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O. MRKOTENGDAVID. "G A Munga and D O Koteng.". In: Proceedings of Symposium on Unsaturated Soil Behaviour and Applications. 22-23 August 1995, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Pp 146-151. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1995. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "G Davies, Rksoi, E.S.Kilelu (1983). Blue tongue virus disease antibodies in sheep form Kitengela, Athi River Veterinary Record. Vol 9 No. 7 p 77-78.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1983. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "G Nyaga, KHM Kollmann, K Kimani, DR Ilako: Magnitude and pattern of eye diseases in Korogocho slum, Nairobi; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 13., No. 2 (2007).". In: Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2007.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "G Nyaga, KHM Kollmann, K Kimani, DR Ilako: Magnitude and pattern of eye diseases in Korogocho slum, Nairobi; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 13., No. 2 (2007).". In: Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2007.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "G Nyaga, KHM Kollmann, K Kimani, DR Ilako: Magnitude and pattern of eye diseases in Korogocho slum, Nairobi; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 13., No. 2 (2007).". In: Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2007. Abstract

Universit

Yangyuoru PM, Bradburn DA, Liu Z, Xiao TS, Russell R. "The G-quadruplex (G4) resolvase DHX36 efficiently and specifically disrupts DNA G4s via a translocation-based helicase mechanism." Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2017:jbc. M117. 815076.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "G. C. Macoloo, Rapporteurs' Report, Chapter III in C. O. Okidi, ed., Reflections on Management of Drainage Basins in Africa, IDS Occasional Paper No.51, January.". In: Reflections on Management of Drainage Basins in Africa, IDS Occasional Paper No.51. International Union of Crystallography; 1998. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "G. K. Gitau, J. K. Wabacha, S. Ndurumo and J. M. Nduhiu. Isolation rates and antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of bovine mastitis pathogens in peri-urban area of Nairobi, Kabete, Kenya.". In: Ethiopian Veterinary Journal (2011) 15(1). Ethiopian Veterinary Journal, 15 (1): 1-13; 2011. Abstract

A retrospective study was carried out to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial sensitivity to commonly occurring bovine mastitis pathogens in the peri-urban area of Nairobi between 1994 and 2004. Samples were mainly drawn from the area covered by the ambulatory services of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Veterinary Clinic in Kabete, Nairobi.A total of 888 isolates were studied from bacterial cultures obtained from the bovine samples collected at the clinic. The most common microbial isolates were Streptococcus species (20.6%), Staphylococcus species (20.1%), Escherichia coli (16.8%), Klebsiella species (15.4%), Actinomyces (13.9%) and Pseudomonas species (8.3%). The study showed that sensitivity to antimicrobial agents was highest for gentamycin and kanamycin while it was moderate to low for penicillin, ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin, amoxicillin and penicillin-dihydrostreptomycin. The results of the study however did not show any clear trend i

DR. MISRA ANILK. "G. K. Kirui, A. K. Misra, O. M. Olanya, M. Friedman, R. El-Bedewy and P. T. Ewell, 2007, Glycoalkaloid content of some superior potato (Solanum tuberosum L) clones and commercial cultivars. Archives Of Phytopathology and Plant Protection,.". In: Archives Of Phytopathology and Plant Protection,. Departmental seminar; 2007. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Glycoalkaloids are important metabolites in potato because of their toxic properties and potential harmful effects to humans. To validate a rapid assay to determine and quantify glycoalkaloid content and its distribution in potato tubers, we have characterized and quantified, by HPLC and by colorimetry with bromphenol blue, the glycoalkaloids in 15 potato cultivars and experimental clones grown in the tropical climate of Kenya. There was significant correlation of TGA by HPLC and colorimetry. Significant differences in glycoalkaloid content were detected among potato cultivars. The concentration of a-chaconine in the 15 cultivars ranged from 1.62 to 4.46 mg/100 g fresh weight (fwt), of a-solanine from 1.45 to 4.51 mg/100 g, and of solanidine from 1.58 to 5.21 mg/100 g. Total glycoalkaloid values (TGA, sum of the three compounds) for the 15 cultivars determined by HPLC ranged from 5.31 to 15.39 mg/100 g and the corresponding values determined by bromphenol blue colorimetry, from 3.51 to 17.48 mg/100 g. Dutch Robijn, a late blight susceptible cultivar under Kenyan conditions had the lowest level (3.51 mg/100 g) of total glycoalkaloids and Tigoni, a late blight resistant cultivar, had the highest amount (15.97 mg/100 g). In contrast to most previous studies, high levels of solanidine in tubers of tropical-climate adapted cultivars were recorded in our experiments. The dietary significance of a high amount of solanidine in the cultivars has not been previously reported and deserves further study.
O PROFGENGARIEWA. "G. Kalman & R. O. Genga: High-Frequency Expansion of Plasma Dielectric Tensor; Phys, Rev. A 33, 604 (1986).". In: International Journal of Theoretical Physics (November 1993 issue. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1986.
M MRGONAGEORGE. "G. M. Gona, Andrew Mtagwaba Kailembo: The Life and Times of an African Trade Unionist.". In: Nairobi, Catholic University in Eastern Africa, 2002. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 2002. Abstract
Department of Pathology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Red blood cells and lysate products (erythrolysate) are observed consistently in lymph draining acute and chronic inflammatory reactions and from tissues subjected to trauma or surgical procedures. Using hemoglobin as a marker for erythrolysate, we have measured hemoglobin in lymph up to the 10(-6) M range in a number of pathophysiological states. Data demonstrate that erythrolysate alters the pumping characteristics of lymphatic vessels. To test the effects of erythrolysate on lymphatic pumping, bovine lymphatics were suspended in an organ bath preparation with the vessels cannulated at both inflow and outflow ends. By raising the heights of the Krebs reservoir and the outflow catheters appropriately, a transmural pressure that stimulated pumping activity could be applied to the vessels. With a fixed transmural pressure of 6 cm H2O applied to the ducts, sheep erythrolysate depressed pumping activity between 40% and 100%, with dilutions containing between 10(-8) and 10(-5) M hemoglobin. Although the active principle in the red blood cells has not been characterized, evidence from precipitation purification experiments suggests that hemoglobin is an important component. Once suppressed, pumping could be restored in many but not all vessels (often to control levels) by elevating the distending pressure above 6 cm H2O. The relation between transmural pressure and fluid pumping is expressed as a bell-shaped curve, with pumping increasing up to a peak pressure (usually 8 cm H2O) and declining at pressures above this level. By comparing pressure/flow curves, we were able to ascertain that hemoglobin shifted the lymphatic function curve to the right and, on average, reduced the maximum pumping capability of the vessels. We speculate that the presence of erythrolysate/hemoglobin in lymph may modulate the ability of lymphatic vessels to drain liquid and protein from the tissue spaces.
"G. N. Thoithi , N. Maingi , D. Karume, P. K. Gathumbi , J. W. Mwangi And I.O. Kibwage. Anthelmintic and Other Pharmacological Activities of the Root Bark Extracts ofAtbizia anthelmintica Brongn." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2002;5 :60-66. Abstract

The anthelmintic activity of water, methanol and chloroform extracts of the root bark of
Albizia anthelmintica on strongyle-type sheep nematode eggs and larvae were examined in
vitro. In addition, pharmacological tests were carried out on the water extract to confirm
other ethnomedical uses of the plant. The water extract inhibited hatching of the nematode
eggs as well as development of larvae. It caused larval mortality at moderately high doses.
The methanol extract had no effect on the eggs and on the development of larvae, but had
high activity against survival of the larvae. The chloroform extract was the least active of
the three extracts and it had moderate effect on larval development and larval survival. In
addition, the water extract caused contraction of the smooth muscle of the guinea pig and
rabbit ileum and the rat uterus. The water extract had negative inotropic and chronotropic
effects and contractile effects on guinea pig trachea. The results support the ethnomedical
use of this plant as an anthelmintic and for prevention of hemorrhage after birth.

"G. N. Thoithi, K. O. Abuga, J. M. Nguyo, G. Mukindia, O. Kingondu, J. K. Ngugi and I. O. Kibwage, Drug quality control work in Drug Analysis and Research Unit: Observation during 1996-2000." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2002;5(1):28-32. AbstractWebsite

The Drug Analysis and Research Unit received and analyzed 261 drug samples over a five-year period 1996 to 200. Samples were received from regulatory authorities, local industry, non-governmental organizations, hospitals and private practitioners. The samples analyzed constituted 59.8 % locally
manufactured and 40.2 % imported products. The overall rate of failure to comply with
quality specifications set out in the respective monographs was 21.1 %. This represents 24.6%
and 16.2 % of the locally manufactured imported drugs respectively.

MR. NGUYO JOSEPHM. "G. N. Thoithi, K. O. Abuga, J.M. Nguyo, G. Mukindia, O. King.". In: The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Malaria control in Africa relies primarily on early effective treatment for clinical disease, but most early treatments for fever occur through self-medication with shop-bought drugs. Lack of information to community members on over-the-counter drug use has led to widespread ineffective treatment of fevers, increased risks of drug toxicity and accelerating drug resistance. We examined the feasibility and measured the likely impact of training shop keepers in rural Africa on community drug use. METHODS: In a rural area of coastal Kenya, we implemented a shop keeper training programme in 23 shops serving a population of approximately 3500, based on formative research within the community. We evaluated the training by measuring changes in the proportions of drug sales where an adequate amount of chloroquine was purchased and in the percentage of home-treated childhood fevers given an adequate amount of chloroquine. The programme was assessed qualitatively in the community following the shop keeper training. RESULTS: The percentage of drug sales for children with fever which included an antimalarial drug rose from 34.3% (95% CI 28.9%-40.1%) before the training to a minimum of 79.3% (95% CI 71.8%-85.3%) after the training. The percentage of antimalarial drug sales where an adequate amount of drug was purchased rose from 31.8% (95% CI 26.6%-37.6%) to a minimum of 82.9% (95% CI 76.3%-87.3%). The percentage of childhood fevers where an adequate dose of chloroquine was given to the child rose from 3.7% (95% CI 1.2%-9.7%) before the training to a minimum of 65.2% (95% CI 57.7%-72.0%) afterwards, which represents an increase in the appropriate use of over-the-counter chloroquine by at least 62% (95% CI 53.7%-69.3%). Shop keepers and community members were strongly supportive of the aims and outcome of the programme. CONCLUSIONS: The large shifts in behaviour observed indicate that the approach of training shop keepers as a channel for information to the community is both feasible and likely to have a significant impact. Whilst some of the impact seen may be attributable to research effects in a relatively small scale pilot study, the magnitude of the changes support further investigation into this approach as a potentially important new strategy in malaria control.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "G. N. Thoithi, N. Maingi, D. Karume, P. K. Gathumbi, J. W. Mwangi and I. O. Kibwage(2002). Anthelmintic and other pharmacological activities of the root bark extracts of Albizia anthelmintica Brongn, East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sc. 5: 60-66.". In: Proceedings of the 13th International Veterinary Radiology Association (IVRA) Congress 18th . Bull. Anim Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54: 100-109; 2002. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G. O. Rading An Evaluation of Residual Stress Distribution in Welded Compact Tension Specimens Using Neutron Diffraction J. Strain Analysis 40(2) (2005) p 211-216.". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 2005. Abstract

The neutron diffraction technique was used to determine the residual stress field in welded compact tension specimens of the aluminium-lithium alloy M 2095. The deep penetrating characteristic of neutrons was exploited to evaluate the through-thickness variation in residual stress. Moreover, insight into the redistribution of these stresses was gained by extending a fatigue crack through the residual stress field and re-examining the stress distribution. The specimen without a crack was found to have a high compressive stress (of the order of -135 MPa) ahead of the notch. This rose to a maximum tensile stress of about 50 MPa, 22 mm from the notch, followed by a drop to negative values further ahead of the notch. It was observed that the magnitude of the stresses changed on moving into the thickness of the specimen. However, the form of the graph showing stress versus distance ahead of the notch remained unchanged. When fatigue cracks of different lengths were introduced, the magnitude of the stress close to the tip first increased with crack length, before decreasing and then rising again. Nevertheless, the form of the graph remained unchanged and the stress at the crack tip remained compressive. The paper concludes that any study of the response of a component to mechanical loading involving a residual stress field must take these factors (i.e. through-thickness stress variation and stress redistribution) into consideration.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

 

O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G. O. Rading and J.T. Berry A Model for Heat-Affected Zone Hardness Profiles in Al-Li-X Alloys Welding Journal 77(9) (1998) p 383-s to 387-s.". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1998. Abstract

A model based on reaction kinetics and elemental diffusion is pro­posed to account for the presence of double inflection in the hardness profiles of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) in weld­ments of AI-Li-X alloys tested without postweld heat treatment (PWHT). Such profiles are particularly evident when 1) the base metal is in the peak-aged (T8 or T6) temper condition prior to welding; 2) the welding process is a high-heat input process, i.e., gas tungsten arc (GTA), gas metal arc (GMA) or plasma arc (PA) welding; and 3) a filler alloy deficient in lithium (i.e., AA 2319) is used. In the first part of this paper, the theoretical mechanisms are presented. It is proposed that the double inflection appears due to complete or partial reversion of the semi-coherent, plate-like precipitates (i.e., ө', T1 or S'); coarsening of the platelike precipitates at constant volume fraction; precipitation of d' as a result of natural aging; and diffusion of lithium from the HAZ into the weld pool due to the concentration gradient between the weld pool and the base metal. In the second part (to be published in next month's Welding Journal), experimental validation of the model is provided using weld-ments of the AI-Li-Cu Alloy 2095.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

 

O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G. O. Rading, "The Effect of Welding on the Fatigue Crack Growth Rate in a Structural Steel" Welding J. Res. Supplement 37(7) (1993) p 307-s.". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1993. Abstract

Fracture mechanics principles have been used to study the effects of welding on the rate of fatigue crack growth (FCG) in a low-carbon structural steel. The steel concerned is used widely in the fabrication of the structural frame-work of passenger buses. Tests were carried out on the base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM). Both the near threshold and midrange regimes of crack growth were studied. In the midrange regime, the FCG rate was highest in the HAZ and lowest in the WM. Near the threshold, the FCG rate was highest in the BM and lowest in the WM. The results are explained in terms of microstructural changes due to welding, welding residual stresses, and fracture mechanisms. Recommendations to reduce the incidence of fatigue cracking have been made.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

"G. O. Wafula, J. W. Muthomi, J. H. Nderitu and G. N. Chemining'wa (2014). Management of snapbean pests by integrated seed dressing, foliar sprays and intercropping with maize. Conference on HAK, Nairobi, 1-5th December 2014."; 2014. Abstract

MANAGEMENT OF SNAP BEAN PESTS BY INTEGRATING SEED DRESSING, FOLIAR SPRAYS AND INTERCROPPING WITH MAIZE
G. O. Wafula*, J. W. Muthomi, J. H. Nderitu2 and G. N. Chemining’wa
Department of Plant Science and Crop Protection,University of Nairobi. P. O Box 29053-00625 Kangemi, Nairobi, Kenya
2. Mount Kenya University, P. O. Box 342-01000, Thika, Kenya
Email: ongoya@gmail.com, Tel. 0723144690
Abstract
Insect pests remain a major constratint in the production of snap beans and farmers mainly rely on chemical pesticides to manage the insect pests and diseases. However, the introduction of maximum residue levels (MRLs) for export vegetables by European markets pose a challenge to the use of pesticides. This study was carried out to develop sustainable options of managing snap bean pests and reducing chemical residues on snap bean produce.
Field experiments were carried out in farmers’ fields in Mwea and Embu from July 2013 to January 2014 for two planting cycles under irrigation. The integrated pest management strategies evaluated included: i) seed dressing only, ii) seed dressing followed by three neem sprays, iii) seed dressing followed by two pyrethrid sprays and one neem spray, iv) seed dressing followed by three pyrethrin sprays and intercropping snap bean with maize, v) seed dressing followed by two pyrethrin sprays plus one spray with a biological product, vi) seed dressing followed by two neem sprays plus one spray with a biological product, and vii) two pyrethrin sprays and one neem spray only. The data collected included: emergence, plant stand, nodulation, thrips population, bean stem maggot population, whitefly population, yield and pest damage. The combination of seed dressing, two pyrethrin sprays and neem applied at the vegetative stage, early flowering and early podding reduced white fly and thrips population by up to 54% and 60% respectively. Similar results were also observed on plots where seeds dressing was done before planting combined with intercropping with maize plus three pyrethrin sprays at the vegetative stage, early flowering and early podding. Seed dressing had a direct effect on the bean stem maggots that attack the seedling at a very young stage. Spraying with pyrethrin sprays had a quick knockdown effect on the population of whitefly and thrips while the maize intercrop also reduced the pest population. These options also reduced pod damage due to thrips by up to 75 and 93% and increased yield of extra-fine by up to 157 and 162% and fine pods by up to 148 and 133%. The results showed that seed dressing followed by two pesthrin sprays at the vegetative stage and early flowering stage plus a single spray with Nimbecidine at early podding, sprays and intercropping with maize were effective in managing snap bean pests. This demonstrates that integrated pest management options would be viable alternatives to chemical pesticides thereby enabling farmers meet the strict maximum chemical residue level requirements set by European consumers.

