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Abade OE, Kaji K, Kawaguchi N. "QS-XCAST: a QoS aware XCAST implementation.". In: 5th International ICST Conference on Simulation Tools and Techniques. Desenzano, Italy; 2012.
Omondi LA, Kuria MW, Wanzala P. "Qualitative analysis of preoperative assessment practices in elective surgery at Kenyatta and Mater Hospitals in Kenya." International Journal of Research. 2015;2(9):80-85.
Maina SM. Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods Simplified. Nairobi: mwituria publishers; 2012.
Coast E, Hennink M, Hutter I, Nzioka C, Puri M. "Qualitative research in demography: a review of the last decade.". In: Sixth African Population Conference. Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; 2011.
Nyang’au TN, J.M. M’I. "Qualitative Research Methods.". In: A Teaching Module for Postgraduate Fellows at University of Nairobi Institute of Tropical and Infectious Diseases (UNITID).; 2009.
KYALO DRDOROTHYNDUNGE. "QUALITATIVE RESERCH PARADIGM: A Remedy to Academic Research Obstacles Kyalo Ndunge and Nyonje Raphael.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 2006 Jun;33(6):361-7.; 2009. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This article gives practical guide on methods of handling data in qualitative research paradigm. It briefly states the characteristics of qualitative research and gives short description of some of the commonly used designs. The article also discusses the stages to be followed when carrying out qualitative research. It is the authors hope that this article will offer useful tips on how to successfully use qualitative approach to collect and analyze data quickly and effectively.
Kanyari PW, Wandaka FK. "A Qualitative Risk Assessment of Kenya for Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) for Purposes of Exportation of Cooked Pork Frankfurters to USA.". 2005. Abstract

Kenya like other developing countries requires foreign exchange to meet the many challenges facing it and relies heavily on agriculture for this. The pig population in Kenya constitutes 5% of livestock contributing less than 1.0% Agricultural domestic product. The pig industry provides employment and supplies pork and pork products to the tourist sector, exports to other African countries, Middle East- Bahrain & South Arabia. Export to the world markets is encouraged and to this end, Farmer\'s Choice a private company produces and processes pork and its products for both domestic and export markets. Therefore, in order to comply with the World Trade Organization [WTO] Sanitary Phytosanitary [SPS] regulations, this Risk Analysis was conducted in response in order to assure USDA-APHIS and FSIS that export of smoked and cooked pork frankfurters from Kenya will not introduce Foot and Mouth Disease [FMD] to USA. The risk factors considered were: Authority, structure/Organization and infrastructure of Kenya's Veterinary Services; Policy, Law and Infrastructure of Disease Control; Disease outbreak history and prevalence status; Diagnostic Laboratory capabilities; Active disease control Programmes; Surveillance: Type and extent; Vaccination Status. Livestock Demographics and Marketing practices; Disease outbreak history and Prevalence in adjacent regions; Control of the movement of animals from regions of high risk. A critical analysis of all the risk factors determined that, the likelihood of infected meat from a pig carcass being exported to the United States was minimal. Further, it is prudent to conclude that, pork frankfurters processed through the Farmers Choice farms and facilities and exported to the United States pose minimal risk.

Ngure K, Mugo N, Celum C, Baeten JM, Morris M, Olungah O, Olenja J, Tamooh H, Shell-Duncan B. "A qualitative study of barriers to consistent condom use among HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Kenya.". 2012. Abstract

This study explored barriers to consistent condom use among heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples who were aware of the HIV-1 serodiscordant status and had been informed about condom use as a risk reduction strategy. We conducted 28 in-depth interviews and 9 focus group discussions among purposively selected heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples from Thika and Nairobi districts in Kenya. We analyzed the transcribed data with a grounded theory approach. The most common barriers to consistent condom use included male partners' reluctance to use condoms regardless of HIV-1 status coupled with female partners' inability to negotiate condom use, misconceptions about HIV-1 serodiscordance, and desire for children. Specific areas of focus should include development of skills for women to effectively negotiate condom use, ongoing information on HIV-1 serodiscordance and education on safer conception practices that minimize risk of HIV-1 transmission.

Ngure K, Mugo N, Olungah CO, Celum C, Baeten JM, Morris M, Olenja J, Tamooh H, Shell-Duncan B. "A qualitative study of barriers to consistent condom use among HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Kenya." AIDS care. 2011:1-8.
Minyeto D, Njogu PM, Ndwigah SN, Chepkwony HK. "Quality and In Vitro Pharmaceutical Equivalence of Ciprofloxacin Tablets Brands in Kenya. ." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. . 2015;18:75-85.
Abong’ GO, Shibairo SI, Lamuka PO, KATAMA CK, Ouma J. "QUALITY AND SAFETY CHARACTERISTICS OF CASSAVA CRISPS SOLD IN URBAN KENYA." African Crop Science Journal. 2016;24(S1):89-94.abong__2016aquality_and_safety_cassava_crisps.pdf
WAHOME SW, Kimani PM, Muthomi JW, Narla RD. "Quality and yield of snap bean lines locally developed in Kenya." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR). 2013;3(7):1-10.analysis_of_iris_yellow_spot_virus_replication_in_vector_and_non.pdf
WAHOME SW, P.M. Kimani, J.W. Muthomi, Narla RD. "Quality and yield of snap bean lines locally developed in Kenya." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR). 2013;3(7):1-10.quality_and_yield_of_snap_bean_lines_locally_developed_in_kenya.pdf
MCQUADE BILLINSLEY K, SMITH N SHIRLEYACHIENGKEISERRLP. "A QUALITY ASSESSMENT TOOL FOR TUBERCULOSIS CONTROL ACTIVITIES IN RESOURCE LIMITED SETTINGS." Tuberculosis. 2011;91(S1):S49-S53.tuberculosis_paper.pdf
ONYANGO DROCHOLATOMJ. "Quality Assurance in Dental radiographic Practice Transactions of the British Institute of Physical Medicine Vol. 38 July .". In: Transactions of the British Institute of Physical Medicine Vol. 38 July . MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1989. Abstract

ABSTRACT The literature and research on domestic violence against women have

received increased attention in the 1980's and 1990's, but research on wife beating/battering

is still sparse. This paper reports from a research project in Nairobi that focused on the legal

experiences of battered women and their perceptions of the violence. Findings reveal that the

problem of battering is rampant and most battered women do not seek legal intervention. It

was also found that a majority of the women remained in intimate relationships with their

batterers due to economic dependence on the batterers and lack of alternatives outside the

relationship.

Key Words: Domestic violence; Legal Experiences; Nairobi; Kenya.

H.J. K. "Quality Assurance in Open and Distance Learning: The Case of the University of Nairobi.". In: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON QUALITY ASSURANCE IN HIGHER EDUCATION IN AFRICA (ICQAHEA). Dares salaam; 2007.quality_assurance_in_odl-_unesco_conference_paper_2007.pdf
Omoni DGM. "Quality Assurance in Rural Hospitals." Phamacotherapy & Drug Information. 2000;11(5):36-39.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Quality assurance of marketed milk in Kenya. Kenya veterinary Journal volume 27: 55 .". In: CTA Annual seminar on the . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
A O. "Quality audit on Diagnosis of Pre eclampsia at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital." Kenya Nursing Journal. 2011;41(2):45-49. Abstract

Background: Pregnancy and childbirth are usually a time of celebration in most parts of the world and is often marked with rituals in all societies. However this period of time can be the hardest of all experiences with anxiety and concern for some women. This is because a number of pregnant women end up with disabilities or even death due to pregnancy related complications. Pre eclampsia is one of the conditions that are responsible for maternal morbidity and mortality. Screening and monitoring in pregnancy are some of the strategies used by health care providers to identify high risk pregnancies so that they can provide more targeted and appropriate treatment and follow up care, and to monitor fetal well being in both low and high risk pregnancies.
Purpose: The aim of the study was to identify whether blood pressure and urinalysis are done for mothers seeking antenatal and delivery services at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital Eldoret.
Methods: A review of records at the antenatal, labor and delivery units at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital.
Findings: over 96% of women came for first visit and had their Blood Pressure taken, 48.7% of women came for the second visit and had their blood pressure taken, 17.8% of women came for the third visit and had their blood pressure taken and 5.6% of women came for the fourth visit and had their blood pressure taken . All women admitted to the labor ward had blood pressure measured and recorded. 40% of the women admitted to labor ward had urinalysis done.
Conclusion: Blood Pressure and urinalysis are key in the early diagnosis and management of Pre eclampsia and other hypertensive states in pregnancy. There is need that they are done as routine procedures.

Kunyanga CN;, Imungi JK. "Quality Characteristics and Acceptability of Bread Produced with Supplementation of Dolichos lab lab Beans."; 2011. Abstract

The viability of production of good quality and acceptable bread with substitution of wheat flour with Dolichos lab lab (Lab lab purpureus) was investigated. The bread was analyzed for protein, moisture, general bread quality and sensory properties. The protein content of bread was elevated by up to about 20% and the moisture content reduced by about 10% without significant changes in bread taste, odor, volume and general bread quality. Substitution levels of up to 10% produced bread with quality characteristics not significantly different from the control. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between the control bread and the Dolichos supplemented breads up to 15% in the sensory attributes of aroma, crumb appearance, texture, crust colour, loaf shape, taste and general acceptability (p < 0.05). The crumb colour changed from creamish white to dull brown and a gradual hardening of crumb texture was observed as the addition of Dolichos lab lab bean flour increased. Above 15% substitution levels, the acceptability declined because of the compact texture of the crumb and the strong beany flavor of the product. Results indicate that acceptable breads can be produced by substitution of up to 15% wheat flour with dolichos bean flour

Kunyanga CN;, Imungi JK. "Quality Characteristics and Acceptability of Bread Produced with Supplementation of Dolichos lab lab Beans."; 2010. Abstract

The viability of production of good quality and acceptable bread with substitution of wheat flour with Dolichos lab lab (Lab lab purpureus) was investigated. The bread was analyzed for protein, moisture, general bread quality and sensory properties. The protein content of bread was elevated by up to about 20% and the moisture content reduced by about 10% without significant changes in bread taste, odor, volume and general bread quality. Substitution levels of up to 10% produced bread with quality characteristics not significantly different from the control. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between the control bread and the Dolichos supplemented breads up to 15% in the sensory attributes of aroma, crumb appearance, texture, crust colour, loaf shape, taste and general acceptability (p < 0.05). The crumb colour changed from creamish white to dull brown and a gradual hardening of crumb texture was observed as the addition of Dolichos lab lab bean flour increased. Above 15% substitution levels, the acceptability declined because of the compact texture of the crumb and the strong beany flavor of the product. Results indicate that acceptable breads can be produced by substitution of up to 15% wheat flour with dolichos bean flour

KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Quality Characteristics and Acceptability of Bread Produced with Supplementation of Dolichos lab lab Beans.". In: Food Science and Technology.; 2010. Abstract
                                    Abstract
Mayunzu O, Shitanda D, Okalebo F, Simiyu L. "Quality Comparison of Mondia whytei And Vanilla Yogurt." Annals. Food Science and Technology. 2011;12(2):130-134.
Kibwage IO, Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN. "Quality Control of Herbal Medicines." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sc.. 2005;8:27-31.
Kibwage IO, J.W. M. "Quality Control of Herbal Medicines." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2005;8(2):27-30.
Kibwage IO, Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN. "Quality control of herbal medicines.". 2007. Abstract

The use of traditional and herbal medicines is gaining recognition globally. To safeguard the patient, there are legitimate demands that all medicines be safe, efficacious and of good quality. The required parameters for their quality evaluation include assessment for inorganic matter(dust),absence of adulteration microbial load, identification and profile of contents and where possible quantitation of the active compound or marker compounds. Also of importance are heavy metals, pesticides and product stability. The mixture of portions of herbs in traditional medicines complicates the quality control tests of these preparations. The content profile becomes difficult to replicate from batch to batch, while quantification of the active compound(s) in such multi-component products would require prior processing to isolate and identify the chemical compounds

Kibwage IO, Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN. "Quality control of herbal medicines.". 2007. Abstract

The use of traditional and herbal medicines is gaining recognition globally. To safeguard the patient, there are legitimate demands that all medicines be safe, efficacious and of good quality. The required parameters for their quality evaluation include assessment for inorganic matter(dust),absence of adulteration microbial load, identification and profile of contents and where possible quantitation of the active compound or marker compounds. Also of importance are heavy metals, pesticides and product stability. The mixture of portions of herbs in traditional medicines complicates the quality control tests of these preparations. The content profile becomes difficult to replicate from batch to batch, while quantification of the active compound(s) in such multi-component products would require prior processing to isolate and identify the chemical compounds

Kibwage IO, Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN. "Quality control of herbal medicines.". 2007. Abstract

The use of traditional and herbal medicines is gaining recognition globally. To safeguard the patient, there are legitimate demands that all medicines be safe, efficacious and of good quality. The required parameters for their quality evaluation include assessment for inorganic matter(dust),absence of adulteration microbial load, identification and profile of contents and where possible quantitation of the active compound or marker compounds. Also of importance are heavy metals, pesticides and product stability. The mixture of portions of herbs in traditional medicines complicates the quality control tests of these preparations. The content profile becomes difficult to replicate from batch to batch, while quantification of the active compound(s) in such multi-component products would require prior processing to isolate and identify the chemical compounds

Chege IN, Okalebo FA, Guantai AN, Karanja S. "A Quality Control of Hypoglycemic Herbal Preparations in Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2015;3(4):16-21. Abstract2015_-_a_quality_control_of_hypoglycemic_herbal_preparations.pdf

Introduction:
Methods used by Kenyan herbalists to identify plants and preserve herbal drugs are unclear.
Objective:
To assess the accuracy of plant identification, microbial and heavy metal contamination in hypoglycemic herbal preparations.
Method:
Four herbalists were identified by purposeful sampling and key informant interviews were carried out. Ethnobotanical walks were used to collect herbs and a botanist checked the accuracy of scientific names. Herbalists were asked to submit formulations. Microbial contamination was evaluated using selective and non-selective cultural media. Levels of heavy metals were evaluated by atomic absorption.
Analysis:
Content thematic approach was used to analyze key informant interviews. Degree of agreement between the names assigned by the herbalists and botanists was measured using percentage.
Results:
Plant identification relied heavily on macroscopic qualities aided by the plant’s geographical location. Both indigenous and botanical names were used. Naming errors using botanical names were recorded. Three formulations were submitted and one of them recorded contamination by Candida albicans,
Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Heavy metal contamination was not detected.
Conclusion:
Plant identification by herbalists by use of botanical names may be inaccurate. Herbalist should be trained on good manufacturing practices.

Kariuki CN. "Quality control: Kenyan case.". In: A paper presented in the 1st ORSEA Conference in Nairobi. Nairobi: African Crop Science Society; 1989. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

Makunda CS. "Quality design is SAFE design: Objective criteria for the evaluation of design objects and spaces.". In: The Nairobi Design Conference (NADEC): Design in Kenya @ 50: Past Experiences, Present Trends, and Future Prospects. Nairobi, Kenya. ; 2014.
Ndirangu C, Mendenhall M, Dryden-Peterson S, Bartlett L, Imonje R, Gakunga D, Gichuhi L, NYAGAH GRACE, Okoth U, Tangelder M. "Quality Education for Refugees In Kenya: Pedagogy in Urban Nairobi and Kakuma Refugee Camp Settings." Journal of Education in Emergencies. 2015;11(1).
Mendenhall M, S. D-P, Bartlett L, Ndirangu C, Imonje R, Nyagah G, Okoth U, Tangelder M. "Quality Education for Refugees in Kenya: Pedagogy in Urban Nairobi and Kakuma Refugee Camp Settings." Journal of Education in Emergencies. 2015;1(1):90-130.
Mendenhall M., Dryden-Peterson S. BNIGGNOLLRD. "Quality Education for Refugees in Kenya: Pedagogy in Urban Nairobi and Kakuma Refugee Camp Settings. ." Journal on Education in Emergencies . 2015;Voulume 1 Number 1.
Mary Mendenhall, Sarah Dryden-Peterson LBCNRIDGLGGNUO, Tangelder M. "Quality education for refugees in Kenya:Pedagogy in Urban Nairobi and kakuma Refugee camp settings." journal on Education in Emergencies. 2015;1:92-130. Abstract
n/a
and Kuria Alex OJNOA. "Quality evaluation of leathers produced by selected vegetable tanning materials from Laikipia County, Kenya." Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, 9(4): 13-17. 2016;9(4):13-17.
W MSNGAHUCATHERINE. "Quality Improvement in Service Marketing. In Marketing Review, University of Nariobi.". In: Proceedings of the Conference . Nairobi: DAAD, Regional Office for Africa; 1994.
Omwenga EI, Christopher GM, Oboko RO, Kidombo HJ, Mbwesa JK, Waiganjo PW, Libotton A. "Quality Indicator Framework for Assessing DEel Programs in Kenya: A Technological and Educational Functional Parameters Approach." Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences. 2016;7(4):191-199. AbstractJournal Website

The demand for university education has continued to grow and hence there has been a phenomenal expansion in enrolments that is not matching with the expansion of facilities. Several policy reports commissioned by the Government of Kenya highlight the importance of affordable, accessible and quality education through e-learning platforms to achieve education for all as envisaged by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In particular, The Government of Kenya Policy Framework for Education, Training and Research highlights the unexploited means of access to education such as Open Distance and E-learning (ODeL) and virtual institutions particularly in higher education and training; unregulated
examination and certification of Distance Education eLearning (DEeL) programmes and lack of national capacity for curriculum design for ICT-supported educational programmes to facilitate access to quality education to learners at all levels of the education system. As institutions of higher learning gear up to offer their academic programmes by DEeL mode of instructional delivery, there are concerns from stakeholders about the quality of the diploma and degree awards. This can be attributed to inadequate quality assurance standards to assess the quality and value of DEeL academic programmes. This paper is aimed at identifying critical factors influencing Distance Education and e-Learning (DEeL) in higher education in Kenya and to develop an appropriate framework for assessing quality indicator measures.
Keywords: DEeL, e-learning, technological, educational, ICT-supported learning, distance education

Omwenga EI, Gakuu CM, Oboko RO, Kidombo HJ, Mbwesa JK, Waiganjo PW, Libotton A. "Quality Indicator Framework for Assessing DEel Programs in Kenya: A Technological and Educational Functional Parameters Approach." Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences. 2016;7(4):191-199.
ONYANGO-OUMA DRW. "Quality Information in Field Research. UNICEF/UNDP/ World Bank/WHO (TDR). TDR/IRM/PCT/05. 1.". In: In M. Babiker, D. Mills and M. Ntarangwi (eds). African Anthropologies: History, Critique and Practice (Africa in the New Millennium Series). Zed Books. WHO; 2006. Abstract
Ogutu EO. A 10-year (1976-1986) retrospective study was done on 30 cases with histological diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. The male to female ratio was 1.3:1 and the peak incidence was in the 6th and 7th decades. The head of the pancreas was involved in 96% of cases while solid adenocarcinoma of duct cell origin accounted for 73.3% of cases, followed by anaplastic carcinoma (23.3%). The commonest complications were distinct metastasis (86.6%), obstructive jaundice (73.3%) and upper gastrointestinal bleed (13.6%).
Okwiri OA. "Quality Management as an Outcome of Management Field Evolution: A Review." Online Journal of Social Sciences Research. 2014;Volume 3(Issue 1):1-9,.okwiri_2014a_qm_as_an_outcome_of_mgm_evltn.pdf
OKWIRI O. "Quality Management Core Practices: A Participatory Action-Based Case Research on Non-Integrated Implementation.". In: 2012, Vol 2 No 1, 24-41. DBA Africa Management Review; 2012. Abstract

The paper describes a participatory action-based case research to analyze the effect of the easier-to-apply quality management core practices on the operational performance incontexts in which the harder-to-apply socio-behavioural infrastructure practices are indeficit. Uses collaborative core action research cycle built around thematic concerns of a workgroup and a reflection cycle to experience, reflect and interpret the outcomes of actions relating to the specific core practices. Bivariate correlation analysis is used on the data collected from survey of a group of employees, structured observations and objective data analysis to examine the relationships between the different quality management practices’ categories and operational performance dimensions. Proposes that organizations should not have to wait for the socio-behavioural management, employee, customer, and supplier based infrastructure practices to be in place before applying the mechanistic and technical process and information-based quality practices.

