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Faridah H Were, M CM, Wafula GA. "Respiratory Diseases Due to Occupational Exposure to Nickel and Chromium among Factory Workers in Kenya." Journal of Community Medicine & Health Education. 2013;3(7):1-7. AbstractWebsite

Inhalation of airborne nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr) in workplaces causes a variety of respiratory ailments which
adversely affects the productivity of employees. A study was therefore conducted on production workers (N=233) from
six different types industrial plants, to investigate the influence of Ni and Cr exposure on their respiratory systems.
Breathing zone air and urinary samples were collected, and analyzed for total Ni and Cr using atomic absorption
spectroscopy. The medical history of the workers was obtained using questionnaires. Their lung functions were further
examined using a spirometer. Mean (± standard deviation) breathing zone air of 23.4 ± 11.6 μg/m3 Cr and 10.3 ± 4.3 μg/
m3 Ni was highest among the tanners and welders, respectively. The mean level of 35.2 ± 12.1 Cr and 28.4 ± 7.8 Ni in
μg/g creatinine were also highest in the urine of corresponding workers. A significant (P<0.01) correlation of r=0.86 Cr
and r=0.89 Ni was observed between airborne and urinary levels in all production workers. Approximately 26.6% of the
workers had respiratory diseases that were associated with wheezing, shortness of breath, sneezing attacks among
other related symptoms. Most of these workers were welders, tanners and, to lesser extent, paint manufacturers. The
breathing zone air of the afflicted workers had significantly (P<0.05) high mean levels of 6.4 ± 4.4 μg/m3 Ni and 9.6 ±
5.3 μg/m3 Cr than those who were not affected (3.9 ± 3.2 μg/m3 Ni and 4.4 ± 3.8 μg/m3 Cr). A high proportion of the
workers had reduced ventilatory function measurements. We recommend comprehensive assessment of Cr and Ni in
related industries with significant exposures. Designing and developing of training programs and educative manuals
on safety and health procedures, and regular medical surveillance is also recommended.

Ketta. A, Bulimo. W, Achilla. R, Wadegu. M, Majanja. J, Opanda. S, Opot. B, Osuna. F, Muthoni. J, Mitei. K, Wangui. J, Njiri. J, Mwangi. J, Wurapa. E. Respiratory Non-Influenza viruses circulating in Kenya between January-August 2012. . Sarova Panafric Hotel Nairobi Kenya.; 2012. Abstract
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Maina JN, Maloiy GMO, Wood CM. "Respiratory stratagems, mechanisms, and morphology of the ‘lung’ of a tropical swamp worm, Alma emini Mich. (Oligochaeta: Glossoscolecidae): a transmission and scanning electron microscope study, with field and laboratory observations.". 2006. Abstract

The swamp worm Alma emini subsists in the highly productive waterlogged swamps around the East African Lake Victoria. The soil consists of putrefying plant matter from which gases like methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulphide are formed and profusely discharged. The interstitial spaces in the soil are generally anoxic and the soil is highly reducing. To survive in such an inimical habitat, Alma has evolved a remarkably unique respiratory strategy. The posterodorsal part of the body, which is well supplied with blood, is regularly converted into a ‘lung’ across which gases are exchanged at the surface or under water. Air and/or water may be entrapped in the ‘lung’ and carried for use (as a source of oxygen and/or a depository of carbon dioxide) during the ensuing underground sojourn. By evolving a unique respiratory potential, Alma emini has been able to flourish in a highly dynamic and virtually anoxic habitat while essentially having a capacity for aerobic biochemistry. Putative indications of cellular adaptations against hydrogen sulphide toxicity were observed, especially in the cells that line the ‘lung’. A. emini presents a good example of nature's tenacious and innovative designs for surviving in severe environments.

H S. "Respiratory System.". In: KIMANI’S HISTOLOGY Text and Manual. Nairobi: Department of Human Anatomy, UON; 2014.
Mbatia PN, Bradshaw YW. "Responding to crisis of health care utilization in central Kenya amid economic decline." African Studies Review. 2003;1(46):69-92.
K. JT, W M, F. A, Prabhu R, Shiferaw B, Gbegbelegbe S, Massawe S, Kyotalimye M, Wanjiku J, Macharia E. Responding to the food price crisis in Eastern and Southern Africa: Policy options for national and regional action. Entebbe: ASARECA; 2008.
E.N. PN. "Response of a sexually transmitted infection epidemic to a treatment and prevention programme in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2002. Abstract

Sex Transm Infect. 2002 Apr;78 Suppl 1:i114-20.
Response of a sexually transmitted infection epidemic to a treatment and prevention programme in Nairobi, Kenya.
Moses S, Ngugi EN, Costigan A, Kariuki C, Maclean I, Brunham RC, Plummer FA.
Source
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada. smoses@cc.umanitoba.ca
Abstract
Although it seems possible in a developing country context such as Kenya, given appropriate inputs and a sound approach, to shift a sexually transmitted disease (STI) epidemic from phase II to III, it is not entirely clear how to go beyond this stage, to low levels of endemicity or even elimination. Perhaps the most important challenge now is to expand STI treatment and community STI/HIV prevention programmes to a much larger scale. Although successful programmes have been implemented in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa on a small scale, a significant impact in reducing the STI/HIV burden will not occur until programme reach is expanded to district, provincial, and national levels.
PMID:
12083429
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC1765810
Free PMC Article

Sitta J, Nzuve F, Olubayo FM, Mutinda C, Muiru WM, Miano DW, Muthomi JW, Leley PK. "Response of Assorted Maize Germplasm to the Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease in Kenya." Journal of Plant Studies. 2017;6(2):65-76.
Keter JKA;, Owino-Gerroh C, Mbuvi JP. "Response of field beans to phosphorus on an andosol in Kenya.". 1998. Abstract

The agronomic effectiveness of minjingu rock phosphate O,trtp) was compared with that of highly soluble phosphate triple superphosphate (TSp), in pot studies with field bean (p. t,ulgaris L.) in a greenhouse at the field station of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nairobi, Kenya. MRp finely ground with 30 Grade Yo P and TSP with 99.6 Grade yo p fertilizer at rates 0, 30, 45 and 60mg P pot-r were applied on 2kg soil pot-r. The soil used in the study was an acid humic andosol from fields with moribund tea bushes, tea bushes planted in lg5g and,lgTgand newly cleared forest in Kaga4 Kenya' Shoot and root dry matter felds, dry seed feld responses and their response estimates were determined and showed positive significance in most cases when TSp fert,izer was applied on the soils except that from moribund tea field. The relative agronomic effectiveness (efficiency) of MRP on biomass and also seed leld of beans was found to be significantly inferior to TSP in most of the soils except that from moribund tea field where both sources were found to be ineffective' This study confirms that inspite of its high reactivity, MRp is stilr agronomicary ineffective as nutrient source ofphosphorous for growingp. wrgarisin acid so,s. Key Words; Andosol(s), phosphorus, source, leld

MAINA MRMUIRUWILLIAM. "Response of free living nematodes to treatments targeting plant parasitic nematodes in carnation.". In: UoN research meeting. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences; 2008. Abstract
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Otieno W, Muiru WM, Mutua GK, Kimenju JW, Langat JK. "Response of free-living nematodes to treatments targeting plant parasitic nematodes in carnation.". 2008. Abstract

This study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the effect of ecologically sound approaches for nematode management on non-target organisms, free-living nematodes. The materials tested were sugarcane bagasse, molasses, tea and flower composts, neem (Achook), a biological agent (Paecilomyces lilacinus) and fenamiphos (Nemacur). The treatments were administered before planting carnation var. White Natila in flower beds that were naturally infested with nematodes. Application of bagasse, molasses, tea and flower composts resulted in increased abundance of free-living nematodes compared to the control where nothing was applied. Bacterial feeders, fungal feeders, and predators comprised 73, 14 and 13%, respectively of the free-living nematodes recovered. Members of the genus Rhabditis were the most abundant (10%) among the bacteriovores while Mononchus (10%) and Aphelenchoides (14%) dominated among the predators and fungivorous trophic groups, respectively. The highest numbers of free-living nematodes were recorded at 90 Days after Planting (DAP) in plots treated with bagasse and molasses but the numbers declined at 180 DAP. A steady increase in numbers of free-living nematodes was observed in plots treated with tea and flower composts up to 180 DAP. Significant reductions in abundance of free-living nematodes were recorded in plots treated with fenamiphos and neem. This study has established that application of organic substrates serve as a stimulus to processes leading to build-up of free-living nematodes. The organic substrates can strongly be recommended for use in sustainable carnation production systems.

K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI, S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Response of green grams (Vigna radiata) to fertilizer nitrogen application. In: JJT Msaky, GP Musumali and FBR Rwehubiza. Soil Science Research and Technologies: Foundations for sustainable food security.". In: Proceedings of 19th Soil Science Society of East AfricaConference,2-7 2001, Moshi, Tanzania. Pp 1-13. University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.
K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI, S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Response of green grams (Vigna radiata) to fertilizer nitrogen application. In: JJT Msaky, GP Musumali and FBR Rwehubiza. Soil Science Research and Technologies: Foundations for sustainable food security.". In: Proceedings of 19th Soil Science Society of East AfricaConference,2-7 2001, Moshi, Tanzania. Pp 1-13. Taylor & Francis; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
and Chemining’wa G.N., Njarui M.D.G. MGMJGJNS. "Response of green manure legumes to phosphorous application and rhizobial inoculation.". In: Enhancing Agricultural Productivity in East Africa; Development and Up-scaling of Greed Manure Legume Technologies in Kenya. Nairobi: Kenya Agricultural Research Institute.; 2006.
Michieka RW, Ilnicki RD, Justin JR, Zublena J. "Response of kenaf to some preemergence herbicides.". 1977.
Patel, NB XZ-p, et al. "Response of nerve growth cone to focal electric currents." J. Neuroscience Res. 1985;13:245-256.
M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Response of pigeonpea(Cajanus cajan L. Millsp) to Rhizobium inoculation and phospate fertiliser application. Acta. Hort. 218: 239-249.". In: Paper presented in the International Conference on Integrated pest Management for Sub-saharan Africa, 8-12 Sept 2002, Kampala, Uganda. EAMJ; 1998. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Response of pigeonpea(Cajanus cajan L. Millsp) to Rhizobium inoculation and phospate fertiliser application. Acta. Hort. 218: 239-249.". In: Paper presented in the International Conference on Integrated pest Management for Sub-saharan Africa, 8-12 Sept 2002, Kampala, Uganda. EAMJ; 1988. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Wangechi SW;, Chemining’wa GN;, Nderitu JH;, Gachene CKK. "Response of snapbean to inorganic N-fertilizer and farm and Manure in Mwea."; 2007.
W MP, Mburu MWK, Mwololo JK, Ateka EM, Njeru RW. "Response of sweet potato varieties for white flies resistance.". In: K. Njoroge .; 2011.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH, R DRMUKABANAJOSEPH, K PROFNGANGAJOHN. "Response of the Moisture Budget to the Growth and Development of Nairobi City .". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. Africa J. of Sc. and Tech; 2008.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH, R DRMUKABANAJOSEPH, K PROFNGANGAJOHN. "Response of the Moisture Budget to the Growth and Development of Nairobi City .". In: Proceedings: 1st KenGen/IAEA geothermal Conference in Kenya. Africa J. of Sc. and Tech; 2008.
Ambuko J, Onsongo NK, Hutchinson MJ, Owino WO. "Response of'Apple'mango fruit to 1-methylcyclopropene as affected by agro-ecological zone and maturity stage.". In: XXIX International Horticultural Congress on Horticulture: Sustaining Lives, Livelihoods and Landscapes (IHC2014): IV 1111.; 2014:. Abstract
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Ikumi ML, Muchohi SN, Kokwaro GO, Newton CR. "Response to diazepam in children with malaria-induced seizures.". 2008. Abstract

Malaria infection reduces the binding capacity of benzodiazepine receptors in mice. We studied the efficacy of diazepam terminating seizures in children with falciparum malaria. Diazepam stopped seizures in fewer patients with malaria parasitaemia (chi(2)=3.93, P=0.047) and those with clinical diagnosis of malaria (chi(2)=9.84, P=0.002) compared to those without. However malaria was not identified as an independent risk factor for diazepam's failure to stop seizures in children.