Key words: Phaseolus vulgaris L, seed dressing, bio-pesticides, intercropping, integrated pest management

MAKOKHA DRWANGIASABINA. "G. Owour, S. Mukoya-Wangia, P. Mishenga . S.O. Onyuma, P.M. Mshenga, and Paul Gamba.2004 .: A Social Capital for Agricultural Productivity, The Casde of Small holder Maize Farmers in Siaya, Kenya.Accepted for publication in Egerton Journal (2004).". In: Accepted for publication in Egerton Journal (2004). Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2004. Abstract
Understanding how individuals with a high degree of HIV exposure avoid persistent infection is paramount to HIV vaccine design. Evidence suggests that mucosal immunity, particularly virus-specific CTL, could be critically important in protection against sexually acquired HIV infection. Therefore, we have looked for the presence of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in cervical mononuclear cells from a subgroup of highly HIV-exposed but persistently seronegative female sex workers in Nairobi. An enzyme-linked immunospot assay was used to measure IFN-gamma release in response to known class I HLA-restricted CTL epitope peptides using effector cells from the blood and cervix of HIV-1-resistant and -infected sex workers and from lower-risk uninfected controls. Eleven of 16 resistant sex workers had HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in the cervix, and a similar number had detectable responses in blood. Where both blood and cervical responses were detected in the same individual, the specificity of the responses was similar. Neither cervical nor blood responses were detected in lower-risk control donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell frequencies in the cervix of HIV-resistant sex workers were slightly higher than in blood, while in HIV-infected donor cervical response frequencies were markedly lower than blood, so that there was relative enrichment of cervical responses in HIV-resistant compared with HIV-infected donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in the absence of detectable HIV infection in the genital mucosa of HIV-1-resistant sex workers may be playing an important part in protective immunity against heterosexual HIV-1 transmission.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "G. Ruigu, and P. Chitere, Bura Irrigation Settlement Project: A Social Economic Survey, June 1984.". In: The Development of the National Economy Colourprint Ltd. Nairobi, 1993. International Union of Crystallography; 1984. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
THEURI DRNJOKAJESSE. "G. W. Muriuki, T.J. Njoka, R.S. Reid, D.M. Nyariki 2005: Tsetse control and land-use change in Lambwe valley, south-western Kenya. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment 106 (2005) 99-107. Elsevier.". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2005. Abstract
This paper deals with the derivation of logistic model for cattle, sheep and goats in a commercial ranching system in Machakos District, Kenya, a savannah ecosystem with average annual rainfall of 589.3  159.3mm and an area of 10,117ha. It involves modeling livestock population dynamics as discrete-time logistic equations wiyh fixed carrying capacities. The fixed carrying capacities are generated endogenously using time-series ranch data, covering a period of 15 years, from 1987 to 2001, in a commercial ranching enterprise. The model incorporates interaction parameters, generated endogenously. The estimation of the logistic models involves estimation of econometric models for each livestock species, followed by the recovery of the logistic model mathematically. Optimisation procedures are employed to determine the optimal stocking levels and the optimal off-take levels. The model-generated carrying capacities are 2,985, 791 and 201 animal units (AU) for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively. Optimal stocking levels are 1,369, 154 and 69 Aus for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively, while the optimal off-take levels are 857, 88 and 63 for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively. This shows that the logistic model-based system analysis is applicable to the management of mixed-species commercial ranching enterprises.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "G. Wanjohi and K. Kinyanjui, 'Rural Landlessness Situation in Kenya', Country Paper presented to FAO Experts Consultation Meeting on Rural Landlessness, October 1985.". In: The Development of the National Economy Colourprint Ltd. Nairobi, 1993. International Union of Crystallography; 1985. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
W. DRWAKHUNGUJACOB. "G.A.Olukoye;J.I..Mwanje;J.I.Kinyamario;J.w.Wakhungu and W.N.Wamicha(2003). Ecological and Economical Implications of Land Sub-division in Laikipia Rangelands of Kenya. African Journal of Range and Forage Sciences:20(2),610-612.". In: Proceedings of the faculty of Veterinary Medicine 5th Biennual scientific conference and exhibition 6- 8th September, 2006. Department of Public Health. Pharmacology and Toxicology Auditorium, University of Nairobi, Upper Kabete Campus. Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 2003.
N PROFNYAGAP. "G.Gitao and P.N. Nyaga (1997): Some biological properties of camelpox virus isolated from camels(Camelus dromedarius) in Kenya. Israel Journal of Vet. Medicine Vol. 52(4):141-148.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. vol.58. no.1. au-ibar; 1997. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

MATHENGE PROFMARIBEIJAMES. "G.J.0 Agumbah, F.N. Masembe and J.M. Maribei (1990). Ovulatory rate, fetal loss, litter size and preweaning mortality as factors in pig production in Kenya. Indian Journal 70, 817 .". In: Presented at the Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, 28-30 April, 1996. au-ibar; 1990. Abstract
The pathology of calves that died from experimental water intoxication was investigated. Oedema of the brain and urinary bladder, and renal damage were significant pathological findings in these calves. The findings were attributed to positive water balance in calves suffering from water intoxication
KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE, KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "G.K. Gitau, J.J. McDermott, D. Waltner-Toews, K.D. Lissemore, J.O. Osumo and D. Muriuki. Factors influencing calf morbidity and mortality in smallholder dairy farms of Kiambu District, Kenya. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. (1994) 21 (2): 167-178.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Preventive Veterinary Medicine; 1994. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "G.K. Gitau, J.J. McDermott, J.E. Adams, K.D. Lissemore and D. Waltner-Toews. Factors influencing calf growth and daily weight gain in smallholder dairy farms of Kiambu District, Kenya. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. (1994) 21 (2): 179-190.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Preventive Veterinary Medicine; 1994. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "G.K. Gitau. Health and productivity of calves in smallholder dairy farms in Kiambu District, Kenya. Master of Science Thesis, University of Guelph, December 1992.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Master of Science Thesis, University of Guelph, December 1992.; 1992. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "G.K. Gitau. Occurrence of Trypanosoma congolense in a herd of camels in Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian (1991) 15: 36-37.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Kenya Veterinarian (1991) 15: 36-37.; 1991. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

"G.N. Thoithi, J.M. Nguyo, K.O. Abuga, G. Mukindia, O. King'ondu,J.K Ngugi and I.O.Kibwage (2002) Drug Quality Control Work in Drug Analysis and Research Unit: Observation during 1996-2000.". 2002;5:28-32. Abstract

The Drug Analysis and Research Unit received and analyzed 26] drug samples over
a five-year period, 1996 to 2000, Samples were received from regulatory authol'ities,
local industry, non-governmental organizations, hospitals and private practitioners.
The samples analyzed constituted 59,8 (X> locally manufactured and 40,2 %
imported products. The overall rate of failure to comply with quality specifications
set out ill the respective monographs was 21.1 %, This represents 24.6 'x, and
16.2 'Yo of the 10C~11ly manufactured and imported drugs, respectively.

KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "G.N. Thoithi, N. Maingi, P.K. Gathumbi, J.W. Mwangi and I.O. Kibwage, The anthelmintic activity of extracts from medicinal plants of Kenya,.". In: The 9th Symposium of the Natural Product Research Network for Eastern and Central Africa (NAPRECA), Nairobi, Kenya, 27-31 August 2001. Bull. Anim Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54: 100-109; 2001. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
"G.N. Thoithli, I O. Kibwage, O. King'ondu and , Hoogmartens. Liquid Chromatographic Separation of Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide and Rifampicin on a Reversed Phase Silica Column." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2002;5:8-14. Abstract

A gradient liquid chromatographic method which can separate isoniazid,
pyrazinamide and rifampicin is described. A Hypersil CIS, 5 !lm, 250 mm x 4.6
mm internal diameter column was maintained at 40°C. The method was
developed by systematic evaluation of the influence of the buffer concentration,
column temperature and the mobile phase pH. The method proposed uses
isocratic elution with potassium phosphate buffer (pH 6.0; 0.05 M) for 10 min,
followed by linear gradient to potassium phosphate buffer (pH 6.0; 0.05 M)methanol
(40:60, v/v) in 5 min, isocratic elution at the same composition for a
further 15 min and then linear gradient back to potassium phosphate buffer (pH
6.0; 0.05 M) in 5 min. The flow-rate was 1 ml/min and UV detection was at 254
nm. The method was validated and it has been used for routine analysis of
tablets containing isoniazid, pyrazinamide and rifampicin. Analysis time is 35
minutes.

"G.O. Kokwaro, T.O. Kwasa, A.A. Indalo and I.O. Kibwage (1996 ). Steady-state anti- convulsant drug levels in epileptic patients. ." E. Afr. Med. J.. 1996;73(10):679-682. Abstract

Steady state concentrations of three anticonvulsant drugs (phenobarbitone, phenytoin and
carbamazepine) were measured in plasma samples from fifteen patients (eight males and
seven females; ages: 13-49years; body weights: 44-70kg), attending the outpatient Neurology
Clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital. In addition, total protein and albumin levels were
measured in plasma from patients taking phenytoin. Total protein levels were normal
(range:6.3- 7.6g1dl) in all patients except in one patient (l0.7g1dl). Albumin levels were alsonormal
(range: 3.7-4.1g1dl)inallpatients except one (2.S4g1dl).One patient on phenobarbitone
and three patients on phenytoin had no detectable drug levels in their plasma. In the
remainder, phenobarbitone, phenytoin and carbarnazepine steady state concentrations
were 8.7-21.1mgIL (N=8), 9.3-27.3mgIL (N=6) and 10.19.7mgIL (N=S), respectively. The
unbound fraction of phenytoin in plasma (fu) was normal(approximately O.IJinsix patients,
but relatively high (0.2) in one patient. Most patients in the study complied with the
prescribed treatment and their epilepsy was controlled. Cases where drug levels were
undetectable probably arose from a lack of money to purchase all prescribed medicines
rather than deliberate non-compliance. Routine monitoring ef anticonvulsant drug levers
may improve management of epileptic patients.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "G.O. MATETE, P.W.N. KANYARI, T.A. NGATIA, D.P. KARIUKI and S.G. NDUNG.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2004. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G.O. Nyangasi and G.O. Rading "Establishment of a Design and Mechanical Engineering Laboratory at KIRDI" Consultancy report submitted to UNIDO/UNDP (1988).". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1988. Abstract

Fracture mechanics principles have been used to study the effects of welding on the rate of fatigue crack growth (FCG) in a low-carbon structural steel. The steel concerned is used widely in the fabrication of the structural frame-work of passenger buses. Tests were carried out on the base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM). Both the near threshold and midrange regimes of crack growth were studied. In the midrange regime, the FCG rate was highest in the HAZ and lowest in the WM. Near the threshold, the FCG rate was highest in the BM and lowest in the WM. The results are explained in terms of microstructural changes due to welding, welding residual stresses, and fracture mechanisms. Recommendations to reduce the incidence of fatigue cracking have been made.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O. MRNYANGASIGEORGE. "G.O. Nyangasi and G.O. Rading "Establishment of a Design and Mechanical Engineering Laboratory at KIRDI" Consultancy report submitted to UNIDO/UNDP (1988).". In: August/September, New York, U.S.A. test; 1988. Abstract
A case of cryptococcal hepatitis is described in a patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. There has been no previous reports of this in the East African literature. A review of world literature showed that the entity of cryptococcal hepatitis is very rare.
O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G.O. Rading "A Compendium of Jigs and Fixtures" Internal Report, Kenya Bureau of Standards (1987).". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1987. Abstract

Fracture mechanics principles have been used to study the effects of welding on the rate of fatigue crack growth (FCG) in a low-carbon structural steel. The steel concerned is used widely in the fabrication of the structural frame-work of passenger buses. Tests were carried out on the base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM). Both the near threshold and midrange regimes of crack growth were studied. In the midrange regime, the FCG rate was highest in the HAZ and lowest in the WM. Near the threshold, the FCG rate was highest in the BM and lowest in the WM. The results are explained in terms of microstructural changes due to welding, welding residual stresses, and fracture mechanisms. Recommendations to reduce the incidence of fatigue cracking have been made.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G.O. Rading "Advanced Materials Science–Some Aspects Relevant to Design and Failure Prevention" Presented at Seminar on Engineering Management, Nairobi (1986 & 1987).". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1987. Abstract

Fracture mechanics principles have been used to study the effects of welding on the rate of fatigue crack growth (FCG) in a low-carbon structural steel. The steel concerned is used widely in the fabrication of the structural frame-work of passenger buses. Tests were carried out on the base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM). Both the near threshold and midrange regimes of crack growth were studied. In the midrange regime, the FCG rate was highest in the HAZ and lowest in the WM. Near the threshold, the FCG rate was highest in the BM and lowest in the WM. The results are explained in terms of microstructural changes due to welding, welding residual stresses, and fracture mechanisms. Recommendations to reduce the incidence of fatigue cracking have been made.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G.O. Rading "Fatigue Crack Growth in Welded Al-Li-Cu Alloy 2095 (WeldaliteTM 049)" Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Alabama (1994).". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1994.
O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G.O. Rading "Fatigue Crack Propagation in a Structural Steel–Applications of Fracture Mechanics" M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi (1983).". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1983. Abstract

