Publications

Found 3515 results

Sort by: Author [ Title  (Asc)] Type Year
Filters: First Letter Of Title is C  [Clear All Filters]
A B [C] D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z   [Show ALL]
C
Kamau JW, and Mwaura F. "Climate change adaptation and EIA studies in Kenya." International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management” (IJCCSM. 2013;Vol 5(2):152-165.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation: Exploring the Role of Land Reforms in Africa" paper for the second colloquium of the IUCN Academy of International Law, held in Nairobi, Kenya, 4-7 October.". In: Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 2004. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
Troel J, Odote C. "Climate Change Adaptation and Water in Kenya: Governing for Resilience.". In: Climate Change Adaptation and International Development: Making Development Cooperation More Effective in Kenya:Governing for Resilience. London: EarthScan; 2011.
Eunice Ongoro Boruru, Edward Ontita WOO, Oguge NO. "Climate Change and emergence of helter-skelter livelihoods among the pastoral communities of Samburu East District, Kenya." Climate Change Management, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-22315-0_6; 2011. Abstract
n/a
K'Oyugi BO. Climate Change and Environmental Degradation: Impact on Population. Kampala Uganda: Partners in Population and Development; 2008.
R.S. O. "Climate Change and Human health in the 21st Century.". Commencement address delivered at Stony Brook University; 2008. Abstract
n/a
Cuni-Sanchez A, Omeny P, Pfeifer M, Olaka L, Mamo MB, Marchant R, Burgess ND. "Climate change and pastoralists: perceptions and adaptation in montane Kenya." Climate and Development. 2018:1-12. AbstractFull Text

Tropical montane forests are amongst the most threatened ecosystems by climate change. However, little is known about climatic changes already observed in these montane areas in Africa, or the adaptation strategies used by pastoralist communities. This article, focused on three mountains in northern Kenya, aims to fill these knowledge gaps. Focus-group discussions with village elders were organized in 10 villages on each mountain (n = 30). Villages covered different pastoralist ethnic groups. Historical data on rainfall, temperature and fog were gathered from Marsabit Meteorological station. All participants reported changes in the amount and distribution of rainfall, fog, temperature and wind for the past 20–30 years; regardless of the mountain or ethnicity. They particularly highlighted the reduction in fog. Meteorological evidence on rainfall, temperature and fog agreed with local perceptions; particularly important was a 60% reduction in hours of fog per year since 1981. Starting farming and shifting to camel herding were the adaptive strategies most commonly mentioned. Some adaptive strategies were only mentioned in one mountain or by one ethnic group (e.g. starting the cultivation of khat). We highlight the potential use of local communities’ perceptions to complement climatic records in data-deficient areas, such as many tropical mountains, and emphasize the need for more research focused on the adaptation strategies used by pastoralists.

Cuni-Sanchez A, Omeny P, Pfeifer M, Olaka L, Mamo MB, Marchant R, Burgess ND. "Climate change and pastoralists: perceptions and adaptation in montane Kenya." Climate and Development. 2019;11(6):513-524. Abstractclimate_change_and_pastoralists_perceptions_and_adaptation_in_montane_kenya.pdfWebsite

Abstract

Tropical montane forests are amongst the most threatened ecosystems by climate change. However, little is known about climatic changes already observed in these montane areas in Africa, or the adaptation strategies used by pastoralist communities. This article, focused on three mountains in northern Kenya, aims to fill these knowledge gaps. Focus-group discussions with village elders were organized in 10 villages on each mountain (n = 30). Villages covered different pastoralist ethnic groups. Historical data on rainfall, temperature and fog were gathered from Marsabit Meteorological station. All participants reported changes in the amount and distribution of rainfall, fog, temperature and wind for the past 20–30 years; regardless of the mountain or ethnicity. They particularly highlighted the reduction in fog. Meteorological evidence on rainfall, temperature and fog agreed with local perceptions; particularly important was a 60% reduction in hours of fog per year since 1981. Starting farming and shifting to camel herding were the adaptive strategies most commonly mentioned. Some adaptive strategies were only mentioned in one mountain or by one ethnic group (e.g. starting the cultivation of khat). We highlight the potential use of local communities’ perceptions to complement climatic records in data-deficient areas, such as many tropical mountains, and emphasize the need for more research focused on the adaptation strategies used by pastoralists.

R.S. O. "Climate Change and Renewable Energy Issues in East Africa.". Paper Prepared for the North-South Conference; 2008. Abstract
n/a
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "CLIMATE CHANGE AND TH EMERGENCE OF HELTER-SKELTER LIVELIHOODS AMONG THE PASTORALISTS OF SAMBURU EAST DISTRICT, KENYA.". In: Journal. Ecological Society for Eastern Africa; Submitted.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "CLIMATE CHANGE AND TH EMERGENCE OF HELTER-SKELTER LIVELIHOODS AMONG THE PASTORALISTS OF SAMBURU EAST DISTRICT, KENYA.". In: Journal. Ecological Society for Eastern Africa; Submitted.
and Ontita E. OOWN. "Climate Change and the Emergence of Helter - Skelter Livelihoods in Samburu East District.". In: Experiences of Climate Change Adaptation in Africa. Germany: Springer,Hamburg,Germany; 2011.
Ongoro, E.B. EOOWO, Oguge N. "Climate Change and the Emergence of Helter-skelter Livelihoods among the Pastoralists of Samburu East District, Kenya." W.L. Filho (ed.) The Experiences of Climate Change in Africa. New York: Springer Publishers; 2011. Abstract
n/a
Ongoro, E.B. EOOWO, Oguge N. "Climate Change and the Emergence of Helter-skelter Livelihoods among the Pastoralists of Samburu East District, Kenya." W.L. Filho (ed.) The Experiences of Climate Change in Africa. New York: Springer Publishers; 2011. Abstract
n/a
R.S. O. "Climate Change and the Energy Sector in East Africa.". Paper presented at the IGAD/ICPAC workshop on Climate Considerations and Power Production in Kenya. ICPAC, Nairobi. Meteorological Society; 2002. Abstract
n/a
MBECHE IM, Kumssa A, Mosha AC, Njeru EHN. "Climate Change and Urban Development in Africa." Handbook of Climate Change Adaptation; Filho, WL, Ed.; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany. 2015:215-226. Abstract

Climate change poses a major threat to sustainable urban development in Africa. Changes in thefrequency, intensity, and duration of climate extremes (droughts,floods, and heat waves, amongothers) will affect the livelihoods of the urban population, particularly the poor and other vulnerablecommunities who live in slums and marginalized settlements. Extreme changes in weather patternswill increase incidences of natural disasters and impact on all key sectors of the economy, includingthe urban economy, agriculture and forestry, water resources, coastal areas and settlements, andhealth. In Africa, where livelihoods are mainly based on climate-dependent resources and environ-ment, the effect of climate change will be disproportionate and severe. Moreover, Africa’s capacityto adapt to and cope with the adverse effects of climate variability is generally weak. This Chapterexamines the relations between climate change and urban development in Africa and looks at therole and effect of climate change on urban development. It also assesses the available policy optionsfor adaptation and mitigating climate change effects in urban Africa

Onyango CM, Onwonga RN, Mbuvi JP, Kironchi G. "Climate Change and Variability: Farmers.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2012.
MORAA DRONYANGOCECILIA, ONWONGA DRRICHARDNDEMO, P PROFMBUVIJOSEPH, GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Climate Change and Variability: Farmers.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2012. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This article gives practical guide on methods of handling data in qualitative research paradigm. It briefly states the characteristics of qualitative research and gives short description of some of the commonly used designs. The article also discusses the stages to be followed when carrying out qualitative research. It is the authors hope that this article will offer useful tips on how to successfully use qualitative approach to collect and analyze data quickly and effectively.
MORAA DRONYANGOCECILIA, ONWONGA DRRICHARDNDEMO, P PROFMBUVIJOSEPH, GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Climate Change and Variability: Farmers.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2012. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.
MORAA DRONYANGOCECILIA, ONWONGA DRRICHARDNDEMO, P PROFMBUVIJOSEPH, GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Climate Change and Variability: Farmers.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2012. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
HM M. "Climate Change as Driver of Migration, morbidity and Conflicts in Africa." Red Cross Headquarters, Nairobi; 2019.
"Climate Change Challenges and Food Production in Elwak South Madera County, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research & Development (IJIRD). 2018;Vol. 7(Issue 7):379-387.
B.L. A, Onyango CM, Kathumo VM, Onwonga RN, Karuku GN. "Climate Change Effects on Crop Production in Yatta sub-County: Farmer Perceptions and Adaptation Strategies." African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 2019;19(1):14010-14042.
Githui FW, Gitau W, Mutua FM, Bauwens W. "Climate change impact on SWAT simulated streamflow in Western Kenya." Inter. J. Climatol. . 2009;29(12):1823-1834.
Githui F, Gitau W, Mutua F, Bauwens W. "Climate Change Impact on SWAT Simulated Streamflow in Western Kenya." International Journal of Climatology. 2009;29(12):1823-1834. AbstractRoyal Meteorological Society

Weather and climate extremes such as droughts and floods have far reaching impacts in Kenya. They havehad implications in a variety of sectors including agriculture, water resources, health, energy, and disaster managementamong others. Lake Victoria and its catchment support millions of people and any impact on its ability to support thelivelihoods of the communities in this region is of major concern. Thus, the main objective of this study was to assess thepotential future climatic changes on the Nzoia catchment in the Lake Victoria basin, and how they might affect streamflow.The Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to investigate the impact of climatic change on streamflow of the study area.The model was set up using readily available s patial and temporal data, and calibrated against measured daily streamflow.Climate change scenarios were obtained from general circulation models.Results obtained showed increased amounts of annual rainfall for all the scenarios but with variations on a monthlybasis. All – but one – global circulation models (GCMs) showed consistency in the monthly rainfall amounts. Rainfall washigher in the 2050s than in the 2020s. According to climate change scenarios, temperature will increase i n t his region,with the 2050s experiencing much higher increases than the 2020s with a monthly temperature change range of 0–1.7°C.The range of change in mean annual rainfall o f 2.4–23.2% corresponded to a change in streamflow of about 6–115%. Theanalysis revealed important rainfall–runoff linear relationships for certain months that could be extrapolated to estimateamounts of streamflow under various scenarios of change in rainfall. Streamflow response was not sensitive to changesin temperature. If all other variables, e.g. land cover, population growth etc., were held constant, a significant increase instreamflow may be expected in the coming decades as a consequence of increased rainfall amounts. Copyright 2008Royal Meteorological SocietyKEY WORDS climate change; streamflow; runoff; general circulation models; hydrology; modelling

