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PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Chemical Characteristics, with particular reference to phosphorus, of the rivers draining into Lake Naivasha, Kenya.". In: Hydrobiologia. 488:57-71. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
Fombong AT, Teal PEA, Arbogast RT, Ndegwa PN, Irungu LW, Torto B. "Chemical communication in the honey bee scarab pest Oplostomus harlodi: Role of (Z)-9- Pentacosene." Journal of Chemical Ecology. 2012;38:1463-1473.Website
Fombong AT, Teal TE, Arbogast RT, Ndegwa PN, Irungu LW, Torto B. "Chemical communication in the honey bee scarab pest Oplostomus haroldi: role of (Z)-9-pentacosene." Journal of Chemical Ecology. 2012;38(12):1463-1473. AbstractPubMed link

Oplostomus haroldi Witte belongs to a unique genus of afro-tropical scarabs that have associations with honey bee colonies, from which they derive vital nutrients. Although the attributes of the honey bee nest impose barriers to communication among nest invaders, this beetle still is able to detect conspecific mates for reproduction. Here, we show, through behavioral studies, that cuticular lipids serve as mate discrimination cues in this beetle. We observed five steps during mating: arrestment, alignment, mounting, and copulation, and a post-copulatory stage, lasting ~40–70 % of the total mating duration, that suggested mate guarding. Chemical analysis identified the same nine straight-chain alkanes (C23–C31), six methyl-branched alkanes (6), and five mono-unsaturated alkenes in the cuticular lipids of both sexes. Methyl alkanes constituted the major component (46 %) of male cuticular lipids, while mono-unsaturated alkenes were most abundant (53 %) in females. (Z)-9-Pentacosene was twice as abundant in females than in males, and ~20 fold more concentrated in beetles than in worker bees. In mating assays, (Z)-9-pentacosene elicited arrestment, alignment, and mounting, but not copulation, by male beetles. These results represent the first evidence of a contact sex pheromone in a scarab beetle. Such contact pheromones may be an essential, cryptic mechanism for arthropods associated with eusocial insects.

Gakuubi M, Wagacha J, Dossaji S, Wanzala W. "Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils of Tagetes minuta (Asteraceae) against Selected Plant Pathogenic Bacteria." International Journal of Microbiology. 2016;2016:1-9. Abstracttagetes_2016.pdf

The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils (EOs) of Tagetes minuta against three phytopathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis.The essential oils were extracted using steam distillation method in a modified Clevengertype apparatus while antibacterial activity of the EOs was evaluated by disc diffusion method. Gas chromatography coupled to
mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used for analysis of the chemical profile of the EOs. Twenty compounds corresponding to 96% of the total essential oils were identified with 70% and 30% of the identified components being monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, respectively.The essential oils of T. minuta revealed promising antibacterial activities against the test pathogens with Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola being the most susceptible with mean inhibition zone diameters of 41.83 and 44.83mm after 24 and
48 hours, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations of the EOs on the test bacteria were in the ranges of 24–48mg/mL and 95–190mg/mL, respectively.These findings provide a scientific basis for the use of T. minuta essential oils as a botanical pesticide for management of phytopathogenic bacteria.

Gakuubi M, Wagacha J, Dossaji S, Wanzala W. "Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils of Tagetes minuta (Asteraceae) against selected phytopathogenic fungi." American Journal of Essential Oils and Natural Products. 2016;4(3):16-26. Abstract4-3-5.1.pdfWebsite

Over the years, management of plant pathogenic fungi has primarily relied on the use of synthetic
chemical fungicides. However, in the recent past, exploration for biologically active compounds from
plants with the aim of discovery and development of novel and eco-friendly biopesticides to combat
current and emerging plant pathogenic fungi has received increased interest. This study aimed at
extraction and characterization of Tagetes minuta essential oils (EOs) as well as evaluation of their
antifungal activity against selected phytopathogenic fungi namely: Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani,
Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. niger. Essential oils were extracted using the steam distillation
method in a modified Clevenger-type apparatus. The antifungal activity of the EOs was assessed by disc
diffusion method while gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used for characterization
of the chemical components of the EOs. Twenty compounds corresponding to 96% of the total essential
oils and constituting a mixture of monoterpenes (70%) and sesquiterpenes (30%) were identified in the
Eos. They included elixene and silphiperfol-6-ene, which are being reported for the first time in essential
oils of Tagetes minuta. The EOs of T. minuta exhibited potent antifungal activity against the studied
fungi with the highest growth inhibition observed in F. oxysporum and A. niger with mean inhibition
zones of 28.7mm after five days of incubation. Four out of the five test fungi fell within the category of
extremely sensitive (inhibition zone diameters ≥ 20mm) when subjected to the crude EOs. The minimum
inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of the EOs against the
fungi were in the ranges of 24 - 95mg/mL and 24 - 190mg/mL, respectively. This study thus lays down
significant groundwork for a more comprehensive study on the practical feasibility of using T. minuta
EOs as possible alternative to synthetic fungicides in the management of economically important
phytopathogenic fungi.

Matasyoh, Lexa G., Josphat C. Matasyoh, Francis N. Wachira, Miriam G. Kinyua, Muigai ATW, Mukiama TK. "Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum L. growing in Eastern Kenya." African Journal of Biotechnology. 2007;6:760-765 .
Kiprop EK;, Narla RD;, Mibey RK;, Akundabweni LMS. "Chemical Control Of Septoria Leaf Spot On Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp,) In Kenya."; 2007. Abstract

Three foliar fungicides namely, Antracol, Kocide 101 and Folicur were evaluated for the control of Septoria leaf spot caused by S. vignicola V.G. Rao on cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] at two field sites in Kenya: Kabete and Katumani. The cowpea variety used was the high yielding Machakos 66 that was also susceptible to Septoria leaf spot. Reduction in disease incidence and severity of Septoria leaf spot on cowpea was obtained with the three fungicides. However, significant (P≤0.05) increase in seed yields was obtained when Kocide 101 and Antracol were applied to cowpea plants with the disease at Katumani. Folicur was found to be phytotoxic to cowpea plants and hence reduced plant dry weight and seed yield at both sites. Based on the cost-benefit analysis of the fungicides in the present study, Antracol and Kocide 101 are recommended for the control of Septoria leaf spot on high yielding cowpea varieties in arid and semi-arid areas. The Pearson correlation (r) between the disease incidence and seed yield was 0.75 (P=0.46), while that between disease severity and seed yield was 1.00 (P=0.01).

Kiprop EK;, Narla, R. D.; Mibey ARK; LM, Mibey RK;, Akundabweni LMS. "Chemical Control Of Septoria Leaf Spot On Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp,) In Kenya."; 2007. Abstract

Three foliar fungicides namely, Antracol, Kocide 101 and Folicur were evaluated for the control of Septoria leaf spot caused by S. vignicola V.G. Rao on cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] at two field sites in Kenya: Kabete and Katumani. The cowpea variety used was the high yielding Machakos 66 that was also susceptible to Septoria leaf spot. Reduction in disease incidence and severity of Septoria leaf spot on cowpea was obtained with the three fungicides. However, significant (P≤0.05) increase in seed yields was obtained when Kocide 101 and Antracol were applied to cowpea plants with the disease at Katumani. Folicur was found to be phytotoxic to cowpea plants and hence reduced plant dry weight and seed yield at both sites. Based on the cost-benefit analysis of the fungicides in the present study, Antracol and Kocide 101 are recommended for the control of Septoria leaf spot on high yielding cowpea varieties in arid and semi-arid areas. The Pearson correlation (r) between the disease incidence and seed yield was 0.75 (P=0.46), while that between disease severity and seed yield was 1.00 (P=0.01).

M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Chemical studies of Kenyan Tea Seeds: Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the kernel Oil", TEA, (1), 23-28.". In: Trop. Sci., 29, 207-213 (1989). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1985. Abstract
   
Mutiso, P.B.C. NMYSG, et al. "Chemical studies on roots of Uvaria welwitschii." J. Nat. Med . 2011;65:313-321 .
Yenesew A., and E. Dagne WAIGPG. "The Chemical Systematics of the Rutaceae, Subfamily Toddalioideae in Africa." Biochemical Systematics and Ecology . 1988;16:179-188. Abstractpaper_4_dagne_et_al__biochemical_sys_eco..1988.pdf

A recent investigation of five Ethiopian species of the Rutaceae subfamily Toddalioideae, Teclea nobilis, T. simplicifolia, T. borenensis, Vepris dainellii and V. glomerata has led to the identification of alkaloids of the 2-quinolone, dihydrofuroquinoline, linear pyranoquinoline, furoquinoline and acridone types. The distribution of alkaloids and limonoids among African genera of the Toddalioideae is discussed in relation to their potential importance for an understanding of the systematics of this group of species.