Fracture mechanics principles have been used to study the effects of welding on the rate of fatigue crack growth (FCG) in a low-carbon structural steel. The steel concerned is used widely in the fabrication of the structural frame-work of passenger buses. Tests were carried out on the base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM). Both the near threshold and midrange regimes of crack growth were studied. In the midrange regime, the FCG rate was highest in the HAZ and lowest in the WM. Near the threshold, the FCG rate was highest in the BM and lowest in the WM. The results are explained in terms of microstructural changes due to welding, welding residual stresses, and fracture mechanisms. Recommendations to reduce the incidence of fatigue cracking have been made.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G.O. Rading "Non-Destructive Testing–Practical Applications" Presented at Seminar on Continuing Education of Engineers, University of Nairobi (1987).". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1987. Abstract

Fracture mechanics principles have been used to study the effects of welding on the rate of fatigue crack growth (FCG) in a low-carbon structural steel. The steel concerned is used widely in the fabrication of the structural frame-work of passenger buses. Tests were carried out on the base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM). Both the near threshold and midrange regimes of crack growth were studied. In the midrange regime, the FCG rate was highest in the HAZ and lowest in the WM. Near the threshold, the FCG rate was highest in the BM and lowest in the WM. The results are explained in terms of microstructural changes due to welding, welding residual stresses, and fracture mechanisms. Recommendations to reduce the incidence of fatigue cracking have been made.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G.O. Rading "The Effects of Welding on the Fatigue Crack Growth Rate in a Structural Steel" 73rd. Annual Convention, American Welding Society, Chicago, IL. (1992).". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1992. Abstract

Fracture mechanics principles have been used to study the effects of welding on the rate of fatigue crack growth (FCG) in a low-carbon structural steel. The steel concerned is used widely in the fabrication of the structural frame-work of passenger buses. Tests were carried out on the base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM). Both the near threshold and midrange regimes of crack growth were studied. In the midrange regime, the FCG rate was highest in the HAZ and lowest in the WM. Near the threshold, the FCG rate was highest in the BM and lowest in the WM. The results are explained in terms of microstructural changes due to welding, welding residual stresses, and fracture mechanisms. Recommendations to reduce the incidence of fatigue cracking have been made.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G.O. Rading "The Optimum Density of Poly-Urethane Foam–Design of a Shear Fatigue Tester" Internal Report, Kenya Bureau of Standards (1986).". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1986. Abstract

Fracture mechanics principles have been used to study the effects of welding on the rate of fatigue crack growth (FCG) in a low-carbon structural steel. The steel concerned is used widely in the fabrication of the structural frame-work of passenger buses. Tests were carried out on the base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM). Both the near threshold and midrange regimes of crack growth were studied. In the midrange regime, the FCG rate was highest in the HAZ and lowest in the WM. Near the threshold, the FCG rate was highest in the BM and lowest in the WM. The results are explained in terms of microstructural changes due to welding, welding residual stresses, and fracture mechanisms. Recommendations to reduce the incidence of fatigue cracking have been made.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G.O. Rading "The Status of Materials Testing Equipment in Kenya" Presented at Seminar on Continuing Education of Engineers, University of Nairobi (1986).". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1986. Abstract

Fracture mechanics principles have been used to study the effects of welding on the rate of fatigue crack growth (FCG) in a low-carbon structural steel. The steel concerned is used widely in the fabrication of the structural frame-work of passenger buses. Tests were carried out on the base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM). Both the near threshold and midrange regimes of crack growth were studied. In the midrange regime, the FCG rate was highest in the HAZ and lowest in the WM. Near the threshold, the FCG rate was highest in the BM and lowest in the WM. The results are explained in terms of microstructural changes due to welding, welding residual stresses, and fracture mechanisms. Recommendations to reduce the incidence of fatigue cracking have been made.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G.O. Rading, J. Li and J.T. Berry "Fatigue Crack Growth in Cast Al-Cu Alloy A206 With Different Levels of Porosity" 98 th. AFS Casting Congress, Hamilton, Canada (1994).". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1994. Abstract

The fatigue crack growth (FCG) characteristics of a cast Al-Cu alloy A206 in the T7 temper condition were studied in laboratory air at a frequency of 30 Hz and an R-ratio of 0.2. Two different (as cast) thicknesses and two different casting conditions (casting with and without a chill) were investigated with the aim of characterizing the effect of porosity on the FCG behavior. The level of porosity in each sample was determined by the point-counting method and varied from 2.4 to 4.0% before hot isostatic pressing (HIP).<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

 

The study covered both near-threshold and mid-range regimes of FCG. The results indicate that for this limited range of porosity, there exists no systematic relationship between casting conditions (i.e., chilled or non-chilled) or the as-cast thickness and the average level of porosity. However, in the near-threshold regime, the FCG resistance decreased as the level of porosity increased, while in the mid-range of FCG, the FCG rate was fairly independent of the amount of porosity.

Application of HIP led to a reduction in the porosity level from about 4% to less than 0.4%, but this was accompanied by improvement in the FCG resistance only, close to the threshold. The results are rationalized in terms of the effect of porosity on the micro-mechanisms of fatigue crack growth and the initiation of secondary cracks caused by the size, distribution and morphology, of the pores.

O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G.O. Rading, J. Li and J.T. Berry "Fatigue Crack Growth in Cast Al-Cu Alloy A206 With Different Levels of Porosity" AFS Trans. 45 (1994) p 57-61.". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1994. Abstract

The fatigue crack growth (FCG) characteristics of a cast Al-Cu alloy A206 in the T7 temper condition were studied in laboratory air at a frequency of 30 Hz and an R-ratio of 0.2. Two different (as cast) thicknesses and two different casting conditions (casting with and without a chill) were investigated with the aim of characterizing the effect of porosity on the FCG behavior. The level of porosity in each sample was determined by the point-counting method and varied from 2.4 to 4.0% before hot isostatic pressing (HIP).<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

 

The study covered both near-threshold and mid-range regimes of FCG. The results indicate that for this limited range of porosity, there exists no systematic relationship between casting conditions (i.e., chilled or non-chilled) or the as-cast thickness and the average level of porosity. However, in the near-threshold regime, the FCG resistance decreased as the level of porosity increased, while in the mid-range of FCG, the FCG rate was fairly independent of the amount of porosity.

Application of HIP led to a reduction in the porosity level from about 4% to less than 0.4%, but this was accompanied by improvement in the FCG resistance only, close to the threshold. The results are rationalized in terms of the effect of porosity on the micro-mechanisms of fatigue crack growth and the initiation of secondary cracks caused by the size, distribution and morphology, of the pores.

O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G.O. Rading, J.T. Berry and A.E. Carden "An Investigation of Fatigue Crack Growth in Al-Li-Cu Alloy 2095 and Associated Weldment" Int. Conf. Proc. on Modelling and Control of Joining Processes, Orlando, FL. (Ed. by T. Zacharia) (1993) p 616-623.". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1993. Abstract

Fracture mechanics principles have been used to study the effects of welding on the rate of fatigue crack growth (FCG) in a low-carbon structural steel. The steel concerned is used widely in the fabrication of the structural frame-work of passenger buses. Tests were carried out on the base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM). Both the near threshold and midrange regimes of crack growth were studied. In the midrange regime, the FCG rate was highest in the HAZ and lowest in the WM. Near the threshold, the FCG rate was highest in the BM and lowest in the WM. The results are explained in terms of microstructural changes due to welding, welding residual stresses, and fracture mechanisms. Recommendations to reduce the incidence of fatigue cracking have been made.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G.O. Rading, M. Shamsuzzoha and J. T. Berry A Model for HAZ Hardness Profiles in AL-Li-X Alloys: Application to the Al-Li-Cu Alloy 2095 Welding Journal, 77(10) (1998) p. 411-s to 416-s.". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1998. Abstract

In a previous paper (Ref. 1), details were presented of a theoretical model describing the evolution of the hardness profiles in the heat-affected zones (HAZ) of AI-Li-X weldments. The intent of the model was to qualitatively predict the general shape of such a profile, which indicates points of double inflection. In the present paper, experimental results are presented to validate the model. Panels of AI-Li-Cu Alloy 2095 in the peak aged (T8) condition were welded by the gas tungsten arc (GTA) process using AA 2319 filler metal. Conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were conducted on specimens taken from specific points across the HAZ to estimate the relative ratios of T1, (AI2CuLi) and _d' (AI3Li) precipitates, as well as incoherent grain boundary phases. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) was used to determine the variation of concentrations of elements across the HAZ, while the hardness profile was determined using Vickers micro-hardness measurements. The hardness profile and the associated pattern of phases present agree well with the information predicted qualitatively by the previously described model.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G.O. Rading, M. Shamsuzzoha and J.T. Berry "A TEM and High Resolution Microstructural Characterization of the Al-Li-Cu Alloy 2095 in the T8 Temper Condition" ACEM-13: 13th. Conf. Australian Society for Electron Microscopy, Brisbane (1994).". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1994. Abstract

The fatigue crack growth (FCG) characteristics of a cast Al-Cu alloy A206 in the T7 temper condition were studied in laboratory air at a frequency of 30 Hz and an R-ratio of 0.2. Two different (as cast) thicknesses and two different casting conditions (casting with and without a chill) were investigated with the aim of characterizing the effect of porosity on the FCG behavior. The level of porosity in each sample was determined by the point-counting method and varied from 2.4 to 4.0% before hot isostatic pressing (HIP).<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

 

The study covered both near-threshold and mid-range regimes of FCG. The results indicate that for this limited range of porosity, there exists no systematic relationship between casting conditions (i.e., chilled or non-chilled) or the as-cast thickness and the average level of porosity. However, in the near-threshold regime, the FCG resistance decreased as the level of porosity increased, while in the mid-range of FCG, the FCG rate was fairly independent of the amount of porosity.

Application of HIP led to a reduction in the porosity level from about 4% to less than 0.4%, but this was accompanied by improvement in the FCG resistance only, close to the threshold. The results are rationalized in terms of the effect of porosity on the micro-mechanisms of fatigue crack growth and the initiation of secondary cracks caused by the size, distribution and morphology, of the pores.

PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "G.O. Seko and R.W. Mwangi (1990). Biology for Secondary Schools. Longman Publishers 300 pp.". In: Proc. 3rd NAPRECA Symp. on Natural Products and their applications. pp. 40-57. ISBN 9987 8814 32. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1990.
P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, A. MRMOTURICHRISTOPHER, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "G.P. Pokhariyal, C.A. Moturi, J. Hasssanali S.M. Kinyanjui Simulation Model for Dental Arch Shapes in Humans, " East African Medical Journal 81, 599-602 (2004)).". In: East African Medical Journal, November 2004, pp 599 . Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 2004. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
H. A, T. T. "GA Relaxation Labeling." Trans. IEEJ. 1999;119-C(12):1489-1499.
Julius KC, Abungu NO. "A GA/IPSO BASED APPROACH FOR SYSTEM LOSS REDUCTION AND VOLTAGE PROFILE IMPROVEMENT EMPLOYING ARITHMETIC CROSSOVER AND MUTATION." International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology. 2013;5(7):1501-1510. Abstractijest13-05-07-074.pdfClick here to read more...

Reduction of system losses and improvement of voltage profile is one of the key aspects in power system operation. Though many methods are used to achieve this aspect, Distributed Generation (DG) has found increased usage nowadays due to its many advantages. Majority of algorithms proposed in this area have emphasized on real power losses only in their formulations. In modern practical power systems reactive power injection plays a critical role in voltage stability control, thus the reactive power losses need to be incorporated in optimizing DG allocation for voltage profile improvement. This paper aims at solving this problem by proposing a hybrid of GA and IPSO to optimize DG location and size while considering both real and reactive power losses. The hybrid technique aims at inheriting the good traits from the two techniques while avoiding the undesirable ones. Arithmetic crossover and mutation has being employed in the proposed algorithm.

Charlese JK, Abungu DNO. "A GA/IPSO based approach for system loss reduction and voltage profile improvement employing arithmetic crossover and mutation." Internation Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST). 2013;5(07):1501-1510.j._kilonzi_and_dr._abungu_2.pdf
O PROFOBURRAHERBERT. "Gacani W, Bal IS, Babu MA, Oburra HO.Distant metastases from nasopharyngeal carcinoma at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 2001 Dec;78(12):678-81.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Dec;78(12):678-81. MEDICOM; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency and site of distant infraclavicular metastases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), the stage of the primary tumour at presentation of metastasis and the histological trends. To determine if there is a correlation between the follow-up rate and different metastatic sites. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Ear nose and throat surgical and radiotherapy clinics at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Case notes, radiotherapeutic and laboratory records of patients presenting with NPC between January 1981 and December 1990. RESULTS: The frequency of distant NPC metastases was 14.6% and 92.3% manifested within 24 months of admission. It was most frequent in the males, a younger age group and early T1 disease. Bilaterality of the neck nodes had no relevance on metastatic rate. The bone (66.7%) was the most common distant metastatic destination followed by the liver (23.2%). Liver metastasis was associated with a shorter follow-up period. CONCLUSION: Apart from the late presentation of locoregional disease, the findings are similar to studies elsewhere. The preponderance of early primary disease in patients with distant metastasis need further appraisal as it preliminarily suggests existence of specific biological markers that favour metastases. This can only be done after recruiting more cases.
O PROFOBURRAHERBERT. "Gachani W, Bal I.S., Oburra H. Distant metastasis from nasopharyngeal carcinoma at Kenyatta National Hospital.". In: East African Medical Journal, 2001; 78: 678-682. also published in Metastases in Head and Neck Cancer Edited by Lippert BM and Werner JA Proceedings of 2nd International Symposium January 25-27, 2001, Marburg, Germany. Tectum Verlag, Marburg 2001). MEDICOM; 2001. Abstract
BACKGROUND: In the time of evidence based medicine the analysis of the influence of demographic parameters and different environmental factors on the treatment concepts in a country is often neglected. This is also true for Otorhinolaryngology. METHOD: An evaluation of the situation concerning distribution of physicians, diagnostic procedures and epidemiology in Kenya has been performed. These factors are discussed in consideration of their effect on the incidence of different diseases and their treatment under the specific socio-economic conditions for the otolaryngological situation in Kenya. RESULTS: In Kenya 28 otolaryngologists are registered that concentrate on few urban regions. Chronic otitis media, malignant tumors in the head and neck region and AIDS associated diseases have meanwhile increased dramatically. Numerous instruments and equipment for diagnosis are missing. Bigger equipment for CT scans are nearly exclusively used by private hospitals. PERSPECTIVE: Beside a better provision with different equipment for diagnosis it is especially the organization of certain training programmes where local physicians are further educated that may lead to an optimised medical care in Kenya.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Gachara M.N., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Muitta M.N. Mati J.K.G. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. Central. Afr. 3:19, 1984 The role of antisperm antibodies in infertility in Kenya.". In: J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. Central. Afr. 3:19, 1984. uon press; 1984. Abstract

PIP: 125 black Kenyan women attending the Kenyatta National Family Welfare Clinic were randomly allocated to combined and fixed dose oral contraceptives (Eugynon: 500 mcg dl-norgestrel + 50 mcg ethinyl estradiol or Microgynon: 150 mcg levonorgestel + 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol). They were between 18-33 years of age with a mean of 25 +or- 7 years. The mean parity of this group was 3 and they had a mean education standard of 8 years. Fasting blood sampled were taken on recruitment (control cycle) and thereafter once for cycles 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 during OC use. HDL-cholesterol was estimated in the sear. The 2 OCs elicited a significant decrease in levels of HDL-cholesterol (p0.01). author's modified