Paul BK, Pulleman MM, Ayuke FO, Six J, Vanlauwe B. "Response to G.W Sileshi letter to the editor on AGEE13857 (2015): Exclusion of soil macrofauna did not affect soil quality. Statistical artefact or true lack of effect." Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 2016;221:282-284.
Ngesa PN. "The Responses of Nairobi Women Traders to Their Vulnerabilities of the 1960s.". In: IFRA sponsored Conference on the 50 th Anniversary of African Independences. The British Institute of Eastern Africa; 2013.
wood, et al. "Responses to Ammonia Loading in the Magadi Tilapia, a Completely Ureotelic Teleost Fish.". In: Canadian Society of Zoologists meeting. Mount Allison University, Sackville, NB Canada; 2012.
Korelitz BI, Sommers SC. "Responses to drug therapy in ulcerative colitis. Evaluation by rectal biopsy and histopathological changes." Am. J. Gastroenterol.. 1975;64(5):365-70. Abstract

To evaluate responses to medical therapy in ulcerative colitis, rectal biopsies of patients with active untreated disease, individuals with positive and negative sigmoidoscopic findings treated with salicylazosulfapyridine, prednisone and 6-mercaptopurine, alone and in combinations and noncolitis controls were compared histologically. Predominant histological observations were analyzed statistically. There were fewer crypt abscesses but more mucosal edema after all forms of therapy. Quantitative histopathological analysis failed to demonstrate that the response to one drug was significantly different from another.

Korelitz BI, Sommers SC. "Responses to drug therapy in ulcerative colitis. Evaluation by rectal biopsy and histopathological changes." Am. J. Gastroenterol.. 1975;64(5):365-70. Abstract

To evaluate responses to medical therapy in ulcerative colitis, rectal biopsies of patients with active untreated disease, individuals with positive and negative sigmoidoscopic findings treated with salicylazosulfapyridine, prednisone and 6-mercaptopurine, alone and in combinations and noncolitis controls were compared histologically. Predominant histological observations were analyzed statistically. There were fewer crypt abscesses but more mucosal edema after all forms of therapy. Quantitative histopathological analysis failed to demonstrate that the response to one drug was significantly different from another.

WAMBUI JANE. "Responsibility: The Youth as a leader in Modern Society." Paper presented at a Youth; 2006. Abstract
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author Jesse N.K. Mugambi. ""Responsible Leadership in Education and Development" .". In: Responsible Leadership: Global and Contextual Ethical Perspectives. Geneva/Nairobi: Globethics.net/Acton; 2008.
co-editor Jesse N.K. Mugambi, co-editor Christoph Stückelberger. Responsible Leadership: Global and Contextual Ethical Perspctives. Geneva/Nairobi: Globethics.net/Acton; 2008.
Wasamba P. "Rest." Mwangaza. 2004;Vol. 2(No. 3):24.rest.pdf
NGIGI J, WERE A, MUNENE J, NYARERA D, Chokwe T, MUNGAI P, KANYI S, PALACIO A, MONSALVE C, SAVAL N, CRETIN N, OPPENHEIMER F, ALCARATZ A. Restarting a living donor kidney transplant Program in Kenya:24 transplants performed in Less than one year . GLASGOW UK: EUROPEAN SOCIEITY FOR TRANSPLANTION; 2011.
Ngigi J, Were A, Munene J, MUNGAI P. "Restarting a living donor kidney transplant Program in Kenya: 24 transplants performed in Less than one year.". In: 15th Congress of the European Society for Organ Transplantation .; 2011.
SO Khainga, RK Tenge PWK. "Restoration of Anal Sphincter Tone by Graciloplasty: A Report of Five Cases ." East African Medical Journal. 2011;88(1). AbstractWebsite

Stool incontinence can be as a result of congenital or acquired anal sphincter problems. It is a devastating state for a patient not to be able to control stools resulting into continued feacal soiling. It reduces an individual to a dejected and depressed person who becomes a social misfit. Hence any procedure that can alleviate this state is normally highly appreciated. Various techniques have been quoted in literature and use of gracilis muscle to form a neosphincter is one of them. Dynamic graciloplasty, is a technique whereby electrodes have been implanted into gracilis muscle and is connected to an implantable pulse generator which provides progressive levels of stimulation to convert the fast twitch, fatigue prone muscle fibres to a slow twitch, fatigue resistant firbres over eight week training period (1,2,3). This has shown improved efficacy over the static graciloplasty (3). In this case report, five patients with stool incontinence from different aetiologies are presented, all having been managed by static graciloplasty and intense physiotherapy with good outcomes reported.

Wachira, P.M, Okoth, S.A, Kimenju, J.W, Mibey, R. K, Kiarie, J.W. "Restoration of natural regulatory mechanisms of plant parasitic nematodes in agricultural systems.". In: International Conference ‘Integrated Fertility Management in Africa: From Microbes to Markets. Safari Park Hotel, Naiorbi; 2012.
Kage S, Meguro S, Miyawaki A, Mathenge S, Kiboi S, Hayashi H, Fujiwara K, Furukawa T, Mutiso P. "Restoration of tropical dry forests of Kenya." Proceedings of International Symposium on Rehabilitation of Tropical Rainforest Ecosystems 2011. 2011.
RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Restraint of Trade - Types of Contract".". In: Executive, Nairobi, 20-22.; 2011. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Restraint of Trade - Types of Contract",.". In: Executive, Nairobi, 20-22 (August1990).; 1990. Abstract
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and Achia, T.N.O; Manene OJAMMM. "The Restricted Dorfman- Sterrett Group-screening procedures without errors in decisions." ICASTORJournal of Mathematical Sciences. 2010;4(2):153-163. AbstractFull text link

This thesis is a study on the Dorfman-Sterrett group-screening designs assuming equal a-prior probabilities of items being defective. Based on a clear theoretical framework, we have studied both restricted and unrestricted Dorfman-Sterrett procedure without and without errors in decision, deriving expressions for expected number of tests (and cost functions), which are used to compare the performance of this procedures with the Dorfman procedure. \lVehave give an alternative approach to determining the expected number of tests in an unrestricted Dorfman-Sterrett design. The restricted Dorfman-Sterrett procedure without errors in decision has also be examined, giving conditions under which the restricted procedure converges to the unrestricted procedure. vVe have shown that for most prevalence rates, the two-stage Dorfman-Sterrett procedure performs just as well as the unrestricted procedure. We have in this thesis also examined the Restricted Dorfman-Sterrett procedure with error in decision. Expressions for the expected number of runs and cost functions have been derived. The results, based on the expected proportional red uct.ion in testing over individual testing, indicate that the single-step Dorfman-Sterrett procedure performs better than the Dorfman procedure for all the prevalence rates less than 30%. The result.s also indicate the t.here is little. if any, difference in performance between the single-step and the two-step Dorfman-Sterrett procedures. For the multi-step Modified Dorfman-Sterrett procedures without errors in decision we have derived the expected number. of runs and compared this results with the expected number of runs for the Dorfman procedure and the multi-step DorfmanSterrett procedure. In. addition, cost functions and expected number of tests for the multi-step Modified Dorfman-Sterrett procedures with errors in decision have also been derived. The results indicate that the modified procedure perform slightly better than Dorfman procedure fer most prevalence rates but is less efficient than the Dorfman-Sterrett procedure. The expressions for expected number of runs and the expected number of incorrect decisions in screening with errors are derived using vVatsons testing of hypothesis approach. Under the testing of hypothesis approach group factors are tested using orthogonal fractional factorial designs of the type giveil in Plackett and Burman (1946). We have also derived expressions for expected number of runs for both the restricted and the unrestricted Modified Dorfman-Sterrett procedures. The results indicate that the Modified Dorfman-Sterrett procedure performs better than the Dorfman procedure for prevalence rates less than 30%. There is also a greater saving for larger prevalence rates. There is a saving of 3~2%in using the Modified procedure instead of the Dorfman procedure when p = 0.29 compared with a s~,ving of 0.18% for p = 0.001. The results however indicate that Sterrett's procedure is more efficient than t.he Modified procedures for prevalence rates less than 30%. These figures seem to disprove the a.ssertion by Huang et al (1089) that a modified Dorfman-Sterrett procedure is more efficient than Sterrett's procedure when the a-priori probability of an item being defective, P. is somewha.t higher (though still quite low) .

and 1 S.K Imagiri KPJMGP. "Restrictions on the Powers of Generalized Aluthge Transforms of w-Hyponormal Operators." Far East Jnl of Maths . 2013.
M MRSKITHINJIANGELA. "Restructuring Commercial Banks,.". In: The Professional Journal of KASNEB, Issue No.2, . The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 2003. Abstract
Fourteen patients received oral premedication of temazepam in soft gelatin capsules before minor surgery. The plasma concentrations of temazepam and its sedative, anxiolytic and amnesic effects were measured for 24 hours. Absorption was rapid and peak concentrations occurred 49 minutes after administration. Clinical effects were evident at 30 minutes and persisted for about 4 hours. The decline in plasma concentration was biexponential with a distribution half-life of 1.24 hours. The end of the distribution phase coincided approximately with the termination of its clinical effects. A relationship between plasma concentration and effect was observed; concentrations above 300 ng/ml produced measurable changes in tests of mental function. Patients had recovered fully from the effects of temazepam after 24 hours. This dose of temazepam is reliable and effective as premedication before surgery
Mbogoh SG, Nyameino DM. "Results of a performance monitoring survey of Endao, Eldume and Sandai smallholder irrigation schemes in Marigat division of Baringo district [Kenya].". 1988. Abstract