Magutu  PO, Mbeche IM, Nyaoga RB, Nyamwange O, Richard Nyaanga Ongeri, Ogoro T. "Quality Management Practices in Kenyan Educational Institutions." IBIMA Business Review . 2009.
Magutu PO. "Quality Management Practices in Kenyan Educational Institutions: The Case of the University of Nairobi.". In: 12th IBIMA Conference, . Malaysia: IBIMA Publishing; 2011.
Magutu PO. "QUALITY MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN KENYAN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS: THE CASE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI.". In: African Journal of Business & Management (AJBUMA). AIBUMA Publishing; 2009.
MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, ONSERIO MRNYAMWANGESTEPHEN, Nyaoga RB, Magutu PO, Richard Nyaanga Ongeri, Ombati TO. "Quality Management Practices in Kenyan Educational Institutions: The Case of the University of Nairobi.". In: 12th International Business Information Management Association (IBIMA) Conference on Creating Global Economies through Innovation and Knowledge Management. Published in Communications of the IBIMA (ISSN: 1943-7765) and IBIMA Business Revi. IBIMA Publishing; 2009.
Kara, A.M., Tanui EK, Kalai JM. "Quality of Academic Resources and Students’ Satisfaction in Public Universities in Kenya." International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research . 2016;15(10):130-146.kara1.pdf
F. K. Kamau, Thoithi GN, J. K. Ngugi, Kingondu OK, Kibwage IO. "Quality of amoxycillin preparations in the Kenyan market." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sc.. 2003;6:57-60.
NJERI THOITHIGRACE, N. DRKAMAUFRANCO, Kibwage IO. "Quality of ampicillin preparations on the Kenyan market." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2001;4(2):25-29. AbstractWebsite

Ampicillin products, 20 capsules, 2 tablets and 23 dry suspensions were evaluated for quality by liquid chromatography at theDrug Analysis Unit University of Nairobi. Four capsule formulations failed limits on content. The Ampicillin content in 5 suspensions dropped below 80% on storage, but had no correlation to decrease in chemical content
 
Ampicillin is semi-synthetic penicillin used in the management of infections caused by sensitive microorganisms. Microbial resistance against ampicillin is well documented and cross-resistance is a common problem among the penicillins. Development of resistance is always associated with exposure of microorganisms to sub-lethal levels of drugs. The quality administered and especially low content of ampicillin in dosage form could therefore contribute to the development of resistance.
 
Work on the quality of drugs in the period 1982 to 1992 has shown presence of poor quality penicillin products in the market [1-4]. This observation was recently reinforced by the findings on quality of phenoxymethylpenicillin syrups [5]. The extensive use of ampicillin in kenya as one of the drugs on the essential drugs list of Ministry of Health [6] led to observed increase in resistance. It was recently replaced by amoxicillin.
 
The communication presents findings on the quality of ampicillian capsules and tablets and dry syrups found on the Kenyan market using liquid chromatography (LC). The preparations were from private and public sources including those submitted to the ministry of Health drug regulatory authority. The latter are intended for marketing in Kenya after registration, and for the purpose of this paper are treated as being on the market.

Kamau FN, Thoithi GN, Kibwage. IO. "Quality of ampicillin preparations on the Kenyan market." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sc.. 2001;4:25-29.
Ndwigah S, Stergachis A, Abuga K, Mugo H, Kibwage I. "The quality of anti-malarial medicines in Embu County, Kenya." Malaria Journal. 2018;17:330. Abstract

Background:
Malaria is a major health problem in sub-Saharan Africa where over 90% of the world’s malaria cases occur. Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization as first-line and second-line treatments for uncomplicated falciparum malaria. However, there are a growing number of reports of sub-standard and falsified anti-malarial medicines in sub-Saharan Africa.

Methods:
A cross-sectional study was conducted in Embu County, Kenya on the quality of anti-malarial medicines available in public and private facilities. Sampling of anti-malarial medicines from public and private hospitals, health centers and pharmacies was conducted between May and June 2014. Quality control tests were performed at the Drug Analysis and Research Unit, University of Nairobi, using ultraviolet spectrophotometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. A test for microbial load was also conducted for suspension formulations.

Results:
A total of 39 samples were collected from public and private facilities across the Embu County. A visual inspection of the medicines showed no signs of sub-standard or falsification. All ACT passed identification, assay and dissolution tests. Of 11 suspension samples collected, none failed the microbial load test although one sample had 50 colony forming units (cfu). No oral artemisinin monotherapy medicines were encountered during the survey. Amodiaquine and chloroquine monotherapy products accounted for 5% of the collected samples, despite their ban in Kenya. Two herbal anti-malarial formulations were collected during the survey. Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) was also found to be available use for malaria treatment, not in accordance with malaria treatment guidelines.

Conclusion:
All the anti-malarial drugs analysed in this study passed the quality control tests. This is encouraging given the high malaria burden in Kenya. Regulatory actions are required to counter SP and herbal products for malaria treatment.

Ndwigah S, Stergachis A, Abuga K, Mugo H, Kibwage I. "The quality of anti-malarial medicines in Embu County, Kenya." Malaria Journal . 2018;17:30.
Abuga KO, Mwagiru PM, Thoithi GN, Nguyo JM, Ngugi JK, Kingondu OK, Mugo HN, Kibwage IO. "Quality of antiretroviral drugs analyzed in the Drug Analysis Research Unit during 2000-2003." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sc.. 2003;6:20-23.
Kosgei RJ, Gathara D, Kamau R, Babu S, Mueke S, Cheserem EJ, Kihuba E, Karumbi J, Mulaku M, Aluvaala J, English M, Kihara AB. "quality of comprehensive emergency obstetric care through the lens of clinical documentation on admission to labor ward." East African Medical Journal. 2016;93(2):63-71.
Inyama HK, Odero T. "Quality of Critical Care in relation to the Incidence of Nosocomial Urinary tract Infections at the Kenyatta National Hospital - ICU." Baraton Interdisciplinary & Research Journal . 2011;1(2):12-21.
Inyama H, J. M, G. R, T. O. "Quality of Critical Care in relation to the Incidence of Nosocomial Urinary tract Infections at the Kenyatta National Hospital – ICU." Baraton Interdisciplinary & Research Journal . 2006;1(2):12-21.
Mutundi AN, Muthomi JW, Olubayo FM, Leley PK, Nzuve FM. "Quality of farm saved maize (zea mays l.) Seeds and its effect on field establishment." International Journal of Research in Agricultural Sciences. 2018;5(6):2348-3997.
FREDRICK DROTIENOCF, O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Quality of glycaemic control in ambulatory diabetics at the out-patient clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2003 Aug;80(8):406-10.". In: East Afr Med J. 2003 Aug;80(8):406-10. uon; 2003. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Treatment of diabetes mellitus is based on the evidence that lowering blood glucose as close to normal range as possible is a primary strategy for reducing or preventing complications or early mortality from diabetes. This suggests poorer glycaemic control would be associated with excess of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. This presumption is suspected to reach high proportions in developing countries where endemic poverty abets poor glycaemic control. There is no study published on Kenyan patients with diabetes mellitus about their glycaemic control as an audit of diabetes care. OBJECTIVE: To determine the glycaemic control of ambulatory diabetic patients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study on each clinic day of a randomly selected sample of both type 1 and 2 diabetic patients. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital. METHODS: Over a period of six months, January 1998 to June 1998. During routine diabetes care in the clinic, mid morning random blood sugar and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) were obtained. RESULTS: A total of 305 diabetic patients were included, 52.8% were females and 47.2% were males. 58.3% were on Oral Hypoglycaemic Agent (OHA) only, 22.3% on insulin only; 9.2% on OHA and insulin and 4.6% on diet only. 39.5% had mean HbA1c < or = 8% while 60.5% had HbA1c > or = 8%. Patients on diet-only therapy had the best mean HbA1c = 7.04% while patients on OHA-only had the worst mean HbA1c = 9.06%. This difference was significant (p=0.01). The former group, likely, had better endogenous insulin production. The influence of age, gender and duration of diabetes on the level of glycaemic control observed did not attain statistically significant proportions. CONCLUSION: The majority of ambulatory diabetic patients attending the out-patient diabetic clinic had poor glycaemic control. The group with the poorest level of glycaemic control were on OHA-only, while best control was observed amongst patients on diet-only, because of possible fair endogenous insulin production. Poor glycaemic control was presumed to be due to sub-optimal medication and deteriorating diabetes. There is need to empower patients with knowledge and resources to enhance their individual participation in diabetes self-care. Diabetes care providers and facilities also need capacity building to improve care of patients with diabetes.
FREDRICK DROTIENOCF, O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Quality of glycaemic control in ambulatory diabetics at the out-patient clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2003 Aug;80(8):406-10.". In: East Afr Med J. 2003 Aug;80(8):406-10. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2003. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Treatment of diabetes mellitus is based on the evidence that lowering blood glucose as close to normal range as possible is a primary strategy for reducing or preventing complications or early mortality from diabetes. This suggests poorer glycaemic control would be associated with excess of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. This presumption is suspected to reach high proportions in developing countries where endemic poverty abets poor glycaemic control. There is no study published on Kenyan patients with diabetes mellitus about their glycaemic control as an audit of diabetes care. OBJECTIVE: To determine the glycaemic control of ambulatory diabetic patients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study on each clinic day of a randomly selected sample of both type 1 and 2 diabetic patients. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital. METHODS: Over a period of six months, January 1998 to June 1998. During routine diabetes care in the clinic, mid morning random blood sugar and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) were obtained. RESULTS: A total of 305 diabetic patients were included, 52.8% were females and 47.2% were males. 58.3% were on Oral Hypoglycaemic Agent (OHA) only, 22.3% on insulin only; 9.2% on OHA and insulin and 4.6% on diet only. 39.5% had mean HbA1c < or = 8% while 60.5% had HbA1c > or = 8%. Patients on diet-only therapy had the best mean HbA1c = 7.04% while patients on OHA-only had the worst mean HbA1c = 9.06%. This difference was significant (p=0.01). The former group, likely, had better endogenous insulin production. The influence of age, gender and duration of diabetes on the level of glycaemic control observed did not attain statistically significant proportions. CONCLUSION: The majority of ambulatory diabetic patients attending the out-patient diabetic clinic had poor glycaemic control. The group with the poorest level of glycaemic control were on OHA-only, while best control was observed amongst patients on diet-only, because of possible fair endogenous insulin production. Poor glycaemic control was presumed to be due to sub-optimal medication and deteriorating diabetes. There is need to empower patients with knowledge and resources to enhance their individual participation in diabetes self-care. Diabetes care providers and facilities also need capacity building to improve care of patients with diabetes.
M. DROTIDOJULIUS. "Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi, Kenya. Int J STD AIDS. 2001 May;12(5):315-23.". In: Int J STD AIDS. 2001 May;12(5):315-23. The Kenya Medical Association; 2001. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
Gathara D, Opiyo N, Wagai J, Ntoburi S, Ayieko P, Opondo C, Wamae A, Migiro S, Mogoa W, Wasunna A, Were F, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, English M. "Quality of hospital care for sick newborns and severely malnourished children in Kenya: a two-year descriptive study in 8 hospitals." BMC Health Serv Res. 2011;11:307. Abstract

Given the high mortality associated with neonatal illnesses and severe malnutrition and the development of packages of interventions that provide similar challenges for service delivery mechanisms we set out to explore how well such services are provided in Kenya.