DR. FAITH-GITHUI, MR. WILSON-GITAU, PROF. WILLY-BAUMENS, PROF. FRANCIS-MUTUA. "Climate change impact on SWAT simulated streamflow in Western Kenya." International Journal of Climatology. 2008;29(12):1823-1834.Weblink
R.S. O. "Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation in Kenya.". Papers presented at the IGAD/ICPAC workshop on Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change; 2004. Abstract
n/a
KABUBO-MARIARA J, Nyangena W. "Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Options of Farming Households: Empirical Evidence from Kenya. Chapter 5 .". In: Natural Resource Management and Climate Change in Africa. Vol. 3: Climate Change. African Economic Research Consortium (AERC) & Moran (E.A.) Publishers; 2012.
Odingo RS. "Climate Change in Sub -Saharan Africa; A study of impacts, Vulnerability, and Economic Policy Responses." African Economic Research Consortium (AERC), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2008; 2008. Abstract
n/a
R.S. O. "Climate Change in the IGAD Sub-Region of the Horn of Africa Countries.". Paper Prepared for COF Meeting; 2008. Abstract
n/a
Kiplagat S. Climate Change in the Kenyan Context: Description, impact an way forward. Nairobi: Tegemeo Institute; 2007.
Odingo RS. "Climate change Knowledge Capacity Development." ICPAC Report presented to Director of ICPAC 2012; 2012. Abstract
n/a
Opere A, Olago D, Chidumayo E, Osman-Elasha B. "Climate Change Processes and Impacts." Climate Change and African Forest and Wildlife Resources. 2011:18-33. AbstractAfrican Forest Forum

Climate change is expressed as deviations from a regional climatology determined by analysis of long-term measurements, usually over a period of at least 30 years, or the normally experienced climate conditions and a different, but recurrent, set of climate conditions over a given region of the world (IPCC, 1998). Climate change may also refer to a shift in climate, occurring as a result of human activities (Wigley, 1999). Changing climate is expected to continue in the 21st century in response to the continued increasing trend in global green house gas (GHG) emissions (IPCC, 2007a), stimulating three main responses: technical and livelihood adaptations by affected communities, mitigation actions that sequester GHGs or reduce fossil fuels dependence, and formal international dialogue on the scope and correction of this now rapidly emerging threat to human existence.

Climate change scenarios for Africa include higher temperatures across the continent estimated to be increasing by 0.2°C per decade (Elagiband Mansell, 2000) and more erratic precipitation with slight increase in ecozones of eastern Africa and moist forest ecozones of West Africa and sustainable declines in the productivity in the Sahel and the ecozones of southern, Central and North Africa (Stige et al., 2006). This projection is in part reinforced by changes in rainfall over the last 60 years that has declined by up to 30% (Sivakumar et al ., 2 0 05 ), with the greatest negative impacts felt in Alfred Opere, Daniel Olago, Emmanuel Chidumayo and Balgis Osman-Elasha the Sahel of West Africa (Nicholson et al., 2000; Hulme et al., 2001).

Ogallo LA, Omondi P, Ouma G, Wayumba G. "Climate Change Projections and the Associated Potential Impacts for Somalia." American Journal of Climate Change. 2018;7(2):153. Abstractclimate_change_projections_and_the_associated_potential_impacts_for_somalia.pdfAmerican Journal of Climate Change

Somalia has faced severe challenges linked to climate variability, which has been exacerbated by conflict and limited governance that persisted for decades. Today climate extremes such as floods, drought, and coastal marine severe systems among others are always associated with the destruction of property and livelihoods; losses of lives lost, migrations, and resource based conflicts among many other miseries. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has shown that climate change is real and requires sound knowledge of local future climate change scenarios. The study attempted to provide projected rainfall and temperature change scenarios over Lower Jubba, Somalia. This was done using the downscaled Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) RCMs data. The simulated temperature and rainfall data derived from the CORDEX RCMs ensemble were compared with the observed data. The study focused on the IPCC projected periods of
2030, 2050 and 2070 benchmarks. Analysis of the projected rainfall indicated a decreasing trend in rainfall leading up to 2030 followed by an increase in rainfall with the 2050 and 2070 scenarios. In the case of temperature, the projections from all the models showed increase in minimum and maximum temperatures in all seasons and sub periods, like being observed by temperature projection over other parts of the world. The 2030, 2050 and 2070 projected rainfall and temperature change scenarios show that Somalia future development and livelihoods will in future face increased threats of climate extremes unless effective climate smart adaptation systems form integral components of national development strategies.

Kronk REAS &. "Climate Change, Law and Indigenous Peoples in Kenya.". In: Climate Change, Indigenous Peoples and the Search for Legal Remedies. London: Edward Elgar; 2013.Climate Change.pdf
and Nyukuri PK-ME. "CLIMATE CHANGE, LAW AND INDIGENOUS PEOPLES IN KENYA." IELRC. 2013.
Ogola JS, Okoth SA. "Climate Change: Potential Impacts on Kenya’s Ecosystem and Biodiversity." World Resource Review . 1999;2(2):161-173.
Ouma GO. "Climate Data.". 2009.
Gichira PS, Agwata JF, Muigua KD. "Climate Finance: Fears and Hopes for Developing Countries." Journal of Law, Policy and Globalization. 2014;Vol.22. Abstract

This article looks at the current climate finance architecture and its impact on developing countries climate
change responses. The primary aim is to capture the contradictions that exist in the climate finance architecture
particularly between those recommended by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
(UNFCCC) and those advanced by developed countries otherwise known as non-UNFCCC climate financing
mechanisms. The overall observation is that once non-UNFCCC climate financing mechanisms emerged and the
more they were justified using the UNFCCC, the global response to the climate change problem was fatally
wounded through a procedural derailment of UNFCCC objectives. This article calls for a review of nonUNFCCC
with the aim of divesting them of the profit factor which in this case is the problematic.

Ngugi RK, Mureithi SM, Kamande PN. "CLIMATE FORECAST INFORMATION: THE STATUS, NEEDS AND EXPECTATIONS AMONG SMALLHOLDER AGRO-PASTORALISTS IN MACHAKOS DISTRICT, KENYA." International Journal of Current Research. 2011;Vol. 3(Issue:11):006-012. Abstract

The potential use of seasonal climate forecasts in farm and resource management has been studied
in a number of cultural contexts around the world. Many of these studies reveal difficulties that
smallholders encounter in accessing, interpreting and applying forecasts for their own benefit. This
study looked at the awareness of and usage of climate forecast information in central Kenya in the
aftermath of the 1997/98 El Niño event. Household surveys were conducted in Machakos District,
Kenya, in January 2001. Retrospective and concurrent awareness and application of seasonal
forecast information was assessed for 240 households across a range of agro ecological zones. The
results show high degree of awareness and use of forecasts. Farmers discussed both actual and
potential application of forecasts for both above-normal and below-normal rainfall. The influence of
the El Niño tendency to increase the rainfall as in the case of 1997/98 El Niño was clear from their
emphasis on strategies to mitigate the impacts of above-or below-normal rainfall. Applications of
information in both crop and livestock management are documented. Constraints still exist, such as
interpretation of information, relevance of the variables forecast to the management decisions of
concern, confidence in the forecasts, and timely and affordable access to resources such as seeds.
We suggest that collaborative efforts between the forecast providers and the users of information
may be directed towards addressing these constraints. For instance in case of abnormal
phenomenon such as droughts or floods, forecasts can be closely followed by early warning
campaigns with clear guidelines of how to prepare, distributed through the FM radio in local
languages order to abate human suffering

Keywords: Climate forecast, Smallholders, Agro-pastoralists, El Niño, Kenya.

Ngugi RK, Mureithi SM, Kamande PN. "Climate forecast information: the status, needs and expectations among smallholder agro-pastoralists in Machakos District, Kenya." Intern. J. Current Res. . 2011;6(11):006-012. Abstract2011_ngugi_et_al_ijcr-3-11_climate_forecast_information.pdfWebsite

The potential use of seasonal climate forecasts in farm and resource management has been studied
in a number of cultural contexts around the world. Many of these studies reveal difficulties that
smallholders encounter in accessing, interpreting and applying forecasts for their own benefit. This
study looked at the awareness of and usage of climate forecast information in central Kenya in the
aftermath of the 1997/98 El Niño event. Household surveys were conducted in Machakos District,
Kenya, in January 2001. Retrospective and concurrent awareness and application of seasonal
forecast information was assessed for 240 households across a range of agro ecological zones. The
results show high degree of awareness and use of forecasts. Farmers discussed both actual and
potential application of forecasts for both above-normal and below-normal rainfall. The influence of
the El Niño tendency to increase the rainfall as in the case of 1997/98 El Niño was clear from their
emphasis on strategies to mitigate the impacts of above-or below-normal rainfall. Applications of
information in both crop and livestock management are documented. Constraints still exist, such as
interpretation of information, relevance of the variables forecast to the management decisions of
concern, confidence in the forecasts, and timely and affordable access to resources such as seeds.
We suggest that collaborative efforts between the forecast providers and the users of information
may be directed towards addressing these constraints. For instance in case of abnormal
phenomenon such as droughts or floods, forecasts can be closely followed by early warning
campaigns with clear guidelines of how to prepare, distributed through the FM radio in local
languages order to abate human suffering

Keywords: Climate forecast, Smallholders, Agro-pastoralists, El Niño, Kenya.

Wilkinson E, Budimir M, Ahmed AK, Ouma G. "Climate Information and Services in BRACED Countries." BRACED Resilience Intel. 2015;(1). Abstractclimate_information_and_services_in_braced_countries.pdfOverseas Development Institute

Access to sound climate information is vital for anticipating climate-related risks and adapting to climate change. As such, it is recognised as an essential input to projects being funded by the Building Resilience and Adaptation
to Climate Extremes and Disasters (BRACED) programme.