K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Gachene CKK and Mwangi H. 2006. Green manure cover crops for soil erosion control and and conservation agriculture in Central and Eastern highlands of Kenya. In Jg Muriethi, CKK Gachene, JW Wamuongo and M Eilitta (eds) Enhancing agricultural productivity .". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2006. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
P PROFMBUVIJOSEPH. "Gachene, C.K.K., H. Linner, N.J. Jarvis and J.P. Mbuvi, 1998. Soil organic carbon, nitogen and phosphorus losses in eroded sediments from run-off plots on a clay soil in Kenya. Appl. Plant Sc. Vol. 12 (3) pp 72-76.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1998. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.
P PROFMBUVIJOSEPH. "Gachene, C.K.K., H. Linner, N.J. Jarvis and J.P. Mbuvi, 2001. Field assessment of the effect of cumulative soil loss on soil productivity. E. Afr. For J. Vol. 67 (2) pp129-145.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Gachene, C.K.K., J.P. Mbuvi, H, Linner and N, Jarvis, 2000. Crop response to soil water content under fertilized and non-fertilized conditions. Soil Science Society of East Africa (SSSEA) ISBN No. 9966-879-27-7, p 161-169.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2000. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
P PROFMBUVIJOSEPH. "Gachene, C.K.K., J.P. Mbuvi, H, Linner and N, Jarvis, 2000. Crop response to soil water content under fertilized and non-fertilized conditions. Soil Science Society of East Africa (SSSEA) pp 161-169 ISBN 9966-879-27-7.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.
P PROFMBUVIJOSEPH. "Gachene, C.K.K., N. Jarvis, H. Linner and J.P. Mbuvi, 2000. Soil erosion effects on productivity of humic Nitosol. Soil Science Society of East Africa pp 233-239. ISBN 9966-8879-27-7.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Gachene, C.K.K., Oduor, A., Klingspor, P. and Haru, R. 2000. Soil erosion control with legume cover crops: data summary. In (eds J.G. Mureithi, C.W. Mwendia, F.N. Muyeko, M.A. Onyango and S.N. Maobe) Participatory Technology Development for Soil Managemen.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2000. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
P PROFMBUVIJOSEPH. "Gachene, C.K.K.; J.P. Mbuvi; N.J. Jarvis and H. Linner, 1998. Maize yield reduction due to erosion in a high potential area of Central Kenya Highlands. Afr. Crop Sc. J. Vol 6 No 1 pp 29-37.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1998. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.
P PROFMBUVIJOSEPH. "Gachene, C.K.K.; N.J. Jarivs, J. Linner and J.P. Mbuvi, 1997. Soil erosion effect on soil properties in a Highland Area of Central Kenya. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J.Vol. 61 No 2- pp 559-564.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1997. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Gachuiri C.K., Carles A.B. and Schwartz, H.J. 1987. Factors affecting survival in adult does on a semi arid thornbush savanna at Isiolo.". In: Proceedings of the KVA/ SR-CRSP Kenya workshop, Nairobi. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1987. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Gachuiri, C.K. 1987. Factors affecting mortality in free ranging Small East African goats. MSc thesis, University of Nairobi.". In: Paper presented at the Animal Production Society of Kenya symposium. Nairobi, Kenya. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1987. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Gachuiri, C.K. 1993. Effect of supplemental dietary fat on rumen fermentation, nutrient flow to the duodenum, milk yield and composition in lactating dairy cows. Doctoral thesis, University of California.". In: Technical report presented at the 3rd Biannual SRNET conference, 5th-9th Dec 1994, Kampala, Uganda. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1993. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Gachuiri, C.K. and E.J. DePeters. 1993. Effects of feeding supplemental fat on ruminal fat metabolism, biohydrogenation and digestibility of fatty acids by lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 76:abs.". In: Technical report presented at the 3rd Biannual SRNET conference, 5th-9th Dec 1994, Kampala, Uganda. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1993. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Gachuiri, C.K. and R.G. Wahome. 2001. Total mixed rations versus traditional feeding in dairy. Which way to go? The Kenya Veterinarian 21:12-15.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Gachuiri, C.K. and R.G. Wahome. 2001. Total mixed rations versus traditional feeding in dairy. Which way to go? The Kenya Veterinarian 21:12-15.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Gachuiri, C.K. and R.G. Wahome. 2001. Total mixed rations versus traditional feeding in dairy. Which way to go? The Kenya Veterinarian 21:12-15.". In: South African Statistical Journal. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2001. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Gachuiri, C.K. and Wahome, R.G., 2001. Total mixed rations vs traditional feeding in dairy. Which way to go? The Kenya Veterinarian 21:12-15.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Gachuiri, C.K., E.J. DePeters and R.A. Zinn. 1992. Effects of feeding supplemental fat (yellow grease) to lactating cows on milk composition and diet digestibility. J. Dairy Sci. 75:171.". In: Technical report presented at the 3rd Biannual SRNET conference, 5th-9th Dec 1994, Kampala, Uganda. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1992. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Gachuiri, C.K., R.G. Wahome, P.N. Mbugua, M.M. Wanyoike, J.M.Z. Kamau and S.J.M. Munyua. 1998. Performance of dairy animals under two zero grazing systems in Kiambu and Nyandarua districts. The Kenya Veterinarian 23:180-182.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Gachuiri, C.K., R.G. Wahome, P.N. Mbugua, M.M. Wanyoike, J.M.Z. Kamau and S.J.M. Munyua. 1998. Performance of dairy animals under two zero grazing systems in Kiambu and Nyandarua districts. The Kenya Veterinarian 23:180-182.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Gachuiri, C.K., R.G. Wahome, P.N. Mbugua, M.M. Wanyoike, J.M.Z. Kamau and S.J.M. Munyua. 1998. Performance of dairy animals under two zero grazing systems in Kiambu and Nyandarua districts. The Kenya Veterinarian 23:180-182.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Gachuiri, C.K., R.G. Wahome, P.N. Mbugua, M.M. Wanyoike, J.M.Z. Kamau and S.J.M. Munyua. 1998. Performance of dairy animals under two zero grazing systems in Kiambu and Nyandarua districts. The Kenya Veterinarian 23:180-182.". In: Proceedings, 6th KARI Scientific conference, November, 1998. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1998. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Gachuiri, C.K., Wahome, R.G. and Carles, A.B. 1988. Reproduction levels of the Small East African goat under range conditions. The Kenya Veterinarian 12:.". In: Paper presented at the SR-CRSP/APSK Workshop held in Nairobi, Kenya. 22-23 February 1989. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1988.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Gachuiri, C.K., Wahome, R.G. and Carles, A.B. 1988. Reproduction levels of the Small East African goat under range conditions. The Kenya Veterinarian, 12:35-36.". In: Paper presented at the SR-CRSP/APSK Workshop held in Nairobi, Kenya. 22-23 February 1989. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1988.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Gachuiri, C.K., Wahome, R.G. and Carles, A.B. 1988. Reproduction levels of the Small East African goat under range conditions. The Kenya Veterinarian, 12:35-36.". In: In: P. Singh, V. Shankar and A.K. Srivastava (Eds), Abstracts of the 3rd International Rangeland Congress, Range Management Society of India, Jhansi, pp. 440-. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1988. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
M DRMUNYUASJ. "Gachuiri, C.K., Wahome, R.G., Mbugua, P.N., Wanyoike, M.M., Kamau J.M.Z. and Munyua, S.J.M. (1998). Performance of dairy animals in two zero-grazing sytems in Kiambu and Nyandarua districts. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference he.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference held at Kabete in August 1998. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1998. Abstract
Forty-two pigs in a herd of 117 displayed various clinical signs of progressive atrophic rhinitis. The main signs included sneezing, coughing, lachrymation, serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge, and nasal bleeding in 1 pig. Three pigs had lateral deviation of the snout, while 4 had brachygnathia superior with obvious deformation of the face. Four acutely affected weaner pigs appeared weak, while the 7 chronically-affected pigs appeared smaller than their apparently unaffected penmates of the same age. Treatment of the acutely affected pigs with long-acting oxytetracycline at 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly, repeated once after 7 days, reduced the severity but did not clear the sneezing from all the pigs. Fifteen pigs were slaughtered 2 months after the clinical diagnosis was made. The carcasses of the chronically affected pigs were about 15% lighter than those of the apparently normal pigs of the same age and from the same pen, which translated to a loss of 921.00 Kenya shillings per pig (US$13.7). Diagnosis of progressive atrophic rhinitis was confirmed by sectioning the snouts of randomly selected slaughtered pigs with obvious deformation of the snout. Sections were made at the level of the 1st/2nd upper premolar tooth. Varying degrees of turbinate atrophy, from mild to complete, were noted. Histopathology of the turbinates revealed metaplasia of nasal epithelium and fibrosis in the lamina propria
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Gachuiri,C.K. and Wahome R.G., 1997. Use of feed additives in Kenyan feeds. Technical report, Hoechst Roussel Vet.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1997.
WANYOIKE DRGICHUHIJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Gachuno O W, Wanyoike Gichuhi J, Rukaria R M K Effects of calcium supplementation in patients at risk of pregnancy induced hypertension Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East Africa. Vol. 18 No. 1:1-66 May 2005. Gachuno O W, Wanyoike Gichuhi J, Ruk.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East Africa. Vol. 18 No. 1:1-66 May 2005. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2005. Abstract
Effects of calcium supplementation in patient at risk of pregnancy induced Hypertension. (This was an experimental double blind randomized clinical trial.) J. Obset. Gynaecol. East Cent.Afr 2005, 18:49-59
WANYOIKE DRGICHUHIJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Gachuno O W, Wanyoike Gichuhi J, Rukaria R M K Effects of calcium supplementation in patients at risk of pregnancy induced hypertension Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East Africa. Vol. 18 No. 1:1-66 May 2005. Gachuno O W, Wanyoike Gichuhi J, Ruk.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East Africa. Vol. 18 No. 1:1-66 May 2005. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection on treatment outcome of laparoscopically verified acute salpingitis. METHODS: Women aged 18-40 years with laparoscopically verified acute salpingitis received antibiotic therapy that included cefotetan 2 g intravenously and doxycycline 100 mg orally every 12 hours and laparoscopically guided drainage of tuboovarian abscesses of 4 cm or more. Clinical investigators blinded to HIV-1 serostatus used predetermined clinical criteria, including calculation of a clinical severity score and a standard treatment protocol to assess response to therapy. RESULTS: Of the 140 women with laparoscopically confirmed acute salpingitis, 61 (44%) women had mild, 38 (27%) had moderate, and 41 (29%) had severe disease (ie, pyosalpinx, tuboovarian abscesses, or both). Fifty-three (38%) were HIV-1-infected. Severe disease was more common in HIV-1-infected in comparison with HIV-1-uninfected women (20 [38%] compared with 21 [24%]
Bennett, C.L; Qureshi SNMXTZP; AO;. "Gadolinium-induced nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: the rise and fall of an iatrogenic disease.". 2012. Abstract