AI K, Gachago MM, LO N, JM N. The Quality Of Life Of Primary Caregivers Of Children With Retinoblastoma At Kenyatta National Hospital. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2017.
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Quality of Medical Care and Choice of Medical Treatment in Kenya: An Empirical Analysis," with Martha Ainsworth and Andrew Nyamete), Journal of Human Resources, 28: 4, pp. 838-862.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1993. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
Dr. Susan Chepkonga PD, Jane Njuguna ME. "Quality of Medicaland Counselling Services as DeterminantsofStudents’ Satisfaction in Public Primary Teacher Training Colleges in Kenya." International Journal ofEducation and Evaluation. 2016;2(7):32-40.
NYARONGI PROFOMBUIJ. "Quality of raw milk collected and Marketed by dairy cooperative societies in Kiambu District.". In: journal. University of Nairobi Press; 1995. Abstract
The quality of milk collected by dairy cooperative societies in Kiambu District from farmers for marketing was determined. Analysis was done for specific gravity, total viable bacteria counts, coliform counts, resazurin test, alcohol test and test. Approximately 5.2% of farmers and 9.7% of cooperative samples had a specific gravity less that 1.026 indicating adulteration by addition of water. Forty four percent(44.3%) of farmers and 86.2% of cooperative  can samples had total viable counts more  than 105 cfu/ml milk, while 10,5% of farmers and 50% of cooperative can samples had more than 50,000 counts/ml of milk respectively. Seven percent of milk samples from farmers cans and 36% of milk samples from cooperative cans were considered of poor quality by use of a ten minutes resazurin test. Again 7.0% of farmers and 11.0% of cooperative can milk samples tested positive with the alcohol test, while no samples clotted on boiling in both cases. The study found that most farmers in the district supply to dairy cooperative societies relatively good quality milk, but the quality of the milk deteriorates while in the hands of the management of dairy cooperative societies which could be attributed to long milk collection rounds coupled with high ambient temperatures and inadequate cleaning of cans after use due to enough portable water. The ten minutes resazurin test was thought to be the most appropriate test for use in screening for poor quality milk at the cooperative level, while alcohol te
Ombui JM, Arimi SM, McDermott JJ, Mbugua SK, Githua A, Muthoni J. "Quality of raw milk collected and marketed by dairy cooperative societies in Kiambu District, Kenya." Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri.. 1995;43:277-284. Abstract
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KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Quality of raw milk collected and marketed by the dairy co-operative societies in Kiambu district. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 43: 277 .". In: 30th European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition (ESPGAN). 22nd May 1997. Thessaloniki, Greece. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1995. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
Wamwana EB, Ndavi PM, Gichangi PB, Karanja JG, Muia EG, Jaldesa GW. "Quality of record keeping in the intrapartum period at the Provincial General Hospital, Kakamega, Kenya." East Afr Med J. 2007;84(1):16-23. Abstract

To assess the quality of recording critical events in the intrapartum period in Kakamega Provincial General Hospital (PGHK).

Kairu W, Gatari M, Maina D, Muia M, Birir J. Quality of Reinforced Concrete used on Selected Buildings in Nairobi, Kenya. Prague: ECNDT; 2014.
Ondieki DEO. "Quality of Rental Housing and the Rent Dilemma for Low-Income Housing in Nairobi.". In: the Urban Housing Market Dynamics Workshop. School of The Built Environment, University of Nairobi; 2012.
M PROFOGUTUGILBERTE. "Quality of Secondary School Education and its relevance to self employment in the Rural areas of Kenya, Bureau of Educational Research, Kenyatta University.". In: The African Journal of Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries Vol. 5 No. 2.; 1986. Abstract
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M. DROTIDOJULIUS. "Quality of sexually transmitted disease case management in Nairobi, Kenya: a comparison among different types of healthcare facilities. Voeten HA, Otido JM, O'Hara HB, Kuperus AG, Borsboom GJ, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo JJ, Habbema JD. Sex Transm Dis. 2001 N.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 2001 Nov;28(11):633-42. The Kenya Medical Association; 2001. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
Gichaga FJ. "The Quality of Training for Civil Engineering graduates in Kenya.". In: 12th Annual Conference on Engineering Education in East Africa. Dar-es-Salaam. ; 1972.
KHALFAN DRABDALLAHFATMAH, OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER, A O, M. MF. "Quality of-life in male cancer patients at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2004 Jul;81(7):341-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 2004 Jul;81(7):341-7. The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.; 2004. Abstract

BACKGROUND: The quality of life of cancer patients is likely to be influenced by psychological reactions of the cancer patients yet there are no documented issues related to quality of life in cancer patients in Kenyan hospitals. OBJECTIVE: To investigate issues which affect the quality of life in male cancer patients. DESIGN: Prospective cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS AND SUBJECTS: Cancer patients above 12 years of age were interviewed during the course of their stay in the hospital, specifically to gather information on; semi structured questions and a modified Beck's 24 item depression inventory with a view to solicit for their reaction on issues which pertains to quality of life. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age group, level of education, tribe, geographical place (province) of birth, chief complains, main concerns, views on doctors, contact with psychiatrist and psychologist, the anatomic site of cancer, treatment given and responses on modified Beck's depression inventory. RESULTS: Forty two patients were studied, their age range 13-72 years, mean 43.2 and peak 13-26 years. Forty seven per cent of cases had no formal education. The cancers were gastrointestinal tract 33%, blood and lymphoid tissue (26%), bone and muscle (11.9%), skin (9.4%) and genitourinary tract (4.8%). Treatment given was chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. Ninety three per cent were unable to cope. Chief complaints were pain, inability to work, feeling miserable and concerns were families, health and work retardation. Modified Beck's depression score was 20%, with major issues being; work retardation, insomnia, weight loss, and anorexia. Most affected were, age group 27-35 years (and least 13-26 years), uneducated, living in Nairobi (city), having carcinomas, treatment with combined surgery and radiotherapy. Low education level and residence in Nairobi coped poorly. Radiation therapy group appeared to cope better than other modalities. CONCLUSION: The issues affecting the quality of life of male cancer patients stated were pain, inability to work, poor coping with cancer and psychological reactions of work retardation, insomnia, weight loss, fatigability and depression. Gambling, suicidal ideas and social withdrawal were minimal. Other concerns were families, health and work.

KHALFAN DRABDALLAHFATMAH, OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Quality of-life in male cancer patients at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2004 Jul;81(7):341-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 2004 Jul;81(7):341-7. MBA; 2004. Abstract

BACKGROUND: The quality of life of cancer patients is likely to be influenced by psychological reactions of the cancer patients yet there are no documented issues related to quality of life in cancer patients in Kenyan hospitals. OBJECTIVE: To investigate issues which affect the quality of life in male cancer patients. DESIGN: Prospective cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS AND SUBJECTS: Cancer patients above 12 years of age were interviewed during the course of their stay in the hospital, specifically to gather information on; semi structured questions and a modified Beck's 24 item depression inventory with a view to solicit for their reaction on issues which pertains to quality of life. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age group, level of education, tribe, geographical place (province) of birth, chief complains, main concerns, views on doctors, contact with psychiatrist and psychologist, the anatomic site of cancer, treatment given and responses on modified Beck's depression inventory. RESULTS: Forty two patients were studied, their age range 13-72 years, mean 43.2 and peak 13-26 years. Forty seven per cent of cases had no formal education. The cancers were gastrointestinal tract 33%, blood and lymphoid tissue (26%), bone and muscle (11.9%), skin (9.4%) and genitourinary tract (4.8%). Treatment given was chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. Ninety three per cent were unable to cope. Chief complaints were pain, inability to work, feeling miserable and concerns were families, health and work retardation. Modified Beck's depression score was 20%, with major issues being; work retardation, insomnia, weight loss, and anorexia. Most affected were, age group 27-35 years (and least 13-26 years), uneducated, living in Nairobi (city), having carcinomas, treatment with combined surgery and radiotherapy. Low education level and residence in Nairobi coped poorly. Radiation therapy group appeared to cope better than other modalities. CONCLUSION: The issues affecting the quality of life of male cancer patients stated were pain, inability to work, poor coping with cancer and psychological reactions of work retardation, insomnia, weight loss, fatigability and depression. Gambling, suicidal ideas and social withdrawal were minimal. Other concerns were families, health and work.

KHALFAN DRABDALLAHFATMAH, OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Quality of-life in male cancer patients at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2004 Jul;81(7):341-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 2004 Jul;81(7):341-7. MBA; 2004. Abstract

BACKGROUND: The quality of life of cancer patients is likely to be influenced by psychological reactions of the cancer patients yet there are no documented issues related to quality of life in cancer patients in Kenyan hospitals. OBJECTIVE: To investigate issues which affect the quality of life in male cancer patients. DESIGN: Prospective cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS AND SUBJECTS: Cancer patients above 12 years of age were interviewed during the course of their stay in the hospital, specifically to gather information on; semi structured questions and a modified Beck's 24 item depression inventory with a view to solicit for their reaction on issues which pertains to quality of life. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age group, level of education, tribe, geographical place (province) of birth, chief complains, main concerns, views on doctors, contact with psychiatrist and psychologist, the anatomic site of cancer, treatment given and responses on modified Beck's depression inventory. RESULTS: Forty two patients were studied, their age range 13-72 years, mean 43.2 and peak 13-26 years. Forty seven per cent of cases had no formal education. The cancers were gastrointestinal tract 33%, blood and lymphoid tissue (26%), bone and muscle (11.9%), skin (9.4%) and genitourinary tract (4.8%). Treatment given was chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. Ninety three per cent were unable to cope. Chief complaints were pain, inability to work, feeling miserable and concerns were families, health and work retardation. Modified Beck's depression score was 20%, with major issues being; work retardation, insomnia, weight loss, and anorexia. Most affected were, age group 27-35 years (and least 13-26 years), uneducated, living in Nairobi (city), having carcinomas, treatment with combined surgery and radiotherapy. Low education level and residence in Nairobi coped poorly. Radiation therapy group appeared to cope better than other modalities. CONCLUSION: The issues affecting the quality of life of male cancer patients stated were pain, inability to work, poor coping with cancer and psychological reactions of work retardation, insomnia, weight loss, fatigability and depression. Gambling, suicidal ideas and social withdrawal were minimal. Other concerns were families, health and work.

Abuga KO, Amugune BK, Ndwigah SN, Kamau FN, Thoithi GN, Ogeto JO, Okaru AO, Nguyo JM, Kingondu OK, Mugo HN, Kibwage IO. "Quality Performance of Drugs Analyzed in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit (DARU) During the period 2006-2010." East And Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013;16(2):33-43. Abstract

During the period 2006-2010, the Drug Analysis and Research Unit analyzed 583 samples. The samples comprised of 50.6% local and 49.4% imported products. Samples were subjected to compendial or in-house specifications. The failure rate was 12.2% for local products and 14.2% for imports. Antibacterial products recorded the highest failures (21.6%) while anticancers and drugs acting on the gastrointestinal, respiratory and reproductive systems all passed in the tests performed. The failure rate for antiprotozoals, antimalarials, antifungals, anthelminthics and analgesics were 14.3%, 12.5%, 11.8%, 8.9% and 11.5 % respectively.

