows of various breeds with varying degrees of severity of advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma were treated by radical surgery, which included enucleation and extirpation of the surrounding ocular muscles and tissues. The degree of severity and the extent of the carcinoma lesion was correlated with the outcome of treatment for each case. It was observed that: 1. eyeball involvement, 2. ulceration and subsequent infection of carcinoma lesion involving the eyelids and 3. involvement of the regional lymphnodes especially the parotid , are some of the main factors that could be used to draw prognosis of such cases. Although the initial surgery may not be costly, the overall cost of managing postoperative complications is prohibitive and results to vast economic losses that should not be ignored.
T
U
Hashim A. Unity within Diversity: Codification and Unification of Muslim Law of Personal Status in East Africa. International University of Africa, Khartoum: International University of Africa; 2006.unity_within_diversity.pdf
Dorothy McCormick. "Universal Access to Communication Services in Rural Kenya.". In: A Baseline Survey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2004. Abstract

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Muiya B, Kamau A. "Universal Health Care in Kenya: Opportunities and challenges for the informal sector workers." Journal of Education and Research. 2013;1(11):1-10.
KITHURE DRKINDIKI. "Universal Jurisdiction for International Crimes, the Public Good and the Changing Face of state Sovereignty" in Volume 2 University of Nairobi Law Journal pp. 116-140.". In: In Volume 14 Lesotho Law Journal pp. 51-75. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2004. Abstract

We describe the technique of splenic aspiration in 113 patients presenting with splenomegaly. It was used initially to establish a diagnosis, and in those patients with kala azar, to follow the response of the parasites to therapy until 'parasitological cure'. In all 671 aspirations were performed. No complications occurred in the 69 patients with active kala azar, who collectively had more than 600 aspirations. One patient in a moribund condition had a fatal haemorrhage. The aspirate suggested a lymphoma, confirmed at autopsy. In 68 of the 69 patients with active kala azar, the diagnosis was established at the first aspiration. The essentials of the technique are the use of a small calibre needle (21 G), and speed, the needle being in the spleen for less than a second, with the consequent procurement of a few drops of material only.

MUSEMBI MRNUNGUJOSEPH. "Universalizing Access to Primary Education in Kenya: Myths and Realities.". In: the Canadian Society for the Study of Education (CSSE) annual conference, Concordia University, Montreal, May - 29-June 1 2010. Frontiers, 2011; 2010. Abstract
Malaria is a major public health problem that is presently complicated by the development of resistance by Plasmodium falciparum to the mainstay drugs. Thus, new drugs with unique structures and mechanism of action are required to treat drug-resistant strains of malaria. Historically, compounds containing a novel structure from natural origin represent a major source for the discovery and development of new drugs for several diseases. This paper presents ethnophytotherapeutic remedies, ethnodiagnostic skills, and related traditional knowledge utilized by the Digo community of the Kenyan Coast to diagnose malaria as a lead to traditional bioprospecting. The current study was carried out in three Digo villages of Diani sub-location between May 2009 and December 2009. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, and open and close-ended questionnaires. A total of 60 respondents (34 men and 26 women) provided the targeted information. The results show that the indigenous knowledge of Digo community on malaria encompasses not only the symptoms of malaria but also the factors that are responsible for causing malaria, attributes favoring the breeding of mosquitoes and practices employed to guard against mosquito bites or to protect households against malaria. This knowledge is closely in harmony with scientific approaches to the treatment and control of the disease. The Digo community uses 60 medicinal plants distributed in 52 genera and 27 families to treat malaria. The most frequently mentioned symptoms were fever, joint pains, and vomiting while the most frequently mentioned practices employed to guard against mosquito bites and/or to protect households against malaria was burning of herbal plants such as Ocimum suave and ingestion of herbal decoctions and concoctions. The Digo community has abundant ethnodiagnostic skills for malaria which forms the basis of their traditional bioprospecting techniques. Keywords: malaria, antimalarials, ethnopharmacology, ethnodiagnostic skills, Digo community, bioprospecting
Nderitu JH, Namachanja C, Kamau G. "Universities and trade unionsim.". In: DAAD. Nairobi,; 2005.universities_and_trade_unionsim.pdf
Ngesu L. "Universities as learning organizations: implication and challenges." Educational Research and Review. 2008;3(9):289-293.
O.O. DIGOLO. "UNIVERSITY ACADEMICS RE-EXAMINE THEIR PEDAGOGICAL AND PEOPLE-SKILL: INSIGHTS FROM CAPACITY-BUILDING INSERVICE PROGRAM IN KENYA." THE FOUNTAIN: JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH, SCHOOL OF EDUCATION, UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI. 2012;(ISSN: 2079-3383).
Digolo PO, Inyega JO, Inyega HN. "University academics re-examine their pedagogical and people-skills: insights from capacity-building in-service programme in Kenya. The Fountain: Journal of Educational Research." The Fountain: Journal of Educational Research. 2011;V(1):97-115. Abstract