http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke:8080/xmlui/handle/123456789/51366. "Chemicals in the livestock industry."; 2001.
W DRMUTHOMIJAMES. "Chemining.". In: African Journal of Horticultural Science 5: 92-97. Horticultural Association of Kenya; 2011.
W DRMUTHOMIJAMES. "Chemining.". In: Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 6(7):1113-1118. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute; 2007.
W DRMUTHOMIJAMES. "Chemining.". In: Botswana Journal of Agriculture and Applied Sciences 3 (2): 164-169. Asian network for Scientific Information; 2007.
W DRMUTHOMIJAMES. "Chemining.". In: 10th KARI Biennial Scientific Conference, 113-17 November 2006, Nairobi, Kenya. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute; 2006. Abstract
Fusarium culmorum is an important pathogen of wheat causing seedling blight, foot rot, and head blight (FHB) or scab. The pathogen is dominant in cooler areas like north, central and western Europe. The fungus reproduces asexually by means of conidia, which form the main mode of dispersal. Head blight is by far the most serious concern of Fusarium infection on pre-harvest wheat and other small grain cereals. The significance of F. culmorum in wheat production is attributed to both head blight and mycotoxin contamination of the grain harvested from infected ears. Ear infection mainly occurs during anthesis and is favoured by wet weather or high humidity and warm temperatures. The major mycotoxins produced by F. culmorum are deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone, which are a potential health hazard for both humans and animals. The mycotoxins, especially deoxynivalenol, are believed to play a role in disease development. Available options of managing Fusarium head blight include use of fungicides, cultural practices, resistant varieties and biological agents. However, no wheat variety is completely resistant to Fusarium head blight while fungicides are at most 70% effective against natural infection. This review seeks to document and infer information on F. culmorum, with special emphasis on wheat head blight infection process, mechanisms of mycotoxin production, the role the mycotoxins play in pathogenesis, and the possible management options.
W DRMUTHOMIJAMES, N DRCHEMININGWAGEORGE. "Chemining.". In: 7th Biennial Conference of the African Crop Science Society, 5th . African Crop Science Society; 2005. Abstract
Fusarium culmorum is an important pathogen of wheat causing seedling blight, foot rot, and head blight (FHB) or scab. The pathogen is dominant in cooler areas like north, central and western Europe. The fungus reproduces asexually by means of conidia, which form the main mode of dispersal. Head blight is by far the most serious concern of Fusarium infection on pre-harvest wheat and other small grain cereals. The significance of F. culmorum in wheat production is attributed to both head blight and mycotoxin contamination of the grain harvested from infected ears. Ear infection mainly occurs during anthesis and is favoured by wet weather or high humidity and warm temperatures. The major mycotoxins produced by F. culmorum are deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone, which are a potential health hazard for both humans and animals. The mycotoxins, especially deoxynivalenol, are believed to play a role in disease development. Available options of managing Fusarium head blight include use of fungicides, cultural practices, resistant varieties and biological agents. However, no wheat variety is completely resistant to Fusarium head blight while fungicides are at most 70% effective against natural infection. This review seeks to document and infer information on F. culmorum, with special emphasis on wheat head blight infection process, mechanisms of mycotoxin production, the role the mycotoxins play in pathogenesis, and the possible management options.
Likimani T. Chemistry and its applications.; 2001. Abstract

PREFACE To reap the full benefit of any product available in the market, consumers should know the types of raw materials in the products, the way in which the products perform their job, and the precautions that need to be taken when using the products. With some basic knowledge of chemistry, the small print on the label becomes important to the consumer and may lead to a better selection and use of the product purchased. The first chapter of this book deals primarily with the chemical nature of both living and non-living things. Chapter Two places emphasis on the innate curiosity of man and his use of experimentation in the evolution of important chemical transformation processes that bring about changes in matter. These reaction processes are employed in the chemical industries discussed in the subsequent chapters; their inclusion therefore seeks to bring the study of chemistry into focus in the student's life. The rest of the text material, which can be built on a very thoughtful analysis of chemical theory or a simple notion of atoms, molecules and a few molecular geometries and interactions, enlightens the student on the many ways in which chemical knowledge has been applied to solve practical problems. An innovative approach to the problem of teaching students something about the chemical processes which touch upon their daily lives is discussed under various chemical aspects including: isolation of metals from their ores and salts and their uses, nuclear processes and their applications, the manufacture of soaps and detergents, synthetic fibres and surface-coating products, beauty aids, perfumes and flavouring agents, foods, agrochemical and animal health products, fermentation reaction products and medicines, environmental chemical pollution, chemical poisons and their basis of toxicity, the role of chemistry in industrial and economic development (with a discussion on some critical industries) and, finally, safety precautions against chemical hazards. Although some of the exercises provided at the end of each chapter are meant to test the reader's understanding of concepts, a few open-ended questions have been added to stimulate the bright student and to involve him or her in some of the inevitable controversies of chemical science. A few references have been provided to encourage the enthusiastic student to develop a taste for studying in depth a particular point of interest.

I.O JUMBA, T.LIKIMANI. "Chemistry and its applications. ISBN 9966 846 247.". In: Nairobi University Press. 315 pp. Association of Africa Universities; 2001. Abstract

PREFACE
To reap the full benefit of any product available in the market, consumers should know the types of raw materials in the products, the way in which the products perform their job, and the precautions that need to be taken when using the products. With some basic knowledge of chemistry, the small print on the label becomes important to the consumer and may lead to a better selection and use of the product purchased.
The first chapter of this book deals primarily with the chemical nature of both living and non-living things. Chapter Two places emphasis on the innate curiosity of man and his use of experimentation in the evolution of important chemical transformation processes that bring about changes in matter. These reaction processes are employed in the chemical industries discussed in the subsequent chapters; their inclusion therefore seeks to bring the study of chemistry into focus in the student's life.
The rest of the text material, which can be built on a very thoughtful analysis of chemical theory or a simple notion of atoms, molecules and a few molecular geometries and interactions, enlightens the student on the many ways in which chemical knowledge has been applied to solve practical problems. An innovative approach to the problem of teaching students something about the chemical processes which touch upon their daily lives is discussed under various chemical aspects including: isolation of metals from their ores and salts and their uses, nuclear processes and their applications, the manufacture of soaps and detergents, synthetic fibres and surface-coating products, beauty aids, perfumes and flavouring agents, foods, agrochemical and animal health products, fermentation reaction products and medicines, environmental chemical pollution, chemical poisons and their basis of toxicity, the role of chemistry in industrial and economic development (with a discussion on some critical industries) and, finally, safety precautions against chemical hazards.
Although some of the exercises provided at the end of each chapter are meant to test the reader's understanding of concepts, a few open-ended questions have been added to stimulate the bright student and to involve him or her in some of the inevitable controversies of chemical science. A few references have been provided to encourage the enthusiastic student to develop a taste for studying in depth a particular point of interest.

S. PROFEL-BUSAIDYABDULGAFURH. "Chemistry Laboratory Curriculum in Relation toIndustry and Industrial Training". Curriculum written for UNESCO for distribution to Universities in Africa Region.". In: Presented, NUSESA Maintenance of Equipment for the Advancement of Science Regional Conference, Sheraton Hotel, Kampala, Uganda, 3-4 December 2001. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 1984.
Langat MK, Crouch N, Ndunda B, Midiwo JO, Aldhaher A, Alqahtani A, Mulholland DA. "The Chemistry of African Croton species." Planta Medica. 2016;81(S 01):384. AbstractFull text link

The genus Croton is one of the largest of Euphorbiaceae sensu stricto, and consists of over 1300 species of trees, shrubs and herbs that are distributed worldwide in the warm tropics and subtropics. It is reported that 124 Croton species occur in continental Africa whilst a further 156 species are endemic to Madagascar. Another 12 species occur in the Indian Ocean islands of Comoros, Mauritius, Reunion and Sao Tome and Principe [1]. We discuss the chemistry, chemotaxonomic patterns and biological activities of selected compounds from ten African Croton taxa: C. alienus, C. dichogamus, C. gratissimus var. gratissimus, C. megalobotrys, C. megalocarpoides, C. megalocarpus, C. menyhartii, C. pseudopulchellus, C. rivularis and C. sylvaticus. Examples of compounds to be presented include cembranoids (1-3) from C. gratissimus var. gratissimus [2,3], ent-kauranes (4-5) from C. pseudopulchellus [4], ent-clerodanes (6-8) from C. sylvaticus, C. megalocarpus and C. megalocarpoidies, and both halimanes (9) and crotofolanes (10 – 11) from C. dichogamus. Triterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, flavonoids and cyclohexanol derivatives from Croton will also be discussed. Selected cembranoids from C. gratissimus were tested against a chloroquine-sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum (D10) and against the PEO1 and PEO1TaxR ovarian cancer cell lines [2]. Compound 1 showed moderate activity against the PEO1 (IC50= 132 nM) and PEO1TaxR (IC50= 200 nM) ovarian cancer cell lines. Selected ent-kauranoids were tested for their effects on Semliki Forest Virus replication and for cytotoxicity against human liver tumour cells (Huh-7 strain). Other Croton-derived compounds were tested for antimicrobial and antifungal activities [5,6], antiplasmodial activity using two strains of Plasmodium falciparum, antileishmanial activities against Leishmania donovanii [5], and cytotoxic activity against NCI59 cancer cell panels, and colorectal and VERO cancer cell lines.
Keywords: Croton, Euphorbiaceae, ent-clerodanes, cembranoids, crotofolanes

WAMBUGU LYDIAH, WANJIRU ANN. Chemistry Practical Book. Nairobi: Pavement Publishers; 2007.
Mukhono PM, Angeyo HK, Dehayem-Massop A, Kaduki KA. "Chemometrics -Assisted Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of High Background Radiation Areas Geothermal Field Matrices.". In: African Spectral Imaging Network (AFSIN) International Workshop on Spectral Imaging in Remote Sensing. Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
Dehayem-Massop A, Angeyo HK, Kaduki KA. "Chemometrics and Machine Learning Approaches for Direct and Rapid Quantitative and Exploratory Analysis of Trace Elements by LIBS.". In: LAM 10 International Workshop: Optics Photonics and Lasers in Science and Technology for Sustainable Development. 13-18 January 2014, Dakar, Senegal; 2014. Abstract
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K AH, Dehayem-kamadjeu A, R. L. Wabwile, J. Okonda, Irungu. JG. Chemometrics and Machine Learning Assisted Spectral Diagnostics of Cancer.. Trieste (ICTP), Italy, 16-19 September 2013. ; 2013.poster_triestre_bon1.pptx
Yenesew A., van B-E. WADE. "Chemotaxonomic significance of anthraquinones in the roots of Asphodeloideae (Aspholdelaceae)." Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 1995; 23: 277-281. Abstractpaper_18_van_wyk_et_al_biochemical_sys_eco_1995_23_277.pdf

The distribution of seven anthraquinones in the roots of some 46 species belonging to the genera Asphodelus, Asphodeline, Bulbine, Bulbinella and Kniphofia was studied by TLC and HPLC, 1,8-Dihydroxyanthraquinones based on a chrysophanol unit are the main constituents of the subterranean metabolism in the subfamily Asphodeloideae. The genera Bulbine, Bulbinella and Kniphofia elaborate knipholone-type compounds. These compounds appear to be characteristic constituents for the three genera Bulbine, Bulbinella and Kniphofia and support the idea that Kniphofia is not related to the Alooideae.