K.O. ABUGA*, B.K. AMUGUNE NDWIGAHKAMAUTHOITHIOGETOOKARUNGUYOKING’ONDUMUGOSNFN. "Quality Performance of Drugs Analyzed in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit (DARU) during the Period 2006-2010." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. . 2013;Vol. 16(33). Abstractfull_paper.pdfWebsite

The quality of a drug product is determined by product design, manufacturing process as well as storage and distribution practices [1]. Effective quality control testing entails use of compendial or validated in-house methods [2]. The Frost and Sullivan report of 2008 revealed that 72% of the drug products in the Kenyan market were imported and majority (58.7%) of the drugs in circulation were generics [3]. The limited investment in the local pharmaceutical manufacturing industry is mainly attributable to the high cost of production which undermines competitiveness in the market [4].
Market authorization for pharmaceuticals in Kenya is granted by the national drug regulatory authority, the Pharmacy and Poisons Board after requisite evaluation of drug registration applications. The applicants are required to submit a certificate of analysis from a recognized independent laboratory operating within Kenya or the East African Community. The three Kenyan laboratories accredited to carry out pre-registration analysis for this purpose are the National Quality Control Laboratory (NQCL), Drug Analysis and Research Unit (DARU) and Mission for Essential Drugs and Supplies (MEDS) laboratory [5].
Drug quality control in DARU has been conducted since 1980 [6]. The laboratory has published periodic reports on the quality performance of drug samples analyzed therein. Previous reports have shown a continued improvement in the quality of products analyzed in DARU. In the 1980s the overall failure rate ranged from 21.6% to 31.4%, dropping to 17.6-21.1% in the 1990s and 6.1% in the years 2001-2005 [6-16]. The number of samples submitted to the DARU laboratory has gradually increased over the years due to enhanced consumption by the growing Kenyan population and drive for enhanced exports [17,18]. This paper reports on the quality performance of samples analyzed in DARU during the period 2006-2010.

Abuga KO, Amugune BK, Ndwigah SN, Kamau FN, Thoithi GN, Ogeto JO, Okaru AO, Nguyo JM, King'ondu OK, Mugo HM, Kibwage IO. "Quality Performance of Drugs Analyzed in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit (DARU) during the Period 2006-2010." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2013;16(2):33-43. Abstract

During the period 2006-2010, the Drug Analysis and Research Unit analyzed 583 samples. The samples comprised 50.6% local and 49.4% imported products. Samples were subjected to compendial or in-house specifications. The failure rate was 12.2% for local products and 14.2% for imports. Antibacterial products recorded the highest failure rate (21.6%) while anticancers and drugs acting on the gastrointestinal, respiratory and reproductive systems all passed in the tests performed. The failure rate for antiprotozoals, antimalarials, antifungals, anthelminthics and analgesics was 14.3%, 12.5%, 11.8%, 8.9% and 11.5%, respectively.

Nguyo JM, Abuga KO, Amugune BK, Ndwigah SN, Kamau FN, Thoithi GN, Ogeto JO, Okaru AO, King'ondu OK, Mugo HN, Kibwage IO. "Quality performance of Drugs Analyzed in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit (DARU) during the Period 2006-2010." The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013;16(2):33-43.
Kibwage IO, Kaimenyi JT, Migosi D. "Quality performance of metronidazole tablet products on the Kenyan market.". 1991. Abstract

The in vitro performance of metronidazole tablet product by different manufacturers avallable on the Kenyan market was evaluated. It was found that a number of generic metronidazole tablet products have quality performance equal to that of FlagylR-the Innovator product. All products confirmed to pharmacopoelal speciflcations, Three products with percent weight loss of 1.4, 11.08 and 14.93 fulled the crucial friability test, for multidose packs. Two products failed the dissolution test releasing 46.8% and 45.8% of drug In 40 minutes. Drug release from tablet was found to vary between batches for one product. Ageing appears to decrease amount of drug released from tablets but longer storage periods and more samples are required before def1nlte conclusions are drawn

H DG, Nyanamba T, Wahome R. "Quality protein maize for the feed industry in Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

Quality protein maize (QPM) has increased levels of lysine and tryptophan, limiting amino acids for monogastric animals, so its use in animal feed reduces the need for more expensive high-protein sources. The authors, through the application of a linear programming optimization model with the composition and prices of feed components used at the coast, show that the cost reduction from substituting QPM for regular maize in poultry feed for Kenya is 5% (mainly as a result of a reduction in fishmeal). The optimal ratios based on QPM and regular maize were calculated and formulated, and trials showed that broilers raised with either mixture had the same food intake, mortality and growth. Moreover, when the chickens were fried in the style popular at the coast, there was no difference in the taste of the meat between the two batches. If QPM were to replace regular maize in broiler feed in Kenya, a 5% cost reduction would translate into a gain of US$300,000. If the cost reduction were passed on to the broiler producers as a reduction in feed price, producers would be expected to gain on average US$32 per year. If the cost reduction were not passed on to the broiler producers, it would result in an extra profit for the feed industry.

Ngaboyisonga C, Njoroge K, Kirubi D, Githiri SM. "Quality protein maize under low N and drought environments: Endosperm modification, protein and tryptophan concentration in grain." Agricultural Journal. 2012;7(7):327-338.
9. Lucy W. Macharia, Anna Karani EO. "Quality Structures and Processes in the prevention on Secondary Traumtic Brain Injury at Accident Emergency and Critical Care Unit in Kenyatta National Hospital." International Journal of Health Professions (IJHP). 2014;1 (1) (38):38-44.
Muhati GL, Olago D, Olaka L. "Quantification of carbon stocks in Mount Marsabit Forest Reserve, a sub-humid montane forest in northern Kenya under anthropogenic disturbance." Global Ecology and Conservation. 2018;14. AbstractWebsite

The quantification of carbon stocks is vital for decision making in forest management, carbon stock change assessment and scientific applications. We applied the land degradation surveillance framework (LDSF) method with a sentinel site of (10 km × 10 km) to assess carbon stock levels and tree diversity in the Marsabit Forest Reserve (MFR). The above ground (ABG) carbon stock was estimated at 12.42 t/ha, while soil organic carbon (SOC) was 12.51 t/ha, with SOC densities increasing with increasing depth. The mean ABG carbon and SOC densities were higher in the least disturbed strata than the disturbed strata. The estimated ABG carbon and SOC stocks were significantly lower than the range observed in a typical dry tropical forest. Twenty-one tree species were recorded belonging to twelve families with the disturbed areas recording nine tree species while the least disturbed recording twelve species. Rubiaceae and Rutaceae were the richest families with four species each while Boraginaceae, Capparaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Tiliaceae, Violaceae, and Ochnaceae the least frequent with one species each. The most common tree species were, Croton megalocarpus, Drypetes gerrardii, Ochna insculpta, Strychnos henningsii and Vangueria madagascariensis. The forest recorded a basal diameter of 14.09 ± 12.15 cm, basal area of 0.016 m 2/ha with a mean height of 8.69 m. The basal size class distribution declined monotonically indicative of a stable population. Livestock grazing, selective logging, and firewood collection were the primary forms of anthropogenic activities recorded in the MFR despite the moratorium imposed on consumptive utilisation of forest products by the Marsabit County security committee. The Pearson correlation coefficient returned an inverse relationship between forest disturbance with SOC and ABG carbon in the disturbed strata suggesting that anthropogenic activities reduced carbon stocks in the MFR. Concerted efforts to mitigate anthropogenic impacts on the MFR could significantly increase its terrestrial carbon sequestration potential and the provision of critical ecosystem goods and services.

Muhati GL, Olago D, Olaka L. "Quantification of carbon stocks in Mount Marsabit Forest Reserve, a sub-humid montane forest in northern Kenya under anthropogenic disturbance." Global Ecology and Conservation. 2018;14. AbstractFull Text

The quantification of carbon stocks is vital for decision making in forest management, carbon stock change assessment and scientific applications. We applied the land degradation surveillance framework (LDSF) method with a sentinel site of (10 km × 10 km) to assess carbon stock levels and tree diversity in the Marsabit Forest Reserve (MFR). The above ground (ABG) carbon stock was estimated at 12.42 t/ha, while soil organic carbon (SOC) was 12.51 t/ha, with SOC densities increasing with increasing depth. The mean ABG carbon and SOC densities were higher in the least disturbed strata than the disturbed strata. The estimated ABG carbon and SOC stocks were significantly lower than the range observed in a typical dry tropical forest. Twenty-one tree species were recorded belonging to twelve families with the disturbed areas recording nine tree species while the least disturbed recording twelve species. Rubiaceae and Rutaceae were the richest families with four species each while Boraginaceae, Capparaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Tiliaceae, Violaceae, and Ochnaceae the least frequent with one species each. The most common tree species were, Croton megalocarpus, Drypetes gerrardii, Ochna insculpta, Strychnos henningsii and Vangueria madagascariensis. The forest recorded a basal diameter of 14.09 ± 12.15 cm, basal area of 0.016 m 2/ha with a mean height of 8.69 m. The basal size class distribution declined monotonically indicative of a stable population. Livestock grazing, selective logging, and firewood collection were the primary forms of anthropogenic activities recorded in the MFR despite the moratorium imposed on consumptive utilisation of forest products by the Marsabit County security committee. The Pearson correlation coefficient returned an inverse relationship between forest disturbance with SOC and ABG carbon in the disturbed strata suggesting that anthropogenic activities reduced carbon stocks in the MFR. Concerted efforts to mitigate anthropogenic impacts on the MFR could significantly increase its terrestrial carbon sequestration potential and the provision of critical ecosystem goods and services.