In 2006, nephrologists in Denmark unexpectedly identified chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with a new syndrome, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). Subsequently, 1603 NSF patients were reported to the Food and Drug Administration. Sixty hospitals in the USA account for 93% of these cases, and two hospitals in Denmark account for 4% of these reports. We review Denmark's identification and subsequent rapid eradication of NSF. METHODS.: NSF reports from clinicians, the Danish Medicines Agency (DMA) and gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) manufacturers were reviewed (2002-11). RESULTS.: In 1994, the DMA approved a non-ionic linear GBCA, gadodiamide (0.1 mmol/kg), for magnetic resonance imagings (MRIs), with a renal insufficiency contraindication. In 1996, 0.3 mmol/kg dosing received DMA approval. In 1998, the DMA removed renal contraindications. In 1997 and 2002, radiologists at Skejby Hospital and Herlev Hospital, respectively, began performing gadodiamide-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography scans (0.3 mmol/kg) of CKD patients. In 2005, Herlev clinicians requested assistance in evaluating etiological causes of NSF occurring among 10 CKD patients who had developed NSF. This investigation, focusing on infectious agents, was inconclusive. In 2006, Herlev clinicians reported that of 108 CKD patients who had received gadodiamide-enhanced MRI, 20 had developed probable NSF. Herlev radiologists voluntarily discontinued administering gadodiamide to all patients and no new NSF cases at Herlev Hospital developed subsequently. After meeting with Herlev radiologists, Skejby radiologists also discontinued administering gadodiamide to all patients. In 2007, the European Medicines Agency and the DMA contraindicated gadodiamide administration to CKD patients. In 2008, in response to these advisories, radiologists at the other 36 Danish hospitals discontinued administering gadodiamide to all patients, following on practices adopted at Skejby and Herlev Hospitals. In 2009, clinicians at Skejby Hospital reported that a look-back survey identified 33 CKD patients with NSF developing after undergoing GBCA-enhanced MRIs between 1999 and 2007. In 2010, an independent review, commissioned by the Minister of Health, concluded that the DMA had erred in rescinding gadodiamide's renal insufficiency contraindication in 1998 and that this error was a key factor in the development of NSF in Denmark. In 2011, three NSF cases associated with macrocyclic GBCA-associated NSF and three NSF patients with Stages 3 and 4 CKD disease from Skejby Hospital were reported. CONCLUSION.: A confluence of factors led to the development and eradication of NSF in Denmark.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Gaillard P, Mwanyumba F, Verhofstede C, Claeys P, Chohan V, Goetghebeur E, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Temmerman M.Vaginal lavage with chlorhexidine during labour to reduce mother-to-child HIV transmission: clinical trial in Mombasa, Kenya. AIDS. 2001 F.". In: AIDS. 2001 Feb 16;15(3):389-96. IBIMA Publishing; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of vaginal lavage with diluted chlorhexidine on mother-to child transmission of HIV (MTCT) in a breastfeeding population. METHODS: This prospective clinical trial was conducted in a governmental hospital in Mombasa, Kenya. On alternating weeks, women were allocated to non-intervention or to intervention consisting of vaginal lavage with 120 ml 0.2% chlorhexidine, later increased to 0.4%, repeated every 3 h from admission to delivery. Infants were tested for HIV by DNA polymerase chain reaction within 48 h and at 6 and 14 weeks of life. RESULTS: Enrolment and follow-up data were available for 297 and 309 HIV-positive women, respectively, in the non-lavage and the lavage groups. There was no evidence of a difference in intrapartum MTCT (17.2 versus 15.9%, OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.6-1.4) between the groups. Lavage solely before rupture of the membranes tended towards lower MTCT with chlorhexidine 0.2% (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.3-1.1), and even more with chlorhexidine 0.4% (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.0-0.9). CONCLUSION: The need remains for interventions reducing MTCT without HIV testing, often unavailable in countries with a high prevalence of HIV. Vaginal lavage with diluted chlorhexidine during delivery did not show a global effect on MTCT in our study. However, the data suggest that lavage before the membranes are ruptured might be associated with a reduction of MTCT, especially with higher concentrations of chlorhexidine.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Gaillard P, Mwanyumba F, Verhofstede C, Claeys P, Chohan V, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Temmerman M. Vaginal lavage with chlorhexidine during labour to reduce mother to child HIV transmission: clinical trial in Mombasa, Kenya. AIDS 2001; 15(3): 389-96.". In: AIDS 2001; 15(3): 389-96. IBIMA Publishing; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between use of oral contraceptive pills or depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and sexually transmitted disease acquisition. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort included 948 Kenyan prostitutes. Multivariate Andersen-Gill proportional hazards models were constructed, adjusting for sexual behavioral and demographic variables. RESULTS: When compared with women who were using no contraception, users of oral contraceptive pills were at increased risk for acquisition of chlamydia (hazard ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.9) and vaginal candidiasis (hazard ratio, 1.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-1.9) and at decreased risk for bacterial vaginosis (hazard ratio, 0.8; 95% confidence interval, 0.7-1.0). Women using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate had significantly increased risk of chlamydia infection (hazard ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.4) and significantly decreased risk of bacterial vaginosis (hazard ratio, 0.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.5-0.8), trichomoniasis (hazard ratio, 0.6; 95% confidence interval, 0.4-1.0), and pelvic inflammatory disease (hazard ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-0.7). Consistent condom use was associated with significantly decreased risk of gonorrhea, chlamydia, genital ulcer disease, bacterial vaginosis, and pelvic inflammatory disease. CONCLUSIONS: The use of oral or injectable hormonal contraception altered susceptibility to sexually transmitted diseases, which may in turn influence transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Consistent condom use was protective with regards to sexually transmitted disease and should be encouraged for the prevention of sexually transmitted disease and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 among women who use hormonal contraception.
Peter Akuon HX. "Gain of Spatial Diversity with Conjoint Signals.". In: IEEE Africon. Cape Town, South Africa; 2017.
MUTAVE DRJAMESREGINA. "Gakonyo M. J, Mutave R.J, Matu N.K, Gathece L.W. Knowledge, practices and attitudes of dental students at the University of Nairobi towards HIV/AIDS patients.". In: Scientific Conference of the Kenya Surgical Society. Journal of the Kenya Dental Association; 2010.
MWANGI DRGAKUUCHRISTOPHER. "GAKUU , C.M. & OMONDI, B. (2011), Learner Support Services, Master in Distance Education, Distance learning Study module, University of Nairobi.". In: E-content Study Modules.; 2011. Abstract
ABSTRACT The family Labiatae, commonly called the mint family, is one of the flowering group of plants that has been found to have great medicinal potential. In this study, at least twenty-eight (28) indigenous species which are popular among Kenyan herbalists have been collected from the Rift Valley and central parts of Kenya. Preliminary chemical analysis of the Ocimum genus has revealed several different components of essential oils. There is evidence that further and more intensive research on the medicinal aspects of the family is called for.
MWANGI DRGAKUUCHRISTOPHER. "Gakuu C. M. (2008) .". In: Conference Proceedings.; 2008.
MWANGI DRGAKUUCHRISTOPHER. "Gakuu C. M.(2010) .". In: Conference Proceedings.; 2010. Abstract
ABSTRACT The family Labiatae, commonly called the mint family, is one of the flowering group of plants that has been found to have great medicinal potential. In this study, at least twenty-eight (28) indigenous species which are popular among Kenyan herbalists have been collected from the Rift Valley and central parts of Kenya. Preliminary chemical analysis of the Ocimum genus has revealed several different components of essential oils. There is evidence that further and more intensive research on the medicinal aspects of the family is called for.
MWANGI DRGAKUUCHRISTOPHER. "GAKUU C.M and KIDOMBO H.J. (2008), .". In: Application of Bennett.; 2008.
MWANGI DRGAKUUCHRISTOPHER. "GAKUU C.M and KIDOMBO H.J. (2008), .". In: Conference Proceedings.; 2008.
MWANGI DRGAKUUCHRISTOPHER. "GAKUU C.M, LIBOTTON A., OMWENGA E., KIDOMBO H.J. (2008) .". In: The Fountain, School of Education Journal, (Accepted for publication in December 2008).; 2008.
MWANGI DRGAKUUCHRISTOPHER. "GAKUU C.M. & KIDOMBO H.J. (2011), Research Methods In Distance Education, Masters Distance Education; Study module, University of Nairobi.". In: E-content Study Modules.; 2011. Abstract
ABSTRACT The family Labiatae, commonly called the mint family, is one of the flowering group of plants that has been found to have great medicinal potential. In this study, at least twenty-eight (28) indigenous species which are popular among Kenyan herbalists have been collected from the Rift Valley and central parts of Kenya. Preliminary chemical analysis of the Ocimum genus has revealed several different components of essential oils. There is evidence that further and more intensive research on the medicinal aspects of the family is called for.
MWANGI DRGAKUUCHRISTOPHER. GAKUU C.M. (2010), Distance Learning in Higher Education: An African Perspective. VDM Verlag Dr. M.; 2010. Abstractphd_book-_4.pdfWebsite

ABSTRACT The family Labiatae, commonly called the mint family, is one of the flowering group of plants that has been found to have great medicinal potential. In this study, at least twenty-eight (28) indigenous species which are popular among Kenyan herbalists have been collected from the Rift Valley and central parts of Kenya. Preliminary chemical analysis of the Ocimum genus has revealed several different components of essential oils. There is evidence that further and more intensive research on the medicinal aspects of the family is called for.