Yenesew., B-E., van Wyk DE. "Chemotaxonomic significance of root anthraquinones and pre-anthraquinones in the genus Lomatophyllum (Asphodelacae)." Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 1995;23 :805-808. Abstractpaper_19_van_wyk_et_al_biochemical_sys_eco_1995_23_805.pdf

The roots of seven species of Lomatophyllum were analysed by TLC and HPLC for the presence of nine different anthraquinones and pre-anthraquinones which are all known to be characteristic constituents of the subterranean metabolism of Aloe. Chrysophanol and asphodelin were detected in all the samples analysed. In addition, the 1-methyl-8-hydroxyanthraquinones aloesaponarin I, aloesaponarin II and laccaic acid d-methyl ester, together with the corersponding pre-anthraquinones were detected in all seven species. The results support the inclusion of Lomatophyllum in Aloe.

Yenesew A., and B-E., van Wyk DE. "Chemotaxonomic survey of anthraquinones and pre-anthraquinones in roots of Aloe species." Biochemical Systematics and Ecology . 1995;23:267-275. Abstractpaper_17_van_wyk_et_al_biochemical_sys_eco_1995_23_267.pdf

Root samples from 172 species of Aloe were surveyed by TLC and HPLC for the presence of anthraquinones and pre-anthraquinones. With the exception of the three species of the series Serrulatae, 1,8-Dihydroxyanthraquinones (chrysophanol and asphodelin) were detected in all the species sampled. Compounds derived through the 1-methyl-8-hydroxyanthraquinone pathway, i.e. aloesaponarin I, aloesaponarin II and laccaic acid d-methyl ester, together with their corresponding pre-anthraquinones were detected in 129 species. The results also show that isoeleutherol is a useful chemotaxonomic character for the series Saponarieae.

Derese S, Yenesew A, Midiwo JO, Heydenreich, Peter MG. "The Chemotaxonomic Value Of Anthraquinones In Asphodelaceae.". 1994.Website
GICHOVI PROFMBOGOHSTEPHEN. "Chengole, J.M., L.N. Kimenye and S.G. Mbogoh (2003). Engendered Analysis of the Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Smallholder Dairy Productivity: Experience from Kenya.". In: 25th International Conference of the International Association of Agricultural Economists (IAAE), Durban, South Africa. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 2003. Abstract
Department of Pathology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Red blood cells and lysate products (erythrolysate) are observed consistently in lymph draining acute and chronic inflammatory reactions and from tissues subjected to trauma or surgical procedures. Using hemoglobin as a marker for erythrolysate, we have measured hemoglobin in lymph up to the 10(-6) M range in a number of pathophysiological states. Data demonstrate that erythrolysate alters the pumping characteristics of lymphatic vessels. To test the effects of erythrolysate on lymphatic pumping, bovine lymphatics were suspended in an organ bath preparation with the vessels cannulated at both inflow and outflow ends. By raising the heights of the Krebs reservoir and the outflow catheters appropriately, a transmural pressure that stimulated pumping activity could be applied to the vessels. With a fixed transmural pressure of 6 cm H2O applied to the ducts, sheep erythrolysate depressed pumping activity between 40% and 100%, with dilutions containing between 10(-8) and 10(-5) M hemoglobin. Although the active principle in the red blood cells has not been characterized, evidence from precipitation purification experiments suggests that hemoglobin is an important component. Once suppressed, pumping could be restored in many but not all vessels (often to control levels) by elevating the distending pressure above 6 cm H2O. The relation between transmural pressure and fluid pumping is expressed as a bell-shaped curve, with pumping increasing up to a peak pressure (usually 8 cm H2O) and declining at pressures above this level. By comparing pressure/flow curves, we were able to ascertain that hemoglobin shifted the lymphatic function curve to the right and, on average, reduced the maximum pumping capability of the vessels. We speculate that the presence of erythrolysate/hemoglobin in lymph may modulate the ability of lymphatic vessels to drain liquid and protein from the tissue spaces.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Chepkairor, M.J. and Waithaka, Kimani, 1985. Growth and flowering of Alstroemeria. Acta Horticulturae, 218: 115-120.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1985. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Chepkairor, M.J. and Waithaka, Kimani, 1988. The effect of floral preservatives on the vase-life of Alstroemeria cut flowers. East African Agricultural & Forestry Journal, 53:229-231.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1988. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Mwabu GM. chepkoechjosh@gmail.com.; 1986.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Cheruiyot, P.K., W. Ndiema, C.K.W. and Ngunjiri, G.M.N. (2003). Greenhouse effects on biogas generation. Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "CHESEREM E, KOMBE Y, OTARA AM, KARANJA JG, AGWANDA R, KARAMA M, MUTSUMI J. Genital and Reproductive Morbidity in Women with Female Genital Schistosomiasis (FGS) in Rachuonyo, Nyanza Province of Kenya. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and C.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. 17: 1, 41-45, February 2004. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: We compared 12-month continuation rates, menstrual bleeding patterns and other aspects of acceptability between users of Cyclofem and users of Depo-Provera. METHODS: The life-table method was used to calculate quarterly continuation rates. In all, 360 Kenyan women were randomly assigned to one of the two contraceptives. User-satisfaction questionnaires were administered at 6 and 12 months or at discontinuation, whichever occurred first. RESULTS: The 1-year continuation rate was 75.4% for Depo-Provera users versus 56.5% for Cyclofem users (p<.001). Main reasons for discontinuation included difficulty making clinic visits (45.1% for Cyclofem vs. 40% for Depo-Provera), menstrual changes (14.1% vs. 12.5%) and nonmenstrual problems (15.5% vs. 12.5%). None of the Depo-Provera users and 8.5% of the Cyclofem users claimed frequency of visits as the main reason for discontinuation. In all, 70.6% of the Depo-Provera users were amenorrheic after 12 months, as were 20.8% of the Cyclofem users. CONCLUSIONS: The 1-year continuation rate was higher for Depo-Provera than for Cyclofem. There was no important difference in discontinuation rates because of menstrual problems; the difference mainly reflected the frequency of visits required.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "CHESEREM E, KOMBE Y, OTARA AM, KARANJA JG, AGWANDA R, KARAMA M, MUTSUMI J. Genital and Reproductive Morbidity in Women with Female Genital Schistosomiasis (FGS) in Rachuonyo, Nyanza Province of Kenya. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and C.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. 17: 1, 41-45, February 2004. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2004. Abstract
Effects of calcium supplementation in patient at risk of pregnancy induced Hypertension. (This was an experimental double blind randomized clinical trial.) J. Obset. Gynaecol. East Cent.Afr 2005, 18:49-59
MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL. "Chest x-rays in children with acute respiratory infections or bronchospasm at Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J . 1984 Dec; 61 ( 12 ): 900-6 . No abstract available. PMID: 6536466 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Wafula EM, Muruka FJ.". In: East Afr Med J . 1984 Dec; 61 ( 12 ): 900-6 . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1984. Abstract
No abstract available.
STUART DRGONTIERCHRISTOPHER. "Chiappini J, Arbib F, Heyraud JD, Flechaire A, Gontier C. Subacute idiopathic eosinophilic pneumopathy with favorable outcome without corticotherapy. Rev Mal Respir. 1995;12(1):25-8.". In: Rev Mal Respir. 1995;12(1):25-8. uon press; 1995. Abstract

Service de Pneumologie, Hopital d'Instruction des Armees Desgenettes, Lyon. The authors report a case of acute idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia, a recently described entity of unknown etiology. The patients develop a rapidly progressive respiratory failure which is reversible following steroid therapy. The key to the diagnosis is an eosinophilia in the broncho-alveolar lavage or in the lung biopsy. Our observation of a favourable outcome in this case without steroid therapy is evidence perhaps of a less aggressive form of the disease.

M DRMUNYUASJ. "Chibeu D. M., Karioki D. I., Munyua S. J. M., and Olaho-Mukani, W. (1996). Causes of abortion and stillbirths in doesin arid and semi-arid areas in Kenya. Kenya Veterinary Association Annual scientific conference, held at Whitesands Hotel, Mombasa, 24-26/.". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Annual scientific conference, held at Whitesands Hotel, Mombasa, 24-26/04/96. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1996. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Chibunda R.T., Wango E.O., Miaron J.O., Oduor-Okelo D. and Winga J. (1997). The effects of dieldrin on the reproductive system of the neonatal male rat.". In: 15th Tanzanian Veterinary Association Scientific Conference, Arusha, 2nd . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1997. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Chibunda R.T., Wango E.O., Miaron O.J., Oduor-Okelo D. and Winga J. (1998). In vitro production of testosterone and plasma levels of luteinising hormone and testosterone in male rats treated with dieldrin.". In: Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Advances in Veterinary Education and Animal Sciences. 5th. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1998. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Chibunda R.T., Wango E.O., Miaron O.J., Oduor-Okelo D. and Winga J.(1997). The effects of dieldrin on the reproductive system of the neonatal male rat. Tanz. Vet. J.,17, 168-175.". In: Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Advances in Veterinary Education and Animal Sciences. 5th. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1997. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Chibunda R.T., Wango E.O., Miaron O.J., Oduor-Okelo D., Pereka A.E.and Winga J. (1998). Effects of dieldrin on plasma testosterone and plasma luteinising hormone in male rats. Tanz. Vet. J. 18 (2), 127-135.". In: Proceedings of the First Meeting of Federation of African Societies of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (FASBMB), pp199-204. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1998. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Chibunda R.T., Wango E.O., Miaron O.J., Winga J., Pereka A. and Oduor-Okello D. (2002). The effect of dieldrin on in vivo and in vitro production of testosterone and plasma levels of luteinising hormone in male rats. Tanz. Vet J. 21 (2), 121-127.". In: Biennial Conference. Faculty of Vet. Medicine. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2002. Abstract
Although a relationship between Lapiat and post-Lapita ceramic traditions has long been suspected, a systematic and detailed examination of the similarities and differences has not been previously made. An important first step is to determine the nature of change from one to the other by examining pottery from sites which have the full ceramic sequence. My analyses of the assemblages from Manus and New Island demonstrate continuity between the two traditions.
Bebora LC. "Chick Morbidity And Mortality.".; 1987.
Kemboi. DC, Bebora. LC, Maingi. N, Nyaga. PN, Mbuthia. PG, Chege. HW, Njagi. LW, J.Githinji. "Chicken parasites and local treatments used against them in Mbeere District, Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2014;vol 26(1).
H.W. Chege, D.C.Kemboi, L.C. Bebora, Maingi N, P.N. Nyaga, Mbuthia PG, Njagi LW. "Chicken parasites and local treatments used against them in Mbeere District, Kenya." Livestock for Research for Rural Development. 2014;26(1).chege_et_al._2014-_chicken_parasites_and_treatment_-lrrd.pdf
Chege. HW, Kemboi. DC, C.Bebora. L, Maingi. N, Nyaga. PN, Mbuthia. PG, Njagi. LW, Githinji. J. "Chicken parasites and local treatments used against them in Mbeere District, Kenya." Kenya. Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2014;26(1).
ATTIYA DRWARIS. "The Chief Justice's Pactice Note (The Lawyer 2000).". In: Global Studies No 37. DFID; 2002. Abstract
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B PROFPATELNILESH, G. PROFKIOYPAUL. "Chien-Hsiun Chen, Toshiki Mizuno, Robert Elston, Monica M Kariuki, Kathleen Hall, Fred Unverzagt, Hugh Hendrie, Samuel Gatere, Paul Kioy, Nilesh B Patel, Robert P Friedland, Raj N Kalaria. (2008) A comparative study to screen dementia and APOE genotypes i.". In: Ethiop. 12(2), 121 - 128. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2008. Abstract