R.S. O. "Climate Risk management training. African Development Bank,." African Development Bank,; 2008. Abstract
n/a
Ndathi AJN, MNM, Musimba NKR, Mitaru BN. "Climate variability and dry season ruminant livestock feeding strategies in Southeastern Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development . 2011;23(9). Abstract

Availability of feeds for livestock production is a major constraint to livestock production in drylands of Kenya. This study was conducted to generate information on the climate of the semi-arid lands of Southeastern Kenya and the livestock keepers’ dry seasons feed provision strategies. Information on climate was generated through analysis of long-term and short-term rainfall and temperature data. The dry seasons’ livestock feed provision strategies were generated through a household survey using a questionnaire.

Livestock keepers have a period of 6 months to grow and harvest feeds to bridge a5 months feed shortage gap. Long-term rainfall amounts showed irregular peaks and troughs and seem to have a stable mean over the years. However, even with the troughs and peaks, the temperatures seem to be increasing. This means that moisture available for feed production may be decreasing. Buying of feeds and using on-farm conserved feeds were the most commonly used feed provision strategies during the dry seasons. However, these strategies were constrained by lack of money, availability of the feeds to buy, inadequate space for conservation and rotting of the conserved feeds.

Key word: constraints, feed conservation, droughts, drylands

o. c. Ghibingal, Musimba NRK, Nyangito MM, Simbay J, Daural MT. "Climate variability; enhancing adaptive utilization of browse trees for improved livestock production among agro-pastoralists communities in Southern Zambia." African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2012;6((7)):267-274. Abstract

Agro-pastoralists whose sources of livelihood depend on rain-fed agriculture are very vulnerable to
ecological disturbance due to increasing climate variability. They are unable to adequately feed their
animals in times of extreme weather conditions of floods and droughts thereby causing a disruption in
their maior source of (rve(ihood. fhfs study ana$zed (he feedrng s(ra(egies empfoyed by agropastoralists
in Southern Zambla and important browse species used in extreme weather conditions, in
order to improve their utilization for improved livestock production. The major feeding strategies during
droughts include browse utilization, dambo grazing, grazing along streams and supplementary feeding.
While during floods, upland grazing and browse grazing were the main strategies. However, most of the
agro-pastoralists do not practice pasture management and fodder conservation for their animals. Of the
21 lree browse species identified by the agro-pastoralists, 18 species were found to be important during
droughts and 8 during floods. Most of the agro-pastoralists neither knew how to plant these browse
species nor how to manage them for befter and sustainable use in feeding their animals. Therefore, the
agro-pastoralists in the study area need to take up management and feed conservation measures for
their animals. Deliberate effort should be made to teach the agro-pastoralists how to plant and manage
the important browse species that are suitable in extreme weather conditions. This will enhance
productive use of the browse species for improved animal feeding to ensure food security among the
pastoralists.

Key words: Extreme weather conditions, adaption, browse species, Agro-pastoralists.

Wandiga, S. OM, others. "Climate, Malaria and Cholera in the Lake Victoria Region." Leary, N. et. al. (eds.) Climate Change and Adaptation, Earthscan: London and Sterling,VA, pp.109-130; 2008. Abstract
n/a
Yanda P, Wandiga S, Kangalawe R, Opondo M, Olago D, Githeko A, Downs T, Robert Kabumbuli, Opere A, Githui F, Kathuri J, Olaka L, Apindi E, Marshall M, Ogallo L, Mugambi P, Kirumira E, Nanyunja R, Baguma T, Sigalla R, Achola P. "Climate, Malaria and Cholera in the Lake Victoria Region: Adapting to Changing Risks.". In: Climate Change and Adaptation. Routledge; 2012. Abstract

In the East African countries, malaria is ranked as the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in both children and adults. It causes about 40,000 infant deaths in Kenya each year; in Uganda annual cases of malaria range between 6 to 7 million, with 6500 to 8500 fatalities, and in Tanzania the annual death toll is between 70,000 and 125,000 and accounts for 19 per cent of health expenditure (De Savigny et al, 2004a and b). In the case of cholera, the first epidemic in Africa was reported as far back as 1836 (Rees, 2000). Major outbreaks were next reported in 1970 and affected West Africa (Guinea), the horn of Africa (Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan) and Kenya (Waiyaki, 1996). The most severe cholera outbreak on the African continent was in 1998, accounting for more than 72 per cent of the global total number of cholera cases and acutely affecting the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Mozambique, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania. Cholera outbreaks in East Africa have been reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) since 1972. In the Lake Victoria region of East Africa both malaria and cholera are common, with malaria endemic in the lowlands and epidemic in the highland areas and cholera endemic in the basin since the early 1970s (Rees, 2000).

Olago D, Joordens J, Beck C, Sier M, der Lubbe JV, et al. "Climate-driven lacustrine dynamics from the Early Pleistocene Lorenyang Lake, Turkana Basin, Kenya.". In: EGU General Assembly 2016. Vienna Austria; 2016. Abstract

Two stratigraphic records from Kaitio in West Turkana, Kenya, span 1.87 - 1.34 Ma, and document environmental character and variability through a critical interval for human evolution and cultural development. The WTK13 core collected by the Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) recovered 216 m of sediment at 95% recovery. A parallel outcrop record of 180 m was investigated in exposures along the Kaitio laga close to the drill site. Six tephrostratigraphic markers, the Chari, Lokapetamoi, 22Q-3, Etirr, Ebei and KBS Tuffs are present in the outcrop and/or core. These were characterized by single-shard geochemical analysis, and provide links to the well-established tephrochronology of the Turkana Basin. Magnetic polarity stratigraphy of the two records documents the top of the Olduvai Subchron (C2N) at 1.78 Ma. The lithostratigraphic record, bolstered by magnetic susceptibility and sedimentary facies characterization, demonstrates a first-order transition from a deeper lacustrine system to a dynamic lake margin setting, followed by delta progradation. Facies analysis reveals repeated fluctuations of lake level at Milankovitch and sub-Milankovitch scales. Core-outcrop correlation allows detailed comparisons between diagenetically-prone outcrop samples and more pristine samples from the deep core. The excellent preservation of the core sediments makes it possible to obtain critical climate records of organic biomarkers, pollen, phytoliths and other proxies. This detailed archive of environmental variability is closely linked to the rich paleontological and archaeological discoveries from nearby sites and around the Turkana Basin.

Olago D, Marshall M, Wandiga SO, Opondo M, Yanda PZ, Kangalawe R, Githeko A, Downs T, Opere A, Kabumbuli R, Kirumira E, Ogallo L, Mugambi P, Apindi E, Githui F, Kathuri J, Olaka L, Sigalla R, Nanyunja R, Baguma T, Achola P. "Climatic Socio-economic and Health Factors Affecting Human Vulnerability to Cholera in the Lake Victoria Basin East Africa." AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment. 2007;36:350-358.
A. DROKOOLARAPHAELE. "The Climatology of Duststorm Events in northern Kenya.". In: Jour. African Meteor. Soc., VOL. 5.No. 2, 11-19. Kenya Met Soc; 2002. Abstract
Kindly check later
Musoni A;, Buruchara R;, Kimani PM. "Climbing Beans In Rwanda: Development, Impact, And Challenges."; 2001. Abstract

Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are the second major contributor of dietary protein in East and Central Africa. With an adoption rate of 50% among farmers just 10 years after their introduction, improved climbing beans are fast replacing the bush type, raising on-farm productivity and contributing significantly to the GDP in Rwanda. Due to their yield advantage of 150% to 300% and better disease resistance, climbing beans have shown great potential for intensified production in other densely populated, humid, root-rot infested highlands in southern Uganda and central and western Kenya, as well as northern Tanzania, where improved varieties of climbing beans released in Rwanda have been introduced in recent years. The economic returns from growing climbers have encouraged farmers to invest in species like Leucaena and Calliandra to overcome staking problems, which has, at the same time, enabled farmers to exploit other values of the species, such as soil protection, soil improvement, fodder for ruminants, or a source of cooking fuel. Current research by Institut des Sciences Agronomiques du Rwanda (ISAR) aims at developing climbing beans with red and red-mottled seed, having multiple disease resistance to meet the internal, regional, and international market demand.

ENOCH DROMONGE. "Clinical and laboratory predictors of cholelithiasis in patients with sickle cell anaemia .East Afr Med J. 1998 Jun;75(6):347-50.". In: East Afr Med J. 1998 Jun;75(6):347-50. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1998. Abstract
Cholelithiasis is a common clinical condition in patients with sickle cell disease and there are conflicting reports on laboratory indices useful in predicting those patients who are likely to have gallstones. There is however lack of similar studies from Kenya. We therefore studied the role of clinical (Body Mass Index), haematological (reticulocyte count, haemoglobin level), and biochemical (serum bilirubin: direct and indirect, serum alkaline phosphatase, serum transaminase) indices in predicting sickle cell anaemia patients likely to develop gallstones. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted from October 1993 to December 1994 on consecutive male and female patients of all ages with homozygous sickle cell disease (HbSS) confirmed by cellulose acetate paper electrophoresis. A total of 64 patients aged between three and 37 years were recruited into the study. They were classified into two groups: stone formers and non-formers. The difference in the two groups with respect to clinical, haematological and biochemical indices were determined by Chi-square contingency test. Body mass index (BMI), reticulocyte count and alkaline phosphatase were found to have a significant positive association with increased likelihood of gallstone formation at p values of 0.004, 0.007 and 0.007, respectively. The rest of the study indices had no association. The cut-off points were reticulocyte counts above ten per cent and alkaline phosphatase levels above 13 K.A. units. Though sickle cell anaemia patients with BMI > 20 had significant increased likelihood of cholelithiasis, we could not determine its cut-off value.
Munyoki G, Edwards T WKCKOVMSJWNBGNCRSTEG. "Clinical and neurophysiologic features of active convulsive epilepsy in rural Kenya: a population-based study." Epilepsia. 2010;51. Abstract

Abstract
PURPOSE:
Epilepsy is common in sub-Saharan Africa but is poorly characterized. Most studies are hospital-based, and may not reflect the situation in rural areas with limited access to medical care. We examined people with active convulsive epilepsy (ACE), to determine if the clinical features could help elucidate the causes.
METHODS:
We conducted a detailed descriptive analysis of 445 people with ACE identified through a community-based survey of 151,408 people in rural Kenya, including the examination of electroencephalograms.
RESULTS:
Approximately half of the 445 people with ACE were children aged 6 to 18 years. Seizures began in childhood in 78% of those diagnosed. An episode of status epilepticus was recalled by 36% cases, with an episode of status epilepticus precipitated by fever in 26%. Overall 169 had an abnormal electroencephalogram, 29% had focal features, and 34% had epileptiform activity. In the 146 individuals who reported generalized tonic-clonic seizures only, 22% had focal features on their electroencephalogram. Overall 71% of patients with ACE had evidence of focal abnormality, documented by partial onset seizures, focal neurologic deficits, or focal abnormalities on the electroencephalogram. Increased seizure frequency was strongly associated with age and cognitive impairment in all ages and nonattendance at school in children (p < 0.01).
DISCUSSION:
Children and adolescents bear the brunt of epilepsy in a rural population in Africa. The predominance of focal features and the high proportion of patients with status epilepticus, suggests that much of the epilepsy in this region has identifiable causes, many of which could be prevented.