I DROMWENGAELIJAH. "Gakuu C.M., Libotton A., Omwenga E.I. (Feb. 2007). Towards enhancing readiness to adopt distance education and e-learning by University of Nairobi Lecturers.". In: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference in Computer Science and ICT COSCIT 2007, 5-7th February 2007, Nairobi, pp29-37. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2007. Abstract
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I POMWENGAELIJAH. "Gakuu C.M., Libotton A., Omwenga E.I. (Feb. 2007). Towards enhancing readiness to adopt distance education and e-learning by University of Nairobi Lecturers.". In: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference in Computer Science and ICT COSCIT 2007, 5-7th February 2007, Nairobi, pp29-37.; 2007. Abstract
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NDEGWA PROFGAKUULAWRENCE. "GAKUU L.N. Unstable Fracture dislocations of the Acetabulum due to free intra articular fragments. East Afr Med J. 1996; 73: 625 .". In: East Afr Med J. 1996; 73: 625 . F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1996. Abstract
The elderly are predisposed to injuries due to consequences of ageing and presence of disease process commonly seen in the old people. Age-related deterioration of senses such as decrease in hearing capacity, presbyopia, changes in co-ordination, balance, motor strength and postural stability render the elderly vulnerable to environmental hazards. Diseases such as dementia, congestive cardiac failure, postural hypotension, osteoporosis and arthritis further contribute to compound problems of the elderly. Age and chronic factors further blunt the reserves to enable an elderly individual meet the demands of trauma. The challenge to the clinician is to be aware of the subtle changes and deviation from the norm that may suggest development of complications. With careful attention and appropriate physiological support the elderly patient has a good chance of survival. The primary condition must be assessed, necrotic tissues must be debrided by thorough surgical toileting, pus must be drained, wounds sutured and fractures must be set while cardiopulmonary activity must be monitored accurately. The patient should be re-assured, kept warm and adequate analgesia given to relieve pain. Intravascular volume and composition of extracellular fluid must be maintained. Nutritional support should be provided in amounts needed to meet the higher demands of trauma and preferably by oral feeding. Above all multidisciplinary approach to the traumatised elderly is mandatory involving surgeons, physicians, physiotherapists and other paramedical staff and relatives.
NDEGWA PROFGAKUULAWRENCE. "Gakuu LN. An unstable fracture dislocation of the hip due to an occult free intra-articular fragment: case report. East Afr Med J. 1996 Sep;73(9):625-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1996 Sep;73(9):625-6. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1996. Abstract
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. A case report is presented of a 53 year old man who presented with posterior dislocation of the hip after a road traffic accident. Initial management by closed reduction failed due to presence of an occult free intra-articular fragment. This fragment was not visualised on plain A-P and lateral X-ray views. The cause of the failed closed reduction was eventually detected by CT scan. Open reduction and removal of the bone fragment was done and the hip remained stable thereafter. It is concluded that plain X-rays are not adequate in the diagnosis of free intra-articular bone fragments within the hip joint and CT scanning is advised for accurate detection of such occult bine fragments.
NDEGWA PROFGAKUULAWRENCE. "Gakuu LN. Post-operative pyrexia in an orthopaedic unit. East Afr Med J. 1997 Aug;74(8):530-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 1997 Aug;74(8):530-2. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1997. Abstract
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi. The causes of post operative pyrexia in an orthopaedic unit was studied prospectively in 520 patients who underwent surgery. Two hundred patients (38.4%) developed postoperative pyrexia as defined by having recorded high temperatures of over 38 degrees C on two occasions within 24 hours (excluding the first 24 hours post-operatively). The commonest causes of post-operative pyrexia were wound infection in 70 (13.4%), respiratory tract infections in 40 (7.6%) and malaria in 30 (5.7%) patients, while other causes were urinary tract infection in 20 (3.8%), thrombophlebitis in 15 (2.8%) and deep vein thrombosis in 15 (2.8%) of the patients; while ten (1.9%) patients had pyrexia of undetermined cause despite exhaustive clinical and laboratory workup. The other associated conditions in patients who developed pyrexia were diabetes mellitus in 20 (3.8%), HIV seropositivity and malignancy in 30 (5.7%) and six (1.1%) patients, respectively.
NDEGWA PROFGAKUULAWRENCE. "Gakuu LN. Recurrent anterior dislocation of the shoulder. East Afr Med J. 1997 Jan;74(1):12-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 1997 Jan;74(1):12-3. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1997. Abstract
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Results of recurrent anterior dislocation of the shoulder are reported. The procedures used were mainly Putti-Plat in 35 patients; Eden-Hybinette in five patients and Webers derotation osteotomy of the humerus in five patients. Recurrence rates in the 45 patients reviewed and followed up at three years post-operatively were: six in Putti-Plat and two in Eden-Hybinette and none in Webers osteotomy patients. Clinically, the functional post-operative results were "excellent" in 32 patients (71%), "satisfactory" in eight patients (18%); while they were "unsatisfactory" in three patients and "poor" in two patients. There were no appreciable differences depending on the operative method used. Radiologically, the Hill-Sachs defect on the posterolateral aspect of the humeral head was seen in 30 patients (67%) while Bankarts lesion of the glenoid rim osteoarthritis was seen in five patients (11%), while rotator cuff calcification was seen in nine patients (20%).
NDEGWA PROFGAKUULAWRENCE. "Gakuu LN. Solitary unicameral bone cyst. East Afr Med J. 1997 Jan;74(1):31-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 1997 Jan;74(1):31-2. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1997. Abstract
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Nairobi. This study discusses the results of the 24 patients who had unicameral bone cyst treated by the author surgically and conservatively between 1982 and 1992. The patients were sixteen males and eight females giving a male to female ratio of 2:1. Their ages ranged from two to 34 years with a mean age of 18 years. The long bones were commonly affected as follows: humerus in eight patients; femur in six patients; tibia in two patients. All were affected on the proximimal part of the bones, and there were three cysts found in the calcaneus. The main complaint was mild dull pain on the affected site. In some cases the pain was severe and associated with inability to use the affected limb. X-ray findings showed medullary cavity and adjacent inner cortical destruction with mild subperiosteal new bone formation causing an expansile appearance and multiloculation. At surgery, an area of bone expansion was found with weakened periosteum and underlying thin cortex which easily collapsed on pressure leading to a cavity containing yellowish fluid. The wall consisted of a thin membrane with ridges which was histologically reported as connective tissue with a few bone spicules. Surgical results were graded as "good" in 73% and "poor" in 27% due to recurrent, shortening or occurrence of sepsis. The bone metabolism studies and total blood count were normal.
NDEGWA PROFGAKUULAWRENCE. "Gakuu LN.Review of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus with special reference to handling of surgical patients. East Afr Med J. 1997 Mar;74(3):198-202. Review.". In: East Afr Med J. 1997 Mar;74(3):198-202. Review. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1997. Abstract
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi. The causes of post operative pyrexia in an orthopaedic unit was studied prospectively in 520 patients who underwent surgery. Two hundred patients (38.4%) developed postoperative pyrexia as defined by having recorded high temperatures of over 38 degrees C on two occasions within 24 hours (excluding the first 24 hours post-operatively). The commonest causes of post-operative pyrexia were wound infection in 70 (13.4%), respiratory tract infections in 40 (7.6%) and malaria in 30 (5.7%) patients, while other causes were urinary tract infection in 20 (3.8%), thrombophlebitis in 15 (2.8%) and deep vein thrombosis in 15 (2.8%) of the patients; while ten (1.9%) patients had pyrexia of undetermined cause despite exhaustive clinical and laboratory workup. The other associated conditions in patients who developed pyrexia were diabetes mellitus in 20 (3.8%), HIV seropositivity and malignancy in 30 (5.7%) and six (1.1%) patients, respectively.
MWANGI DRGAKUUCHRISTOPHER. "Gakuu, C. M. (2007). .". In: Conference Proceedings.; 2007.
MWANGI DRGAKUUCHRISTOPHER. "GAKUU, C. M., KIDOMBO H.J. & OMONDI, B. (2010), Research Project, Master in Project Planning and management, Distance learning Study module, University of Nairobi.". In: E-content Study modules.; 2010. Abstract
ABSTRACT The family Labiatae, commonly called the mint family, is one of the flowering group of plants that has been found to have great medicinal potential. In this study, at least twenty-eight (28) indigenous species which are popular among Kenyan herbalists have been collected from the Rift Valley and central parts of Kenya. Preliminary chemical analysis of the Ocimum genus has revealed several different components of essential oils. There is evidence that further and more intensive research on the medicinal aspects of the family is called for.
I DROMWENGAELIJAH. "Gakuu, C. M., Libotton, A., Omwenga, E. I., Kidombo, H. J. (2008). Factors that influence lecturers.". In: Journal of Educational Fountain, School of Education, University of Nairobi. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2008. Abstract
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I POMWENGAELIJAH. "Gakuu, C. M., Libotton, A., Omwenga, E. I., Kidombo, H. J. (2008). Factors that influence lecturers.". In: Journal of Educational Fountain, School of Education, University of Nairobi.; 2008. Abstract
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MWANGI DRGAKUUCHRISTOPHER. "GAKUU, C.M. AND KIDOMBO H.J.(2010) Pedagogical Integration of ICT in Kenyan Secondary Schools: Application of Bennett.". In: Referred Journal.; 2010. Abstract
ABSTRACT The family Labiatae, commonly called the mint family, is one of the flowering group of plants that has been found to have great medicinal potential. In this study, at least twenty-eight (28) indigenous species which are popular among Kenyan herbalists have been collected from the Rift Valley and central parts of Kenya. Preliminary chemical analysis of the Ocimum genus has revealed several different components of essential oils. There is evidence that further and more intensive research on the medicinal aspects of the family is called for.
MWANGI DRGAKUUCHRISTOPHER. "GAKUU, C.M., NYOJE & KYALO , D. (2010) Project Design and Implimentation. Master in Project Planning and management, Distance learning Study module, University of Nairobi.". In: E-content Study Modules.; 2010. Abstract
ABSTRACT The family Labiatae, commonly called the mint family, is one of the flowering group of plants that has been found to have great medicinal potential. In this study, at least twenty-eight (28) indigenous species which are popular among Kenyan herbalists have been collected from the Rift Valley and central parts of Kenya. Preliminary chemical analysis of the Ocimum genus has revealed several different components of essential oils. There is evidence that further and more intensive research on the medicinal aspects of the family is called for.
S. PROFMBINDYOBENJAMIN. "Gakuu, L.N., Mbindyo, B.S., Heda P.M., Atinga, J.E.O. Rigid internal fixation in management of fractures of the radius and ulna shafts. Indications and techniques.Proc.Ass. of Surgeons of E.A.". In: Ass. of Surgeons of E.A. University of Nairobi.; Submitted. Abstract
Kenya is a country of marked environmental and ethnic diversity. A study of osteogenic sarcoma occurring in Kenya from 1968 to 1978 revealed 251 cases, representing between 89% and 100% of the predicted number. Variations in age, sex and anatomical location were within classical limits. However, the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma amongst the Central Bantu was significantly higher than predicted (P less than 0.0001), whilst the incidence among the Western Bantu was significantly lower (P less than 0.002), despite their similar ethnic origins. Two geographically dissimilar areas likewise exhibited significant differences in incidence. The Eastern province showed a higher incidence (P less than 0.02), whereas the Nyanza Province (P less than 0.001) and the adjacent Western Province (P less than 0.005) showed a lower than predicted incidence. These observations suggest that in Kenya a geomedical variable affects the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma and that genetic variation has no effect on incidence.
MWANGI DRGAKUUCHRISTOPHER. "GAKUU,C.M.& KIDOMBO H.J.(2010) Fundamentals of Management Master in Project Planning and management, Distance learning Study module, University.". In: E-content Study Modules.; 2010. Abstract
ABSTRACT The family Labiatae, commonly called the mint family, is one of the flowering group of plants that has been found to have great medicinal potential. In this study, at least twenty-eight (28) indigenous species which are popular among Kenyan herbalists have been collected from the Rift Valley and central parts of Kenya. Preliminary chemical analysis of the Ocimum genus has revealed several different components of essential oils. There is evidence that further and more intensive research on the medicinal aspects of the family is called for.
MWANGI DRGAKUUCHRISTOPHER. "GAKUU,C.M.& KIDOMBO H.J.(2010) Fundamentals of Management Master in Project Planning and management, Distance learning Study module, University.". In: E-content Study Modules.; 2010. Abstract
ABSTRACT The family Labiatae, commonly called the mint family, is one of the flowering group of plants that has been found to have great medicinal potential. In this study, at least twenty-eight (28) indigenous species which are popular among Kenyan herbalists have been collected from the Rift Valley and central parts of Kenya. Preliminary chemical analysis of the Ocimum genus has revealed several different components of essential oils. There is evidence that further and more intensive research on the medicinal aspects of the family is called for.
MWANGI DRGAKUUCHRISTOPHER. "Gakuu. C. M. (2004). .". In: Conference Proceedings.; 2004.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "Gakuya D.W., S.G. Kiama. J.M. Mbaria, P.N. Mbugua, P.K. Gathumbi, M. Mathiu: The potential use of Moringa oleifera as poultry feed supplement in Kenya.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 8th Biennial Scientific Conference, and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 2012.
WAWERU DRGAKUYADANIEL. "Gakuya, D.W. 2000. Indigenous Knowledge and Dryland Resource Management. In: Community Involvement in Sustainable Development in the Drylands of Kenya: Challenges and way forward ( Eds. D.M. Nyariki and N.K. Musimba) pp. 19-20.". In: Proceedings of a National Workshop of the Dryland Husbandry Programme ( DHP-Kenya) held at Mtito Andei, 11 November 1998. Elsevier; 2000.
WAWERU DRGAKUYADANIEL. "Gakuya, D.W., Mbaria, J.M., Mbithi,P.M.F. and Munenge, R.W. 2004. Evaluation of the bioactivity of some traditional medicinal plants using the Brine Shrimp Lethality Test. The Kenya Veterinarian 26: 8-11.". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. Elsevier; 2004. Abstract
The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the bioactivity of extracts of Chrysanthemum cineraraefolium Vis., Albizia anthelmintica A Brgn, Maerua edulis (Gilg) De wolf and Myrsine Africana L. Which are using tratitioanll as anthelmintic as using brine shrimp lethanitly test serial dilutions of 1000 ug/ml and 10 ug / ml of the extracts were put in five test tubes. Ten (10) brine shrimp larvae were immersed into each of the test tubes and the number surviving after 24 hours counted and the percentage mortality and LC for each extract was determined. Cl cinerariaefolium extract (pyrethrins) was active (LC 1000 ug/ml) of 18ug/ml. The methanol extacts of Maerua edulis, Maera subcordata and Myysine Africana were not active (LC 1000 ug/ml) the results indicated that C. cenerareafolium and A. Anthelmintica extracts have bioactivity and is the basis for their use as anthelmintic by pastoral communities. Brine shrimp lethality test was found to be a simple and rapid test and is thus recommended for similar studies.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "Gakuya, D.W., Mbaria, J.M., Ochung, H.A., Musembi,J.K. and Ngesa, T.J. (2008). Preliminary Investigation of Suspected Plant Poisoning in the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine farm, Kabete, Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 56(1):19-24.". In: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Afria. E; 2008. Abstract
ABSTRACT: An investigation on vegetation was carried out in one grazing paddock of the University of Nairobi, Veterinary Farm to establish the species of plants present and whether some were known to be poisonous. This investigation was carried out after reported cases of young dairy cattle manifesting signs of acute toxicity shortly after being grazed in this paddock. A check-list of the floristic composition of the site was exhaustively recorded and thirty two plant species were collected from the site. Five out of thirty two plants were suspected to be the possible cause of this poisoning as they have been reported before to have toxic effects. These were botanically identified as Ranunculus multifidus Forsk, Cassia didymobotrya Fres, Ricinus communis L., Datura stramonium L. and Momordica foetida Schum. It is concluded that some of these plants may be responsible for the poisoning and further studies on their level oftoxicity and distribution in the farm needs to be determined.
WAWERU DRGAKUYADANIEL. "Gakuya, D.W., Mbithi, P.M.F., Maitho, T.E. and Musimba, N.K.R. 2004. The potential use of plant anthelmintic for the control of livestock helminthoses in Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian 26: 14-26.". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. Elsevier; 2004. Abstract
Helminthoses is a major constraint to livestock production in Kenya. The control of these infections by the use of synthetic anthelmintics is constrained by a number of problems that include; lack of foreign exchange to import them, development of anthelmintic resistance, lack of finance to purchase them, unavailability and misuse due to lack of appropriate information. The use of plant anthelmintics would be a rational alternative to bridge these shortfalls. In some tropical countries, research work has been carried out to validate this possibility. In order to integrate plant anthelmintics in the overall helminth control in Kenya, there is a need to document research findings on indigenous knowledge, through carrying out experiments to determine efficacy, toxicity and optimum dosage rates. In addition, isolation and identification of active ingredients using current laboratory techniques will be a critical milestone.
ELIAS PROFMAITHOT. "Gakuya, D.W., Mbithi, P.M.F., Maitho, T.E., Musimba, N.K.R., and Mugambi, J.M. 2005. Evaluation of the efficacy of aqueous extract of Albizia Anthelmintica and Maerua Edulis against Nematode heligmosomoides Polygyrus infections in mice. The Kenya Veterina.". In: Proceedings of University Science, Humanities & Engineering Partnerships in Africa (USHEPiA) Bench Marking Workshop, Entebbe, Uganda, 21st . de Gruyter; 2005. Abstract
Anthelmintic activity of the water extracts of Albizia anthelmintica bark and Maerua- edulis root was evaluated in mice that had been experimentally infected with the intestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus. The mice were randomly allocated into six treatment groups and one control group. Groups, 2, and 3 were given an oral dose of water extracts of A. anthelmintica at 5gm/kg, 10gm/kg and 20gm/kg bodyweight respectively in a divided dose on day 17 post-infection. Groups 4, 5 and 6 were given water extracts of M. edulis at a dosage of 5gm/kg, 10gm/kg and 20gm/kg bodyweight respectively in a divided dose. Group 7 was the control and was concurrently given a double oral dose of 0.2ml of physiological saline each. Mortality of some mice was observed in four groups after treatment. Five days after treatment, faecal worm egg count reduction was determined. The results showed a percentage faecal H. polygyus egg count reduction of 72%. 69%, 50%, 42% in groups 2,6,3 and 1 respectively. Seven days after treatment there was a reduction in worm counts at postmortem of 68%, 36%, /5%, 19%, 16% and 14% in groups 1,5,2 3,6, and 4 respectively compared to untreated controls. These results indicate that the plant extracts had anthelmintic activity and support the use of these plants as anthelmintics
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "Gakuya, D.W., S.G. Kiama, J.M. Mbaria, P.N. Mbugua, P.K. Gathumbi, M. Mathiu, The potential use of Moringa oleifera as poultry feed supplement in Kenya.". In: Faculty of 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and The 46th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference 25 - 27 April, 2012 Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi-Kenya. Muravej S, Gathece LW; 2012. Abstract
Normal 0 21 false false false SW X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Poultry industry in Kenya is constrained by inadequate supply of good quality feed and high cost of feed. The industry is faced with poor availability of the raw materials especially the proteins which is a major contributor to the low quality feed and the escalating costs. Moringa oleifera Lam. is the best known of 14 species of Moringa tree (family Moringaceae). This rapidly-growing, drought-resistant tree is now widely cultivated and has been naturalized in many locations in the tropics. Moringa oleifera has unique nutritive value and it can serve as a good source of protein, essential amino acids, minerals and vitamins that are needed in the poultry industry. Cultivation of Moringa oleifera in the rural areas can offer a sustained supply of nutrients to indigenous chicken which are mainly raised on both confinement and scavenging. The plant has been used to combat malnutrition in humans and also it is reported to have anti-trypanosomal, antibiotic, anticancer, antispasmodic, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, hypo-cholesterolemic properties. It is reputed to have considerable efficacy in water purification by flocculation, sedimentation, antibiosis besides its capacity to reduce Schistosome cercariae titer in water. Its integration in the poultry feed industry would go along away in poverty alleviation especially in rural areas by offering alternative enterprise to the communities, besides the environmental benefits that would accrue from its cultivation. The nutritional value of Moringa oleifera can benefit both commercial and small holder poultry production by providing a substitute to the raw materials used in the poultry feed and therefore, the need to evaluate its potential as an alternative feed supplement in poultry nutrition.
BAARO DRGATHURAPETER. "Gakuya, F.M., Kyule, M.N., Gathura, P.B. and Kariuki, S.M. (2001): Antimicrobial resistance of bacterial organisms isolated from rats. E.A.M.J. 78: 646-649.". In: journal. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2001. Abstract
The microbiological quality of ground water (boreholes) and domestic tanks in five locations of Kikuyu Division, Kiambu District, was determined. Two boreholes and twelve domestic tanks were sampled from each location. Seven (70%) out of 10 boreholes were contaminated with faecal coliforms. Total bacterial counts ranged from 1 to 6280 per ml of water while the coliform counts ranged from 0 to 161. Out of 70 water samples screened for faecal coliforms, 63 (90%) were positive. Faecal Streptococci were isolated in 71% of the samples.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "Gakuya,D.W., Mbaria, J.M., Kiama,S.G., Gathumbi, P.K., Mathiu,M., Nguta,J.M. THE PROSPECTS OF INTEGRATING MEDICINAL PLANTS PRODUCTS IN VETERINARY MEDICINE IN KENYA.". In: 7TH BIENNIAL SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE, 2010, DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH, PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY AUDITORIUM, CAVS. J.M. Nguta,, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama; 2010.
WAWERU DRGAKUYADANIEL. "Gakuya,D.W.,Mbithi,P.M.F.,Mugambi,J.M.,Maitho,T.E.and Musimba,N.K.R.2005. Evaluation of the efficacy of aqueous extracts of Albizia anthelmintica and Maerua edulis against the nematode Heligsomoides polygyrus infections in mice. The Kenya Veterinarian 28:.". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. Elsevier; 2005. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
FLORENCE DRMURILA. "Galactosaemia in an infant: case report.Murila FV. East Afr Med J. 1999 May;76(5):281-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 May;76(5):281-3. UN-HABITAT; 1999. Abstract
Galactosaemia is a disorder of galactose metabolism in which raised levels of galactose and galactose-l-phosphate damage various organs. It is a very rare disease (incidence 1 in 60,000) and the diagnosis is often missed, leading to poor prognosis. A case of clinical galactosaemia that was diagnosed at the age of 11 months is reported. It is important to be aware of this condition as early treatment may prevent some of the complications.
O PROFOBURRAHERBERT. "Galina N, Oburra H and Aluoch JR. Sensorineural hearing loss in patients with sickle cell anaemia in Kenya.". In: East African Medical Journal, 73:471 1996. MEDICOM; 1996. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of adenotonsillectomy in a sample of Kenyan hospitals and to review indications, timing and complications in 97 cases of adenotonsillectomy done by the authors. DESIGN: Retrospective, descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National, Nairobi, Aga Khan, Gertrude and Mater Hospitals. RESULTS: Adenotonsillectomy is the most frequent otolaryngologic surgical operation. Indications for surgery were upper airway obstruction in 61.3%, recurrent tonsillitis in 28.7% and both in 7.5%. Surgery was indicated during the acute stage in 6.8% of cases. There was one case of post-operative acute airway obstruction. Post operative bleeding from the tonsillar bed was encountered in 2.1% of cases. CONCLUSION: Adenotonsillectomy is the most common otolaryngologic surgical operation in our set-up. The low frequency of complications and a short hospital stay puts up a case for routine adenotonsillectomy as a day surgery procedure.
A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER. "Gall Bladder Disease and Adult Obstructive Jaundice at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi,.". In: East African Medical Journal 53 (2): 74 - 81. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1976. Abstract
A clinical, radiological, histological, and geographical study of carcinoma of the esophagus in Kenya is reported. It was found that this cancer is diagnosed more often in males than in females, with a ration of 8:1 (Kenya Cancer Registry). The most common age in males and females is 50 to 59 years. The regions of the esophagus most commonly involved are the middle and lower thirds, in almost equal proportions. An unexplained tendency for the tumor to be poorly differentiated towards the lower third is noted. In addition a review on the possible etiological factors is presented.
M. DRMWAENGODUFTON. "Gallardo C, Mwaengo DM, Macharia JM, Arias M, Taracha EA, Soler A, Okoth E, Mart.". In: JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTR. VIRUS GENES; 2009. Abstract
This is a generalization after my work on the projective space of dimension 4 to n.
Ogeng’o JA. "GALLSTONE DISEASE: A CALL TO AWARENESS IN SUBSAHARAN AFRICA." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2017;6(2): 914-915. Abstract

Gallstone disease (GSD) is a major global health problem that causes high morbidity and mortality constituting a significant
economic burden in developed countries (Shaffer, 2006; Stinton and Shaffer, 2012; Njeze, 2013). It was previously
considered rare in sub-Saharan Africa (Stinton and Shaffer, 2012; Njeze, 2013). Its prevalence, however, is steadily rising
and has already attained considerable proportions in a number of countries perhaps consequent to epidemiological and
demographic transitions (Eze et al., 2016). This condition is important for several reasons – First, it is one of the most
common causes of upper gastrointestinal morbidity and may mimic / be associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, hiatal
hernia, esophagitis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, duodenitis; acute and chronic pancreatitis, hepatitis and portal vein
thrombosis among others (Sabitha et al., 2016). Secondly, it is a predisposing / risk factor for overall mortality and other
diseases including various gastrointestinal cancers, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; cardiovascular diseases (CVD)
especially coronary heart, cerebrovascular, peripheral vascular diseases, arterial stiffness and heart failure (Yu et al., 2017).
The risk for CVD is independent of age, gender and other comorbidities (Olaiya et al., 2013). Thirdly, patients with GSD
appear to have a higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus; dyslipidemia,
hyperinsulinemia, sedentary life style and gut microbiota dysbiosis (Lv et al., 2015).