Laboratory of Neurogeriatrics, Department of Neurology and Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Previous studies have established cross-cultural methods to screen for ageing- related dementia and susceptibility genes, in particular Alzheimer's disease (AD) among the Canadian Cree, African Americans and Yoruba in Nigeria. We determined whether the Community Screening Interview for Dementia (CSID), translated into Kikuyu, a major language of Kenya, could be used to evaluate dementia of the Alzheimer type. Using two sets of coefficients of cognitive and informant scores, two discriminant function (DF) scores were calculated for each of 100 elderly (>65 years) Nyeri Kenyans. When the cut-off points were selected for 100% sensitivities, the specificities of the DF scores were remarkably similar (93.75%) in the Kenyan sample. We propose the adapted CSID can be utilised to detect dementia among East Africans. We also show that apolipoprotein E varepsilon4 allele frequencies were high ( approximately 30%) and not different between normal subjects and those with probable AD. There was no evidence to suggest years of education or vascular factors were associated with dementia status.

PMID: 18703255 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Kemoli AM MM, M. M. "Child Abuse: A classic case report with literature review." Child Abuse. 2014;5(2)(Contemp Clin Dent 2014):76-79.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Child battering in Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr Med J . 1993 Nov; 70 ( 11 ): 688-92 . PMID: 8033769 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Sumba RO, Bwibo NO.". In: East Afr Med J . 1993 Nov; 70 ( 11 ): 688-92 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1993. Abstract

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya.

A survey of battered children was carried out at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi between 1st May 1989 and 30th April 1990. Twenty eight cases were identified and compared with twenty six controls, matched for age and sex. The battered children were likely to be aged between three and four years, with slight male predominance. The abusing parents tended to live in crowded environments, were younger in age, less educated and were less likely to be practising contraception. They were relatively new migrants to Nairobi and were socially isolated. The socio-economic and cultural issues are discussed.

PMID: 8033769 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

MATOGO DROMWEGAABIUD. "Child care practices and nutritional status of children 0 -2 years old in Makongeni Estate, Thika, Kenya. East African Medical Journal, 79:524 .". In: Kenya J. Sci. and Tech. (B) vol. 7 (1) 23-28,. Departmental seminar; 2002. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
Maureene Auma Ondayo, Gelas Muse Simiyu, Phillip Okoth Raburu, Were FH. "Child Exposure to Lead in the Vicinities of Informal Used Lead-Acid Battery Recycling Operations in Nairobi Slums, Kenya." Journal of Health and Pollution. 2016;6(12):15-25. Abstractwebsite to access full text

Background. Child exposure to lead from informal used lead-acid battery (ULAB) recycling operations is a serious environmental health problem, particularly in developing countries.

Objectives. We investigated child exposure to lead in the vicinities of ULAB recycling operations in the Dandora, Kariobangi and Mukuru slums in Nairobi between January and August 2015.

Methods. Top soil (n = 232) and floor dust (n = 322) samples were collected from dwelling units (n = 120) and preparatory schools (n = 44) and analyzed using an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer at the Mines and Geological Department Laboratory in the Ministry of Mining, Nairobi. From the obtained lead levels in soil and house dust, child blood lead levels were subsequently predicted using the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model for Lead in Children (IEUBK), Windows version.

Results. Lead loadings in all the floor dust samples from the Dandora, Kariobangi and Mukuru slums exceeded the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guidance value for lead on floors with a range of 65.2 – 58,194 μg/ft2. Control floor dust samples recorded lower lead loadings compared to the Dandora, Kariobangi and Mukuru slums. Lead concentration in 70.7% of the soil samples collected from waste dumps, industrial sites, residential areas, playgrounds and preparatory schools in Dandora, Kariobangi and Mukuru exceeded the respective USEPA guidance values for lead in soils. Lead concentration in 100% of control soil samples were below the respective USEPA limits. The IEUBK model predicted that nearly 99.9% of children ≤ 7 years old living near informal ULAB recycling operations in Dandora, Kariobangi and Mukuru were at risk of being lead poisoned, with predicted blood lead levels (BLL) above the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reference value for blood lead. A total of 99.9% of exposed children living in the Mukuru slums are likely to have BLL above 34 μg/dL.

Conclusions. There is a need for coordinated efforts to decrease lead emissions from informal battery recycling in Nairobi slums and to remediate existing soils, particularly around battery workplaces and dumpsites. The BLL of local children should be clinically tested and appropriate intervention measures taken.

Keywords: soil, house dust, predicted child blood lead, used lead-acid battery recycling, Nairobi slums, IEUBK

Njeru G. "Child Labour in Small and Medium Enterprises.". In: New and Enduring Forms from an African Development Policy Perspective. Nairobi: ILO/IPEC; 2009.
OKECH MROWITIMAURICED. "'Child Labour Legislation in Kenya: A Review'.". In: Victoria Walter and Debbie Betts (eds), Safeguarding Human Rights in Eastern Africa (FES, Kampala), 77. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1996. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
KURIA KAMAU, Alila PO,(eds.) JMN. "Child Labour: A Conceptual Framework, Emergent Trends and Policy Directions." University of Nairobi Press, Nairobi. ISBN 9789789-966783-6074; 2009. Abstract
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Alila PO, Njoka JM. "Child Labour: New and Enduring Forms." Nairobi. ILO/IPEC 2009,ISBN 978-9966-786-07-4; 2012. Abstract
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PATRICK ALILA NM. "Child Labour: New and Enduring Forms." ISBN 978-9966-786-07-4; 2009. Abstract
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H PROFS, P O, K A. "Child Maltreatment at a Violence Recovery Center in Kenya ;.". In: Tropical Doctor 2008;38: 87-89. Surgical society of Kenya; 2008. Abstract

Background Aneurysms of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries are common and their microvascular surgical management requires sound knowledge of the normal and variant vascular anatomy. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate variations of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries. Methods: Thirty six cadaveric brains (72 hemispheres) were studied by gross dissection for the pattern of arterial blood supply. Results The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) was observed to originate from the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) in all the cases studied. The most common type of termination of the ACA was bifurcation into pericallosal (PerA) and callosomarginal (CMA) arteries with the PerA-CMA junction being supracallosal (60%), infracallosal (27%) or precallosal (5%). Unique variations observed include an accessory ACA from the ACoA, 'bihemispheric pericallosal arteries', intertwining course of the A2 segments of the ACAs and crossing branches from 1 hemisphere to another. Variations of the ACoA were also observed including fenestration (26%) and duplication (13%). Conclusions The majority of ACA bifurcations, in the current study, were supracallosal suggesting the need for exploration of the interhemispheric fissure during surgical corrections of distal ACA aneurysms. Further, the incidence of the callosomarginal artery in this series appears to be at variance with other studies highlighting the need to standardize the definition of the artery. Anterior communicating artery fenestration was the most common variation raising concern as this has been shown to compromise collateral flow and predispose to aneurysm formation. Key Words: Anterior Cerebral artery, Anterior Communicating Artery, Kenya, Variations

OCHIENG&#39; DRODULAPAUL, OCHIENG&#39; DRODULAPAUL, OCHIENG&#39; DRODULAPAUL. "Child maltreatment at a violence recovery centre in Kenya.". In: Journal of Tropical Doctor. 38: 87-89. Saidi H, Odula P and K. Awori; 2008.
Muchiri J. The Child Narrator: George Lamming’s In the Castle of My Skin. Saarbrucken: VDM Verlag; 2010.
Mukelabai, N. O. Bwibo M(E)& R. "Child Nutrition.". In: Primary health care manual for medical students and other health workers (3rd edition). UNICEF; 2010.
Kaviti LK. Child Participation in Kenya Schools: Myth or Reality?. Ghent & Antwerp, Belgium: Proceedings of the International Interdisciplinary Course ((IIC); 2009.
KABUBO-MARIARA J, Karienyeh MM, Kabubo F. "Child Survival and Policy Options in Kenya: Evidence from Demographic and Health Surveys." Journal of Reviews on Global Economics. 2012;1:13-26.jrgev1a2.pdf
KABUBO-MARIARA J, M.M. KARIENYE, F.M. KABUBO. "Child Survival, Poverty and Inequality in Kenya: Does Physical Environment Matter?" African Journal of Social Sciences. 2012;2(1):65-84.ajss_manuscript.pdf
Cockburn J, KABUBO-MARIARA J. Child Welfare in Developing countries ISBN 978-1-4419-6337-6. New York: Springer/PEP/IDRC ; 2010.
Cockburn J, KABUBO-MARIARA J. "Child Welfare in Developing Countries: An Introduction. Chapter 1 in Cockburn J. and J. Kabubo-Mariara (Eds.).ISBN 978-1-4419-6337-6.". In: Child Welfare in Developing countries. New York: Springer/PEP/IDRC; 2010.
Abate, Gugsa; Kogi-Makau, Kogi-Makau, Wambui; Muroki NM, Muroki NM. "Child-feeding practices as predictors of nutritional status of children in a slum area in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia."; 1999. Abstract