MANDE JOHNDEMESI. Clinical and Pathological features of Osteoarthritis of the Hip Joints in German Shepherd Dogs in Kenya”. MBITHI PETERFELIXMULWA, ed. NAIROBI: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2003.
Karanja DN, Ngatia TA, Wandera JG. Clinical and Pathological observations in Kenyan donkeys experimentally infected with Trypanosoma congolense. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1992.
Oyoo GO, Genga EK, Otieno CF, Ilovi CS, Omondi EA, Otieno FO. "Clinical and socio-demographic profile of patients on treatment for osteoporosis in Nairobi, Kenya." East African Orthopaedic Journal. 2015;9:62-66.clinical_and_socio-demographic.pdf
Oyoo GO, Genga EK, Otieno CF, Ilovi CS, Omondi EA, Otieno FO. "Clinical and socio-demographic profile of patients on treatment for osteoporosis in Nairobi, Kenya." East African Orthopaedic Journal. 2016;9(2). Abstract

Background: Osteoporosis is a chronic, progressive disease of multifactorial aetiology and one of the most common metabolic bone diseases worldwide. There is a paucity of data on osteoporosis in Africa as it’s generally thought not to affect the non-Caucasian population. We sought to describe the population with osteoporosis in a Nairobi rheumatology clinic.

Objective: To evaluate the clinical characteristics of patients with osteoporosis seen at a rheumatology clinic in Nairobi.

Methods: Clinical, with emphasis on musculoskeletal manifestations, treatment and selected comorbidities in 56 patients diagnosed with osteoporosis were followed up and evaluated in the Nairobi Arthritis Clinic.

Results: The age distribution was 31- 95 years with majority being above the age of 60 years at 71.5%. Majority were female (89.3%). The main musculoskeletal manifestations were polyarthralgia (30.4%) followed by lower back pain (19.6%) and pathological fractures (12.5%). The types of osteoporosis were grouped as primary (9%), secondary (44.6%) and post-menopausal (46.4%). The most common clinical association being rheumatoid arthritis (39.3%) followed by steroids therapy (25%). Other comorbidities included osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, systemic lupus erythromatosus and diabetes. Seven study participants had history of fracture with lumbar spine fractures leading at 42.8%. None of the study participants were smokers. The number of patients on calcium supplements was at 71.4% and bisphosphonates was low at 32%.

Conclusion: The findings of this study from age to comorbidities on osteoporosis are in keeping with literature. The number of patients on bisphosphonates was low which differed from Western literature. Persons at increased risk for osteoporosis in this set-up include post-menopausal women with debilitating chronic illness causing reduced mobilization over time and presenting with bone pains.These patients should be investigated for osteoporosis and effective treatment administered early.

Keywords: Osteoporosis, Clinical profile, Nairobi, Kenya

Mathai LW. clinical and ultrasonographic features of abdominal conditions in dogs. Nairobi- Clinical studies department: University of Nairobi; 2011.
Slyker JA, Casper C, Tapia K, Richardson B, Bunts L, Huang M-L, Maleche-Obimbo E, Ruth Nduati, John-Stewart G. "Clinical and virologic manifestations of primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in Kenyan infants born to HIV-infected women." J. Infect. Dis.. 2013;207(12):1798-806. Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a risk factor for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphomas. Characterizing primary infection may elucidate risk factors for malignancy.

Slyker JA, Casper C, Tapia K, Richardson B, Bunts L, Huang M-L, Maleche-Obimbo E, Ruth Nduati, John-Stewart G. "Clinical and virologic manifestations of primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in Kenyan infants born to HIV-infected women." J. Infect. Dis.. 2013;207(12):1798-806. Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a risk factor for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphomas. Characterizing primary infection may elucidate risk factors for malignancy.

Kuria DJ. "Clinical application of tumour markers." East Africa Med. Journal. 2009;86(12):76-83 .
ONJUA PROFOYIEKEJB, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Clinical Aspects of Infertility in Kenya: A Comprehensive Evaluation of the couple.". In: J.Obs. Gyn. East Centr.Afr. 6:61, 1987. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1987. Abstract

Part of a detailed analysis of 864 unmarried teenage mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital is presented. Teenage pregnancy amounted for 42.3% of all deliveries of unmarried mothers. Most teenage patients were above 16 years of age, had a religious background of wide coverage, had low quality antenatal care and low education. 94.6% were found to be primigravidas. This dominance has also been found by other workers. PIP: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study of unmarried mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, from December 1986-April 1987, was conducted with a pretested open-ended questionnaire: the 864 teen mothers are described here. They ranged from 13.4-19 years, most were 17-19. 49.4% were Catholic and 45% Protestant. 88.5% attended prenatal clinics once; 51.5% attended 5 times, although only 13% went to hospital clinics for specialized care. For reasons for not going for prenatal care teens stated that they were too shy to undergo a clinical exam, afraid of parents' reaction, unaware of the pregnancy or of the existence of prenatal care, they had not menstruated, or were in school, in prison, or had long work hours. Most girls had primary education, and 97.9% had dropped out of school. 34% dropped out because of pregnancy, and 32% for lack of tuition fees. Reasons for dropping out of school were tabulated, encompassing a broad range of social problems such as war, death, divorce, alcoholism or illness of parents, no tuition or uniform funds, poor grades, and running away from school. In Africa, teen pregnancy is probably increasing because of decreasing age at menarche and relaxing of traditional values.

ONJUA PROFOYIEKEJB, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Clinical Aspects of Infertility in Kenya: A Comprehensive Evaluation of the couple.". In: J.Obs. Gyn. East Centr.Afr. 6:61, 1987. Elsevier; 1987. Abstract

PIP: In this study, 273 university students (161 men and 112 women) were interviewed by means of a self-administered questionnaire to determine their knowledge, attitude, and practice concerning sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The mean age of the men was 22.4 +or- 1.6 years and that of the women was 22.1 +or- 1.6 years. 97.4% of the students were sexually experienced. Knowledge of common STDs was high, but knowledge of their signs, symptoms, and consequences was low. 24.5% of the male and 3.7% of the female students had had an STD. The principal sources of information on STDs included books, films, and TV for 39.6% of the students and teachers for 16.8% of the students. Parents played a very minimal role. It is suggested that primary and secondary school students be taught about STDs as part of reproductive health education and that such education be continued at the college level in order to increase the awareness among young people. author's modified

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Clinical aspects of sickle cell disease in Nairobi children. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol . 1982 Summer; 4 ( 2 ): 187-90 . PMID: 6956242 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Bwibo NO, Kasili EG.". In: Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol . 1982 Summer; 4 ( 2 ): 187-90 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1982. Abstract

Children with sickle cell disease in Nairobi come from tribes living in malarial regions of Kenya. The clinical presentation and complications of this disease are described. The symptoms at onset are nonspecific but the typical features that follow are easy to recognize. Cardiac murmurs and persistently enlarged spleen in older children pose diagnostic challenges. Poor appetite and failure to thrive are common; so are school absenteeism due to crises and infection. The use of white blood cell counts to determine the presence of infection during crises is described.

PMID: 6956242 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Gichobi AN, Ndwigah SN, Sinei KA, Guantai EM. "Clinical audit of Heparin use in Rift Valley General Hospital, Nakuru County, Kenya. ." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. . 2017;6(1):27-37.
Gichobi 2. AN, Ndwigah SN, Sinei KA, Guantai EM. "Clinical audit of Heparin use in Rift Valley General Hospital, Nakuru County, Kenya." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2017;6(1):27-37.
EK G, G.O.Oyoo, F.O O, E.A O, S J, J O, B.C S. "Clinical characteristics of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in Nairobi, Kenya." Afr J Rheumatol . 2015;2(3):62-66. Abstractclinical_characteristics_of_patients.pdf

Abstract
Background: Systemic lupus
erythematosus (SLE), a chronic
multisystem autoimmune disease with a
wide spectrum of manifestations, shows
considerable variation across the globe,
although there is data from Africa is
limited. Quantifying the burden of SLE
across Africa can help raise awareness and
knowledge about the disease. It will also
clarify the role of genetic, environmental
and other causative factors in the natural
history of the disease, and to understand
its clinical and societal consequences in
African set up.
Objective: To determine the clinical
profile of SLE patients at a tertiary care
centre in Nairobi, Kenya.
Methods: Case records of patients who
were attending the Nairobi Arthritis
Clinic seen between January 2002
and January 2013 were reviewed.
This was a cross-sectional study done
on 100 patients fulfilling the 2012
Systemic Lupus Collaborating Clinics
(SLICC) criteria for SLE attending
the Nairobi Arthritis Clinic, Kenya.
The patients were evaluated for sociodemographic,
clinical and immunological
manifestations and drugs used to manage
SLE.
Results: Hundred patients diagnosed with
SLE were recruited into the study. Ninety
seven per cent of the study participants
were female with a mean age of 36.6
years. Thirty three years was the mean
age of diagnosis. The mean time duration
of disease was 3 years with a range of
0-13 years. There was extensive disease
as many had multi-organ involvement.
Majority (83%) of the study participants
met between 4 and 6 manifestations
for the diagnosis criteria for SLE. Non
erosive arthritis and cutaneous disease
were the commonest initial manifestation.
The patients had varied cutaneous,
haematological, pulmonary, cardiac, renal
and neuropsychiatric manifestations.
Antinuclear antibody (ANA) assay and
anti-dsDNA was positive in 82% and
52%. Patients on steroids, non-steroidal
drugs and synthetic disease modifying
anti-rheumatic drugs were 84%, 49% and
43% respectively. None of the patients
were on biologic disease modifying antirheumatic
drugs.