Presents the results of a monitoring programme of three smallholder irrigation schemes for field crops in Marigat division of Baringo district in Kenya. This was to ascertain the performance of the schemes from both technical and socio-economic criteria and also to identify and document the role of irrigated agriculture in contributing to the farmers household food needs and in improving the overall welfare of the rural farm households. Discusses the results from each irrigation scheme and gives some recommendations

Datta P, Embree JE, Kreiss JK, Ndinya-Achola JO, Muriitha J, Holmes KK, Plummer FA. "Resumption of breast-feeding in later childhood: a risk factor for mother to child human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission.". 1992.
Osano O, Arimi SM. "Retail poultry and beef as sources of campylobacter jejuni.". 1999. Abstract

Objectives: To investigate the level of contamination with C. jejuni of raw chicken and beef meats sold in Nairobi and to assess their potential as sources of campylobacter infections to man. Design: Dressed chicken and beef meat samples were randomly sourced from butcheries, markets and supermarkets in various parts of Nairobi over a period of two months. One hundred chicken and 50 beef samples were bacteriologically examined by selective enrichment and culture under microaerophilic environment. Thermophilic campylobacters were identified and characterised using standard physical and biochemical tests. Setting: Veterinary Public Health Laboratories, Kabete, University of Nairobi. Results: Thermophilic campylobacters were isolated from 77 (77%) poultry samples and one (2 %) beef sample. Isolation rate (85.3 %) was higher from chickens <24 hours old since slaughter than those >24 hours old. The beef isolate was 2% C. jejuni. Poultry samples yielded C. jejuni (59%), C. coli (39% and C. laridis (2%). Conclusion: These findings show that poultry meat sold at the counter is a major source of C. jejuni and C. coli, and that it is an important potential source of campylobacter infection. Proper cooking and hygienic handling before consumption is therefore essential.

Dorothy McCormick, Kinyanjui M. "Retailers and Small scale Garment Producers: Dynamics in Local Level Development in Nairobi.". In: Local Economic Development in Africa. Nairobi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2005. Abstract

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EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "Retarded biology of the two spotted spider mites, Tetranychs urticae Koch after exposure to the anti-moulting compound, flufenoxuron under laboratory conditions. Anz. Schadlingskde pflanzenschtuz umweltschutz, 65: 126 .". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. 42. El-Banhawy, E. M. and Amer, S. A. A; 1992. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL, M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. "Retention Behavior of Metal Particle Dispersions in Aqueous and Nonaqueous Carriers in Thermal Field-Flow Fractionation.". In: J. Chromatogr. A., 983, 163-176. AWC and FES; 2003. Abstract
domain of the putative celB gene from alkalophilic Bacillus
MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "Rethinking Global Security: An African Perspective.". In: East African Journal of Human Rights and Democracy Vol. 3. University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This book provides an incisive discussion and analysis of the major issues and dynamics in diplomatic practice. It analyses documents and the process of diplomacy, the process and documents of diplomatic negotiations and mediation, and in the third part discusses some of the issues in diplomatic practice, such as reporting, manageemnt of the foreign service and legal and social problems of diplomatic missions.
joshua Kivuva. "rethinking social movements in East Africa.". In: The second action workshop on the social movements' project. University of Nairobi, Ed Building Rm 213; 2012.
Gor SO, Gitau CMW. "Rethinking the HDI: a More Theoretically Consistent Alternative." OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development. 2010;1(5):85-90.
Ondicho TG. "Rethinking the New world order and its Implications for Africa.". In: Contemporary Africa and the Foreseeable World Order. London: Lexington Books; 2019.
Okano K, Maeda A, Chen Y, Chauhan V, Tang J, Palczewska G, Sakai T, Tsuneoka H, Palczewski K, Maeda T. "Retinal cone and rod photoreceptor cells exhibit differential susceptibility to light-induced damage." Journal of neurochemistry. 2012;121:146-156. Abstract

All-trans-retinal and its condensation-products can cause retinal degeneration in a light-dependent manner and contribute to the pathogenesis of human macular diseases such as Stargardt's disease and age-related macular degeneration. Although these toxic retinoid by-products originate from rod and cone photoreceptor cells, the contribution of each cell type to light-induced retinal degeneration is unknown. In this study, the primary objective was to learn whether rods or cones are more susceptible to light-induced, all-trans-retinal-mediated damage. Previously, we reported that mice lacking enzymes that clear all-trans-retinal from the retina, ATP-binding cassette transporter 4 and retinol dehydrogenase 8, manifested light-induced retinal dystrophy. We first examined early-stage age-related macular degeneration patients and found retinal degenerative changes in rod-rich rather than cone-rich regions of the macula. We then evaluated transgenic mice with rod-only and cone-like-only retinas in addition to progenies of such mice inbred with Rdh8(-/-) Abca4(-/-) mice. Of all these strains, Rdh8(-/-) Abca4(-/-) mice with a mixed rod-cone population showed the most severe retinal degeneration under regular cyclic light conditions. Intense light exposure induced acute retinal damage in Rdh8(-/-) Abca4(-/-) and rod-only mice but not cone-like-only mice. These findings suggest that progression of retinal degeneration in Rdh8(-/-) Abca4(-/-) mice is affected by differential vulnerability of rods and cones to light.

Perry VH, Oehler R, Cowey A. "Retinal ganglion cells that project to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in the macaque monkey." Neuroscience. 1984;12:1101-1123. AbstractWebsite

Horseradish peroxidase was deposited in the optic nerve to retrogradely label and reveal the dendritic form of all classes of ganglion cell, or it was injected into the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus to reveal only those classes projecting to the thalamus. The results were compared with those of the accompanying paper in which the ganglion cells projecting to the midbrain are selectively revealed. Two major classes of ganglion cells are described, the Pα and Pβ cells. For both classes dendritic field size increases with eccentricity from the fovea and there is no overlap in the two classes at any given eccentricity. Cell body size shows a similar mean difference but with a slight overlap. Both cell bodies and dendritic fields are larger along the temporal horizontal meridian than the nasal horizontal meridian, for Pα and for Pβ cells, but these differences are reduced when naso-temporal differences in ganglion cell density are taken into account, that is, size correlates closely with density. Injections restricted to the parvocellular layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus labelled almost exclusively Pβ cells, whereas injections confined to the magnocellular layers labelled almost exclusively Pα cells. As midbrain injections label no Pβ cells and few Pα cells it can be shown that about 80% of ganglion cells are Pβ cells projecting to parvocellular lateral geniculate nucleus, and that about 10% are Pα cells projecting to magnocellular layers. The coverage factor, that is the number of cells covering each point on the retina, varied from 1.9–2.3 for Pβ cells, and from 2–7 for Pα cells. Comparing the results with those of comparable investigations on cats and rabbits shows a much clearer segregation of the terminal targets of different classes of ganglion cell in monkeys, the greatest difference being the absence in the monkey of a projection to the geniculate from gamma- and epsilon-like cells. Further, axons which branch and innervate both thalamus and midbrain are rare in monkeys but common in other mammals. Comparing the results with those from physiological investigations suggests that the Pβ cells correspond to colour-opponent cells, whereas Pα cells correspond to the achromatic broad-band magnocellular cells.

Spear PD, Hou V. "Retinal ganglion-cell densities and soma sizes are unaffected by long-term monocular deprivation in the cat." Brain research. 1990;522:354-358. Abstract

Three cats were raised with monocular deprivation for 5.2-7.2 years, and ganglion-cell densities and soma sizes were measured in their flat-mounted retinae. The retinae were Nissl-stained so that ganglion cells could be measured whether or not they maintained normal central projections. Measurements were made in the area centralis, peripheral binocular segment, and monocular segment of the retinae. There were no significant differences between the deprived and non-deprived retinae in the densities or soma-sizes of alpha cells or other (non-alpha) ganglion cells at any of these retinal locations. These results support the view that the most distal effects of monocular deprivation occur at the retino-geniculate contact, and they suggest that even after long-term monocular deprivation, effects in the lateral geniculate nucleus do not produce secondary, retrograde changes in the retina.

Spear PD, Hou V. "Retinal ganglion-cell densities and soma sizes are unaffected by long-term monocular deprivation in the cat." Brain research. 1990;522:354-358. Abstract

Three cats were raised with monocular deprivation for 5.2-7.2 years, and ganglion-cell densities and soma sizes were measured in their flat-mounted retinae. The retinae were Nissl-stained so that ganglion cells could be measured whether or not they maintained normal central projections. Measurements were made in the area centralis, peripheral binocular segment, and monocular segment of the retinae. There were no significant differences between the deprived and non-deprived retinae in the densities or soma-sizes of alpha cells or other (non-alpha) ganglion cells at any of these retinal locations. These results support the view that the most distal effects of monocular deprivation occur at the retino-geniculate contact, and they suggest that even after long-term monocular deprivation, effects in the lateral geniculate nucleus do not produce secondary, retrograde changes in the retina.

Spear PD, Hou V. "Retinal ganglion-cell densities and soma sizes are unaffected by long-term monocular deprivation in the cat." Brain research. 1990;522:354-358. Abstract

Three cats were raised with monocular deprivation for 5.2-7.2 years, and ganglion-cell densities and soma sizes were measured in their flat-mounted retinae. The retinae were Nissl-stained so that ganglion cells could be measured whether or not they maintained normal central projections. Measurements were made in the area centralis, peripheral binocular segment, and monocular segment of the retinae. There were no significant differences between the deprived and non-deprived retinae in the densities or soma-sizes of alpha cells or other (non-alpha) ganglion cells at any of these retinal locations. These results support the view that the most distal effects of monocular deprivation occur at the retino-geniculate contact, and they suggest that even after long-term monocular deprivation, effects in the lateral geniculate nucleus do not produce secondary, retrograde changes in the retina.

Engelbrecht NE, Freeman J, Sternberg P, Aaberg TM, Aaberg TM, Martin DF, Sippy BD. "Retinal pigment epithelial changes after macular hole surgery with indocyanine green-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling." American Journal of Ophthalmology. 2002;133:89-94. AbstractWebsite
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Sparrow JR, Hicks D, Hamel CP. "The retinal pigment epithelium in health and disease." Current molecular medicine. 2010;10:802-823. Abstract

Retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) constitute a simple layer of cuboidal cells that are strategically situated behind the photoreceptor (PR) cells. The inconspicuousness of this monolayer contrasts sharply with its importance [1]. The relationship between the RPE and PR cells is crucial to sight; this is evident from basic and clinical studies demonstrating that primary dysfunctioning of the RPE can result in visual cell death and blindness. RPE cells carry out many functions including the conversion and storage of retinoid, the phagocytosis of shed PR outer segment membrane, the absorption of scattered light, ion and fluid transport and RPE-PR apposition. The magnitude of the demands imposed on this single layer of cells in order to execute these tasks, will become apparent to the reader of this review as will the number of clinical disorders that take origin from these cells.