In a across-sectional study carried out in four purposefully selected slum kebeles of Addis Ababa, the nutritional status of 758 children aged 6 - 36 months was measured and subsequently classified into malnourished and well nourished groups. Child-feeding practices of randomly selected mothers of the two groups of children were compared with the view of identifying practices that contribute to child-nutrition insecurity in the study area. The result indicated that the majority of the mothers (i.e. 99.5% in the malnourished and 98.4% in well nourished groups) had initiated breast-feeding, and no significant difference was found either in the median or mean duration of breast-feeding between the two groups of mothers. After adjustment has been made (through logistic regression) for covariates, the study established that exclusive breast-feeding beyond four months, feeding low quality diet with a frequency of less than four times and giving porridge with feeding bottle as well as low household income are the risk factors contributing to young children’s nutrition-insecurity in the slum section of Addis Ababa. Hence, demonstrative and sustained education focusing on appropriate child-feeding is recommended together with initiation of income generating projects with a view of empowerment of those families whose monthly income is low. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 1999;13(3):229-2 Introduction About 79% of the population of Addis Ababa lives in low-grade, congested slum areas (1). Studies which address nutritional problems have found that malnutrition continues to be a serious health problem in the slums (2-5). One study in Nairobi slum (6), where 86.2% of the preschoolers were reported to have been stunted, provides a good basis for understanding that slum children are most vulnerable to malnutrition. Hofvander and Eksmyer (7), who found about 3% prevalence of severe PEM, reported that PEM is the main nutritional problem for young children in the slum of Addis Ababa. It is a well established fact that malnutrition manifests itself as a function of many and complex factors (8-10). It is directly linked to poor dietary intake and diseases, which in turn result from an interaction of various underlying factors which include crisis in household food security, inappropriate child care and feeding practices, unhealthy place of residence, and insufficient basic health services (8-11). An unfavourable health environment caused by inadequate water and sanitation can increase the probability of infectious diseases and indirectly form certain types of malnutrition (8-11). Further, poor socio-economic variables, cultural beliefs, and lack of parental education, especially that of mothers, are all cited to affect a person's nutritional status (8-13). Thus, nutrition planning and advice to a community needs to be grounded on good information and knowledge of which individual variables

JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Childcare practices of commercial sex workers. Chege MN, Kabiru EW, Mbithi JN, Bwayo East Afr Med J. 2002 Jul;79(7):382-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Jul;79(7):382-9. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2002. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
Mwanda W.O, Riyat M.S. KEG. "Childhood Aplastic Anaemia in Kenya. East African Medical Journal 67, 264, 1990." East Afr Med J. 1990 Apr;67(4):264-72.. 1990;(67):264-271. Abstractchildhood_anaplastic_anaemia_in_kenya.pdfWebsite

Department of Pathology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Forty two children with aplastic anaemia were seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, over a period of 8 years (1980-1988). These have been analysed with respect to sex, age and area of geographical origin. The overall male:female ratio is 1:1 with a preponderance of Kikuyu patients. Repeated transfusions was the commonest presenting feature and rapid onset was associated with poor prognosis. Exposure to herbicides/pesticides and other agrochemicals is implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of childhood aplastic anaemia in Kenya.

M. PROFMACHARIAW, MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL. "Childhood asthma at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. Macharia WM, Mirza NM, Wafula EM, Onyango FE.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 Dec;67(12):837-41. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1990. Abstract
Between January 1986 and July 1988, 356 children with bronchial asthma below 14 years of age were evaluated at the Kenyatta National Hospital. 21.3% experienced initial asthmatic attacks before the age of six months and 55.1% before 2 years. Only 8% of the study patients were below the age of 2 years at recruitment. The male:female ratio was 1:1. Physical exercise led to precipitation or worsening of attacks in 43.4% while 71.6% of the patients experienced attacks in the evening or at night. 18.5% and 42.9% had personal history of atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis respectively. The study shows that a substantial number of patients experience initial asthmatic attacks before the age of 6 months contrary to what has been previously believed.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Children and accidents. Epidemiology and prevention. Trop Geogr Med . 1993; 45 ( 5 ): 223-6 . No abstract available. PMID: 8279063 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Bwibo NO.". In: Trop Geogr Med . 1993; 45 ( 5 ): 223-6 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1993. Abstract

No abstract available

Ngaruiya B. "Children and HIV / AIDS education.". 2002.
Olang'o CO, Nyamongo IK NEO. "Children as caregivers of older relatives living with HIV and AIDS in Nyang'oma division of western Kenya." African Journal of AIDS Research. 2012;11(2):135-142. Abstract

There is growing debate about the situations of children who care for a relative with HIV-related illness, especially in developing countries with high HIV prevalence. In particular, there is inadequate information on the long-term consequences of children taking on this caregiving role. The article reanalyses data collected between January and November 2006 in a rural setting in western Kenya where 19 children caring for a total of 15 people living with HIV or AIDS (PLHIV) participated. Data were collected through in-depth interviews, participant observation, focus group discussions and narratives. The findings show that children regularly become involved in caregiving due to lack of a responsible adult to perform the role, which may be as a result of HIV stigma and rejection of the care recipient by extended family members and neighbours or because of cultural barriers. Fulfilling the responsibilities of caregiving had profound repercussions for the children’s lives, including psychological distress, physical burden, dropping out of school, participation in wage labour, and forced early marriage. Financial needs pushed some girls into transactional sexual relations, predisposing them to the risks of unwanted pregnancy or sexually transmitted infections. Since the children providing care for PLHIV are themselves vulnerable, we recommend that they should be targeted with support.

Otieno SP, Muchiri P. Children Rise Up. Otieno SP, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2011.
Renaud Becquet, Milly Marston, Franc¸ois Dabis, Lawrence H. Moulton, Glenda Gray, Hoosen M. Coovadia, Max Essex, iDidier K. Ekouevi, Debra Jackson, Anna Coutsoudis, Charles Kilewo, Vale´ riane Leroy, Stefan Z. Wiktor, Ruth Nduati, Philippe Msellati, Basia Zaba PGD, the survival group" Marie-Louise Newell UNAIDSC. "Children Who Acquire HIV Infection Perinatally Are at Higher Risk of Early Death than Those Acquiring Infection through Breastmilk: A Meta-Analysis." PLoS ONE | www.plosone.org 2 February 2012 | Volume 7 | Issue 2 | e28510. 2012. Abstractchildren_who_acquire_hiv.pdfWebsite

Abstract
Background: Assumptions about survival of HIV-infected children in Africa without antiretroviral therapy need to be
updated to inform ongoing UNAIDS modelling of paediatric HIV epidemics among children. Improved estimates of infant
survival by timing of HIV-infection (perinatally or postnatally) are thus needed.
Methodology/Principal Findings: A pooled analysis was conducted of individual data of all available intervention cohorts and
randomized trials on prevention of HIV mother-to-child transmission in Africa. Studies were right-censored at the time of infant
antiretroviral initiation. Overall mortality rate per 1000 child-years of follow-up was calculated by selected maternal and infant
characteristics. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival curves by child’s HIV infection status and timing of HIV
infection. Individual data from 12 studies were pooled, with 12,112 children of HIV-infected women. Mortality rates per 1,000
child-years follow-up were 39.3 and 381.6 for HIV-uninfected and infected children respectively. One year after acquisition of
HIV infection, an estimated 26% postnatally and 52% perinatally infected children would have died; and 4% uninfected
children by age 1 year. Mortality was independently associated with maternal death (adjusted hazard ratio 2.2, 95%CI 1.6–3.0),
maternal CD4,350 cells/ml (1.4, 1.1–1.7), postnatal (3.1, 2.1–4.1) or peri-partum HIV-infection (12.4, 10.1–15.3).
Conclusions/Results: These results update previous work and inform future UNAIDS modelling by providing survival
estimates for HIV-infected untreated African children by timing of infection. We highlight the urgent need for the
prevention of peri-partum and postnatal transmission and timely assessment of HIV infection in infants to initiate
antiretroviral care and support for HIV-infected children.