Genga EK, Shiruli BC, Odhiambo J, Jepkorir S, Omondi EA, Otieno FO, Oyoo GO. "Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in Nairobi, Kenya." African Journal of Rheumatology. 2015;3(2):62-66.
E Genga OG, Otieno F, Shiruli B, Odhiambo J, Omondi E. "CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PATIENTS WITH SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHROMATOSUS IN NAIROBI, KENYA.". 2016;34(4):S118.
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Clinical competence of Nursing Graduates in Kenya. African Journal of Midwifery and Womens.". In: African Journal of Midwifery and Womens. 1. Margaret Njambi Chege, Ephantus W. Kabiru, Anna Karani and Anseline Derese; Submitted. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

Monroe-Wise A, Kibore M, Kiarie J, Ruth Nduati, Mburu J, Drake FT, Bremner W, Holmes K, Farquhar C. "The Clinical Education Partnership Initiative: an innovative approach to global health education." BMC Med Educ. 2014;14:1043. Abstract

Despite evidence that international clinical electives can be educationally and professionally beneficial to both visiting and in-country trainees, these opportunities remain challenging for American residents to participate in abroad. Additionally, even when logistically possible, they are often poorly structured. The Universities of Washington (UW) and Nairobi (UoN) have enjoyed a long-standing research collaboration, which recently expanded into the UoN Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI). Based on MEPI in Kenya, the Clinical Education Partnership Initiative (CEPI) is a new educational exchange program between UoN and UW. CEPI allows UW residents to partner with Kenyan trainees in clinical care and teaching activities at Naivasha District Hospital (NDH), one of UoN's MEPI training sites in Kenya.

Muraguri GR, Ngumi PN, Wesonga D, Ndungu SG, Wanjohi JM, Bang K, Foxb A, Dunneb J, McHardy N. "Clinical efficacy and plasma concentrations of two formulations of buparvaquone in cattle infected with East Coast fever.". 2006.Website
Ndetei DM, Khasakhala L, Maru H, Pizzo M, Mutiso V, Ongecha-Owuor FA, Kokonya DA. "Clinical epidemiology in patients admitted at Mathari Psychiatric Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.". 2008.a_clinical_epidemiological.pdf
DR. MUTISO VINCENTMUOKI. "Clinical epidemiology in patients admitted at Mathari Psychiatric Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2008 Sep;43(9):736-42. Epub 2008 May 8.PMID: 18465102 [PubMed - in process].". In: PMID: 18465102 [PubMed - in process]. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2008. Abstract
Ndetei DM, Khasakhala L, Maru H, Pizzo M, Mutiso V, Ongecha-Owuor FA, Kokonya DA. Africa Mental Health Foundation, Nairobi, Kenya. dmndetei@mentalhealthafrica.com BACKGROUND: Knowledge of types and co-morbidities of disorders seen in any facility is useful for clinical practice and planning for services. AIM: To study the pattern of co-morbidities of and correlations between psychiatric disorders in in-patients of Mathari Hospital, the premier psychiatric hospital in Kenya. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: All the patients who were admitted at Mathari Hospital in June 2004 and were well enough to participate in the study were approached for informed consent. Trained psychiatric charge nurses interviewed them using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders Clinical Version (SCID-I). Information on their socio-demographic profiles and hospital diagnoses was extracted from their clinical notes using a structured format. RESULTS: Six hundred and ninety-one patients participated in the study. Sixty-three percent were male. More than three quarters (78%) of the patients were aged between 21 and 45 years. More than half (59.5%) of the males and slightly less than half (49.4%) of the females were single. All the patients were predominantly of the Christian faith. Over 85% were dependents of another family member and the remainder were heads of households who supported their own families. Schizophrenia, bipolar I disorder, psychosis, substance use disorder and schizo-affective disorder were the most common hospital and differential diagnoses. Of the anxiety disorders, only three patients were under treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Nearly a quarter (24.6%) of the patients were currently admitted for a similar previous diagnosis. Schizophrenia was the most frequent DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-fourth edition) diagnosis (51%), followed by bipolar I disorder (42.3%), substance use disorder (34.4%) and major depressive illness (24.6%). Suicidal features were common in the depressive group, with 14.7% of this group reporting a suicidal attempt. All DSM-IV anxiety disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorders, were highly prevalent although, with the exception of three cases of PTSD, none of these anxiety disorders were diagnosed clinically. Traumatic events were reported in 33.3% of the patients. These were multiple and mainly violent events. Despite the multiplicity of these events, only 7.4% of the patients had a PTSD diagnosis in a previous admission while 4% were currently diagnosed with PTSD. The number of DSM-IV diagnoses was more than the total number of patients, suggesting co-morbidity, which was confirmed by significant 2-tailed correlation tests. CONCLUSION: DSM-IV substance use disorders, major psychiatric disorders and anxiety disorders were prevalent and co-morbid. However, anxiety disorders were hardly diagnosed and therefore not managed. Suicidal symptoms were common. These results call for more inclusive clinical diagnostic practice. Standardized clinical practice using a diagnostic tool on routine basis will go a long way in ensuring that no DSM-IV diagnosis is missed. This will improve clinical management of patients and documentation. PMID: 18465102 [PubMed - in process]
J.G KIBOI, PETER KITUNGUU, MUSAU C K, NIMROD MWANGOMBE. "clinical experience and outcome of pitutary surgery in kenyan patients at the kenyatta national hospital." AFRICA JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGICAL SCIENCES. 2012;DECEMBER(2012):1-10.
Onyambu CK, Amayo EO, Ktonyi JM. "Clinical features and patterns of imaging findings in patients with cerebral Venous sinus thrombosis." East African Medical Journal. 2013;90(10):181-188.
Chindia ML, Odhiambo W, Gathece LW, Dimba EAO, Okumu SB. "Clinical features and types of paediatric orofacial malignant neoplasms at two hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2010. AbstractWebsite

To evaluate the clinical features and histopathological types of orofacial malignant neoplasms in children. Patients and methods: The study involved patients aged 15years and below diagnosed with malignancy at two main referral hospitals in Kenya during the period from July, 2008 to December, 2008. A questionnaire and clinical examination chart were used to document data. Data analysis was done using SPSS 12.0 programme. Results: 65 children (44 males, 21 females) with ages ranging from 0.25 to 14years were evaluated. The main complaints were swelling 61 (94%) and visual disturbance 29 (45%). The mean duration of symptoms was 0.17-36 months. The commonest signs were leucocoria (white reflection from the retina) 23 (35%),proptosis 19(29%)and loss of vision 15 (23%).The commonest sites were orbit 30 (46%)and maxilla 11(17%).Most neoplasms were retinoblastoma 26 (40%),followed by 14(21%)cases of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL)and occurred in patients under 5 years ofage (40 cases) followed by 19cases in children aged 5-10 years. Conclusions: Overall, malignancies were more common in males than females with most having been diagnosed in children aged less than 10years. Retinoblastoma and BLwere the most common neoplasms. © 2011 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery.

W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Clinical features and types of paediatric orofacial malignant neoplasms at two hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Journal of Cranio-Maxillo-facial Surgery. 2011(xxx)1-7. Sanya BO, Chindia ML, Gathece LW, Dimba EO, Odhiambo W.; 2011. Abstract

Abstract
AIM:

To evaluate the clinical features and histopathological types of orofacial malignant neoplasms in children.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:

The study involved patients aged 15 years and below diagnosed with malignancy at two main referral hospitals in Kenya during the period from July, 2008 to December, 2008. A questionnaire and clinical examination chart were used to document data. Data analysis was done using SPSS 12.0 programme.
RESULTS:

65 children (44 males, 21 females) with ages ranging from 0.25 to 14 years were evaluated. The main complaints were swelling 61 (94%) and visual disturbance 29 (45%). The mean duration of symptoms was 0.17-36 months. The commonest signs were leucocoria (white reflection from the retina) 23 (35%), proptosis 19 (29%) and loss of vision 15 (23%). The commonest sites were orbit 30 (46%) and maxilla 11 (17%). Most neoplasms were retinoblastoma 26 (40%), followed by 14 (21%) cases of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) and occurred in patients under 5 years of age (40 cases) followed by 19 cases in children aged 5-10 years.
CONCLUSIONS:

Overall, malignancies were more common in males than females with most having been diagnosed in children aged less than 10 years. Retinoblastoma and BL were the most common neoplasms.

Nyawira M, Muchai G, Gichangi M, Gichuhi S, Githeko K, Atieno J, Karimurio J, Kibachio J, Ngugi N, Nyaga PT, Nyamori J, Zindamoyen ANM, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Clinical guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: an executive summary of the recommendations." J Ophthalmol East Cent & S Afr. . 2017;21(2):33-39. Abstract

All persons living with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) have a lifetime risk of developing Diabetic Retinopathy (DR), a
potentially blinding microvascular complication of DM. The risk increases with the duration of diabetes. The
onset and progression of DR can be delayed through optimization of control of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipids. The risk of blindness from DR can be reduced through cost-effective interventions such as screening for DR and treatment of sight-threatening DR with laser photocoagulation and anti-VEGF medications.
Several factors make it important to provide guidance to clinicians who provide services for diabetes and
diabetic retinopathy in Kenya. First, the magnitude of both DM and DR is expected to increase over the next
decade. Secondly, as the retina is easily accessible for examination, the early signs of retinopathy may provide clinicians with the best evidence of microvascular damage from diabetes. This information can be used to guide subsequent management of both DM and DR. Thirdly, there are notable gaps in service delivery for the detection,treatment and follow-up of patients with DR, and the services are inequitable. Strengthening of service delivery will require close collaboration between diabetes services and eye care services.
Following a systematic and collaborative process of guideline development, the first published national
guidelines for the management of diabetic retinopathy have been developed. The purpose of this paper is to
highlight the recommendations in the guidelines, and to facilitate their adoption and implementation.