Sparrow JR, Hicks D, Hamel CP. "The retinal pigment epithelium in health and disease." Current molecular medicine. 2010;10:802-823. Abstract

Retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) constitute a simple layer of cuboidal cells that are strategically situated behind the photoreceptor (PR) cells. The inconspicuousness of this monolayer contrasts sharply with its importance [1]. The relationship between the RPE and PR cells is crucial to sight; this is evident from basic and clinical studies demonstrating that primary dysfunctioning of the RPE can result in visual cell death and blindness. RPE cells carry out many functions including the conversion and storage of retinoid, the phagocytosis of shed PR outer segment membrane, the absorption of scattered light, ion and fluid transport and RPE-PR apposition. The magnitude of the demands imposed on this single layer of cells in order to execute these tasks, will become apparent to the reader of this review as will the number of clinical disorders that take origin from these cells.

Strauss O. "The retinal pigment epithelium in visual function." Physiological reviews. 2005;85:845-881. Abstract

Located between vessels of the choriocapillaris and light-sensitive outer segments of the photoreceptors, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) closely interacts with photoreceptors in the maintenance of visual function. Increasing knowledge of the multiple functions performed by the RPE improved the understanding of many diseases leading to blindness. This review summarizes the current knowledge of RPE functions and describes how failure of these functions causes loss of visual function. Mutations in genes that are expressed in the RPE can lead to photoreceptor degeneration. On the other hand, mutations in genes expressed in photoreceptors can lead to degenerations of the RPE. Thus both tissues can be regarded as a functional unit where both interacting partners depend on each other.

Bok D. "The retinal pigment epithelium: a versatile partner in vision." Journal of cell science. Supplement. 1993;17:189-195. Abstract

The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a monolayer of cuboidal cells that lies in close association with the rod and cone photoreceptors. This epithelium has diverse features, three of which are discussed in some detail in this review, namely the daily phagocytosis of rod and cone outer segment fragments that are shed from their distal ends; the uptake, processing, transport and release of vitamin A (retinol) and some of its visual cycle intermediates (retinoids); and some of the aspects of its apical and basolateral membrane polarity that are the reverse of most other epithelia. Phagocytosis takes place at the apical surface via membrane receptor-mediated processes that are not yet well defined. Retinol uptake occurs at both the basolateral and apical surfaces by what appear to be separate receptor-mediated processes. The release of a crucial retinoid, 11-cis retinaldehyde (11-cis retinal), occurs solely across the apical membrane. Delivery of retinol across the basolateral membrane is mediated by a retinol binding protein (RBP) that is secreted by the liver as a complex with retinol (vitamin A). Within the cell, retinol and its derivatives are solubilized by intracellular retinoid binding proteins that are selective for retinol (cellular retinol binding protein, CRBP) and 11-cis retinoids (cellular retinal binding protein, CRALBP). Release of 11-cis retinal across the apical membrane and re-uptake of retinol from the photoreceptors during the visual cycle is promoted by an intercellular retinoid binding protein (IRBP). Na,K-ATPase, the membrane-integrated enzyme required to set up the ion gradients that drive other ion transporters, is largely localized to the apical membrane.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Bok D. "The retinal pigment epithelium: a versatile partner in vision." Journal of cell science. Supplement. 1993;17:189-195. Abstract

The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a monolayer of cuboidal cells that lies in close association with the rod and cone photoreceptors. This epithelium has diverse features, three of which are discussed in some detail in this review, namely the daily phagocytosis of rod and cone outer segment fragments that are shed from their distal ends; the uptake, processing, transport and release of vitamin A (retinol) and some of its visual cycle intermediates (retinoids); and some of the aspects of its apical and basolateral membrane polarity that are the reverse of most other epithelia. Phagocytosis takes place at the apical surface via membrane receptor-mediated processes that are not yet well defined. Retinol uptake occurs at both the basolateral and apical surfaces by what appear to be separate receptor-mediated processes. The release of a crucial retinoid, 11-cis retinaldehyde (11-cis retinal), occurs solely across the apical membrane. Delivery of retinol across the basolateral membrane is mediated by a retinol binding protein (RBP) that is secreted by the liver as a complex with retinol (vitamin A). Within the cell, retinol and its derivatives are solubilized by intracellular retinoid binding proteins that are selective for retinol (cellular retinol binding protein, CRBP) and 11-cis retinoids (cellular retinal binding protein, CRALBP). Release of 11-cis retinal across the apical membrane and re-uptake of retinol from the photoreceptors during the visual cycle is promoted by an intercellular retinoid binding protein (IRBP). Na,K-ATPase, the membrane-integrated enzyme required to set up the ion gradients that drive other ion transporters, is largely localized to the apical membrane.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Tropepe V, Coles BLK, Chiasson BJ, Horsford JD, Elia AJ, McInnes RR, van der Kooy D. "Retinal stem cells in the adult mammalian eye." Science. 2000;287:2032-2036. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Abbott CJ, Grünert U, Pianta MJ, McBrien NA. "Retinal thinning in tree shrews with induced high myopia: {Optical} coherence tomography and histological assessment." Vision Research. 2011;51:376-385. AbstractWebsite

This study determined retinal thinning in a mammalian model of high myopia using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and histological sections from the same retinal tissue. High myopia was induced in three tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) by deprivation of form vision via lid suture of one eye, with the other eye a control. Ocular biometry data was obtained by Ascan ultrasonography, keratometry and retinoscopy. The Zeiss StratusOCT was used to obtain Bscans in vivo across the retina. Subsequently, eyes were enucleated and retinas fixed, dehydrated, embedded and sectioned. Treated eyes developed a high degree of axial myopia (−15.9 ± 2.3 D; n = 3). The OCT analysis showed that in myopic eyes the nasal retina thinned more than the temporal retina relative to the disc (p = 0.005). Histology showed that the retinas in the myopic eyes comprise all layers but were thinner than the retinas in normal and control eyes. Detailed thickness measurements in corresponding locations of myopic and control eyes in superior nasal retina using longitudinal reflectivity profiles from OCT and semithin vertical histological sections showed the percentage of retinal thinning in the myopic eyes was similar between methods (OCT 15.34 ± 5.69%; histology 17.61 ± 3.02%; p = 0.10). Analysis of retinal layers revealed that the inner plexiform, inner nuclear and outer plexiform layers thin the most. Cell density measurements showed all neuronal cell types are involved in retinal thinning. The results indicate that in vivo OCT measurements can accurately detect retinal thinning in high myopia.

Abbott CJ, Grünert U, Pianta MJ, McBrien NA. "Retinal thinning in tree shrews with induced high myopia: {Optical} coherence tomography and histological assessment." Vision Research. 2011;51:376-385. AbstractWebsite

This study determined retinal thinning in a mammalian model of high myopia using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and histological sections from the same retinal tissue. High myopia was induced in three tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) by deprivation of form vision via lid suture of one eye, with the other eye a control. Ocular biometry data was obtained by Ascan ultrasonography, keratometry and retinoscopy. The Zeiss StratusOCT was used to obtain Bscans in vivo across the retina. Subsequently, eyes were enucleated and retinas fixed, dehydrated, embedded and sectioned. Treated eyes developed a high degree of axial myopia (−15.9 ± 2.3 D; n = 3). The OCT analysis showed that in myopic eyes the nasal retina thinned more than the temporal retina relative to the disc (p = 0.005). Histology showed that the retinas in the myopic eyes comprise all layers but were thinner than the retinas in normal and control eyes. Detailed thickness measurements in corresponding locations of myopic and control eyes in superior nasal retina using longitudinal reflectivity profiles from OCT and semithin vertical histological sections showed the percentage of retinal thinning in the myopic eyes was similar between methods (OCT 15.34 ± 5.69%; histology 17.61 ± 3.02%; p = 0.10). Analysis of retinal layers revealed that the inner plexiform, inner nuclear and outer plexiform layers thin the most. Cell density measurements showed all neuronal cell types are involved in retinal thinning. The results indicate that in vivo OCT measurements can accurately detect retinal thinning in high myopia.

Berson DM. "Retinal {Ganglion} {Cell} {Types} and {Their} {Central} {Projections}." In: Masland RH, Albright TD, Dallos P, Oertel D, Firestein S, Beauchamp GK, Bushnell CM, Basbaum AI, Kaas JH, Gardner EP, eds. The {Senses}: {A} {Comprehensive} {Reference}. New York: Academic Press; 2008:. Abstract

Ganglion cells are the only retinal neurons communicating directly with the brain. It is well known that mammalian ganglion cells comprise more than a dozen types, clearly distinguishable from one another in structure and function. Each type also appears to send axons to a distinctive subset of the many central visual nuclei receiving direct retinal input. The implication is that each ganglion cell type forms a specialized channel sculpted by evolutionary pressures to fulfill specific visual functions. Though the outlines of this perspective have been clear for decades, many essential details are lacking. The goal of this chapter is to summarize the state of knowledge about where retinal axons are distributed in the brain and which types of ganglion cells contribute to these pathways. The primary focus is on ganglion cell types that appear to be conserved across mammalian phylogeny.

Organisciak DT, Vaughan DK. "Retinal {Light} {Damage}: {Mechanisms} and {Protection}." Progress in retinal and eye research. 2010;29:113-134. AbstractWebsite

By its action on rhodopsin, light triggers the well-known visual transduction cascade, but can also induce cell damage and death through phototoxic mechanisms – a comprehensive understanding of which is still elusive despite more than 40 years of research. Herein, we integrate recent experimental findings to address several hypotheses of retinal light damage, premised in part on the close anatomical and metabolic relationships between the photoreceptors and the retinal pigment epithelium. We begin by reviewing the salient features of light damage, recently joined by evidence for retinal remodeling which has implications for the prognosis of recovery of function in retinal degenerations. We then consider select factors that influence the progression of the damage process and the extent of visual cell loss. Traditional, genetically-modified, and emerging animal models are discussed, with particular emphasis on cone visual cells. Exogenous and endogenous retinal protective factors are explored, with implications for light damage mechanisms and some suggested avenues for future research. Synergies are known to exist between our long term light environment and photoreceptor cell death in retinal disease. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of light damage in a variety of animal models can provide valuable insights into the effects of light in clinical disorders and may form the basis of future therapies to prevent or delay visual cell loss.

Gallie BL, Chan HSL, White A, Gronsdahl P, Dimba EAO, Kimani K, Dimaras H. "Retinoblastoma.". 2013. Abstract

Retinoblastoma is an aggressive eye cancer of infancy and childhood. Survival and the chance of saving vision depend on severity of disease at presentation. Retinoblastoma was the first tumour to draw attention to the genetic aetiology of cancer. Despite good understanding of its aetiology, mortality from retinoblastoma is about 70% in countries of low and middle income, where most affected children live. Poor public and medical awareness, and an absence of rigorous clinical trials to assess innovative treatments impede progress. Worldwide, most of the estimated 9000 newly diagnosed patients every year will die. However, global digital communications present opportunities to optimise standards of care for children and families affected by this rare and often devastating cancer. Parents are now leading the effort for widespread awareness of the danger of leucocoria. Genome-level technologies could make genetic testing a reality for every family affected by retinoblastoma. Best-practice guidelines, online sharing of pathological images, point-of-care data entry, multidisciplinary research, and clinical trials can reduce mortality. Most importantly, active participation of survivors and families will ensure that the whole wellbeing of the child is prioritised in any treatment plan.