WAIRIMU PROFKIBERALUCY. "Children's Home Made Toys by Kenya Literature Bureau.". In: Kenya Literature Bureau. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1985. Abstract
  
WAIRIMU PROFKIBERALUCY. "Children's Riddles by Kenya Literature Bureau.". In: Kenya Literature Bureau. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1987. Abstract
  
WAIRIMU PROFKIBERALUCY. "Children's Wisdom Stories by Kenya Literature Bureau.". In: Kenya Literature Bureau. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1985. Abstract
  
ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "The Chilean Experience: Lessons for Kenyan Economic Policy in Kasned Newsline, The Professional Journal of the Kenya Accountants and Secretaries National Examinations Bord, July-September.". In: The Professional Journal of the Kenya Accountants and Secretaries National Examinations Bord, July-September. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002. Abstract
The article is based on the premise that there are many valuable lessons that can be learnt from the experience of other developing countries. Chile has since the early 1990s been considered as one of the most successful developing countries, registering impressive rates of growth. It has also, unlike many developing countries been able to carry out economic reforms to significantly alleviate poverty without adversely affecting growth. The lessons for Kenya which is also attempting to pursue an export-oriented strategy are evaluated.
KURIA KAMAU, Harneit-Sievers ASM,(Eds) SN. "China." Fountain Publishers Ltd. ISBN 978-906387-33-4; 2010. Abstract
n/a
OlusanyaAjakaiye, Owiti E. "China and Africa – Opportunities and Challenges.". In: Task Force on Strategic Partnership between Africa and the Emerging Countries of the South,. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2006.
Dorothy McCormick. "China and Africa: Win-Win Strategies for the Clothing Trade.". In: Annual Meeting of the African Development Bank. Arusha, Tanzania,; 2012.
Dorothy MC. "China and India, Africa's new donors." Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press.; 2008. Abstract

n/a

Onjala J, OSCAR OTELE. "China’s Africa Policy on Trade, Investment and Development Assistance: An Overview and Assessment.". In: The Background and Practice of China-African Cooperation on Resources Development. Yunnan University Press; 2017.
Otele O, Onjala J. "China’s African Economic Policy: An Overview and Assessment.". In: The Conference on China-Africa Cooperation on Human Resources in the Sector of Mineral Resources . Yunnan University, Kunming; 2015.
Joseph O. "China’s Development Loans and the threat of Debt Crisis in Kenya." Development Policy Review. 2018; 36(S2): 0710-0728.Website
Were O, Benn M, Munavu R. "Chinchona Alkaloid from Dendrosenecio kilimanjari subsp. cottonii." Planta medica. 1997;63(1):90-92. AbstractFull text link

Investigation of the Tanzanian Dendrosenecio kilimanjari subsp. cottonii resulted in
the isolation of the cinchona alkaloid, cinchonidine (2). Conversion of cinchonidine to deoxy-
cinchonidine was achieved in high yield using zinc dust in aqueous sulphuric acid. This
illustrates the first reduction of a quinoline system using these reagents.

J PROFCHINDIAMARK, ELIZABETH DRDIMBA. "Chindia M. L., Dimba E: Neural Tumours of the Head and Neck. East African Medical Journal; 77:531-533, 2000.". In: East Afr Med J. 2000 Oct;77(10):531-3. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To document the pattern of occurrence of all primary neural tumours arising in the neck and craniofacial region over the period 1982 to 1991. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Cancer Registry, Nairobi, Kenya. RESULTS: Out of the 289 cases who were identified to have had whole body neural tumours, 225 (77.8%) had the lesions distributed in the neck and craniofacial area. While 80% of the neoplasms located in this region were retinoblastomas (mainly occurring in the age group 0 to 4 years), other lesion types occurred in small numbers thus: neurofibromas comprised 12.4%, Schwannomas four per cent, neuroblastomas and neuromas each 0.4%; and extracranial gliomas 2.7%. Overall, the male to female ratio was 1:1 and the site distribution revealed that over 90% of the lesions afflicted the upper face. CONCLUSION: Neural tumours of the neck and craniofacial region appear generally rare in this population as has been shown elsewhere.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Chindia M.L., and Guthua S.W.: Orofacial Neoplasms in Children. African Health,17:20-21, 1995.". In: African Health,17:20-21, 1995. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1995. Abstract
Apicectomy is offered where routine endodontics cannot resolve periapical inflammation. This study compared the influence on periodontal attachment level of two surgical procedures, the trapezoidal (TF) and the semilunar (SF) flaps. Twenty patients aged 16-44 years (mean 23.2 years), were randomly assigned to either flap procedure. Prior to surgery the patients received periodontal prophylaxis and oral hygiene instruction. Records were made of gingival indices, pocket depth and the distance from the cemento-enamel junction to the bottom of the gingival pocket. The measurements involved buccal surfaces of 13 to 23. The TF flap extended from 14 to 24 between the interdental papillae, whereas the SF flap was carried in a semi circle from 14 to 24 about 2mm from the attached gingiva. The surgical wounds were closed with black silk sutures. Antibiotics and analgesics were prescribed. Sutures were removed after one week. On recall after 6, 12 and 24 weeks the same measurements as before surgery were made. No statistically significant change was observed in pocket depth or attachment level between TF and SF flaps (p > 0.05). However, the TF flap produced less noticeable scarification than the SF flap.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Chindia M.L., and Guthua S.W.: Orofacial Neoplasms in Children. African Health,17:20-21, 1995.". In: African Health,17:20-21, 1995. Elsevier; 1995. Abstract
FG Macigo, DL Mwaniki and SW Guthua East Afr. Med. Journal 1995, 72: 778 - 782 SUMMARY: The prevalence of oral leukoplakia and related lesions in a Kenyan rural population was determined in a systematic house to house survey of individuals aged 15 years and above. Among the 803 individual examined, the following prevalence of lesions was observed: leukoedema (26%), melanosis (12.7%), leukoplakia (10.6%), palatal keratosis (6.4%), frictional keratosis (5.5%), pre-leukoplakia (4.1%), borderline leukoplakia (2.4%), cheek/lip biting (1.3%), and snuff dippers lesion (0.4%), 48.6% of the subjects had at least one of these lesions. Statistically significant preponderance was demonstrated for oral leukoplakia, palatal keratosis, leukoedema and frictional keratosis among males and melanosis among females. With regard to clinical classification of oral leukoplakia, the prevalence was 10% for homogeneous and 0.6% for non-homogeneous lesions. On the basis of aetiological classification, the prevalence was 8.3% for tobacco associated and 2.2% for idiopathic leukoplakia, 22.5% of leukoplakia lesions biopsied had evidence of epithelial dysplasia. In view of the premalignant potential of oral leukoplakia, our findings suggest a need for greater attention towards prevention and control of this lesion in the study community.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia M.L., and Valderhaug, J: Periodontal status following Trapezoidal and Semilunar Flaps in apicectomy. East Afr Med J. 1995 Sep;72(9):564-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Sep;72(9):564-7. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1995. Abstract
Apicectomy is offered where routine endodontics cannot resolve periapical inflammation. This study compared the influence on periodontal attachment level of two surgical procedures, the trapezoidal (TF) and the semilunar (SF) flaps. Twenty patients aged 16-44 years (mean 23.2 years), were randomly assigned to either flap procedure. Prior to surgery the patients received periodontal prophylaxis and oral hygiene instruction. Records were made of gingival indices, pocket depth and the distance from the cemento-enamel junction to the bottom of the gingival pocket. The measurements involved buccal surfaces of 13 to 23. The TF flap extended from 14 to 24 between the interdental papillae, whereas the SF flap was carried in a semi circle from 14 to 24 about 2mm from the attached gingiva. The surgical wounds were closed with black silk sutures. Antibiotics and analgesics were prescribed. Sutures were removed after one week. On recall after 6, 12 and 24 weeks the same measurements as before surgery were made. No statistically significant change was observed in pocket depth or attachment level between TF and SF flaps (p > 0.05). However, the TF flap produced less noticeable scarification than the SF flap.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Chindia M.L., Guthua S.W., Awange D.O., Wakoli K.A.: Osteosarcoma of the Maxillofacial bones in Kenyans. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 1998 Apr;26(2):98-101.". In: J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 1998 Apr;26(2):98-101. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1998. Abstract
Osteosarcoma (OS) is a highly malignant tumour and is the most common primary neoplasm of bone; although rare, especially in the maxillofacial skeleton. This article presents 14 Kenyan cases of OS of the maxillofacial bones seen between January 1991 and July 1997: 11 in the mandible, two in the maxilla and one in the right zygomatic arch. Patients ranged in age from one week to 50 years (Mean = 29.7), with an equal gender distribution. While pain and rapid swelling were the commonest clinical features, the radiographic and histopathological characteristics were as varied as has been described elsewhere. Generally, effective management of most of the cases was poor due to late presentation for treatment.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Chindia M.L., Guthua S.W., Awange D.O., Wakoli K.A.: Osteosarcoma of the Maxillofacial bones in Kenyans. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 1998 Apr;26(2):98-101.". In: J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 1998 Apr;26(2):98-101. Elsevier; 1998. Abstract
Osteosarcoma (OS) is a highly malignant tumour and is the most common primary neoplasm of bone; although rare, especially in the maxillofacial skeleton. This article presents 14 Kenyan cases of OS of the maxillofacial bones seen between January 1991 and July 1997: 11 in the mandible, two in the maxilla and one in the right zygomatic arch. Patients ranged in age from one week to 50 years (Mean = 29.7), with an equal gender distribution. While pain and rapid swelling were the commonest clinical features, the radiographic and histopathological characteristics were as varied as has been described elsewhere. Generally, effective management of most of the cases was poor due to late presentation for treatment.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Chindia M.L., Guthua S.W., Kimaro S.S., Moshy J: Gangrenous Stomatitis (cancrumoris) Clinical features, etiologic factors and complications. Quintessence Int. 1997 Apr;28(4):277-81.". In: Quintessence Int. 1997 Apr;28(4):277-81. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1997. Abstract
Gangrenous stomatitis (cancrum oris) is a lesion involving the orofacial structures that is primarily seen in areas where the socioeconomic standards are low and there is poor hygiene. The general clinical features, associated etiologic factors, and ensuing complications in eight consecutive cases diagnosed between 1991 and 1995 are presented and discussed.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Chindia M.L., Guthua S.W., Kimaro S.S., Moshy J: Gangrenous Stomatitis (cancrumoris) Clinical features, etiologic factors and complications. Quintessence Int. 1997 Apr;28(4):277-81.". In: Quintessence Int. 1997 Apr;28(4):277-81. Elsevier; 1997. Abstract
Gangrenous stomatitis (cancrum oris) is a lesion involving the orofacial structures that is primarily seen in areas where the socioeconomic standards are low and there is poor hygiene. The general clinical features, associated etiologic factors, and ensuing complications in eight consecutive cases diagnosed between 1991 and 1995 are presented and discussed.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia M.L., Swaleh S.M., Godiah P.M: Sarcomas of the Head and Neck at Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 2000 May;77(5):256-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 2000 May;77(5):256-9. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2000. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of occurrence of sarcomas afflicting the neck and craniofacial region. DESIGN: A retrospective study (1982-1991). SETTING: Cancer Registry, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. METHOD: Examination was performed of the cancer records in the registry over the period 1982 to 1991 inclusive. Histopathological types of the sarcomas were then analysed to indicate the numbers that occurred per year; and also the pattern of occurrence according to age groups, gender and site. RESULTS: Of the 10,897 whole body neoplasms, 985 were sarcomas. Among these sarcomas, 160 (16%) were located in the neck and craniofacial region. The histopathological types of the neoplasms included Kaposi's sarcoma (39%), osteosarcoma (23%), rhabdomyosarcoma (21%), fibrosarcoma (13%), chondrosarcoma (two per cent), malignant fibrous histiocytoma (one per cent) and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (one per cent). CONCLUSION: The results of this investigation, in concordance with those of other series worldwide, indicate that the various sarcomas afflicting the neck and craniofacial area are generally rare.