N M, M G, M G, Gichuhi S, G K, A J’o. "Clinical guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: An executive summary of the recommendations." JOECSA. 2017;21(2):33-39.
Mwangi N, Gachago M, Gichangi M, Gichuhi S, Githeko K, Jalango A, Karimurio J, Kibachio J, Ngugi N, Nyaga P, Nyamori J, Zindamoyen ANM, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Clinical guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: an executive summary of the recommendations." J Ophthalmol East Cent & S Afr.. 2017;21(2):33-9.
Gupta H, Davidoff AM, Pui C-H, Shochat SJ, Sandlund JT. "Clinical implications and surgical management of intussusception in pediatric patients with {Burkitt} lymphoma." Journal of pediatric surgery. 2007;42:998-1001. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Blakelock RT, Beasley SW. "The clinical implications of non-idiopathic intussusception." Pediatric surgery international. 1998;14:163-167. AbstractWebsite
n/a
F M, JJ C. "Clinical Learning Experiences: A study among Undergraduate Nursing Students, Kenya." Nursing Research and Practice Journal. 2018.
M PROFBHATTKIRNA. "Clinical malaria in Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 1984 Apr;61(4):303-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Apr;61(4):303-5. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1984. Abstract
PIP: Malaria is the most prevalent and devastating public health problem in Africa despite much research and control effort over the last two decades. In most parts of Africa, individuals should take 200 mg of Proguanil daily together with chloroquine 5 mg/kg per week as prophylaxis. Pregnant women and individuals with underlying disease such as sickle cell making them susceptible to severe or complicated malaria, however, should take just 200 mg Proguanil daily. In hard-core multi-drug resistance areas, mefloquine 250 mg once weekly together with chloroquine 300 mg weekly is recommended as prophylaxis. Since no anti-malarial drug confers absolute protection against infection, however, using mosquito nets impregnated with permethrin, insecticides, and mosquito repellents is also advocated for those at high risk of severe malaria. The need also exists to treat cases of malaria when prevention is unsuccessful. Chloroquine in total dose 25 mg/Kg over three days is the first choice treatment of uncomplicated malaria in 4-aminoquinoline sensitive areas. Amodiaquine 25 mg/Kg over three days is the second line treatment, while pyrimethamine/sulphonamide combinations are useful in areas where there is resistance to 4-aminoquinalines. Finally, quinine 10 mg/kg every eight hours for seven days is the treatment of choice for severe and complicated malaria.
Mukabana, W.R., Takken, W., Killeen GF, Knols, B.G.J. "Clinical malaria reduces human attractiveness to mosquitoes." Proceedings of the Netherlands Entomological Society. 2007;18:125-129.
Amayo EO. Clinical manifestation of Acquired Immune Deficiency Sydrome in adults as seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital.; 1988. Abstract

50 confirmed AIDS patients admitted in the medical wards between March to December, 1987 were studied. Male to female ratio was 1:5:1. The mean age was 31 - 7 years. Females had an earlier peak at 21 - 25 years as compared to the males at 26 - 30 years. The commonest risk factor was heterosexual contact with multiple partners in 80% of the cases. The patients were of low socio-economic status. The commonest general signs and symptoms were unexplained weight loss in 92%, fever in 66% and generalized lymphnode enlargement in 24% of the cases. In the gastrointestinal system the cornnonestsigns and symptoms were oral thrush 66%, chronicdiarrhoea 60% and dysphagia in 50%, of the cases. 46% of the patients had chronic cough. The most significant radiological finding in the abnormalchest x-ray was pleural effussion in 50% of the cases. The central nervous system was involved in 36% of cases with meningitis being the commonest sign accounting for 28% of all the central nervous system signs.10% of the cases had Kaposi's sarcoma on histology of which 60% were of the aggressive form. The commonest skin manifestation was maculo-papular pruritic skin rash 56% of all the patients had hemoglobin less than 10g.dl.

Sun C, Dohrn J, Klopper H, Malata A, Omoni G, Larson E. "Clinical Nursing and Midwifery Research Priorities in Eastern and Southern African Countries: Results From a Delphi Survey." Nurs Res. 2015;64(6):466-75. Abstract

Because of the profound shortage of nurse and midwifery researchers in many African countries, identification of clinical nursing and midwifery research is of highest priority for the region to improve health outcomes.

Sun C, Dohrn J, Omoni G, Malata A, Klopper H, Larson E. "Clinical nursing and midwifery research: grey literature in African countries." Int Nurs Rev. 2016;63(1):104-10. Abstract

This study reviewed grey literature to assess clinical nursing and midwifery research conducted in southern and eastern African countries over the past decade.

Saidi H, Abdihakin M, Njihia B, Jumba G, Kiarie G, Githaiga J, ABINYA NO. "Clinical outcomes of colorectal cancer in Kenya ." Ann. Afr. Surg.. 2011;7. AbstractWebsite

Unilateral variations in the formation of the median nerve, with the presence of the third head of the biceps brachii entrapping the nerve are very rare. These variations were observed on the right side, of a 30 year old male cadaver during routine dissection at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. The median nerve was formed by the union of three contributions; two from the lateral cord and one from the medial cord. An additional head of the biceps brachii looped over the formed median nerve. On the left side the median nerve was formed classically by single contributions from the medial and the lateral cords. These variations are clinically important because symptoms of high median nerve compression arising from similar formations are often confused with more common causes such as radiculopathy and carpal tunnel syndrome.

Saidi H, Abdihakin M, Njihia B, Jumba G, Kiarie G, Githaiga J, ABINYA NO. "Clinical Outcomes of Colorectal Cancer in Kenya." Annals of African Surgery. 2011;7. Abstract

Background
The incidence of colorectal cancer in Africa is increasing. True data on clinical outcomes of the disease is hampered by follow up challenges.
Method
Follow up data of 233 patients treated for colorectal cancer between 2005 and 2010 at various Nairobi hospitals were evaluated. The primary outcome was mortality while secondary outcomes included recurrence rates, time to recurrence and the patient, disease and treatment factors associated with mortality and recurrence. Kaplan Meir charts were charted for survival trends.
Results
Half of the lesions were located in the rectum. There was no relationship between the sub-site location and recurrence and mortality. The mean follow-up period was 15.9 months. Overall recurrency and mortality rates were 37.5% and 29.4% respectively. Most recurrences occurred within one year of surgery. Recurrence was not influenced by age, gender, sub-site, chemotherapy receipt or presence of comorbidity.
Factors significantly associated with mortality included the
male gender ( p 0.04), presence of co-morbidity (p 0.029), recurrence (p 0.001), curative intent (p 0.01), disease stage (p 0.036) and receipt of chemotherapy ( p< 0.01).
Conclusion
Follow up of colorectal cancer patients is still challenging. The mortality and recurrence rates are high for the short follow up periods. Further studies are needed to explore the determinants of both survival and recurrences, especially with longer follow ups.

Okusanya BO, Oladapo OT, Long Q, Lumbiganon P, Carroli G, Qureshi Z, Duley L, Souza JP, Gulmezoglu AM. "Clinical pharmacokinetic properties of magnesium sulphate in women with preeclampsia and eclampsia." A systematic Review 2015. 2015. Abstractclinical_pharmacokinetic_properties_of_magnesium_sulphate_in_women_with_pre.pdf

Background
The pharmacokinetic basis of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) dosing regimens for eclampsia prophylaxis and treatment is not clearly established.
Objectives
To review available data on clinical pharmacokinetic properties of MgSO4 when used for women with pre-eclampsia and/or eclampsia.
Search strategy
MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, POPLINE, Global Health Library and reference lists of eligible studies.
Selection criteria
All study types investigating pharmacokinetic properties of MgSO4 in women with preeclampsia and/or eclampsia.
Data collection and analysis
Two authors extracted data on basic pharmacokinetic parameters reflecting the different aspects of absorption, bioavailability, distribution and excretion of MgSO4 according to identified dosing regimens.
Main results
Twenty-eight studies investigating pharmacokinetic properties of 17 MgSO4 regimens met our inclusion criteria. Most women (91.5%) in the studies had pre-eclampsia. Baseline serum magnesium concentrations were consistently <1 mmol/l across studies. Intravenous loading dose between 4 and 6 g was associated with a doubling of this baseline concentration half an hour after injection. Maintenance infusion of 1 g/hour consistently produced concentrations well below 2 mmol/l, whereas maintenance infusion at 2 g/hour and the Pritchard intramuscular regimen had higher but inconsistent probability of producing concentrations between 2 and 3 mmol/l. Volume of distribution of magnesium varied (13.65–49.00 l) but the plasma clearance was fairly similar (4.28–5.00 l/hour) across populations.
Conclusion
The profiles of Zuspan and Pritchard regimens indicate that the minimum effective serum magnesium concentration for eclampsia prophylaxis is lower than the generally accepted level. Exposure–response studies to identify effective alternative dosing regimens should target concentrations achievable by these standard regimens.

Nzou C, Kambarami RA, Onyango FE, Ndhlovu CE, Chikwasha V. "Clinical predictors of low CD4 count among HIV infected pulmonary tuberculosis clients: a health facility-based survey." S. Afr. Med. J.. 2010;100(9):602-5. Abstract

The study aimed to determine the clinical and laboratory predictors of a low CD4+ cell count (<200 cells/microl) in HIV-infected patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB).

OLIECH JS. "Clinical presentation and management of renal cell carcinoma.". In: East Afr Med J. 1998 Oct;75(10):594-7. PROF.J.S.OLIECH; 1998. Abstract

A study of clinical presentation and management of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in 35 patients during the period 1983 to 1997 is presented. The peak age was 40-50 years. Haematuria, abdominal pain, fever of unknown origin and abdominal mass were the commonest presenting features. Computerised tomographic (CT) scanning, intravenous urography (IVU) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were the important diagnostic tools. Early diagnosis and surgery are the most important approaches in management.