Gallie BL, Chan HSL, White A, Gronsdahl P, Dimba EAO, Kimani K, Dimaras H. "Retinoblastoma.". 2013. Abstract

Retinoblastoma is an aggressive eye cancer of infancy and childhood. Survival and the chance of saving vision depend on severity of disease at presentation. Retinoblastoma was the first tumour to draw attention to the genetic aetiology of cancer. Despite good understanding of its aetiology, mortality from retinoblastoma is about 70% in countries of low and middle income, where most affected children live. Poor public and medical awareness, and an absence of rigorous clinical trials to assess innovative treatments impede progress. Worldwide, most of the estimated 9000 newly diagnosed patients every year will die. However, global digital communications present opportunities to optimise standards of care for children and families affected by this rare and often devastating cancer. Parents are now leading the effort for widespread awareness of the danger of leucocoria. Genome-level technologies could make genetic testing a reality for every family affected by retinoblastoma. Best-practice guidelines, online sharing of pathological images, point-of-care data entry, multidisciplinary research, and clinical trials can reduce mortality. Most importantly, active participation of survivors and families will ensure that the whole wellbeing of the child is prioritised in any treatment plan.

Dimaras H, Kimani K, Dimba EA, Gronsdahl P, White A, Chan HSL, Gallie BL. "Retinoblastoma." Lancet. 2012;379:1436-1446.
L N. "Retinoblastoma: Promoting early diagnosis.". In: 5th Kenya Ophthalmic Nurses Conference. Jumuia Hotel,Nakuru, Kenya; 2014.njambi_l.retinoblastoma_promoting_early_diagnosis.pdf
Rintaugu EG, Mwisukha A. "Retirement from competitive sport: The experiences of Kenyan soccer players." Current Research Journal of Social Sciences. 2011;3(6):477-482.
M GM, EM N, DR I, M B. "Retrobulbar Haemorrhage Following Blunt Trauma In A Newly Diagnosed Haemophilia Patient- A Case Report." Journal of Ophthalmology of Eastern, Central and Southern Africa. 2013;17(2):77-80. Abstract

Haemophilia is a group of coagulation factor disorders that are mostly inherited. It presents with numerous and varied systemic manifestations depending on the severity of coagulation factor deficiency. There are also ocular manifestations ranging from simple subconjunctival haemorrhage to more debilitating complications like retinal, vitreous and retrobulbar haemorrhage which are potentially blinding.
We report a patient who initially presented with what appeared to be simple post-traumatic retrobulbar haemorrhage. The diagnosis of a bleeding disorder was considered when difficulties in achieving haemostasis were encountered intra-operatively.
Key words: Retrobulbar haemorrhage, haemophilia, trauma, proptosis

Gabriel Herscu AK. "Retrocecal appendix location and perforation at presentation." The American surgeon. 2006;72:890-3. Abstract
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Nangole FW, Khainga SO. "Retrospective Review of Patients Operated on with Bilateral Cleft Lip through Surgical Outreaches in Kenya.". 2013. Abstract

This was a study to evaluate the characteristics and outcome of patients operated on with bilateral cleft lip through surgical outreach programs in Kenya between January 2006 and December 2011. Files for fifty-nine patients operated on during the study period were evaluated. The mean age for surgery was ten months with about forty-five percent of the patients more than one year of age. No presurgical orthopaedic devices were utilized on any of the patients. Mulliken surgical technique and the Manchester technique were the commonest surgical techniques in equal proportions. An overall complication rate of about 7.5 percent was noted. In conclusion we noted a delay in the surgical management of the majority of our patients. This resulted in a backlog of cases. There is thus a need to intensify more surgical outreach camps as well as training more surgeons to assist in the management of clefts. Cleft surgery is a relatively safe surgery that could be carried out in relatively remote centers through surgical outreach programs. This was evidenced by the low complication rates in our series.

"Retrospective seroepidemiology of AIDS virus infection in Nairobi populations.". 1987. Abstract

J Infect Dis. 1987 Jun;155(6):1108-12.
Retrospective seroepidemiology of AIDS virus infection in Nairobi populations.
Piot P, Plummer FA, Rey MA, Ngugi EN, Rouzioux C, Ndinya-Achola JO, Veracauteren G, D'Costa LJ, Laga M, Nsanze H, et al.
Abstract
Among 446 sera from prostitutes in Nairobi, the prevalence of antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) rose from 4% in 1981 to 61% in 1985. None of 118 men with chancroid seen in 1980 had antibody to HIV compared with 15% of 107 such men in 1985. Among pregnant women, 2.0% were seropositive in 1985 versus none of 111 in 1981. Seropositive prostitutes and women with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) tended to have more sex partners and had a higher prevalence of gonorrhoea, and in women with STDs, significantly more seropositive women practiced prostitution. Pregnant women and men with STDs who were born in the most-western region of Kenya were more likely to have antibody to HIV than were such groups from other geographic areas. Our results indicate that the AIDS virus was recently introduced into Kenya, that HIV can rapidly disseminate in a high-risk group of heterosexuals, and that prostitutes may have significantly contributed to the spread of the virus.
PMID:
3471817
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

E.N. PN. "Retrospective seroepidemiology of AIDS virus infection in Nairobi populations.". 1987. Abstract

J Infect Dis. 1987 Jun;155(6):1108-12.
Retrospective seroepidemiology of AIDS virus infection in Nairobi populations.
Piot P, Plummer FA, Rey MA, Ngugi EN, Rouzioux C, Ndinya-Achola JO, Veracauteren G, D'Costa LJ, Laga M, Nsanze H, et al.
Abstract
Among 446 sera from prostitutes in Nairobi, the prevalence of antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) rose from 4% in 1981 to 61% in 1985. None of 118 men with chancroid seen in 1980 had antibody to HIV compared with 15% of 107 such men in 1985. Among pregnant women, 2.0% were seropositive in 1985 versus none of 111 in 1981. Seropositive prostitutes and women with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) tended to have more sex partners and had a higher prevalence of gonorrhoea, and in women with STDs, significantly more seropositive women practiced prostitution. Pregnant women and men with STDs who were born in the most-western region of Kenya were more likely to have antibody to HIV than were such groups from other geographic areas. Our results indicate that the AIDS virus was recently introduced into Kenya, that HIV can rapidly disseminate in a high-risk group of heterosexuals, and that prostitutes may have significantly contributed to the spread of the virus.
PMID:
3471817
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

JM K, CM M, JD M, J W. "A Retrospective Study of Canine Ehrlichiosis in Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2014;3(33):122-124.mulei_c_2014_a_retrospective_study_of_canine_ehrlichiosis_in_kenya.pdf
"Retrospective study of alleged sexual assault at the Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi.". 1995. Abstract

A retrospective audit of all the rape cases reported at the Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi over a two year period was carried out. Out of 37 victims, 86.6% were less than 30 years old and 73.4% did not know who the assailant was. 80% of the victims reported to the hospital within 24 hours of the incident taking place and in 4 (10.8%) of the victims-vaginal swabs grew N. gonorrhoea. None of the victims opted for prosecution and none were referred for further counselling. We recommended that alleged rape victims be seen by a qualified gynaecologist or police surgeon and that they should be examined, investigated and managed by a standard protocol. PIP: This retrospective study was undertaken to identify the management problems of sexual assault cases as seen at the Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi where an ongoing quality assurance program attempts to maintain high standards of medical care. The study reviewed all records of sexual assault victims over a 2-year period. The results showed that all 37 victims were females and majority (89.1%) were aged between 19 and 30 years old. About 73.4% did not know their assailants, 80% reported to the hospital within 24 hours of the incident and 10.8% of the victims manifested Neisseria gonorrhea in their vaginal swabs. None of the victims made attempts to bring the assailants to justice. Although rape victims usually suffer from posttraumatic stress, none of the victims in this study were referred for further counseling. Lastly, this study recommended that sexual assault victims should be examined, investigated, and managed by a standard protocol

A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER, G PROFGATEIDAVID, O PROFORINDADA. "Retrospective Study of Cancer of the Esophagus in Kenya.". In: Cancer Research, 38: 303 - 305. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1978. Abstract
Retrospective Sturdy of Cancer of the Esophagus in Kenya - Cancer Research, 38: 303 - 305, February 1978. (Second of five authors - D.G. Gatei, A.E.O. Wasunna, D.A. Orinda and J. Muruka).
A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER, G PROFGATEIDAVID, O PROFORINDADA. "Retrospective Study of Cancer of the Esophagus in Kenya.". In: Cancer Research, 38: 303 - 305. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1978. Abstract
Retrospective Sturdy of Cancer of the Esophagus in Kenya - Cancer Research, 38: 303 - 305, February 1978. (Second of five authors - D.G. Gatei, A.E.O. Wasunna, D.A. Orinda and J. Muruka).
A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER, G PROFGATEIDAVID, O PROFORINDADA. "Retrospective Study of Cancer of the Esophagus in Kenya.". In: Cancer Research, 38: 303 - 305. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1978. Abstract
Retrospective Sturdy of Cancer of the Esophagus in Kenya - Cancer Research, 38: 303 - 305, February 1978. (Second of five authors - D.G. Gatei, A.E.O. Wasunna, D.A. Orinda and J. Muruka).
A KJM, CM M, JD M, J W. "A Retrospective Study of Canine Ehrlichiosis in Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2014;3(3):122-124.
Gatei DG, Odhiambo PA, Orinda DA, Muruka FJ, Wasunna A. "Retrospective study of carcinoma of the esophagus in Kenya." Cancer Res.. 1978;38(2):303-7. Abstract

A clinical, radiological, histological, and geographical study of carcinoma of the esophagus in Kenya is reported. It was found that this cancer is diagnosed more often in males than in females, with a ration of 8:1 (Kenya Cancer Registry). The most common age in males and females is 50 to 59 years. The regions of the esophagus most commonly involved are the middle and lower thirds, in almost equal proportions. An unexplained tendency for the tumor to be poorly differentiated towards the lower third is noted. In addition a review on the possible etiological factors is presented.

N PROFGUANTAIA. "A Retrospective Study of Childhood Poisoning in Kenya.". In: EAST AND CENTRAL AFRICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES - VOL. 1. CHARLES K. MAITAI*, ISAAC 0. KIBWAGE, ANASTASIA N. GUANTAI, JAMES N. OMBEGA AND FRANCIS A. NDEM0; 1993. Abstract

A literature survey revealed lack of adequate information on poisoning in Kenya, thus providing the impetus for the present work. In this, study, a 3 year retrospective survey of human poisoning in 19 Kenyan District, Provincial hospitals and Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), representing approximately 40% of such public hospitals in the country, was carried out. Cases of poisoning were identified by diagnosis codes entered on hospital records at the time of discharge. A total of 1904 cases of poisoning were recorded and the information analyzed with particular focus on childhood poisoning. Distribution pattern with respect to poisoning agents, age and sex is presented. Children aged 0-5 years account for 29.78% while those aged 6-14 years account for 10.24% of cases of poisoning recorded. In the age group 0-5 years, Kerosine, drugs and organophosphates account for 41.09, 23.81 and 15.17% of poisoning cases respectively. It is concluded that any preventive measures targeted at children must focus on the 3 classes of poisons which together account for approximately 80% of all classes of poisoning in children.