J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia M.L., Valderhaug J and Ng'ang'a P.M.: Oral Health habits and Periodontal Health among a group of University Students in Kenya. East African Medical Journal, 69: 337 - 340, 1992.". In: East African Medical Journal, 69: 337 - 340, 1992. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1992. Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine the oral health habits and periodontal health among a group of university students in Kenya. The study comprised 243 randomly selected first year students, mean age 23 years, at the University of Nairobi. Questionnaire response showed that 39% of the participants had visited a dentist before, mainly for extraction. Sixteen per cent said they visited a dentist at least once a year and 96% said they brushed daily. Clinical examination was done in a room with natural daylight using the WHO criteria. Plaque was visible on 35% of the surfaces. 11% of gingival sites examined bled on probing. Only one participant had pocket depth greater than or equal to 4 mm. Supra- and sub-gingival calculus was recorded at 18% of index tooth surfaces. The study will be considered as a baseline for later studies on oral health trends in similar populations.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia M.L.: Pathogenesis of odontogenic cysts: An update. East Afr Med J. 1991 Apr;68(4):276-82.". In: East Afr Med J. 1991 Apr;68(4):276-82. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1991. Abstract
This article briefly reviews the origin, classification and pathogenesis of the various odontogenic cysts. Keratocysts and follicular cysts are said to be developmental lesions arising from the remnants of the dental lamina and the cell rests of the dental follicle respectively. The radicular cysts are the most commonly occurring lesions associated with the apices of non-vital teeth. They are said to arise from proliferation of the cell rests of Malassez in chronically inflamed granulomata. It is noted that bone resorption is the major requirement for any bony lesion to expand; hence the interest in the role of diverse cellular and chemical mediators of bone resorption in disease. The current concepts of the role, in cyst initiation and growth, of enzymes including cellular metabolites and cytokines are presented. Evidence on the activities of collagenase, arachidonic acid metabolites, leukotrienes, hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids, interleukin–1 and prostaglandins is cited. It is observed that the understanding of these cellular and molecular biological behaviour patterns may yield more appropriate information necessary for the development of more effective management modalities for such tissue degrading lesions as odontogenic cysts.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia M.L: Fighting Orofacial Cancer. Africa Health 14:41, 1992.". In: Africa Health 14:41, 1992. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1992. Abstract

We report the first three patients diagnosed with focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease) in Kenya. Clinically they presented as focal or diffuse papillomatous lesions in the oral mucosa. Histopathological features rule out other similar lesions inter alia multiple fibro-epithelial and viral warts.

J PROFCHINDIAMARK, KIRIAGO DRAKAMAMATHEW. "Chindia ML, Akama MK, Awange DO.Ameloblastic fibroma at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital.East Afr Med J. 2005 Aug;82(8):418-21.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Aug;82(8):418-21. University of Nairobi.; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To document the occurrence of cases of ameloblastic fibroma. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: The Division of Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine histopathology laboratory at the Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, January 1991 to December 2000. RESULTS: Seven complete records of histopathologically confirmed cases of ameloblastic fibroma were identified. There were four male and three female cases with an age range of 10 to 22 years (mean=14 years). Remarkably, six of the cases had lesions in the molar regions of the mandible with a single case with a maxillary molar area lesion. One of the cases had the neoplasm associated with an unerupted tooth. From the clinical notes all the patients were managed by meticulous enucleation and curettage of the lesions. After follow up periods ranging from several months to eight years no recurrences had been recorded. CONCLUSION: Evidently ameloblastic fibroma is an uncommon neoplasm as noted in the earlier literature. Although the lesions can be quite extensive at the time of diagnosis, the recurrence rate appears to be relatively low if the neoplasms are meticulously extirpated.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, KIRIAGO DRAKAMAMATHEW. "Chindia ML, Akama MK, Awange DO.Ameloblastic fibroma at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital.East Afr Med J. 2005 Aug;82(8):418-21.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Aug;82(8):418-21. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To document the occurrence of cases of ameloblastic fibroma. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: The Division of Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine histopathology laboratory at the Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, January 1991 to December 2000. RESULTS: Seven complete records of histopathologically confirmed cases of ameloblastic fibroma were identified. There were four male and three female cases with an age range of 10 to 22 years (mean=14 years). Remarkably, six of the cases had lesions in the molar regions of the mandible with a single case with a maxillary molar area lesion. One of the cases had the neoplasm associated with an unerupted tooth. From the clinical notes all the patients were managed by meticulous enucleation and curettage of the lesions. After follow up periods ranging from several months to eight years no recurrences had been recorded. CONCLUSION: Evidently ameloblastic fibroma is an uncommon neoplasm as noted in the earlier literature. Although the lesions can be quite extensive at the time of diagnosis, the recurrence rate appears to be relatively low if the neoplasms are meticulously extirpated.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Chindia ML, Awange DO, Guthua SW, Mwaniki DL. Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease) in three Kenyan girls: case reports. East Afr Med J. 1993 Sep;70(9):595-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Sep;70(9):595-6. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1993. Abstract

We report the first three patients diagnosed with focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease) in Kenya. Clinically they presented as focal or diffuse papillomatous lesions in the oral mucosa. Histopathological features rule out other similar lesions inter alia multiple fibro-epithelial and viral warts.

J PROFCHINDIAMARK, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Chindia ML, Awange DO, Guthua SW, Mwaniki DL. Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease) in three Kenyan girls: case reports. East Afr Med J. 1993 Sep;70(9):595-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Sep;70(9):595-6. Elsevier; 1993. Abstract

We report the first three patients diagnosed with focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease) in Kenya. Clinically they presented as focal or diffuse papillomatous lesions in the oral mucosa. Histopathological features rule out other similar lesions inter alia multiple fibro-epithelial and viral warts.

J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML, Awange DO.Congenital epulis of the newborn: a report of two cases.Br Dent J. 1994 Jun 11;176(11):426-8.". In: Br Dent J. 1994 Jun 11;176(11):426-8. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1994. Abstract
Congenital epulis of the newborn is a rare lesion whose histogenesis and natural clinical history have remained obscure. Even with the advent of modern histopathological techniques, it has not been possible to depict specific cellular features unique to this lesion. However, it is important that new cases are reported from all populations so that their occurrence and frequency may be easily noted. Furthermore, the lesion is important as a differential diagnosis of other aggressive lesions early in life. This report presents two Kenyan cases.
KAVIN DRWAKOLI. "Chindia ML, Guthua SW, Awange DO, Wakoli KA.Osteosarcoma of the maxillofacial bones in Kenyans.J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 1998 Apr;26(2):98-101.". In: J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 1998 Apr;26(2):98-101. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1998. Abstract
Osteosarcoma (OS) is a highly malignant tumour and is the most common primary neoplasm of bone; although rare, especially in the maxillofacial skeleton. This article presents 14 Kenyan cases of OS of the maxillofacial bones seen between January 1991 and July 1997: 11 in the mandible, two in the maxilla and one in the right zygomatic arch. Patients ranged in age from one week to 50 years (Mean = 29.7), with an equal gender distribution. While pain and rapid swelling were the commonest clinical features, the radiographic and histopathological characteristics were as varied as has been described elsewhere. Generally, effective management of most of the cases was poor due to late presentation for treatment.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Chindia ML, Guthua SW, Mwaniki DL.Ameloblastoma after surgical removal of an impacted mandibular molar. A case report.Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1991 Apr;20(2):73-4.". In: Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1991 Apr;20(2):73-4. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1991. Abstract
A case of an ameloblastoma diagnosed about 3 1/2 years after removal of an impacted mandibular 3rd molar is presented. The pre-operative radiographs, though poor in quality, showed an ill-defined radiolucency in relation to the tooth. This feature was not apparent to the examiners at the time of first presentation. Despite unfavourable working conditions in developing countries, a high level of suspicion should be maintained to avoid serious sequelae at a later stage.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Chindia ML, Guthua SW, Mwaniki DL.Ameloblastoma after surgical removal of an impacted mandibular molar. A case report.Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1991 Apr;20(2):73-4.". In: Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1991 Apr;20(2):73-4. Elsevier; 1991. Abstract
A case of an ameloblastoma diagnosed about 3 1/2 years after removal of an impacted mandibular 3rd molar is presented. The pre-operative radiographs, though poor in quality, showed an ill-defined radiolucency in relation to the tooth. This feature was not apparent to the examiners at the time of first presentation. Despite unfavourable working conditions in developing countries, a high level of suspicion should be maintained to avoid serious sequelae at a later stage.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML, Kimaro S.Congenital lower lip pits and bilateral clefting of the upper lip.East Afr Med J. 1994 May;71(5):332-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 May;71(5):332-3. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1994. Abstract
An apparently sporadic case of congenital lower lip pits in association with upper lip bilateral clefts is described in an 11-month-old boy. The presentation, mode of inheritance, aetiology and genetic significance are briefly reviewed.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Chindia ML, Ng'ang'a PM. Alcohol injection in the management of paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia: a report of six cases.East Afr Med J. 1994 Jan;71(1):49-50.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Jan;71(1):49-50. Elsevier; 1994. Abstract
Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Sugery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The report revisits the role of alcohol in the treatment of paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia (PTN). The study included 6 patients, 3 male and 3 female, average age 50 years. In 3 cases PTN involved both the infraorbital and mental nerves; in 2 cases the infraorbital alone while one case had buccal branch involvement. In each case 2mls standard Lignocaine was infiltrated at each site followed by 2mls 60% sterile alcohol. All patients reported swelling postoperatively. One case with mental and infraorbital nerve involvement complained of oral dysaesthesia. Another patient with similar involvement failed to respond and developed trismus. Responders remained pain-free for 9 months on average. While paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia (PTN) has been recognised for centuries, the aetiology and definitive treatment remain obscure. Since this is a debilitating condition, management should aim at improving the quality of life. Alcohol is available, affordable and offers useful results where medical resources provide limited PTN treatment modalities.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML, Ng'ang'a PM.Alcohol injection in the management of paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia: a report of six cases.East Afr Med J. 1994 Jan;71(1):49-50.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Jan;71(1):49-50. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1994. Abstract
The report revisits the role of alcohol in the treatment of paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia (PTN). The study included 6 patients, 3 male and 3 female, average age 50 years. In 3 cases PTN involved both the infraorbital and mental nerves; in 2 cases the infraorbital alone while one case had buccal branch involvement. In each case 2mls standard Lignocaine was infiltrated at each site followed by 2mls 60% sterile alcohol. All patients reported swelling postoperatively. One case with mental and infraorbital nerve involvement complained of oral dysaesthesia. Another patient with similar involvement failed to respond and developed trismus. Responders remained pain-free for 9 months on average. While paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia (PTN) has been recognised for centuries, the aetiology and definitive treatment remain obscure. Since this is a debilitating condition, management should aim at improving the quality of life. Alcohol is available, affordable and offers useful results where medical resources provide limited PTN treatment modalities.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML, Ocholla TJ, Imalingat B.Osteopetrosis presenting with paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia. A case report.Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1991 Aug;20(4):199-200.". In: Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1991 Aug;20(4):199-200. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1991. Abstract