Students intellectual, social and human development is enhanced if lecturers are equipped with appropriate pedagogical and people-skills. Insights gained from lecturers capacity-building in-service training programs in a public university in Kenya are presented in this paper. Twenty thematic areas were covered aimed at improving competences of lecturers in facilitating students' learning. In-service lecturers' responses were analyzed qualitatively. In-service lecturers have training expectations and challenges in teaching university students when preparing them to become responsible citizens. They are generally satisfied with focused professional development seminars they attend, and are likely to provide effective lecturing and improved classroom practices in their faculties.

KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "The university and National Development, The Nairobi Times 23rd August 1980.". In: Proceedings of one weeks councilors seminar held at Kakameg,a, May 1981 compiled and edited by S. Kichamu Akivaga. Elsevier; 1980. Abstract
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Kimani MW. "University education for women in Kenya: a critical analysis of research carried out in this area.". In: AAWORD Workshop. Lenana Mount Hotel, Nairobi; 1995.
Kimani MW. "University education for women in Kenya: a critical analysis of research carried out in this area.". In: AAWORD Workshop. Lenana Mount Hotel, Nairobi; 1995.
Dorothy McCormick. "University Involvement in Upgrading Entrepreneurial Networks: The Case of Nairobi’s Small Clothing and Footwear Producers.". In: Universal Access to Communication Services in Rural Kenya: A Baseline Survey. Kisumu, Kenya: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2004. Abstract

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"University Journal of Architecture ." University Journal of Architecture . 2010;2(1).
Ndiritu AW, Gikonyo NW, MBOROKI GUANTAI. "University managers participation in distance education: what is the role of distance education support facilities?". 2014. Abstract

Universities continue to develop new methods of teaching in order to reach many people who cannot access education through the conventional methods; and to attain equity and increase access in higher education for development. Education is a key pillar in development. As Kenya works towards the attainment of Vision 2030 a lot has to be done in education to increase equity and access to allow many people to participate in the development. A lot of resources have been committed to development and implementation of DE materials and facilities but adoption of DE continues to be minimal at the Kenyan Public universities. This paper explores the role DE support facilities plays in the participation of university managers in DE activities in Kenya’s Public Universities. To study this role, the following indicators were analysed: computer availability to the managers and staff; access to personal computer; internet availability; number of internet connection points; and availability of ICT help desk. The study sort to establish the extent to which availability of personal computers availability of internet, number of internet connection points, availability of computers for teaching influence managers’ participation in DE; and to assess the availability of ICT help desks. The research employed cross-sectional descriptive survey design; and multi-stage stratified sampling design. The findings indicated that availing necessary support facilities is crucial if adoption of DE is to be increased in the public universities in Kenya.
KEY WORDS: Participation, distance education, university managers.

Ndiritu A, GIKONYO NAOMI, Gakuu C, MBOROKI GUANTAI. "UNIVERSITY MANAGERS PARTICIPATION IN DISTANCE EDUCATION: WHAT ROLE DOES THEIR LEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE IN DISTANCE EDUCATION PLAY?".; 2013. Abstract

University managers have tried to attain improved access and equity in higher education for development. In recent years, there has been a major shift towards Distance Education as universities strive to attain this goal and to strengthen the social pillar of Kenya Vision 2030 development agenda. Use of ICT in teaching and learning in conventional mode of education was thought to be the means to increase access and equity in higher education but this has not been sufficient. More innovations are being explored as the universities struggle with the challenge of access and equity in higher education. Distance education has slowly been adopted in public universities in Kenya. This provides access to higher education by persons who are geographically distant from the institutions of higher learning and those whose responsibilities cannot allow them to attend classes among other challenges. The study sought to establish the extent to which managers’ level of knowledge in Distance Education has influenced their participation in Distance Education activities at the public universities in Kenya. The sample consisted of 196 managers drawn from seven public universities in Kenya. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient was used in analysis. The results indicated a significant positive correlation between level of knowledge in Distance Education and managers’ participation in Distance Education activities. Based on these findings, it is important to ensure that the managers are trained in Distance Education and its practice, and how to apply it in order to improve access and equity in higher education in order to support the national and international development agenda.
KEY WORDS: Participation, distance education, level of knowledge, university managers, study support, access and equity.

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