Odongo DO, Ueti MW, Mwaura SN, Knowles DP, Bishop RP, Scoles GA. "Quantification of Theileria parva in Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Acari: Ixodidae) confirms differences in infection between selected tick strains." J. Med. Entomol.. 2009;46(4):888-94. Abstract

Theileria parva is the etiologic agent of East Coast fever, an economically important disease of cattle in sub-Saharan Africa. This protozoan parasite is biologically transmitted by Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Neumann) (Acari: Ixodidae). An understanding of the vector-parasite interaction may aid the development of improved methods for controlling transmission. We developed quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and nested PCR (nPCR) assays targeting the T. parva-specific p104 gene to study T. parva pathogenesis in two strains of R. appendiculatus that had previously been selected to be relatively more (Kiambu) or less (Muguga) susceptible to infection. Nymphs from both strains were fed simultaneously to repletion on acutely infected calves. Nymphs from the Kiambu strain showed significantly higher engorgement weights compared with Muguga strain nymphs. Immediately after engorgement qPCR confirmed that nymphal Kiambu ticks had significantly higher parasite loads at repletion than Muguga nymphs. By 12 d postengorgement, parasites were below quantifiable levels but could be detected by nPCR in 83-87% (Muguga and Kiambu, respectively) of nymphs. After the molt, adult feeding on naïve cattle stimulated parasite replication in the salivary glands. PCR detected significantly more infected ticks than microscopy, and there was a significant difference between the two tick strains both in the proportion of ticks that develop salivary gland infections, and in the number of parasites within infected salivary glands. These data confirm that although both tick strains were competent vectors, Kiambu is both a significantly more susceptible and a more efficient host for T. parva than Muguga. The mechanisms that contribute to the levels of susceptibility and efficiency are unknown; however, this study lays the groundwork for a comparison of the transcriptome of these tick strains, the next step toward discovering the genes involved in the tick-parasite interaction.

R.S. O. "Quantifying Socio-economic benefits of Weather and Climate-." Presented at the IGAD-COF meeting; 2008. Abstract
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Omondi S, Wolfgang Richard Mukabana, Ochomo E, Muchoki M, KEMEI BRIGID, Mbogo C, Bayoh N. "Quantifying the intensity of permethrin insecticide resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes in western Kenya." Parasites & vectors. 2017;10(1):548.
Paesen J, Quintens I, Thoithi G, Roets E, Reybrouck G, Hoogmartens J. "Quantitative analysis of quaternary ammonium antiseptics using thin-layer densitometry." J. Chromatogr. A. 1994;677:377-384.
Mwega FM. "A quantitative analysis of th e balance of payments in Kenya." Prepared for the Long - range Planning Unit, Ministry of Planning and National Development. 1987.
and E. Njeru, W. Odhiamob OMJD. Quantitative and Qualitative Methods for Poverty Analysis.; 2005.
OMONDI PROFORATADUKE. "Quantitative aspects of charge transfer in polyaniline during it.". In: Die Makromolekulare Chemie. 1994, 195. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1994. Abstract
A study of malaria on the Kano Plain, Kisumu District, Western Kenya, was carried out between April and August, 1985. The study included a knowledge, attitudes and practices (K.A.P.) survey on malaria illness and the mosquito vector. Overall knowledge about malaria illness was found to be good. However, treatment and prevention practices of malaria were found to be poor. Knowledge of the mosquito and its relationship to malaria was found to be high. Knowledge of methods of prevention of mosquito bites was also found to be high but actual use of the methods was low. Knowledge of traditional methods of prevention of mosquito bites was also found to be high. Actual use was again found to be low.
I.O JUMBA, B.M MWASHOTE. "Quantitative aspects of inorganic nutrient fluxes in the Gazi Bay (Kenya): implications for coastal ecosystems.". In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, 44 (11): 1194-1205. Association of Africa Universities; 2002. Abstract

Fluxes of dissolved inorganic nutrients: NH+4, NO-2, N-3, PO34 and Si(OH)4 from near shore sediments of Gazi Bay were measured in situ within mangrove, sea grass and coral reef biotopes using benthic flux bell-jar chambers of cross-sectional area 0.066 m2 and volume 0.0132 m3. The objectives were: (1) to determine the influence of benthic fluxes, fluvial discharge and seasonal variations on the nutrient budget in the Bay waters; (2) to determine the effect of tidal and spatial variations on nutrient loads in the water column and (3) to establish the relative importance of the nutrient sources with regard to total community production of the Bay.
The directly measured fluxes ranged from -270 to +148 µmol NH+4-N/m2/h; -60 to +63 µmol NO-2-N/m2/h; -79 to +41 µmol N-3-N/m2/h; -79 to +75 µmol PO34-P/m2/h and +30 to +350 µmol Si(OH)4-Si/m2/h for and respectively. It was established that benthic fluxes are the major sources of dissolved inorganic NH+4, NO-2and Si(OH)4 while fluvial sources are important for N-3 and PO34into Gazi Bay waters. Seasonal variations had an appreciable effect on the PO3-4, fluxes, N:Si ratio, river nutrient discharge, plankton productivity and important environmental factors such as salinity and temperature. Tidal and spatial variations had no significant effect on nutrient concentrations and net fluxes within the water column. The results imply that benthic fluxes are largely responsible for the nutrient dynamics of the near shore coastal ecosystems especially where direct terrestrial inputs do not contribute significantly to the nutrient budget.
© 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Gazi bay; Nutrient sources; Benthic fluxes; Fluvial discharge; Community production; Coastal ecosystems

.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Quantitative Changes in Some Physical Properties of Potatoes During Storage. Proceedings of The International Conference of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers. August 3-5, Nairobi.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1994. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Quantitative ex vivo analysis of functional virus-specific CD8 T lymphocytes in the blood and genital tract of HIV-infected women. Kaul R, Thottingal P, Kimani J, Kiama P, Waigwa CW, Bwayo JJ, Plummer FA, Rowland-Jones SL. AIDS. 2003 May 23;17(8):1139-44.". In: AIDS. 2003 May 23;17(8):1139-44. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2003. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
WACHIHI DRWAIGWACHARLES, WANGUI DRGITAURUTH. "Quantitative ex vivo analysis of functional virus-specific CD8 T lymphocytes in the blood and genital tract of HIV-infected women. Kaul R, Thottingal P, Kimani J, Kiama P, Waigwa CW, Bwayo JJ, Plummer FA, Rowland-Jones SL.AIDS. 2003 May 23;17(8):1139-44.". In: AIDS. 2003 May 23;17(8):1139-44. Doctoral Thesis; 2003. Abstract
BACKGROUND: CD8 T lymphocytes are important in HIV-1 control and mediate virus-specific immunity in the blood and genital tract. The induction and monitoring of mucosal CD8 cell responses will be an important component of HIV-1 vaccine trials, but information regarding the frequency, phenotype and function of genital tract CD8 cell responses is lacking. METHODS: Simultaneous blood and cervical cytobrush samples were obtained from 16 HIV-1-infected Kenyan sex workers. Epitope-specific CD8 T lymphocyte frequencies in the blood and genital tract were analysed after short-term peptide incubation and intracellular cytokine staining for interferon-gamma (IFN gamma). RESULTS: Cervical sampling resulted in adequate cell numbers for analysis in 10/16 women. Background IFN gamma production was higher in CD3+/CD8+ lymphocytes from the genital tract than from blood (0.48% versus 0.1%; P < 0.01). Responses to staphylococcal enterotoxin B were detected in cervical CD8 lymphocytes from 10/10 women, at a similar frequency to blood (16.7% in cervix and 13.3% in blood; P = 0.4). HIV-1-specific responses were detected the cervix of 8/10 women, with a trend to higher response frequencies in the genital tract than blood (2.1% versus 0.8%; P = 0.09). Co-expression of integrin CD103 (alpha E beta 7), a mucosal marker, was used to confirm the mucosal origin of cervical responses. CONCLUSIONS: Cytobrush sampling and intracellular cytokine staining is well suited to the analysis of cervical CD8 cell responses. The frequency of functional virus-specific CD3+/CD8+ T cells is similar in the genital tract and blood of HIV-1-infected women. The role of genital tract CD8 cell responses in HIV-1 control warrants further investigation.
WANGAI DRKIAMAPETER. "Quantitative ex vivo analysis of functional virus-specific CD8 T lymphocytes in the blood and genital tract of HIV-infected women. Kaul R, Thottingal P, Kimani J, Kiama P, Waigwa CW, Bwayo JJ, Plummer FA, Rowland-Jones SL.AIDS. 2003 May 23;17(8):1139-44.". In: AIDS. 2003 May 23;17(8):1139-44. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2003. Abstract
BACKGROUND: CD8 T lymphocytes are important in HIV-1 control and mediate virus-specific immunity in the blood and genital tract. The induction and monitoring of mucosal CD8 cell responses will be an important component of HIV-1 vaccine trials, but information regarding the frequency, phenotype and function of genital tract CD8 cell responses is lacking. METHODS: Simultaneous blood and cervical cytobrush samples were obtained from 16 HIV-1-infected Kenyan sex workers. Epitope-specific CD8 T lymphocyte frequencies in the blood and genital tract were analysed after short-term peptide incubation and intracellular cytokine staining for interferon-gamma (IFN gamma). RESULTS: Cervical sampling resulted in adequate cell numbers for analysis in 10/16 women. Background IFN gamma production was higher in CD3+/CD8+ lymphocytes from the genital tract than from blood (0.48% versus 0.1%; P < 0.01). Responses to staphylococcal enterotoxin B were detected in cervical CD8 lymphocytes from 10/10 women, at a similar frequency to blood (16.7% in cervix and 13.3% in blood; P = 0.4). HIV-1-specific responses were detected the cervix of 8/10 women, with a trend to higher response frequencies in the genital tract than blood (2.1% versus 0.8%; P = 0.09). Co-expression of integrin CD103 (alpha E beta 7), a mucosal marker, was used to confirm the mucosal origin of cervical responses. CONCLUSIONS: Cytobrush sampling and intracellular cytokine staining is well suited to the analysis of cervical CD8 cell responses. The frequency of functional virus-specific CD3+/CD8+ T cells is similar in the genital tract and blood of HIV-1-infected women. The role of genital tract CD8 cell responses in HIV-1 control warrants further investigation.
WACHIHI DRWAIGWACHARLES, WANGUI DRGITAURUTH. "Quantitative ex vivo analysis of functional virus-specific CD8 T lymphocytes in the blood and genital tract of HIV-infected women. Kaul R, Thottingal P, Kimani J, Kiama P, Waigwa CW, Bwayo JJ, Plummer FA, Rowland-Jones SL.AIDS. 2003 May 23;17(8):1139-44.". In: AIDS. 2003 May 23;17(8):1139-44. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2003. Abstract
BACKGROUND: CD8 T lymphocytes are important in HIV-1 control and mediate virus-specific immunity in the blood and genital tract. The induction and monitoring of mucosal CD8 cell responses will be an important component of HIV-1 vaccine trials, but information regarding the frequency, phenotype and function of genital tract CD8 cell responses is lacking. METHODS: Simultaneous blood and cervical cytobrush samples were obtained from 16 HIV-1-infected Kenyan sex workers. Epitope-specific CD8 T lymphocyte frequencies in the blood and genital tract were analysed after short-term peptide incubation and intracellular cytokine staining for interferon-gamma (IFN gamma). RESULTS: Cervical sampling resulted in adequate cell numbers for analysis in 10/16 women. Background IFN gamma production was higher in CD3+/CD8+ lymphocytes from the genital tract than from blood (0.48% versus 0.1%; P < 0.01). Responses to staphylococcal enterotoxin B were detected in cervical CD8 lymphocytes from 10/10 women, at a similar frequency to blood (16.7% in cervix and 13.3% in blood; P = 0.4). HIV-1-specific responses were detected the cervix of 8/10 women, with a trend to higher response frequencies in the genital tract than blood (2.1% versus 0.8%; P = 0.09). Co-expression of integrin CD103 (alpha E beta 7), a mucosal marker, was used to confirm the mucosal origin of cervical responses. CONCLUSIONS: Cytobrush sampling and intracellular cytokine staining is well suited to the analysis of cervical CD8 cell responses. The frequency of functional virus-specific CD3+/CD8+ T cells is similar in the genital tract and blood of HIV-1-infected women. The role of genital tract CD8 cell responses in HIV-1 control warrants further investigation.
"Quantitative Research Methods 1: Introduction." Nairobi: Basic Books (Kenya) Limited; 1994. Abstract
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Abade OE, Kaji K, Kawaguchi N. Quantitative simulation of XCAST6 performance using OMNeT++.. Bangkok, Thailand; 2011.
Ondiaka MN, Mutua JM, Gitau AN, Njoroge BNK. "Quantitative structure-activity relationship biodegradability modeling in biofiltration of petroleum volatile organic compounds." E3 Journal of Environmental Research and Management. 2012;3(5)(5):099-0107.
Hickey TL, Spear PD, Kratz KE. "Quantitative studies of cell size in the cat's dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus following visual deprivation." The Journal of comparative neurology. 1977;172:265-281. Abstract