Kooten C, Bulte E, Kinyua P. "Game cropping and wildlife conservation in Kenya: A dynamic simulation model with adaptive control.". 1997. Abstract

We use a dynamic stochastic simulation model of forage, herbivores, predators and domestic livestock in the Machakos District of Kenya to address policies related to the multiple use of rangeland resources. The particular policy examined is that of switching from a traditional system, where commercial ranchers do not harvest wildlife herbivores, to one where ranchers are provided economic incentives to adopt multiple-use management of the range resource. Simulations using an adaptive controller indicate that the effects of the policy change on wildlife populations depend on the conditions of the ecosystem and, importantly, on ranchers' attitudes to risk. When forage is abundant, and game and livestock do not compete for food, the policy change leads to reduced wildlife populations, especially of the relatively more valuable species. This indicates that game cropping may not be more compatible with nature conservation than standard pastoralist practices. However, in periods of drought when competition for forage occurs, the policy change may dampen the decline in game populations, as risk-averse ranchers may decide to sell more cattle and harvest wildlife instead. Game cropping reduces wildlife populations, but increases their stability.

Kyule MD. The Game of Bao in East Africa’s Prehistory. Center for African Studies, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL, USA; 1994.Website
Owiti OH, Omulo EOT, William Okelo-Odongo, Manderick B. "Game Theoretic Multi-Agent Algorithms for the Job Shop Scheduling Problem." International Journal of Computer and Information Technology. 2014;Volume 03(Issue 06).
Owiti OH, Opiyo ETO, Okello-Odongo W. "Game Theoretic Multi-Agent Algorithms for the Job Shop Scheduling problem.". In: Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA). Nairobi; 2014.
Orwa HO, Opiyo ET, Odongo WO, Manderick B. "Game Theoretic Multi-Agent Algorithms for the Job Shop Scheduling Problem.". 2014. Abstract
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Opiyo E, Ayienga E, Getao K, Manderick B, Odongo O, Nowe A. "Game Theoretic Multi-Agent Systems Scheduler for Parallel Machines with Fixed Parameters.". In: 4th Annual International Conference on Sustainable ICT Capacity in Developing Countries SREC08. Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; 2008.
O OET, Ayienga E, Getao K, Manderick B, Okello-Odongo W, Nowé A. "Game Theoretic Multi-Agent Systems Scheduler for Parallel Machines with Fixed Parameters." International Journal of Computing and ICT Research. 2008;Volume 1(Special Issue).
Ayienga EM, Opiyo E, Manderick B, Odongo O. "Game Theory and Learning at the Medium Access Control Layer for Distributed Radio Resource Sharing in Random Access Wireless Networks.". In: 6th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence (ICAART). Barcelona, Spain; 2013.
Ogot MM. "Game Theory in Strategic Management.". 2011. Abstract

Game theory provides a formal language for describing conscious, goal-oriented, decision-making processes involving one or more players, where there is an interdependence of outcomes. This paper seeks to explore the potential of using game theory in strategic management. From the presented review of the current literature, the paper illustrates that the strength of game theory in strategic management lies in its ability to provide insights into competitive environments and strategies.

KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Gandhi BM, Acharya SK, Irshad M, Gupta H, Chawla TC, Tandon BN.Entamoeba histolytica: elevated nitroblue tetrazolium reduction activity in polymorphs during amoebic liver abscess.Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1987;81(2):283-5.". In: Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1987;81(2):283-5. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1987. Abstract
Peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) from patients with invasive amoebiasis, i.e. amoebic liver abscess (ALA) and acute amoebic dysentery, showed marked elevation of nitroblue tetrazolium dye (NBT) reduction. This dramatic change was not observed in PMN from patients with non-invasive amoebiasis, i.e. non-suppurative hepatic amoebiasis, or in asymptomatic Entamoeba histolytica cyst passers. A small number (12%) of patients with viral hepatitis displayed increased NBT reduction. 10 to 12 days after recovery following treatment, the majority (75%) of ALA patients failed to show increased NBT reduction. Our results suggest that the PMN-NBT reduction test could be useful as an aid to the diagnosis of ALA.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Gandhi BM, Irshad M, Acharya SK, Choudhuri G, Tandon BN.Nitroblue tetrazolium test in the diagnosis of amoebic liver abscess. J Assoc Physicians India. 1986 Oct;34(10):711-3.". In: J Assoc Physicians India. 1986 Oct;34(10):711-3. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1986. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Gandhi BM, Irshad M, Acharya SK, Gupta BB, Mudgil K, Tandon BN.Serological studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in north Indian population.J Assoc Physicians India. 1987 Nov;35(11):766-8.". In: J Assoc Physicians India. 1987 Nov;35(11):766-8. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1987. Abstract
Twenty three patients with chronic calcific pancreatitis of the tropics in Northern India were prospectively studied. All had pancreatic calcification and ERCP changes typical of chronic pancreatitis, the most predominant being ductal dilatation which was detected in all patients by both ERCP and by ultrasonography. Pain was present in 19 (83%) patients and diabetes in 11 (48%) patients. Exocrine pancreatic dysfunction was uncommon, steatorrhoea being present in only 9% of patients. Ten of the 11 patients with diabetes required insulin for control and one case was able to be controlled by an oral antidiabetic agent. Two patients developed ketoacidosis during acute episodes of pancreatitis, 3 patients had peripheral neuropathy and one patient had visual changes. Recurrent severe pain was the reason for operation in 7 patients. All had a lateral pancreaticojejunostomy. In order to obtain an objective assessment of pain, a scoring system was developed to grade its severity according to its intensity, frequency and consequences. Six patients who preoperatively had a pain score of 15 or more (out of a maximum score of 24) attained significant relief after the surgery. We feel this scoring system may provide an easy objective assessment of pain in the subsequent follow-up of these patients.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Gandhi BM, Irshad M, Acharya SK, Joshi YK, Tandon BN.Hepatitis B virus replication in patients with chronic liver diseases.Gastroenterol Jpn. 1990 Apr;25(2):258-64.". In: Gastroenterol Jpn. 1990 Apr;25(2):258-64. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1990. Abstract
One hundred and seventy five subjects with chronic liver diseases which included patients with chronic active hepatitis (90), liver cirrhosis (31) and asymptomatic hepatitis B carriers (54), were included in the study. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) specific DNA-polymerase activity and HBe-markers were tested as markers of HBV-multiplication. In HBsAg positive samples, DNA-P activity was positive in 44.4% of the HBV carriers, 52.9% of the patients with chronic active hepatitis and 81.8% of the patients with liver cirrhosis. The corresponding figures for the presence of HBeAg in these groups were 18.5, 26.5 and 45.5% respectively. Virus multiplication was also observed in 41.1 and 44.4% patients with chronic active hepatitis and liver cirrhosis respectively, in the absence of HBsAg. The results of the present study show that hepatitis B virus is the most important etiological factor of chronic liver diseases in India. Most of our patients of chronic liver diseases seems to have contacted HBV infection as young adults and the mode of transmission is likely to be horizontal rather than vertical. The virus replicating markers correlate well with the severity of the liver injury and decreased with the age. DNA-P activity is a more sensitive marker of viral multiplication than HBeAg. Viral multiplication was also found to occur in the absence of the usual HBV markers. Continued viral multiplication in patients with chronic active hepatitis and liver cirrhosis is implicated in continued liver injury and progressive liver disease.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Gandhi BM, Irshad M, Acharya SK, Tandon BN.A simple spot-test for circulating Entamoeba histolytica antigen-antibody complexes in patients with amoebic liver abscess.Indian J Med Res. 1989 May;89:177-83.". In: Indian J Med Res. 1989 May;89:177-83. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1989. Abstract
An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is described for the detection of E. histolytica immune complexes in serum. Antiamoebic antibody purified by affinity chromatography was used both to precoat strips of nitrocellulose membrane and as an enzyme carrier. These strips were incubated with samples of concentrated test serum and the enzyme conjugate. Following treatment with the peroxidase substrate 3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole the presence of E. histolytica antigens was visualized as red spots. Blocking of positive test sera with excess antibodies inhibited this reaction. Serum samples from 47 patients with amoebic liver abscess, 43 patients with other enteric diseases and 35 healthy controls were investigated. The spot test was positive in 75 per cent of patients with amoebic liver abscess, and in 12 per cent diseased controls whereas all the healthy controls were negative. The spot test is simple and sensitive and does not require prior separation of the immune complexes. The test is recommended as an aid to the diagnosis in patients suspected to have amoebic liver abscess.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Gandhi BM, Irshad M, Acharya SK, Tandon BN.Amebic liver abscess and circulating immune complexes of Entamoeba histolytica proteins.Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1988 Nov;39(5):440-4.". In: Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1988 Nov;39(5):440-4. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1988. Abstract
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed to detect amebic antigen in polyethylene-glycol-precipitable circulating immune complexes. Seventy-nine percent of 191 patients with amebic liver abscesses and 46% of 26 Entamoeba histolytica cyst passers had positive tests. None of the samples from 43 apparently healthy controls, 8 patients with past amebic liver abscesses or 31 patients with Giardia lamblia infections were positive. One patient out of 32 with viral hepatitis and 1 patient out of 27 with intestinal tuberculosis had positive tests.
Perry VH. "The ganglion cell layer of the retina of the rat: a {Golgi} study." Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Containing papers of a Biological character. Royal Society (Great Britain). 1979;204:363-375. Abstract

In whole-mounts of Golgi stained rat retinae four cell types are described in the ganglion cell layer. Three of these cell types are considered to be analogous to the alpha, delta and gamma cells described in the cat retina by Boycott & Wässle (1974). The fourth cell type is thoughtt to be a displaced amacrine cell. All the cell types described are present in all parts of the retina. There is no evidence for an increase in dendritic field size with increasing distance from the optic disk.

Barrett KE, Barman SM, Boitano S, Brooks H. Ganong's {Review} of {Medical} {Physiology}, 24th {Edition}. 24 edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical; 2012. Abstract

A succinct, up-to-date, and clinically relevant review of human physiology – trusted by generations of students and clinicians More than 600 full-color illustrations For more than four decades, Ganong’s Review of Medical Physiology has been helping those in the medical field understand human and mammalian physiology. Applauded for its interesting and engagingly written style, Ganong’s concisely covers every important topic without sacrificing depth or readability and delivers more detailed, high-yield information per page than any other similar text or review. Thoroughly updated to reflect the latest research and developments in important areas such as chronic pain, reproductive physiology, and acid-base homeostasis. Ganong’s Review of Medical Physiology incorporates examples from clinical medicine to illustrate important physiologic concepts. Whether you’re a student who needs an outstanding review for the USMLE or a physician who wants to keep pace with the ever-changing field of medical physiology, Ganong’s belongs on your desk. NEW to this edition: Section introductions that provide a foundation for the topic being discussed Two types of review questions: end-of-chapter and board-style Increased number of clinical cases and flow charts • Expanded legends to help you learn more about the illustrations without having to refer back to the text

P. PROFSITUMAFRANCISD. "Garbage Imperialism:Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and International Law,5 Kenya National Academy Journal series C39.".; 1999. Abstract

New Directions in water legislation in Kenya?. A Paper presented as the National Workshop on environmental Governance in kenya, held at the UNEP Headquarters Gigiri, Nairobi, March 29-30. 2000

OCHIENG DROLAGODANIEL. "Garcin, Y., Juninger, A., Melnick, D., Olago, D.O., Strecker, M.R., Trauth, M.H. Late Pleistocene-Holocene rise and collapse of Lake Suguta, northern Kenya Rift. Quaternary Science Reviews, 28 (9-10): 911-925.". In: Journal of Climatic Change. Quaternary Science Reviews, 28 (9-10): 911-925.; 2009. Abstract
Separation of midgut membrane proteins from the tick, Ambylomma variegatum, using a nonionic detergent (Triton X-114), resulted in two protein fractions, namely DET (detergent) and AQ (aqueous). In immunoblotting analysis with polyclonal antibodies against these fractions, 4 proteins (Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000, 86,000 and 95,000,) and 2 proteins (M, approximately 54,000 and 67,000) were detected in the DET and AQ fractions, respectively. Three of the DET fraction proteins Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000 and 95,000 were glycosylated since they bound to the lectin, concanavalin A. In 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the AQ and DET fraction proteins were found to be acidic in nature. In a series of bioassay experiments, rabbits were first immunised with both DET and AQ fractions and then infested with ticks. The egg batch weights of these ticks were reduced by 50% compared to control ticks. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in the hatchability of eggs laid by ticks fed on rabbits previously immunised with both DET (14%) and AQ (33%) fractions. Based on the egg hatchability, the reproductive capacity of ticks was reduced by 77 and 48% by DET and AQ fractions, respectively.
Guido Lopes dos Santos Santiago MS;, Pieter Deschaght MS;, Nabil El Aila MS;, Teresa N. Kiama MS;, Hans Verstraelen, MD PD;, Kimberly K. Jefferson PD;, Marleen Temmerman, MD PD;, Mario Vaneechoutte PD. "Gardnerella vaginalis comprises three distinct genotypes of which only two produce sialidase. ." Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011;204(5):450-457.
Gari la Maria. . Nairobi: Longhorn Publishers; 2019.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Gas chromatographic determination of momo-, di- and trisaccharides in the .". In: AFS/UNU workshop on Development of Indigenous Fermented foods and food technology in Africa, 14 18 Octobe3r 1985. Douala Cameroon. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1983. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
Aketch ON, Lee H, Fischer TP, Ranka LS, Onguso B, Kanda I, et al. "Gas Geochemistry of Volcanic and Geothermal Areas in the Kenya Rift: Implications for the Role of Fluids in Continental Rifting." American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2013. 2013. AbstractFull Text