KHALFAN DRABDALLAHFATMAH, KHALFAN DRABDALLAHFATMAH. "Clinical presentation and treatment outcome in children with nephroblastoma in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 2001 Jul;78(7 Suppl):S43-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Jul;78(7 Suppl):S43-7. The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To review the clinical presentation and management of children with nephroplastoma and the factors influencing the outcome at Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital (KNH). DESIGN: This was a retrospective case series study based on secondary data accumulated between 1990 and 1996. SETTING: The relevant data were extracted from records of all children aged 12 years and below, admitted for cancer at KNH, Nairobi. RESULTS: Out of 803 children with cancer, 71 (8.8%) had histologically proven nephroblastoma. At presentation, 1.5% were in stage I, 13.2% stage II, 36.8% stage III, 41.2% stage IV and 7.4% stage V. Eighty five per cent presented with stage III-V disease. Ninety five per cent had nepherectomy and received chemotherapy. Radiotherapy was given to 50.7% of the patients. Nine patients died before commencement of chemotherapy, two of whom died in the immediate post-operative period. The median duration between admission and surgery was 41 days. Pre-operative chemotherapy was given to 42% of the patients. Approximately 25.5% of the patients received little or no induction chemotherapy due to unavailability of drugs while only 2.8% received the prescribed maintenance treatment with the remainder getting erratic or no treatment. Overall, only 34.7% remained disease free two years from time of diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Late presentation, poor availability of cytotoxic drugs and frequent treatment interruptions for various reasons have contributed to the poor outcome of nephroblastoma in Kenya.
Gichuhi S, Macharia E, Kabiru J, Zindamoyen AM, Rono H, Ollando E, Wanyonyi L, Wachira J, Munene R, Onyuma T, Sagoo MS, Weiss HA, Burton MJ. "Clinical Presentation of Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia in Kenya." JAMA Ophthalmology. 2015;133(11):1305-1313. AbstractWebsite

IMPORTANCE:
There is a trend toward treating conjunctival lesions suspected to be ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) based on the clinical impression.

OBJECTIVE:
To describe the presentation of OSSN and identify clinical features that distinguish it from benign lesions and subsequently evaluate their recognizability.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:
Prospective multicenter study in Kenya from July 2012 through July 2014 of 496 adults presenting with conjunctival lesions. One histopathologist examined all specimens. Six additional masked ophthalmologists independently examined photographs from 100 participants and assessed clinical features.

EXPOSURES:

Comprehensive history, slit lamp examination, and photography before excision biopsy.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:
Frequency of clinical features in OSSN and benign lesions were recorded. Proportions and means were compared using χ2, Fisher exact test, or t test as appropriate. Interobserver agreement was estimated using the κ statistic. Examiners' assessments were compared with a reference.

RESULTS:
Among 496 participants, OSSN was the most common (38%) histological diagnosis, followed by pterygium (36%) and actinic keratosis (19%). Patients with OSSN were slightly older (mean [SD] age, 41 [11.6] vs 38 [10.9] years; P = .002) and tended to have lower levels of education than patients with benign lesions (P = .001). Females predominated (67% of OSSN vs 64% of benign lesions; P = .65). Human immunodeficiency virus infection was common among patients with OSSN (74%). The most common location was the nasal limbus (61% OSSN vs 78% benign lesions; P < .001). Signs more frequent in OSSN included feeder vessels (odds ratio [OR], 5.8 [95% CI, 3.2-10.5]), moderate inflammation (OR, 3.5 [95% CI, 1.8-6.8]), corneal involvement (OR, 2.7 [95% CI, 1.8-4.0]), leukoplakia (OR, 2.6 [95% CI, 1.7-3.9]), papilliform surface (OR, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.3-3.5]), pigmentation (OR, 1.5 [95% CI, 1.0-2.2]), temporal location (OR, 2.0 [95% CI, 1.2-3.2]), circumlimbal location (6.7% vs 0.3%; P < .001), severe inflammation (6.7% vs 0.3%; P < .001), and larger mean (SD) diameter (6.8 [3.2] vs 4.8 [2.8] mm; P < .001). All OSSN signs were also observed in benign lesions. There was slight to fair inter-observer agreement in assessment of most signs and diagnosis (κ, 0.1-0.4). The positive predictive value of clinical appearance in identifying OSSN was 54% (interquartile range, 51%-56%) from photographs in which prevalence was 32%.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:
With overlapping phenotypes and modest inter-observer agreement, OSSN and benign conjunctival lesions are not reliably distinguished clinically. Point-of-care diagnostic tools may help.

FO Otieno, GO Oyoo CFOEAO, Oyoo GO, Otieno CF, Omondi EA. "Clinical presentation of patients with adult onset still’s disease in Nairobi: case series." African Journal of Rheumatology. 2015;3(1). AbstractWebsite

Introduction: Adult Still’s Disease (ASD) is a systemic inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology, typically characterized by a clinical triad (daily spiking high fevers, evanescent rash, arthritis), and a biological triad (hyperferritinemia, hyperleukocytosis with neutrophilia and abnormal liver function test).
Objective: This case series set out to describe the clinical characteristics of patients with ASD seen at a rheumatology clinic in Nairobi.
Results: After a record search, 8 patients were noted to have ASD. Fever and arthritis were noted to be most predominant presenting features with almost all the patients having hyperferritinemia.

Aleri JW, T.O. A, Kitaa JM, Kipyegon AN, Mulei CM. "Clinical presentation, treatment and management of some rabbit conditions in Nairobi ." Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr . 2012;60:149-152.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Clinical presentation, treatment and management of some rabbit conditions in Nairobi (2012). Aleri J W, Abuom T O, Kitaa J M, Kipyegon A N and Mulei C M.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr (2012) 60. 149 - 152. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr (2012) 60. 149 - 152; 2012. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
JW A, TO A, JM K, AN K, CM M. "Clinical presentation, treatment and management of some rabbit conditions in Nairobi. ." Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr.. 2012;60::149-152 .
Ndaguatha PLW. "Clinical presentations of urinary bladder in Kenya." East Afr.Med. J.. 1990;67(3):182-190.
Karita, E. AGBNOJIOOBPJ, H. Park, A. Gumbe CWVCCBBKSCL, B. Farah, P. Hayes ZSLDBIHDKMF, and T. Hironaka, T. Shu HMSPAFGCLMTEC, Laufer D. "Clinical Safety and Immunogenicity of Two Hiv Vaccines Sev-G (Np) and Ad35-Grin in Hiv-Uninfected, Healthy Adult Volunteers." AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2014;30 Suppl 1:A85.
Ogeng’o J. "Clinical significance of Anatomical variations." Anat J Afr. 2013;2(1):57-60.Website
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Clinical significance of strongyloides in African children. J Trop Med Hyg . 1971 Apr; 74 ( 4 ): 79-81 . No abstract available. PMID: 5574874 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Bwibo NO.". In: J Trop Med Hyg . 1971 Apr; 74 ( 4 ): 79-81 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1971. Abstract

No abstract available

Mbuthia P G, Njagi LW, Nyaga PN, Bebora LC, Minga U, Olsen JE. "Clinical signs of fowl cholera in experimental immunosuppressed and non-immunosuppressed Kenyan indigenous chickens and ducks.". In: Kenya veterinarian association annual general meeting and scientific conference . Nomad palace, Garissa; 2003.
Mbuthia PG. "Clinical Signs Of Fowl Cholera In Experimental Immunosuppressed And Non-immunosuppressed Kenyan Indigenous Chickens And Ducks."; 2003. Abstract

P. multocida causes peracute, a cute and chronic fowl cholera in poultry. Twenty chickens and ducks were inoculated int ra - tracheally with 0.5 ml of 10 8 colony forming units of laboratory maintained str ain NCTC 10322 T of P. multocida, 10 of which were immnunosuppressed with dexamethasone 4 mg/kg body weight for 6 days prior to infection. 15 control chickens or ducks were given 0.5 ml of brain heart infu sion broth, 5 of which were similarly immunosuppress ed. All the birds were observed for clinical signs of fowl cholera for 14 days post - infection. Both indigenous chickens and ducks in the immunosuppressed groups showed lower clinical signs compared t o the non - immunosuppressed birds. No clinical signs were observed in all control birds. However, infected birds manifested anorexia, depression, ruffled feathers, nasal discharges, dyspnoea, ataxia, nervous tics, cyanosis, diarrhea and mucoid mouth discharges. In each bird under observation, the signs recurred s ingly or in combination, at the time of observation. Ataxia, nervous tics and head scratching are additional signs of fowl cholera hereby reported in indigenous chickens and ducks for the first time. There were less clinical signs observed in the immunosup pressed birds and this may, under field conditions, create problems in the detection and clinical diagnosis of fowl cholera

Ayah R. "Clinical Team Effectiveness and Scaling up of HIV Treatment and Care: A Survey of ART Services Nairobi County.". In: HIV Prevention, Care and Treatment Scientific Conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Kamucha G, Kompa G. "Clinical Trial of Intraoperative Laser Radar Imaging in Hip-joint Replacement Surgery.". In: Proceedings of ODIMAP IV, 4th Topical Meeting on Optoelectronic Distance Measurements and Applications. University of Oulu, Finland; 2004.
Mwachaka PM, Kigera JWM. "Clinical Trials in Surgery." Annals of African Surgery. 2014;11(2):1-2.
Mwachaka P, Kigera JWM. "Clinical trials in {Surgery}." Annals of African Surgery. 2014;11. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Mwachaka P, Kigera JWM. "Clinical trials in {Surgery}." Annals of African Surgery. 2014;11. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Yaşargil MG. Clinical {Considerations}, {Surgery} of the {Intracranial} {Aneurysms} and {Results}. Newyork: Thieme; 1984. Abstract

Clinical Considerations, Surgery of the Intracranial Aneurysma and Results

Yaşargil MG. Clinical {Considerations}, {Surgery} of the {Intracranial} {Aneurysms} and {Results}. Thieme; 1984. Abstract