Kitaa JMA, Mulei CM, Wabacha JK, Mande JD. "A retrospective study of clinical presentation of canine ehrlichiosis in the Small Animal Clinic of the University of Nairobi.". In: 47th Annual Scientific Conference of the Kenya Veterinary Association. Whitesands Hotel, Mombasa Kenya; 2013.
Njagi L W, Nyaga P N, UM M. "A retrospective study of factors associated with Newcastle disease outbreaks in village indigenous chickens.". 2010. Abstract

Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr., (2010), 58, 22-33.

A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH NEWCASTLE
DISEASE OUTBREAKS IN VILLAGE INDIGENOUS CHICKENS

L.W. Njagi1*, P.N. Nyaga1, P.G. Mbuthia1, L.C. Bebora1, J.N. Michieka1, and U.M. Minga2

1University of Nairobi,
Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology,
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,
P.O. Box 29053 – 00625, Kangemi, Kenya.
2Open, University of Tanzania, P.O. Box 23409, Dar es salaam, Tanzania
ÉTUDE RÉTROSPECTIVE DES FACTEURS ASSOCIÉS À LA DÉCLARATION DE
LA MALADIE DE NEWCASTLE CHEZ LA POULE DE RACE LOCALE
Résumé
Bien que l'épidémiologie de la maladie de Newcastle soit bien documentée dans les systèmes
aviaires commerciaux, les informations relatives à l’écologie de la maladie chez la poule de race locale, en particulier sous les tropiques, sont par contre peu disponible. L'objectif de cette étude était de déterminer les facteurs de risque associés à la maladie de Newcastle chez la poule de race locale. L'étude a été menée dans cinq zones agro-écologiques et a concernées
soixante quinze ménages élevant des poules de race locale. Les éleveurs ont été sélectionnés de manière aléatoire et évalués sur leurs connaissances de la maladie, et les signes cliniques
manifestés par les oiseaux infectés. Les données sur les pratiques de gestion, l’incidence des
maladies et les facteurs de risque associés à la déclaration de la maladie de Newcastle ont été
recueillies à l'aide d'un questionnaire et analysées à l'aide d’un logiciel de statistiques. Le taux de fréquence de la maladie de Newcastle était élevé (93,8%) dans la zone sèche et faible (50%) dans la zone fraîche et humide (dans les régions basses de montagnes). Les déclaration de la maladie de Newcastle étaient significativement associées aux différents facteurs suivant cloisonnement des oiseaux dans toutes les zones écologiques, sauf celle située dans le Bas-
Midland où pour la plus part des cas signalés, les oiseaux n’étaient pas enfermés; le mode
d’évacuation des oiseaux infectés ; les carcasses des volailles et les matières fécales; les saisons sèches dans les zones sèches juste avant les pluies ; les conditions de ventilation ; les changements irréguliers de température et l’approvisionnement en volaille sur les marchés (P <0,05). Par contre, la poussière n'était pas significative (P> 0,05) associée aux déclarations de la maladie de Newcastle. Les réponses variaient selon les saisons et entre les zones agro - écologiques. En guise de conclusion, l'étude a montré que plusieurs facteurs à savoir: cloisonner les oiseaux, les températures froides ou très chaudes, la ventilation, l'achat d’oiseaux sur les marchés, l'élimination de la matière fécale et les oiseaux infectés sont des facteurs majeurs de risque pour la survenue de la maladie de Newcastle chez les poules de race locale. Il est recommandé que les éleveurs de volaille soient informés sur la transmission de la maladie de Newcastle et sa prévention.

Mots clés: facteurs de risque, zones agro-écologiques, cloisonnement, saisons chaudes et
fraîches.

Summary
Although the epidemiology of Newcastle disease in commercial poultry systems is well
documented, its ecology in indigenous birds, especially in tropics, is not adequately reported.
The objective of this study, therefore, was to determine the risk factors associated with occurrence of Newcastle disease in village indigenous chickens. The study was carried out in
five agro –ecological zones and seventy five households keeping indigenous chickens. Farmers were randomly selected and assessed on whether they understood Newcastle disease including knowing its local name and clinical signs manifested by the affected birds. Those who did not fit into the above category were excluded from further interviews. Data on management practices, incidence of diseases and risk factors associated with Newcastle disease outbreaks were collected using a questionnaire and analysed using statistical package. The prevalence rate of Newcastle disease was highest (93.8%) in the dry zone (Low midland 5) and lowest (50%) in cool wet zone (Lower Highland 1). Newcastle disease outbreaks were significantly associated with the following factors namely: confinement of birds in all ecological zones except in lower midland 5 where most cases were reported without confinement; mode of disposal of infected birds, carcasses and poultry faecal matter; dry seasons in the dry zones just before the rains; wind conditions; short intermittent temperature changes and the restocking of farms with chickens from the markets (P<0.05). Dust storm was not significantly (P>0.05) associated with Newcastle disease outbreaks. The responses varied across the seasons and between the agro – ecological zones.
In conclusion, the study has shown that several factors namely: confinement; cold or very hot
temperatures; winds; introduction of market birds and disposal of manure and sick birds are
major risk factors to occurrence of Newcastle disease in indigenous chickens. It is recommended that flock owners be educated on Newcastle disease transmission and prevention.

Key – words: risk factors, agro–ecological zones, confinement, hot and cold seasons.

Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Wabacha JK, Mbuthia PG, Mbithi PMF. "Retrospective study of foot conditions in dairy cows in urban and periurban areas of Kenya.". 2008. Abstract

A retrospective study was carried out to determine categories, patterns and outcomes of foot conditions in dairy cows from smallholder units in and around Nairobi, Kenya. Analysis was done on 625 hospital case records of dairy cows admitted and treated for foot conditions from 1981 to 2006 at the Large Animal Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. The records were from cows that had been through one or more parities. Data included type of foot lesion, the affected limb and the claw, and the outcome of treatment. Relative percentages of the foot lesions were computed. Foot lesions with the highest percentages of occurrence were interdigital necrobacillosis (36%), interdigital fibroma (12%) and sole abscess (11%). Others with lower percentages included trauma (8%), claw overgrowth (7%), sole necrosis (severely eroded and necrotized horn of the sole) (6%), septic fetlock arthritis (6%) and septic pedal arthritis (5%). Laminitis and related claw lesions, such as double soles and heel erosion had less than 1% occurrence. The hind feet were affected in 75% of the cases, from which 83% of the lesions involved outer claws. The fore feet were involved in 16% of the cases, of which 57% of the lesions affected inner claws. Simultaneous involvement of both fore and hind feet occurred in only 2% of the cases and 6% of the cows had more than one foot lesion. A total of 90% of the cows were healed after treatment, 6% were slaughtered and 4% died. The results of this study indicated that a high percentage of cases of foot conditions referred to the Animal Hospital from smallholder dairy units in and around Nairobi were infective and a lower percentage was laminitic. We recommend that a farm-level prospective study be conducted in the same area to verify this status.

Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Wabacha JK, Mbuthia PG, Mbithi PMF. "Retrospective study of foot conditions in dairy cows in urban and periurban areas of Kenya.". 2008. Abstract

A retrospective study was carried out to determine categories, patterns and outcomes of foot conditions in dairy cows from smallholder units in and around Nairobi, Kenya. Analysis was done on 625 hospital case records of dairy cows admitted and treated for foot conditions from 1981 to 2006 at the Large Animal Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. The records were from cows that had been through one or more parities. Data included type of foot lesion, the affected limb and the claw, and the outcome of treatment. Relative percentages of the foot lesions were computed. Foot lesions with the highest percentages of occurrence were interdigital necrobacillosis (36%), interdigital fibroma (12%) and sole abscess (11%). Others with lower percentages included trauma (8%), claw overgrowth (7%), sole necrosis (severely eroded and necrotized horn of the sole) (6%), septic fetlock arthritis (6%) and septic pedal arthritis (5%). Laminitis and related claw lesions, such as double soles and heel erosion had less than 1% occurrence. The hind feet were affected in 75% of the cases, from which 83% of the lesions involved outer claws. The fore feet were involved in 16% of the cases, of which 57% of the lesions affected inner claws. Simultaneous involvement of both fore and hind feet occurred in only 2% of the cases and 6% of the cows had more than one foot lesion. A total of 90% of the cows were healed after treatment, 6% were slaughtered and 4% died. The results of this study indicated that a high percentage of cases of foot conditions referred to the Animal Hospital from smallholder dairy units in and around Nairobi were infective and a lower percentage was laminitic. We recommend that a farm-level prospective study be conducted in the same area to verify this status.

1) Aleri JW, Mutembei HM MCMGJWMSM2012. "A retrospective study of reproductive conditions in bitches in Nairobi." KVA. 2012;34:29-31.
Aleri JW, Mutembei HM, Mulei CM, Gakombe JW;, MBUGUA SM. "A Retrospective Study of Reproductive Conditions in Bitches in Nairobi.". 2010. Abstract

A twenty year retrospective study was carried out in the Small Animal Clinic, University of Nairobi, Kenya and in a private Small Animal Clinic in Nairobi between the years 1988 to 2008. A total of 6548 bitches had been presented with reproductive problems. The cases were categorically grouped according to the type of infertility diagnosed. Non-infectious infertilities were sixty nine percent and infectious types were thirty one percent. Only two percent of the latter were confirmed in one clinic. 23.20 % of non-infectious infertility were managerial, 29.1% anatomical and 7.80% physiological types while 39.80 % were unclassified miscellaneous cases. The cases classified under infectious infertility consisted of; vaginitis/endometritis/metritis (36.3%), pyometra (25.3%), abortions (21.5%), vaginal discharges (11.7%) and miscarriages (5.1%). The incidence of infertilities was highly common in breeds of German shepherd (39%), Doberman (6%), Rottweiler (12%) and their crosses (43%). The percentage of the reproductive cases presented in both clinics had no statistical difference at (p<0.05). It was evident from the results of this study that infectious infertility exists among the bitches in Kenya and it would be beneficial to do further studies to establish the causative agents to avert any possible outbreaks of zoonotic diseases.