The East African Rift (EAR) is an active continental rift and ideal to investigate the processes of rift initiation and the breaking apart of continental lithosphere. Mantle and crust-derived fluids may play a pivotal role in both magmatism and faulting in the EAR. For instance, large quantities of mantle-derived volatiles are emitted at Oldoinyo Lengai volcano [1, 2]. Throughout the EAR, CO2-dominated volatile fluxes are prevalent [3, 4] and often associated with faults (i.e. Rungwe area, Tanzania, [5, 6]). The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between volcanism, faulting and the volatile compositions, focusing on the central and southern Kenyan and northern Tanzanian section of the EAR. We report our analysis results for samples obtained during a 2013 field season in Kenya. Gases were sampled at fumaroles and geothermal plants in caldera volcanoes (T=83.1-120.2°C) and springs (T=40-79.6°C and pH 8.5-10) located near volcanoes, intra-rift faults, and a transverse fault (the Kordjya fault, a key fluid source in the Magadi rift) by 4N-NaOH solution-filled and empty Giggenbach bottles. Headspace gases were analyzed by a Gas Chromatograph and a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer at the University of New Mexico. Both N2/Ar and N2/He ratios of all gases (35.38-205.31 and 142.92-564,272, respectively) range between air saturated water (ASW, 40 and ≥150,000) and MORB (100-200 and 40-50). In addition, an N2-Ar-He ternary diagram supports that the gases are produced by two component (mantle and air) mixing. Gases in the empty bottles from volcanoes and springs have N2 (90.88-895.99 mmom/mol), CO2 (2.47-681.21 mmom/mol), CH4 (0-214.78 mmom/mol), O2 (4.47-131.12 mmom/mol), H2 (0-35.78 mmom/mol), Ar (0.15-10.65 mmom/mol), He (0-2.21 mmom/mol), and CO (0-0.08 mmom/mol). Although some of the samples show an atmospheric component, CO2 is a major component in most samples, indicating both volcanoes and springs are emitting CO2. Gases from volcanoes are enriched in CH4 and H2, denoting their sources are reduced (oxygen-poor) magma chambers or hydrothermal systems. 40Ar/36Ar ratios (average of all samples=299.15) are similar to our air standard value (299.65×4.05), however, some volcanoes (~308.75) and springs (~321.96) have slightly higher ratios. The springs with elevated 40Ar imply that both the intra-rift (Lake Bogoria) and transverse (Lake Magadi) faults are possibly pathways to carry volatiles from deep sources to the surface. In future work, we will carry out wet chemistry and ion chromatography analyses of the NaOH solutions, measure 3He/4He ratios and complete C, N, and S isotope analyses to further constrain fluid sources and migration processes. [1] Fischer et al., 2009, Nature 459. [2] de Moor et al., 2013, EPSL 361. [3] Sawyer et al., 2008, G-cubed 9. [4] Tassi et al., 2009, G-cubed 10. [5] Barry et al., 2013, Chem Geol 339. [6] de Moor et al., 2013, Chem Geol 339.

Njuguna E, Musibi A SWAHIA. "Gastric Cancer.". In: National Guidelines for Cancer Management Kenya,. Nairobi: Ministry of Health, Kenya; 2013.
Muriithi AW. Gastric motility responses to duodenal stimulation of an in vitro rabbit stomach-duodenum preparation.; 1995. Abstract

Regulated gastric emptying is necessary for the complete digestion and absorption of
intestinal chyme. However, experiments have shown that the extrinsic denervation of
stomach and duodenum does not result in a cessation of gastric function. Furthermore,
the components necessary for the integration and relay of neural information
have been demonstrated in the intrinsic nervous network of the gut. A possible hypothesis
therefore, is that the enteric nervous system may playa role in the regulation of gastric
function. The purpose of this study was to establish whether or not stimulation of the
duodenal mucosa of an in vitro rabbit stomach-duodenum preparation has any effect on
gastric motility.
Electrically stimulated changes in intragastric pressure were used as indicators of gastric
motility and recorded with an intragastric balloon connected to a transducer and chart
recorder. The records were made in both the presence and absence of mechanical and
chemical stimulation of the duodenal mucosa. A comparative analysis was carried out on
the frequency and amplitude of electrically stimulated gastric contractions, and of the
peristaltic contractions that took place after electrical stimulation of the stomach wall.
The results were found to differ depending on the type of duodenal stimulus applied.
Duodenal distension did not attenuate or amplify the subsequent gastric response to
electric stimulation of the stomach wall. However, a disturbance in the inherent pattern of
gastric peristaltic contractions was observed. In contrast, the presence of hydrochloric
acid in the duodenum, reduced the force of the electrically stimulated gastric contraction
by half, but the inherent pattern of peristalsis that followed the electrical stimulation
appeared unaltered.
These results suggest the existence of a gastric motility regulation mechanism in the
rabbit that is mediated by the enteric nervous system and that responds to stimulation of
the duodenal mucosa.

Ndaguatha PLW, GD OE. "Gastric Volvulus." East Afr.Med. J.. 1988;65(10):714-718.
"Gastric {Outlet} {Obstruction}.". 2015. AbstractWebsite

Gastric Outlet Obstruction. Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO, also known as pyloric obstruction) is not a single entity; it is the clinical and pathophysiological consequence of any disease process that produces a mechanical impediment to gastric emptying.

Maingi, N., Bjørn, H., Thamsborg, S.M., Nansen, P., Munyua WK, Gathuma JM. "Gastrointestinal helminth control practices and anthelmintic resistance on sheep farms in Nyandarua District of Kenya.". In: 4th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA-funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. Arusha, Tanzania; 1995.
Maingi N;, Bjørn H;, Thamsborg SM;, Nansen P;, Munyua W k;, Gathuma JM. "Gastrointestinal Helminth Control Practices And Anthelmintic Resistance On Sheep Farms In Nyandarua District Of Kenya."; 1995.
Maingi N;, Bjørn H;, Thamsborg SM;, Nansen P;, Munyua W k;, Gathuma JM. "Gastrointestinal Helminth Control Practices And Anthelmintic Resistance On Sheep Farms In Nyandarua District Of Kenya."; 1995.
Maingi N;, Bjørn H;, Thamsborg SM;, Nansen P;, Munyua W k;, Gathuma JM. "Gastrointestinal Helminth Control Practices And Anthelmintic Resistance On Sheep Farms In Nyandarua District Of Kenya."; 1995.
Mukhwana EJ, Mitema ES. "Gastrointestinal helminths of camels (Camelus dromedarius) in northern Kenya.". 1995. Abstract

The prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths was investigated by the examination of 255 faecal samples from different age groups and sexes of camels maintained in a communal grazing environment in northern Kenya between November 1992 and March 1993. In addition, 73 fresh faecal samples from anaemic camels and those with an eggs per gram (epg) count of >1000 were cultured for larval identification. The results showed that peak worm infestations occurred during and soon after the onset of rains. Female camels had significantly higher egg counts than males. Immature bulls had lower egg counts than calves which had lower egg counts than adults. More than 80% of the parasites identified were nematodes, of which Haemonchus was most frequent, followed by Trichostrongylus; relatively few of the camels were infected with Cooperia, Bunostomum, Oesophagostomum, Strongyloides and Ostertagia. The most frequent cestode was Moniezia. Eggs of Fasciola were identified in a few of the camels; this is the first report of fascioliasis in camels in Kenya.

Ng'ang'a CJ, Maingi N, Kanyari PWN, Munyua WK. "Gastrointestinal nematode infections in dorper lambs in a semi-arid area of Kajiado District of Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 2004;52(3):160-166.20_nganga_et_al_2004_4.pdfWebsite
Ng'ang'a, C.J., Maingi, N., Kanyari PWN, Munyua WK. "Gastrointestinal nematode infections in Dorper lambs in a semi-arid area of Kajiado District of Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 2004;52:160-166.2004._gastrointestinal_nematode_infections_in_dorper_lambs_in_a_semi.pdf
Maingi N. "Gastrointestinal nematode infections in sheep on communal grazing land in Nyandarua District of Kenya.". In: 12th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA-funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. Morogoro, Tanzania; 2003.
Maingi N. "Gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep on communal grazing land in Nyandarua District in Central Kenya.". In: 18th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) . New Orleans, USA ; 2003.
Maingi N. "Gastrointestinal nematodes of goats in Kenya resistant to thiabendazole and levamisole anthelmintics.". In: Inaugural Seminar of the DANIDA-funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project . Morogoro, Tanzania; 1991.
Otieno RO, Mutune MN, Waruru RM. "Gastrointestinal Parasite Infections Of Sheep And Goats In A Semi-arid Area Of Machakos District, Kenya.". 2004. Abstract

A survey of gastrointestinal parasite and liver fluke infections of small ruminants was conducted for 18 months on two farms in Kathiani Division of Machakos District, Kenya. The effects of host species, season and age on the prevalence and intensity of helminth and coccidia infections were determined. Faecal parasite egg and oocyst counts revealed that the overall prevalences were : strongyles (51.6%), liver flukes (Fasciola) (31.5%), coccidia (28.0%) and tapeworms of Moniezia spp. (2.5%). In both host species, Haemonchus (58.0%) was the most prevalent nematode followed by Trichostrongylus (29.0%) and Oesophagostomum (13.0%). In sheep, a total of eight species of Eimeria were identified, the most prevalent being E. ovina (47.4%) and E. ovinoidalis (32.3%). In goat samples, seven species were identified, the commonest being E. ninakohlyakimovae (45.9%) followed by E. arloingi (26.1%). The prevalence of strongyle and liver fluke infections, and oocyst counts in sheep were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in goats. Rainy season prevalence of strongyle and coccidia infections were significantly (p<0.05) higher than for the dry season, while the dry season prevalence of liver fluke infection was significantly (p<0.05) higher than for the wet season. The prevalence and intensity of cocidia infection were significantly (p< 0.05) higher in young than in adult animals.

Maina AN;, Waruiru RM;, Ngatia TA;, Mbuthia PG;, Munyua WK. "Gastrointestinal Parasites And Other Endoparasites Of Indigenous Chickens Traded In Nairobi, Kenya."; 2002. Abstract

A survey of gastrointestinal and other internal parasites was conducted on apparently healthy indigenous chickens of both sexes obtained from open-air markets around Nairobi, Kenya. A total of 131 birds from 9 districts were examined. Worm egg and coccidial oocyst counts were performed on faecal materials from each bird while worms collected from gastrointestinal tracts were quantified and identified. Many chickens had gastrointestinal helminths (90%), but only a few of these (13.9%) had coccidial oocysts. Nematodes were the predominant helminths (89%) followed by cestodes (51.5%), but no trematodes were recovered. The nematodes recovered were: Heterakis isolonche (59.5%), Subulura brumpti (36.0%) Tetrameres spp. (32%), Ascaridia galli (19.8%), Gongylonema ingluvicola (19.1%), Acuaria hamulosa (6.1%), Heterakis gallinarum (5.3%) and Capillaria spp. (2.3%). The cestodes recovered were: Raillietina echinobothrida (37.7%), Hymenolepis carioca (33.6%), Davainea proglottina (6.9%), R. tetragona (6.1%) and R. cesticillus (2.3%). Other endoparasites encountered were the air-sac mite, Cytodite nudus (15.3 %), Sacocystis spp. (5.6 %) and Syngamus trachea (4%). The mean caecal worm counts in chickens were significantly different (p < 0.05) in various districts. However, there was no significant difference in the overall worm loads between sexes (p > 0.05). The results of this study showed that there is heavy parasitism with various endoparasites in apparently healthy traded indigenous chickens in Kenya

Maina AN;, Waruiru RM;, Ngatia TA;, Mbuthia PG;, Munyua WK. "Gastrointestinal Parasites And Other Endoparasites Of Indigenous Chickens Traded In Nairobi, Kenya."; 2002. Abstract

A survey of gastrointestinal and other internal parasites was conducted on apparently healthy indigenous chickens of both sexes obtained from open-air markets around Nairobi, Kenya. A total of 131 birds from 9 districts were examined. Worm egg and coccidial oocyst counts were performed on faecal materials from each bird while worms collected from gastrointestinal tracts were quantified and identified. Many chickens had gastrointestinal helminths (90%), but only a few of these (13.9%) had coccidial oocysts. Nematodes were the predominant helminths (89%) followed by cestodes (51.5%), but no trematodes were recovered. The nematodes recovered were: Heterakis isolonche (59.5%), Subulura brumpti (36.0%) Tetrameres spp. (32%), Ascaridia galli (19.8%), Gongylonema ingluvicola (19.1%), Acuaria hamulosa (6.1%), Heterakis gallinarum (5.3%) and Capillaria spp. (2.3%). The cestodes recovered were: Raillietina echinobothrida (37.7%), Hymenolepis carioca (33.6%), Davainea proglottina (6.9%), R. tetragona (6.1%) and R. cesticillus (2.3%). Other endoparasites encountered were the air-sac mite, Cytodite nudus (15.3 %), Sacocystis spp. (5.6 %) and Syngamus trachea (4%). The mean caecal worm counts in chickens were significantly different (p < 0.05) in various districts. However, there was no significant difference in the overall worm loads between sexes (p > 0.05). The results of this study showed that there is heavy parasitism with various endoparasites in apparently healthy traded indigenous chickens in Kenya

Maina AN;, Waruiru RM;, Ngatia TA;, Mbuthia, P.G.;. Munyua WK, Munyua WK. "Gastrointestinal Parasites And Other Endoparasites Of Indigenous Chickens Traded In Nairobi, Kenya."; 2002. Abstract

A survey of gastrointestinal and other internal parasites was conducted on apparently healthy indigenous chickens of both sexes obtained from open-air markets around Nairobi, Kenya. A total of 131 birds from 9 districts were examined. Worm egg and coccidial oocyst counts were performed on faecal materials from each bird while worms collected from gastrointestinal tracts were quantified and identified. Many chickens had gastrointestinal helminths (90%), but only a few of these (13.9%) had coccidial oocysts. Nematodes were the predominant helminths (89%) followed by cestodes (51.5%), but no trematodes were recovered. The nematodes recovered were: Heterakis isolonche (59.5%), Subulura brumpti (36.0%) Tetrameres spp. (32%), Ascaridia galli (19.8%), Gongylonema ingluvicola (19.1%), Acuaria hamulosa (6.1%), Heterakis gallinarum (5.3%) and Capillaria spp. (2.3%). The cestodes recovered were: Raillietina echinobothrida (37.7%), Hymenolepis carioca (33.6%), Davainea proglottina (6.9%), R. tetragona (6.1%) and R. cesticillus (2.3%). Other endoparasites encountered were the air-sac mite, Cytodite nudus (15.3 %), Sacocystis spp. (5.6 %) and Syngamus trachea (4%). The mean caecal worm counts in chickens were significantly different (p < 0.05) in various districts. However, there was no significant difference in the overall worm loads between sexes (p > 0.05). The results of this study showed that there is heavy parasitism with various endoparasites in apparently healthy traded indigenous chickens in Kenya

Mogoa EGM, Okanga S, Muchemi G, Munene E, Maingi N. "Gastrointestinal parasites of free-ranging colobus monkeys (Colobus angolensis palliatus) in Kwale District, Kenya coast.". 2006. Abstract

Approximately 2000 black and white Angolan colobus monkeys (Colobus angolensis palliatus) remain in Kwale District, Southern Kenya. They are threatened by deforestation due to private development countrywide. Primates can act as indicators of the degree of change in a habitat, as habitat changes potentially affect how they deal with parasitic infection (Mittermeier & Cheney, 1987). An increasing human population in Diani, Kwale District, encroaches on the forest habitat of the Angolan colobus and brings the primate species into closer proximity with rubbish and waste from the local human population. This study established the type and distribution of gastrointestinal parasites in Angolan colobus in Diani Forest, Kwale according to age and sex and the effect of varying habitat integrity on parasite prevalence.

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