Clinical Considerations, Surgery of the Intracranial Aneurysma and Results

O PROFORINDADA. "A clinical, biochemical and histochemical study of carcinoma of the cervix as seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 1985 Apr;62(4):271-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 Apr;62(4):271-8. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1985. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
Thaiyah AG;, Nyaga PN;, Maribei JM;, Mbuthia PG;, Ngatia, T.A; Kimeto BA, Ngatia, T.A; Kimeto BA. "The clinical, biochemical, haematological and pathological effects of long-term administration of Solanum incanum L. to goats."; 2006.
Thaiyah AG;, Nyaga PN;, Maribei JM;, Mbuthia PG;, Ngatia TA;, Kimeto BA. "The clinical, biochemical, haematological and pathological effects of long-term administration of Solanum incanum L. to goats."; 2006.
Thaiyah AG;, Nyaga PN;, Maribei JM;, Mbuthia PG;, Ngatia TA;, Kimeto BA. "The clinical, biochemical, haematological and pathological effects of long-term administration of Solanum incanum L. to goats."; 2006.
Thaiyah AG;, Nyaga PN;, Maribei JM;, Mbuthia PG;, Ngatia TA;, Kimeto BA. "The clinical, biochemical, haematological and pathological effects of long-term administration of Solanum incanum L. to goats."; 2006.
M PROFBHATTKIRNA. "Clinical, haematological and parasitological response to treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in Kenya. A study of 64 patients. Trop Geogr Med. 1984 Mar;36(1):21-35.". In: Trop Geogr Med. 1984 Mar;36(1):21-35. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1984. Abstract
PIP: Malaria is the most prevalent and devastating public health problem in Africa despite much research and control effort over the last two decades. In most parts of Africa, individuals should take 200 mg of Proguanil daily together with chloroquine 5 mg/kg per week as prophylaxis. Pregnant women and individuals with underlying disease such as sickle cell making them susceptible to severe or complicated malaria, however, should take just 200 mg Proguanil daily. In hard-core multi-drug resistance areas, mefloquine 250 mg once weekly together with chloroquine 300 mg weekly is recommended as prophylaxis. Since no anti-malarial drug confers absolute protection against infection, however, using mosquito nets impregnated with permethrin, insecticides, and mosquito repellents is also advocated for those at high risk of severe malaria. The need also exists to treat cases of malaria when prevention is unsuccessful. Chloroquine in total dose 25 mg/Kg over three days is the first choice treatment of uncomplicated malaria in 4-aminoquinoline sensitive areas. Amodiaquine 25 mg/Kg over three days is the second line treatment, while pyrimethamine/sulphonamide combinations are useful in areas where there is resistance to 4-aminoquinalines. Finally, quinine 10 mg/kg every eight hours for seven days is the treatment of choice for severe and complicated malaria.
Muthee JK, Mbaria JM, Thaiyah AG, Karanja DN, Gakuya DW. "Clinical, Haematological, Biochemical and Pathological Manifestations of Sub-acute Toxicity of Nicandra physaloides (L) Gaertn in Calves." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 2011;59:17-24.
Mwangi WE, Kimeli P, Oliang'a F, Shah D, Mande JD, Kariuki E, Gakuya F. "Clinical, Hemato-Biochemical, Histopathological Features and Surgical Management of Pyometra in a Captive African Lioness (Panthera Leo).". In: 49th annual Kenya Veterinary Scientific Conference. Busia-Kenya; 2015.
JK M, JM M, AG T, DN K, DW G. "Clinical, hematological, biochemical and pathological manifestations of subacute toxicity due to Nicadra physaloides (L) Gaertn in calves." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production Africa. 2011;59:53-59.
Kihu SM, Gitao GC, Bebora LC, J NM, Wairire GC, Maingi N, Wahome RG, Karanja DN, and others. "Clinical, Pathological and Molecular Investigations of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Infection in Goats from Turkana County in Kenya." British Journal of Virology. 2014;1:98-102.
Kihu SM, Gitao CG, Bebora LC, Munene JN, Wairire GG, Maingi N, Wahome RG, D.N. Karanja, Oyugi JO, Lutomia E. "Clinical, Pathological and Molecular Investigations of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus Infection in Goats from Turkana County in Kenya. ." British Journal of Virology. 2014;3(1):98-102.ppr_turkana.pdf
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "CLINICAL, SEROLOGICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL RESPONSE IN GOATS INFECTED WITH CORYNEBACTERIUM PSEUDOTUBERCULOSIS THROUGH CUTANEOUS AND SUBCUTANEOUS ROUTES.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1997. Abstract
Goats were injected with caseous pus containing 106 colony forming units CFU of C. pseudotuberculosis either subcutaneously (s/c), intradermally (i/d) or smeared with caseous pus on either scarified or intact skin. All animals were then examined regulary for clinical abnormalities and also for antibodies to C. pseudotuberculosis. All animals were sacrificed 10 weeks after infection and examined for caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) lesions.  Acute lameness was observed in all animals infected s/c but not in the other groups. The regional draining lymph nodes were detected palpably swollen by day three post infection in all animals infected i/d and in one infected on scarified skin. The route of infection did not influence the onset of serological response but animals infected i/d had more rapid and higher response. At post mortem, animals infected s/c; i/d or on scarified skin had abscesses in the regional draining lymph nodes but those infected on intact skin had none. These results indicted that CLA can be transmitted through either s/c, i/d or through scarified skin but that infection through intact skin was unlikely. The disease induced by i/d injection or on scarified skin was more typical of the natural disease in that it had no acute clinical signs.
J.K.Muthee, J.M. Mbaria, A.G.Thaiyah, D.N. Karanja, D.W. Gakuya. "Clinical,haematological,biochemical and pathological manifestation of sub-acute toxicity of Nicandra physaloides(L) Gaertan in calves." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 2011;59:17-24.
Kitonyi GW, Macharia WM MOW. "Clinical- pathologic Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes in Children with Neuroblastoma at the Kenyatta National Hospital Nairobi." EAMJ. 2009;(86):39-46. AbstractWebsite

Objertive: To determine clinical-pathologic characteristics, treatment modalities and treatment outcomes of children diagnosed with neuroblastoma.
Design: Cross- sectional descriptive study based on secondary data from patient records.
Setting: Records department of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), a tertiary teaching and referral hospital based in Nairobi.
Subjects: Children aged 15 years and below, admitted with the diagnosis of neuroblastoma, between January 1997 and December 2005.
Main outcome measures: Presenting clinical features, diagnostic modalities including laboratory and imaging data, treatment modalities, response to treatment and patient survival.

Kihu SK, Gitao CG, Bebora LC, Munene JN, Wairire GD, Maingi N, Wahome RG, Karanja DN, Oyugi JO, e. Lutomia. "Clinical.pathological and Molecular investigations of Peste des Petits Ruminants virus infection from Turkana County in Kenya." British Journal of Virology. 2014;1(3):98-102.bjv_1_3_98-102.pdf
Braitstein P, Siika A, Hogan J, Kosgei R, Sang E, Sidle J, Wools-Kaloustian K, Keter A, Mamlin J, Kimaiyo S. "A clinician-nurse model to reduce early mortality and increase clinic retention among high-risk HIV-infected patients initiating combination antiretroviral treatment." J Int AIDS Soc. 2012;15(1):7. Abstracta_clinician-nurse_model_to_reduce_early_mortality_and_increase_clinic_retention_among_high-risk_hiv-infected_patients_initiating_combination_antiretroviral_treatment.pdf

In resource-poor settings, mortality is at its highest during the first 3 months after combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) initiation. A clear predictor of mortality during this period is having a low CD4 count at the time of treatment initiation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect on survival and clinic retention of a nurse-based rapid assessment clinic for high-risk individuals initiating cART in a resource-constrained setting.

Chindia M, Gathece L, Dimba EAO, Kamau MW, D.awange. "Clinico-histopathologic types of maxillofacial malignancies with emphasis sarcomas-A 10 Year Review.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

Sarcomas are malignant neoplasms that occur anywhere in the human body. Though their occurrence in the head and neck region is rare vis-a-vis other malignancies, their presence is of tremendous concern due to their often grave prognosis. Objective: To determine the pattern of occurrence, histopathologic types of maxillofacial sarcomas and their proportion to other malignant neoplasms of this region based on archival material accumulated over 10 years (2000-2009). Design: A combined retrospective and prospective cross-sectional study. Setting: The University of Nairobi Dental Hospital (UNDH).
Subjects: All caseswithadiagnosisofsarcomaregisteredbetween2000-2009wereevaluated. Results: Of the 528 malignancies recorded over the ten-year period, 427 (80.9%) were of epithelial origin while 101 (19.1 %) were sarcomas. Patients with epithelial malignancies were older (54.16 ± 15.94 years) than patients with sarcomas (31.73 ± 16.78) with the differences having been statistically significant. Osteosarcoma was the most commonly occurring sarcoma (29.7%), followed by Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) (28.7%), fibrosarcoma (FBS) (18.8%), and rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) (9.9%). Sarcomas peaked in the third decade with 70% occurring below the age of 40 years. The maxilla and the mandible were the most afflicted sites in the maxillofacial region accounting' for 52%. The patients on average presented to medical personel about nine months after noticing the lesion with the most frequent complaint having been swelling.
Conclusion: The present study confirms the relative rarity of maxillofacial sarcomas. It also provides data on the histopathologic types and demographic characteristics of maxillofacial sarcomas in a select Kenyan population. This information is a contribution to the comprehensive documentation of sarcomas that occur globally and is useful in the provision of baseline data upon which future prospective analytical protocols may arise.

M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Clinico-pathological analysis of jaw tumours and tumour-like conditions at the Kenyatta national hospital. East Afr Med J. 1997 Feb;74(2):65-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1997 Feb;74(2):65-8. University of Nairobi Press; 1997. Abstract
This paper presents an analysis of 568 jaw tumours and tumour-like conditions seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital over a period of fifteen years. For descriptive purposes, the term tumour is used here in its wider context to cover both neoplastic and dysplastic jaw lesions which present primarily as jaw swellings. The study reveals a pattern consistent with other African series and suggests a more aggressive progression and younger age at onset than elsewhere.
KAAYA, G.P. WINGVISTANDJOHNSONGLW. "Clinico-pathological aspects of Trypanosoma congolense infection in goats." Bulletin of animal Health and production in Africa. 1977;25:397-408.
Muse E, Matondo RB, Karimuribo E, Misinzo G, Albano M, Gitao CG. "Clinico-pathological findings of the 2011 outbreak of Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) in Tandahimba district, southern Tanzania." Research Opinions in Animal & Veterinary Sciences. 2012;2(4):256-262.
Maina SM, Gitao CG, Gathumbi PK. "Clinico-pathological Observations in Sheep & Goats Exposed to Lineage III Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus Infection in Kenya." Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Science. 2015;3(1):72-80.
Maina SM, Gitao CG, Gathumbi PK. "CLINICO-PATHOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS IN SHEEP & GOATS EXPOSED TO LINEAGE III PESTE DES PETITS RUMINANTS VIRUS INFECTION IN KENYA." Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences,. 2015;3(1):ISSN No. 2320-8694.jebas_pathol_maina_et_al.pdf
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Clock-Time,Mwangaza 2.2 (July 2002): 10.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Literature 1 (March 2003): 15-22. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2002. Abstract

Borrowing its title from William Shakespeare's King Lear, this article examines some aesthetic and cognitive characteristics of some indigenous ethnic myths in Kenya as a subgenre of the oral narrative. The article asserts that human beings create the myth to help them make sense of human existence

UoN Websites Search