JW A, HM M, CM M, JW G. "A retrospective Study of Reproductive Conditions in Bitches in Nairobi." The Kenya Vet. 2011;34::29-31.
M PROFBHATTKIRNA. "A retrospective study of the mortality from malaria during 1984-1985 at the Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 1987 Dec;64(12):821-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Dec;64(12):821-4. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1987. Abstract
Rat bite fever has not been reported from Kenya previously. A case of 17 year old Kenyan male who was diagnosed to have rat bite fever after a bite of domestic rat is described. The history, clinical features and demonstration of spirillum like organisms from a thick blood film suggest infection due to spirillum minus. The patient recovered completely after a course of penicillin and gentamicin.
Aleri JW;, Mutembei HK;, Mulei CM;, Mbugua SM;, Gakombe JW. "Retrospective Study On Canine Infertility In Nairobi And Its Environs (2010)."; 2010.
Aleri JW;, Mutembei HK;, Mulei CM;, Mbugua SM;, Gakombe JW. "Retrospective Study On Canine Infertility In Nairobi And Its Environs (2010)."; 2010.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Retrospective Study on Canine Infertility in Nairobi and its Environs (2010). Aleri, J.W., Mutembei, H.K., Mulei, C.M., Mbugua, S.M. and Gakombe, J.W.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 7th Biennial Scientific Conference 2010. KVA; 2010. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Kimeli P, Mbugua SW, Cap RM, Kirui G, Abuom TO, Mwangi WE, Kipyegon AN, Mande JD. "A retrospective study on findings of canine hip dysplasia screening in Kenya." Veterinary World. 2015;8(11):1326-1330.
P K, SW M, RM C, G K, TO A, WE M, AN K, JD M. "A retrospective study on findings of canine hip dysplasia screening in Kenya." Veterinary World . 2015;8(11):1326-1330.
D.W.Muasya, W.E.Mwangi, P.Kimeli, G.K.Gitau, D.W. Gakuya, J.D. Mande. "A retrospective study on isolation and antimicrobial sensitivity trends of mastitis causing pathogens in bovine and goats in Kabete, Kenya.". In: 9th Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific conference and Exhibition. PHPT Auditorium,CAVS,University of Nairobi; 2014.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Retrospective study on Reproductive conditions in Bitches in Nairobi (2010). Aleri, J.W., Mutembei, H.K., C.M. Mulei., Gakombe, J.W. and Mbugua, S.M.". In: The Kenya Veterinarian 34: 29-31. http://www.ajol.info/index.php/kenvet/article/view/68400. KVA; 2010. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Otsyina H, Nguhiu J, Mogoa E MPGOW. "A retrospective study on the prevalence of plastic materials in the rumen of sheep and goats in Nairobi, Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 2014;62(3):197-205.
Otsyina H, Nguhiu J, Mogoa E MPGOW. "A retrospective study on the prevalence of plastic materials in the rumen of sheep and goats in Nairobi, Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 2014;62:197-205. Abstract
n/a
Bilakhia N.A., Tirop L.J. MKTBKAM. "A Retrospective Stuy of Oral Medications Compounded for Pediatric Patients at Kenyatta National Hospital." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2014;17:64-69.17_c_bilakhia_tirop_menge_and_kuria.pdf
MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "A Return to Basics: Media Rights as Fundamental Human Rights.". In: Nairobi: CCR-WLEA. University of Nairobi; 1997. Abstract
African Media Review, Vol. II, No. 3.
"Revamping early childhood teacher education and professional development: Nuts and bolts for effective literacy and numeracy instruction." University of Dar es Salaam School of Education Journal of Education and Development. In Press.
Kimuyu PK. "Revealed Comparative Advantage and Export Propensity in Kenya . Discussion Paper No. DP/015/1999.". In: nstitute of Policy Analysis and Research, Nairobi, Kenya.; 1999.
A. HASHIM. Revelation and Reason: Extending Divine Injunctions to Accommodate Challenging Situations. University of Nairobi: Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, University of Nairobi in collaboration with the Cultural Council of the Embassy of the Islamic Republic of Iran; 2011.revelation_and_reason.pdf
SAMUEL PROFKIBICHO. ""Revelation in African Religion," African Theological Journal.". In: Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway. Longhorn; 1983. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
OLIMA PROFWASHINGTONASEMBO. "Revenue Autonomy and Property Taxation in Anglophone East Africa: Opportunities, Emerging Trends and Challenges.". In: African Journal of Science and Technology . VLIR; Submitted.
OLIMA PROFWASHINGTONASEMBO. "Revenue Autonomy and Property Taxation in Anglophone East Africa: Opportunities, Emerging Trends and Challenges.". In: African Journal of Science and Technology . VLIR; 1993.
KINYANJUI DRMURIITHIMOSES. "The revenue impact and elements of tax reforms in Kenya.". In: A study of Nyeri. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1997. Abstract
This paper develops an improved real and reactive power control technique using linear programming (LP) for an integrated power system. The problem is decomposed into two subproblems comprising real (P) and reactive power (Q) modules, and, using a unified approach, the real power generation, voltage magnitude, and transformer tap settings are optimized. The objective function is the fuel cost which is minimized in both the P and Q modules, subject to the operating constraints. The P-Q decomposition combined with the LP formulation improve the computation speed. The paper has another advantage of using the same cost objective function for both modules, unlike other conventional methods which use the power loss function for the Q module. The LP formulation is used for both the P and Q optimization modules, utilizing the revised simplex method which is normally available in a mainframe computer.
Mitchell B, Haigis E, Steinmann B, Gitzelmann R. "Reversal of UDP-galactose 4-epimerase deficiency of human leukocytes in culture." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.. 1975;72(12):5026-30. Abstract

Stimulation with phytohemagglutinin of the leukocytes from six of the seven known individuals with UDP-galactose 4-epimerase (= UDP-glucose 4-epimerase; EC 5.1.3.2) deficiency consistently resulted in the appearance of epimerase activity in the cultured cells. A long-term lymphoblast culture derived from one proband also contained an active epimerase enzyme. A comparison of the properties of this enzyme with those of epimerase produced by control lymphoblast lines revealed comparable Km values for UDP-galactose and NAD and identical behavior on polyacrylamide electrophoresis. However, a difference in the NAD requirement for heat stability at 40 degree provided some evidence for a structural defect in this enzyme. Possible explanations for the appearance of UDP-galactose 4-epimerase activity in stimulated lymphocytes include an increased rate of synthesis of a mutant enzyme and a derepression of an epimerase locus during lymphocyte transformation.

Khainga SO, Githae B, Mutiso VM, Wasike R. "Reverse sural island flap in coverage of defects lower third of leg: a series of nine cases.". 2007. Abstract

The distally based sural island flap was first described by Masquelet, et al., in 1992. It is a skin island flap supplied by the vascular axis of the sural nerve. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that it can be applied in coverage of difficult wound in the lower third of the leg. We treated nine patients with nine distally based sural island flaps. All the flaps survived, most of the flaps had venous congestion. The largest flap was 10 x 8 cm and Doppler was used in only one flap. This technique is easy and quick to execute without sacrificing major arteries.

joshua Kivuva. "Reversed Transition in Uganda: From a non-democratic multiparty system to a no-party democracy.". In: The African Search for Stable Forms of Statehood: Essays in political criticism. Lewinston, New York: The Edwin Mellen Press; 2008.
Patel NB. "Reversible inhibition of neurite growth by focal electric currents." Prog Clin Biol Res. 1986;210:271-278.
Cassatt JC, Marini CP, Bender JW. "The reversible reduction of horse metmyoglobin by the iron(II) complex of trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N,n-tetraacetate." Biochemistry. 1975;14(25):5470-5. Abstract

The reduction of metmyoglobin by the iron(II) complex of trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N'N'-tetraacetate (FeCDTA2-) has been investigated. The equilibrium constant, measured spectrophotometrically, is 0.21 with a resulting reduction potential of 0.050 V for Mb0. The rate constant for the reduction is 28 M-1 sec-1 with a deltaH ++ of 13 kcal M-1 and deltaS ++ of -11 eu. Both CN- and OH- inhibit the reduction because of the relatively low reactivity of cyanometmyoglobin (Mb+CN-) and ionized metmyglobin (Mb+OH-). The rate constant for the reduction of Mb+CN- by FeCDTA2- is 4.0 X 10(-2) M-1 sec-1 and that for reduction of Mb+OH- is 4.8 M-1 sec-1. The nitric oxide complex of metmyoglobin is reduced with a rate constant of 10 M-1 sec-1. The kinetics of oxidation of oxymyoglobin by FeCDTA- were studied. The data are consistent with a mechanism where oxidation takes place entirely through the deoxy form. A rate constant of 1.45 X 10(2) M-1 sec-1 was calculated for the oxidation of deoxymyoglobin by FeCDTA-, in equilibrium constant and rate constant for reduction. The above data are discussed in terms of a simple outer-sphere reduction reaction.

.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Review article on "Africa in Transition Geographical Essays" - Edited by B.W. Hodder and D.R. Hains published in the East African Geographical Review, 1968.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1968. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Review article on "Kenya Population Distribution Map", 1962, in East African Geographical Review, No. 2, 1964, pp. 55-56.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1964. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Review article on "Land Reform in the Kikuyu Country" by M.P.K. Sorrenson, 1967, in East Africa Journal, Vol. 4, No. V, November, 1967.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1967. Abstract
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NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "Review article on Urbanisation and Human Settlements Policy in Egypt in Regional Development Vol. 1.1. No., 1992.". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1992. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Review Article: on "Land and Population Movements in Kenya" by Prof. S.H. Ominde in East African Geographical Review, 1969.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1969. Abstract
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S PROFOLIECHJOSEPH. "A review f thyroid cancer at KNH. Medicom Vol. 2:3, 1980.". In: Medicom Vol. 2:3, 1980. PROF.J.S.OLIECH; 1980. Abstract

No ABSTRACT.