The effects of visual deprivation upon dorsal lateral geniculate (DLG) cell size were compared for seven kittens reared with monocular lid-suture (MD), seven with binocular lid-suture (BD), and six with one eye lid-sutured and the other eye enucleated soon after birth (MD-E). Six additional kittens were reared normally for comparison. For each kitten the cross-sectional areas of 300 cells were measured in one or both nuclei. Measurements were taken from the binocular segment of laminae A and A1 and the monocular segment of lamina A. In agreement with previous studies, cells in the binocular segment of the deprived laminae of MD cats were smaller (33-34%) than those in the non-deprived laminae. Comparisons with normal animals indicated that this difference was due to an increase (10-15%) in size of cells in the non-deprived laminae as well as a decrease (23-25%) in size of cells in the deprived laminae. Cells in the monocular segment also were affected by deprivation in MD cats, and this effect increased with the age (and duration of the deprivation) of the animal. However, it was always smaller than the decrease in cell size in the binocular portion of the DLG. In BD kittens, DLG cells were smaller (7-12%) than normal in all portions of the nucleus, including both the binocular and monocular segments. Direct comparisons between the deprived laminae of MD and BD kittens indicated that the decrease in cell size was greater for MD kittens in the binocular segment, but tended to be greater for BD kittens in the monocular segment. In MD-E kittens, DLG cells in the deprived laminae were smaller (11-17%) than normal in all portions of the nucleus, including both the binocular and monocular segments. Thus, the effects of deprivation were similar to those in BD kittens, even though inputs from the deprived eye had been placed at a competitive advantage in MD-E kittens. These results indicate that two factors may affect cell size in the DLG of visually deprived cats: deprivation per se and abnormal binocular competition. Finally, separate analyses for the ten largest and the ten smallest cells in each lamina of each cat were carried out in an attempt to determine if the changes in cell size were limited to the largest cells. In every case, differences observed for the total sample of cells were paralleled by differences from normal of both the largest cells present and the smallest cells present in the deprived laminae. Since at least two alternative interpretations can account for this finding, the question of whether the large cells are selectively affected by visual deprivation remains unanswered in the cat.

Karimurio J. "Quantitative survey methods.". In: COECSA Research training and dessemination. Kampala, Uganda; 2013.quantitative_survey_methods_coecsa_18.04.2013_dr._karimurio.pdf
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "Quantum Statistical Response Function,.". In: Nuovo Cimento 21B, 178. University of Nairobi Press; 1974. Abstract
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OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "The Quantum Theory Non-Relativistic Adiabatic Charged Particle Motion.". In: Pres. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Strongly Couple Plasma . University of Nairobi Press; 1977. Abstract
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OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "Quantum theory of pressure broadening of rotational spectrum by three-dimensional rigid rotator, Ph.D. thesis.". In: University Microfilms . University of Nairobi Press; 1972. Abstract
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OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "The Quantum Theory of Three Dimensional Rigid Rotator.". In: Nuovo Cimento 21B, 162,. University of Nairobi Press; 1974. Abstract
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Batty W, Kaduki KA, Allsopp DWE. "Quantum well shaping for enhanced optoelectronic device characteristics.". In: Institute of Physics SIOE `95. Cardiff, U.K.; 1995.
Kaduki KA, Ghiti A, Batty W, Allsopp DWE. Quantum well shaping for reduced threshold current in strained layer lasers.. York, U.K.: Institute of Physics; 1996.
5. Nishiyama, Y. MKMMMAP, et al. "Quarterway Isoquinoline alkaloids from Xylopia parviflora Jour." Phytochemistry . 2004;65:939-944.
Ogallo LJ. "Quasi-periodic patterns in East African rainfall records." Kenya Journal of Science and technology. 1982;A(3):43-54.
J.N.Muriuki. "Quasistationary sequences in Hilbert spaces." African Journal of Science and technology (AJST) science and Engineering. 2004;5(5):83-91.
Mutiso, P.B.C. NMKYSM, et al. "QuatemaryIsoquinoline alkaloids from xylopia parviflora. ." J. Phytochemistry . 2004;65:939-944 .
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Quaternary volcanic events in Africa.". In: In: Bormann, P. (Editor). Regional International Training Course Volume (1997) on Seismology and Seismic Hazard Assessment. Scientific Technical Report STR 98/05. Potsdam. 182-190. Wiley Interscience; 1998. Abstract
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IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Quel avenir por la Convention Lome? Quelles Preoccupaitons pour l'Afrique?". In: Gender, La Convention de Lome en Questions, Editions Karthala, Paris. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1996. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
kinyua OH. QUELLING VIOLENCE. Nairobi: Supreme Cuoucil of Kenya Muslims; 2012.quelling_violence_in_mombasa_.doc
Mbogoh SG. "Quelques indicateurs preliminaires de l'impact des politiques sur le developpement et la commercialisation de la production laitiere en Afrique subsaharienne.". 1984. Abstract

Examines the marketing of domestically produced dairy products in sub-Saharan Africa, including imported but locally reconstituted whole milk powder and butter oil, and discusses trends in the imports of other dairy products over the last two decades in order to assess the impact of various dairy development and marketing policies of governments on the production & consumption of dairy products in the region.

Dossaji SF, Kubo I. "Quercetin 3-(2"-Galloyglucoside), a molluscicidal flavanoids form Polygonum senegalense:." Phytochemistry. 1980;19:482-483. Abstract

Valepotriates, mainly isovaltrate and valtrate, have been separated and quantitatively estimated by reversed-phase HPLC in the leaves, flowers, stems and rhizomes of Valeriana kilimandascharica. The isovaltrate/valtrate concentration reaches a maximum of 5.89% in the leaves, 3.84% in the flowers, 3.17% in the stems and 5.15% in the rhizomes.

S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Quereshi ZP, Sekadde-kigondu CB. A survey to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practice of family planning amongst the nursing staff at Kenyatta National Hospital. J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1991;9(1):49-51.". In: J. Obstet. Gynaecol E.and Centr. Afric 9:49, 1991. uon press; 1991. Abstract

PIP: This survey was conducted at the Kenyatta National Hospital between March-June 1988 to assess the attitudes, basic knowledge and personal use of contraceptives among the nursing staff and to determine how these would influence family planning utilization in the country. In 1987, a similar survey was conducted among the physicians at this same hospital. A total of 432 nurses were interviewed; 64.4% of the nurses were currently using contraceptives and 7.7% had used them continuously. The IUD was used by 47.1% of the nurses. 62.3% of the nurses indicated that they would be able to discuss contraceptive use with their teenage daughters but only 29.6% would provide contraceptives. 66.7% of the nurses had extensive knowledge of contraceptives (over 60% knowledge) but knowledge concerning male contraceptives and newer methods such as Norplant was poor. author's modified

W MRSMUNENGERAHAB. "Quertin - 3 -Neohesperidoside (Rutin) and other flavonoids as the active hypoglycaemic agents of Bridela ferruginea) (Addae-Mensah, Rahab W. Munenge (Fitoterapia Vol. LX, No. 4 - 1985).". In: Afri. J. Oral Hlth. Sci. 2002; 3: 97-99. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1985. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

"Quest for African Jurisprudence." Centre International d; 2012. Abstract
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NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. ""Quest for Gender Equality" In Social Focus. Nairobi:.". In: AEF International. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1996. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
H DRODARIMASUMI. "The Quest for Justice and the Lawyer's Dilemma: Time for a Paradigm Shift. Conference: Legal Ethics & Jurisprudence in Nation Buildingate of Publication: Odari H Masumi.". In: Proceedings of the Sixth Kenya Meteorological Society. Workshop on Meteorological Research and Applications and Services. Mombasa, Kenya 29th September to 3rd October 2003 Nairobi 17-19 October 2005. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2005. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

N MRMAINGIELIUD. "A questionnaire survey of nematode control practices on goat farms in Denmark. Veterinary Parasitology 66:25-37.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 2004 May;31(5):265-72. Kisipan, M.L.; 1996. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

Kagira JM, Kanyari PW. "Questionnaire survey on urban and peri-urban livestock farming practices and disease control in Kisumu municipality, Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

To characterise the urban livestock keeping practices and constraints in Kisumu municipality, Kenya, a questionnaire survey was carried out. Thirty-four contact farmers were interviewed on general farm characteristics and production constraints. The farming activities were categorised as either livestock only (41%), or mixed crops and livestock (59%). The surveyed farmers kept mainly cattle (100%), chickens (82%) and goats (74%). Most (94%) of the farmers had kept livestock for prolonged periods mainly for income generation (97%) and domestic consumption (59%). These data show that livestock keeping was popular and could be harnessed to increase food security, although the farmers kept mainly low-producing indigenous cattle (98%) which were grazed on unutilised land. The main production constraints mentioned by farmers included diseases (100%), poor fertility (68%) and lack of feed (56%). The diseases varied with species of ruminants and included lumpy skin disease (71%), diarrhoea (65%) and helminthosis (62%). The source of advice on management and treatment of the livestock was almost equally from private and government veterinary personnel. To improve livestock productivity, it is recommended that key stakeholders address the constraints mentioned in this study and in particular that the occurrence of diseases should be investigated with a view to developing sustainable control strategies

''Korir E'', ''Kiplimo J''J, ''Crouch N''R, ''Moodley N'', ''Koorbanally N''A. "Quinolizidine alkaloids from Sophora velutina Subsp. zimbabweensis(Fabaceae: Sophoreae)." Natural product Communications. 2012;7(8):999-1003.
T
O DRLUMUMBAPATRICK. "THE QUOTABLE PLO.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 33 No. 1. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1999.
Q
ONYANGO-OUMA DRW. "QUOTE-TB Measuring the quality of TB services: the patient.". In: Izvestiya Journal, Geographical series NO. 1 pages 90 - 105, U.S.S.R., Academy of Sciences Moscow, 1980. Tuberculosis Coalition for Technical Assistance.; 2007. Abstract
Ogutu EO. A 10-year (1976-1986) retrospective study was done on 30 cases with histological diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. The male to female ratio was 1.3:1 and the peak incidence was in the 6th and 7th decades. The head of the pancreas was involved in 96% of cases while solid adenocarcinoma of duct cell origin accounted for 73.3% of cases, followed by anaplastic carcinoma (23.3%). The commonest complications were distinct metastasis (86.6%), obstructive jaundice (73.3%) and upper gastrointestinal bleed (13.6%).
PARVEEN DRQURESHIZAHIDA, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Qureshi Z Editorial Safe motherhood in Africa: Achievable Goal or a Dream?". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Jan;82. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2005. Abstract
Effects of calcium supplementation in patient at risk of pregnancy induced Hypertension. (This was an experimental double blind randomized clinical trial.) J. Obset. Gynaecol. East Cent.Afr 2005, 18:49-59
PARVEEN DRQURESHIZAHIDA, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Qureshi Z P Current Management of Hypertensive Disease in Pregnancy, East Afr Med J. 2002 Apr;79(4):169-71.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Apr;79(4):169-71. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PARVEEN DRQURESHIZAHIDA. "Qureshi Z P, Raassen T J I P. Vesico-vaginal fistulae occurring after total abdominal Hysterectomy. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of East and Central Africa 14 (2), 115,1998.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of East and Central Africa 14 (2), 115,1998. Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1998. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.

PARVEEN DRQURESHIZAHIDA, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Qureshi Z P, Raassen T J I P. Vesico-vaginal fistulae occurring after total abdominal Hysterectomy. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of East and Central Africa 14 (2), 115,1998.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of East and Central Africa 14 (2), 115,1998. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1998. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
PARVEEN DRQURESHIZAHIDA. "Qureshi Z P, Raassen TJIP. Obstetric Fistula Repair Programme of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the University of Nairobi. Proceedings of the 1st Meeting of the East, Central and Southern Africa Association of Obstetrical and Gynaecologic.". In: Uganda 1997 Published 1998. Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1998. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.

PARVEEN DRQURESHIZAHIDA, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Qureshi Z P, Raassen TJIP. Obstetric Fistula Repair Programme of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the University of Nairobi. Proceedings of the 1st Meeting of the East, Central and Southern Africa Association of Obstetrical and Gynaecologic.". In: Uganda 1997 Published 1998. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1998. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
PARVEEN DRQURESHIZAHIDA, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Qureshi Z P, Sekkade-Kigondu C B. A Survey to determine the knowledge attitude and practice of Family Planning among the Nursing Staff of Kenyatta National Hospital. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East and Central Africa 9 (1): 49, 1991.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East and Central Africa 9 (1): 49, 1991. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1991. Abstract

In this study, a total of 519 patients were interviewed. 82.5% had incomplete abortion. The implication of abortion especially when induced is emphasised. Economic implications that are contributed by the youth are stressed. 83.6% of the patients had not used any contraception. The role of contraception in preventing unwanted pregnancy and therefore induced abortion is stressed. The role of the physician in providing contraception and appropriate contraceptive knowledge is discussed. PIP: A study of 519 consecutive women admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital with the diagnosis of abortion revealed that the majority were young and had a history of nonuse of contraception. Abortion was incomplete in 428 (83%) of cases; 60 (12%) cases involved sepsis. Women 20-24 years of age accounted for 221 (43%) of the abortions; the other two most represented age groups were 25-29 years (28%) and 14-19 years (17%). 460 (89%) of the abortion patients had never used a contraceptive method. The most frequently cited reasons for nonuse were desire for pregnancy (48%), no conscious reason (13%), procrastination in getting to a family planning clinic (8%), no knowledge of family planning (6%), and fear of side effects (6%). Of the 64 cases of failed contraception, 27 were using the pill, 25 had an IUD in place, and 8 were relying on the rhythm method. Among contraceptive users, the major sources of information about contraception were nurses (52%), radio and newspapers (19%), and other women (15%). Only 4% indicated that a physician had discussed family planning with them. Given the resource drain that treatment of incomplete abortion can place on Kenya's health care system and the risk of abortion-induced pelvic infection and subsequent infertility, Kenya's health workers should be encouraged to be more aggressive in promoting family planning use among young women.

PARVEEN DRQURESHIZAHIDA, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Qureshi Z P, Solomon M M. A Survey on the knowledge and attitudes of men in Machakos town towards Vasectomy. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East and Central Africa 11 (1): 10, 1995.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East and Central Africa 11 (1): 10, 1995. Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1995. Abstract

PIP: In November and December, 1993, a self-administered questionnaire was distributed to men in the town of Machakos and to nonmedical hospital workers of Machakos General Hospital. The purpose of the study was to assess their knowledge about and attitude towards vasectomy. The majority of men were in the age group of 30-44 years and were married; the hospital group was more educated. The town men perceived the pill to be the best contraceptive method for women in contrast to the hospital group who gave more importance to bilateral tubal ligation. The hospital group also perceived vasectomy as the best method for men. Overall, 53.2% men were aware of the correct procedure of vasectomy, but only 24% had correct knowledge of how the procedure affects masculinity. The knowledge of the procedure among hospital workers was not very different from that of the town group. Recommendations were made to increase information and education to all groups of people through various media. author's modified

PARVEEN DRQURESHIZAHIDA, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Qureshi Z P, Solomon M M. A Survey on the knowledge and attitudes of men in Machakos town towards Vasectomy. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East and Central Africa 11 (1): 10, 1995.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East and Central Africa 11 (1): 10, 1995. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1995. Abstract

PIP: In November and December, 1993, a self-administered questionnaire was distributed to men in the town of Machakos and to nonmedical hospital workers of Machakos General Hospital. The purpose of the study was to assess their knowledge about and attitude towards vasectomy. The majority of men were in the age group of 30-44 years and were married; the hospital group was more educated. The town men perceived the pill to be the best contraceptive method for women in contrast to the hospital group who gave more importance to bilateral tubal ligation. The hospital group also perceived vasectomy as the best method for men. Overall, 53.2% men were aware of the correct procedure of vasectomy, but only 24% had correct knowledge of how the procedure affects masculinity. The knowledge of the procedure among hospital workers was not very different from that of the town group. Recommendations were made to increase information and education to all groups of people through various media. author's modified

PARVEEN DRQURESHIZAHIDA, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Qureshi Z P, Solomon MM Three case reports on Abdominal Pregnancy seen at Machakos General Hospital. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East and Central Africa 12 (1): 12, 1996.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East and Central Africa 12 (1): 12, 1996. Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1996. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
PARVEEN DRQURESHIZAHIDA, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Qureshi Z P, Solomon MM Three case reports on Abdominal Pregnancy seen at Machakos General Hospital. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East and Central Africa 12 (1): 12, 1996.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East and Central Africa 12 (1): 12, 1996. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1996. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
PARVEEN DRQURESHIZAHIDA, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Qureshi Z P. Thesis for the University of Nairobi, Master of Medicine in Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 1989.". In: Master of Medicine in Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 1989. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1989. Abstract

Part of a detailed analysis of 864 unmarried teenage mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital is presented. Teenage pregnancy amounted for 42.3% of all deliveries of unmarried mothers. Most teenage patients were above 16 years of age, had a religious background of wide coverage, had low quality antenatal care and low education. 94.6% were found to be primigravidas. This dominance has also been found by other workers. PIP: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study of unmarried mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, from December 1986-April 1987, was conducted with a pretested open-ended questionnaire: the 864 teen mothers are described here. They ranged from 13.4-19 years, most were 17-19. 49.4% were Catholic and 45% Protestant. 88.5% attended prenatal clinics once; 51.5% attended 5 times, although only 13% went to hospital clinics for specialized care. For reasons for not going for prenatal care teens stated that they were too shy to undergo a clinical exam, afraid of parents' reaction, unaware of the pregnancy or of the existence of prenatal care, they had not menstruated, or were in school, in prison, or had long work hours. Most girls had primary education, and 97.9% had dropped out of school. 34% dropped out because of pregnancy, and 32% for lack of tuition fees. Reasons for dropping out of school were tabulated, encompassing a broad range of social problems such as war, death, divorce, alcoholism or illness of parents, no tuition or uniform funds, poor grades, and running away from school. In Africa, teen pregnancy is probably increasing because of decreasing age at menarche and relaxing of traditional values.

S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Qureshi,Z.P., Sekadde-Kigondu, C,B. A Survey to Determine the Knowledge , Attitudes and Practice of Family Planning Amongst the Nursing Staff at Kenyatta National Hospital. J. Obstet. Gynaecol E.and Centr. Afric 9:49, 1991.". In: J. Obstet. Gynaecol E.and Centr. Afric 9:49, 1991. uon press; 1991. Abstract
Forty females, age 14 to 35 years (mean 28.6 years) with chronic renal failure (CRF) were included in the study. Their menstrual patterns were noted. The function of their hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis was assessed by the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin (PrL), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) at different phases of the menstrual cycle in patients who continued to have normal menses (Group 1) and at weekly intervals for six weeks in patients with menstrual disturbances (Group II). The mean hormone levels during the initial contact Luteal phase in group I were FSH 12.0 IU/L (N, 1.0-3.0 IU/L), LH 1.8IU/L (N 1.5-101U/L), PrL 652mIU/L (N, 100-600 mIU/L) mE2 160 pmol/L (N 400-1400 pmol/L) and P5 nmol/L (N 14-60 nmol/L) for group I. Corresponding values for group II were 1.2, 10.3, 250, 600 and 3.0 in relevant units. All patients (fourteen) with end stage renal disease (ESRD) had amenorrhoae. On the other hand, most patients with stable CRF (22/26) had normal menses. Following initiation of therapy (conservative or dialytic), there was no significant alteration in the hormonal profile or menstrual pattern. We conclude that other factors apart from the hormonal imbalances, may be responsible for the menstrual disturbances noted in patients with CRF.

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