This a report of thirty patients who presented at Kenyatta National Hospital( KNH),Uinversity Of Nairobi (UON) during the three year period January 1974-December 1976 with a diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma.Fourteen had follicular, eight papiilary,four anaplastic,and four medullary types.
Eight patients had metastatic deposits in lymph nodes,lung,or bone and majority of these were anaplastic.Twenty patients received surgical treatment.Five total thyroidectomy, 12 had subtotal thyroidectomy,3 had hemithyroidectomy and 2 had radioactive iodine treatment without surgery.
Most patients received subtotal thyroidectomy with or without radiotherapy. The anaplastic cancers had the poorest prognosis, all dying within six months of diagnosis.Early diagnosis with frozen section the papillary/follicular possess good prognosis if appropriate surgical treatment of subtotal or hemithyroidectomy is done.
abstract yet

Gherardi, Britton FRJ, Mavuti KM, Pacini N, Grey J, Tricarico E, Harper DM. "A review of allodiversity in Lake Naivasha, Kenya: Developing conservation actions to protect East African lakes from the negative impacts of alien species. ." Biological Conservation.. 2011;(144):2585-2596.
ORUNGO DRONONOJOSHUA. "Review of Antibiotic Residues and Pesticide Residues: Research and Investigative work done in Kenya.". In: Conference. KVA-VSF Belgium; 2009. Abstract
The objective of the study was to identify the challenges to camel production in The major causes of camel loss in the district were identified as predation (50.9%), drought (28.7%) and camel diseases (20.4%). Severe drought was reported to have occurred in the years; 1984 (12.4%), 1995 (9%), 2005 (42.1%), and 2006 (37.6%), and the livestock species most affected by the drought were cattle (98.1%), sheep (63.9%), donkeys (57.5%), goats (50.8%) and camels (31.2%). Water was reported to be inadequate in the district by 54.6% and 62.1% of the respondents respectively for livestock and human use. Herdsmen reported watering their camels from; rivers (24.6%), dry river beds (40%) and spring (7.7%). The livestock grazing area was reported to be getting smaller (45.7%), overgrazed (21.7%), and destroyed (13%), while only 13% believed that the grazing area had increased. Amongst the pastoralist who responded to the question on their source of income, 78.8% had no alternative source of income apart from livestock keeping. Conclusion; More resources should be allocated by the governments for improvement of camel production and the carrying capacity in pastoral production systems needs to be re-evaluated to ensure  optimal productivity.   Keywords; Camel, predation, drought, diseases, production
Gikunju M, Nyamato-Kwenda R, Kwanya T. "A review of citizen librarianship in academic libraries in Kenya.". In: Digital Technologies for Information and Knowledge Management. Nairobi: Technical University of Kenya; 2019.
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Review of Crystallographic and Molecular Structures of Complexes formed between N,N ' -dialkyloxamides, and N,N ' -dialkydithio-oxamides, dialkylmolonamides, N,N ' -dialkylsuccinamides, and Toluene, 3,4 dithiol with group VB and IV metal holides.". In: Pure and Appl. Chem, 71 (6) 1019 - 1024. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1999. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
Kariuki, Catherine Warue; Nzioki N; MA. "A review of current accessibility Legislation in Kenya.". 1992.
NJAMBI MSKINYUNGUALICE, WARUE MRSKARIUKICATHERINE. "A review of current accessibility Legislation in Kenya, report of the CIB Expert Seminar on Building Non-Handicapping Environments, Harare, 1992 with N. Nzioki and A. Maganjo.". In: African Journal of Ecology 46(1):22-29. uon press; 1992. Abstract
Over the last six years there has been a tremendous development of infrastructure projects in virtually all corners of Kenya. This has taken the form of Road Improvement Project, Water and sewerage improvement project and the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project as envisioned in the Kenya Vision 2030. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the principles of compulsory land acquisition and way leaves in the three sectors in Kenya by looking at the current legislative framework governing the entire process of acquisition. In considering the process, the paper explores the various provisions of the relevant act which governs the particular utility envisaged for improvement project component in the Kenya Vision 2030. A critical evaluation of the procedures adopted is outlined in each case and the general public apprehensions towards such acquisitions. The second part of the paper focuses on suggestions on the choice of valuation methodology in making claims for compensation for land for various infrastructure projects in Kenya. This is borne out of the fact that there appear to be very little standardization in the methods adopted by the various bodies. The paper cites several cases under the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project where a large proportion of way leaves are dealt with at local level, with little consistency. Coupled to this is the public concern that electricity lines have potentially serious health effects that continue to attract research and media interest. The paper concludes with a description of the various cases on how to improve compensation paid to those affected by compulsory acquisition in cases of land and way leaves.
Maitai CK. "A review of dietary supplementation with trace minerals." East Afr Med J. 1988;65(1):48-50.
Share JB. "Review of drug treatment for Down's syndrome persons." Am J Ment Defic. 1976;80(4):388-93. Abstract

A review of drug treatment for Down's syndrome individuals was presented. Drugs used to modify behavior, as well as drugs used with the goal of affecting cognitive processes, were discussed. Some observations were offered as to the effectiveness of past and current drugs on Down's syndrome and some methodological problems relating to drug studies presented. There have not been any drugs that have demonstrated remarkable improvement in the status of Down's syndrome individuals that have been widely accepted as effective.

Share JB. "Review of drug treatment for Down's syndrome persons." Am J Ment Defic. 1976;80(4):388-93. Abstract

A review of drug treatment for Down's syndrome individuals was presented. Drugs used to modify behavior, as well as drugs used with the goal of affecting cognitive processes, were discussed. Some observations were offered as to the effectiveness of past and current drugs on Down's syndrome and some methodological problems relating to drug studies presented. There have not been any drugs that have demonstrated remarkable improvement in the status of Down's syndrome individuals that have been widely accepted as effective.

M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "A review of gamete selection for multiple constraint breeding.". In: Presented at Pan-African Bean breeders. EAMJ; 2005. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Ronald AR, Ndinya-Achola JO, Plummer FA, Simonsen JN, Ngugi EN, Pamba H, Cameron DW. "A review of HIV-1 in Africa.". 1988. Abstracta_review_of_hiv-1_in_africa.pdf

As the AIDS epidemic reaches a dramatic stage of development, the time for African countries to establish effective control programs has come. The history of AIDS in Africa is different from that other regions of the world. The disease developed among heterosexual communities. By 1987, over 8,000 cases of AIDS had been reported from 37 of the 47 nations of Africa. Over 2,000 of these cases were found in Uganda. However, under-reporting and under-representation of the number of actual cases is still a problem. In many cases, there has been a failure to recognize the disease. The demographic and geographic distribution of seroprevalence is discussed. Because of the inaccuracies in AIDS reporting in Africa, epidemic forecasting is difficult. If 5 million are currently infected, a potential 50 million Africans may be infected by 1993. A further discussion of the risk factors for HIV-1 holds that promiscuity is the major problem. Cures and inexpensive treatments for the infection are years away. Energy, resources, and national committees in Africa and the world must be coordinated to combat the ultimate crisis of this century.

E.N. PN. "A review of HIV-1 in Africa.". 1988. Abstract

Bull N Y Acad Med. 1988 Jul-Aug;64(6):480-90.
A review of HIV-1 in Africa.
Ronald AR, Ndinya-Achola JO, Plummer FA, Simonsen JN, Cameron DW, Ngugi EN, Pamba H.
Abstract
PIP:
As the AIDS epidemic reaches a dramatic stage of development, the time for African countries to establish effective control programs has come. The history of AIDS in Africa is different from that other regions of the world. The disease developed among heterosexual communities. By 1987, over 8,000 cases of AIDS had been reported from 37 of the 47 nations of Africa. Over 2,000 of these cases were found in Uganda. However, under-reporting and under-representation of the number of actual cases is still a problem. In many cases, there has been a failure to recognize the disease. The demographic and geographic distribution of seroprevalence is discussed. Because of the inaccuracies in AIDS reporting in Africa, epidemic forecasting is difficult. If 5 million are currently infected, a potential 50 million Africans may be infected by 1993. A further discussion of the risk factors for HIV-1 holds that promiscuity is the major problem. Cures and inexpensive treatments for the infection are years away. Energy, resources, and national committees in Africa and the world must be coordinated to combat the ultimate crisis of this century.
PMID:
3069166
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC1630576
Free PMC Article

IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Review of Kenya's Budgetary Process.". In: paper presented at the Economic Justice Workshop on the 1994/95 National Budget, held at Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1994. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
Mitei K, Bulimo W, Achilla R, Majanja J, Mwangi J, Njiri J, Wurapa E. "A review of laboratory-confirmed cases of human parainfluenza viruses in Kenya (2007-2011)." Int J Infect Dis. 2012;16:E138. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Mitei K, Bulimo W, Achilla R, Majanja J, Mwangi J, Njiri J, Wurapa E. "A review of laboratory-confirmed cases of human parainfluenza viruses in Kenya (2007-2011).". 2012.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""Review of Lewis Nkosi's Tasks and Masks." In the Native Vol. 2.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1984. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
Wangia C;, Wangia S;, Groote H. "Review of maize marketing in Kenya: implementation and impact of liberalisation, 1989-1999.".; 2002. Abstract

Maize is the key food crop in Kenya, with estimated production (1998) of 3 million tons of which about 40% are marketed. The Government strictly controlled all aspects of maize marketing until 1986 when gradual liberalisation started and this was completed in 1995. The objective of this study is to assess the degree of policy implementation and the impact of liberalisation of maize marketing on stakeholders between 1989 and 1999. The method of the study included review of available literature, conduct of interviews with stakeholders and the authors’ personal observations of maize marketing activities. Results indicate that liberalisation was implemented without the formation of alternative marketing institutions. Also, maize prices fluctuated substantially according to competitive market forces with limited moderating effects from the Government through open market interventions and import tariffs. But soon the rules of regional and worldwide trading organisations will render this impossible. Private sector participation at all levels in the marketing system increased substantially. There is easy maize flow and supplies to all parts of Kenya. One recommended intervention is to form maize farmer-based institutions for the marketing of maize, provision of maize market information and credit. Further studies should assess the impact of liberalisation and continued regulation of maize imports on producers and consumers.

Dindi E. Review of metrics for the evaluation of the waveform technologies data products. Vienna, Austria: Internal PTS Report of the CTBTO; 1998.
Kimani MW, Njoroge BNK, Ndunge D. "Review of Municipal Solid Waste Management: A Case Study of Nairobi, Kenya." Research Inventory: International Journal Of Engineering And Science.. 2014;4(2):16-20. Abstract

ABSTRACT : Solid waste management (SWM) is a major public health and environmental concern in urban areas of many developing countries. Nairobi’s solid waste situation, which could be taken to generally represent Kenya’s status, is largely characterized by low coverage of solid waste collection, pollution from uncontrolled dumping of waste, inefficient public services, unregulated and uncoordinated private sector and lack of key solid waste management infrastructure. Solid waste generated on daily basis is 4,016 tonnes as predicted by Allison (2010). The collection rate is as low as 33% (JICA, 2010) which leaves about 2,690 tonnes uncollected (almost equal to the total daily waste generation as predicted by JICA (1998)). Apart from Nairobi City Council (NCC), the body that has the primary responsibility for the provision and regulation of SWM services in the city, other actors have come into play such as private companies and community based organizations among others. The models of operation of these actors are not well understood. Effective coordination among these actors is also absent and regulation of the private companies by the city council is only beginning to emerge. According to Mwangi, 2007, analysis of total costs incurred by various actors and amount of waste collected per month showed that CBOs had the least fixed cost of operation as compared to private companies. Further, the CBOs had the lowest cost per tonne of waste collected as compared to other operators who showed almost twice this amount. These suggest that solid waste management is very expensive and CBOs are the cheapest operators of solid waste. Therefore, CBOs should be left as the waste operators in the low income areas where the residents are unable to pay a lot of money for waste management due to their low operating costs. Due to their relatively high operation costs, the private companies are more suited to operate in the high income areas and CBD where the residents or the owners of building are able to afford for the services. However, private enterprises are primarily interested in earning a return on their investment and may not be efficient due to the complexity of their operations outlay especially when proper coordination and SWM models are lacking.

KEY WORDS: Actors, Efficiency, Models and Solid Waste Management

NYAWIRA DRRITHOCECILIA. "Review of Natural Resource Management Policy Studies in the East African Highlands Department of Agricultural Economics and ICRAF .". In: BOOK TITLE, Small Enterprises Management and Development. European Psychiatric Journal; 2004.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""Review of Ngugi's Petals of Blood" In The American Review.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1978. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.

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