Osteopetrosis is a rare disease of unknown aetiology. The relentless bone growth may progressively obliterate the various craniofacial skeletal foramina leading to nerve compression and a diversity of neurological disorders. A case is reported of a 37-year-old woman who was seen because of frequent attacks of paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia (PTN); other orofacial neurologic deficits and generalised craniofacial skeletal thickening. The prompt recognition and management of associated disorders such as PTN is emphasized. Despite the lack of definitive treatment modalities for both osteopetrosis and PTN, the patient's quality of life must be sustained.

J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML, Riyat MS, Nyong'o A.Multiple myeloma presenting as a painful mandibular swelling: a case report.Dent Update. 2001 Jun;28(5):258-60.". In: Dent Update. 2001 Jun;28(5):258-60.v. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2001. Abstract
Multiple myeloma is a disease characterized by monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells, the most differentiated stage of B-cells. Primary manifestation of multiple myeloma in the jawbones is rare. In the case reported here, a 29-year-old woman who presented with a right mandibular swelling after extraction of a mobile painful tooth turned out to have multiple myeloma. Current diagnostic criteria and management strategies of the disease are discussed.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Chindia ML, Valderhaug J, Ng'ang'a PM. Oral health habits and periodontal health among a group of university students in Kenya.East Afr Med J. 1992 Jun;69(6):337-40.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Jun;69(6):337-40. Elsevier; 1992. Abstract
Department of Dental Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The purpose of this study was to determine the oral health habits and periodontal health among a group of university students in Kenya. The study comprised 243 randomly selected first year students, mean age 23 years, at the University of Nairobi. Questionnaire response showed that 39% of the participants had visited a dentist before, mainly for extraction. Sixteen per cent said they visited a dentist at least once a year and 96% said they brushed daily. Clinical examination was done in a room with natural daylight using the WHO criteria. Plaque was visible on 35% of the surfaces. 11% of gingival sites examined bled on probing. Only one participant had pocket depth greater than or equal to 4 mm. Supra- and sub-gingival calculus was recorded at 18% of index tooth surfaces. The study will be considered as a baseline for later studies on oral health trends in similar populations.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML. A conservative management of an extensive odontogenic residual cyst: a case report.East Afr Med J. 1991 Feb;68(2):143-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1991 Feb;68(2):143-8. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1991. Abstract
This article briefly reviews the clinical presentation and management of odontogenic cysts. A case is reported of an 18-year-old girl who, on 12-3-1986, presented for the first time at the Dental Department, University of Nairobi with a painful bony swelling in the chin area. The extensive swelling apparently arose long after the traditional removal of two mandibular incisors. After periodontal prophylaxis the cystic lesion was enucleated under a local anaesthetic and the cavity lining subjected to histopathological examination which revealed appearances consistent with those of an odontogenic residual cyst. Immediate wound care involved dressing the defect with zinc iodoform paste on ribbon gauze for 4 weeks when complete granulation and epithelialisation occurred. Subsequently the patient was instructed on homecare irrigation of the cavity without packing. Clinical and radiographic assessment showed progressively satisfactory healing of both the soft tissue and bone through a follow-up period of about two years. It is suggested that the cavity filling in process by periosteal and endosteal bone deposition may be faster where the defect is left without a pack or obturator following complete granulation and epithelialisation.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML. Coping with the management of orofacial cancer with limited resources. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1990 Apr;18(2):109.". In: Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1990 Apr;18(2):109. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1990. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 2335062 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML. Fibrous dysplasia of the jaws: a case report. East Afr Med J. 1991 Apr;68(4):312-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1991 Apr;68(4):312-8. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1991. Abstract
This article reviews the present clinical, radiographic and histologic features of fibrous dysplastic lesions of the jaws. A case is presented of an apparently reactivated fibrous dysplastic jaw lesion, with evidence of cystic degeneration, in a 33-year-old female school-teacher who was first seen at the Department of Dental Surgery, University of Nairobi in March 1986. The dilemma in the management of fibrous dysplasia is reviewed and discussed. It is noted that while conservative surgical procedures remain the treatment of choice, situations arise where tremendous tissue activity would require early intervention by numerous cosmetic surgical shaving procedures. The present case, however, offers a unique management challenge due to the occurrence of extensive cystic degeneration in the mandible.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML. Giant twin sialoliths presenting with acute cellulitis: a case report. East Afr Med J. 1992 Mar;69(3):171-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Mar;69(3):171-2. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1992. Abstract

Sialolithiasis is a process of unknown aetiology in which calculus concretions form in the salivary gland ducts and tissue. It may occur at any age but it is most common in middle-aged adults. A case is presented of the occurrence of double giant sialoliths in the left Wharton's duct in a 16-year-old boy. The clinical symptoms and signs were somewhat atypical and included acute suppurative cellulitis in the floor of the mouth plus localized periodontitis involving 36. Under a local anaesthetic the stones were surgically extracted and healing was uneventful. Proper interpretation of symptoms and thoughtful investigation for localization of salivary stones is emphasized.

J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML. Intracranial tumour presenting with facial pain .Br Dent J. 1989 Apr 22;166(8):282-3.". In: Br Dent J. 1989 Apr 22;166(8):282-3. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1989. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 2719885 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML. Some modalities of initiating and sustaining oral health research. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1989 Oct;17(5):274.". In: Oral Epidemiol. 1989 Oct;17(5):274. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1989. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 2791520 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML.Cleft lip and/or palate: searching for aetiological factors.East Afr Med J. 2002 Oct;79(10):509.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Oct;79(10):509. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of occurrence of dental injuries in the 0-15 year-olds. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Five hundred and five patient records with dental injuries were retrieved and analysed. RESULTS: A total of 505 patient records with dental injuries were retrieved and analysed. Most of the injuries were recorded in the year 1999 (22.2%). Boys were more affected (63.0%) than girls (37.0%). The main presenting complaint recorded was pain (75.8%).The majority of the patients (69.5%) presented for treatment during the same day or the day after trauma. Falls were the leading cause of injuries (73.5%). Most injuries involved two teeth (47.1%) and the maxillary central incisors were the most affected teeth both in the primary (67.5%) and permanent (64.0%) dentitions. Luxation injuries were the most common type of dental trauma with 47.5% occurring in the permanent teeth and 77.3% in the primary teeth. The main radiographic investigation performed was intraoral periapical views (52.9%) following which dental extraction (34.4%) was the main treatment modality offered. CONCLUSION: Prospective cross-sectional studies to determine the prevalence of dental injuries are needed. Furthermore improving the knowledge of dental practitioners through continuing dental education programmes would help in updating them on current trends in managing these injuries.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML.Clinical recognition of odontogenic tumours.East Afr Med J. 2002 Jan;79(1):1-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Jan;79(1):1-2. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2002. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 12380861 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML.Evolution of cancer management. East Afr Med J. 2000 Oct;77(10):521-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 2000 Oct;77(10):521-2. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2000. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 12862116 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML.Facing the burden of malignant orofacial neoplasia.East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):61.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):61. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2006. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 16771100 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML.HIV-associated fulminating herpes zoster infection with alveolar necrosis and tooth exfoliation: a case report.Dent Update. 1997 Apr;24(3):126-8.". In: Dent Update. 1997 Apr;24(3):126-8. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1997. Abstract
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. This paper presents a case of HIV-associated fulminating herpes zoster infection (HZI) that culminated in right mandibular necrosis and tooth exfoliation. The occurrence of such infection in immunosuppression and the impending clinical features are briefly reviewed and discussed.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML.Osteomyelitis of the mandible in HIV infection.Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1999 Apr;37(2):154.". In: Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1999 Apr;37(2):154. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1999. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 10371330 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML.Osteosarcoma of the jaw bones.Oral Oncol. 2001 Oct;37(7):545-7.". In: Oral Oncol. 2001 Oct;37(7):545-7. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2001. Abstract
Currently, it has been established that osteosarcoma (OS) of bone is not a stereotyped disease, and several varieties have been identified by clinical findings, radiographic and histopathologic appearances. Generally, it is the most common primary malignant bone neoplasm that accounts for at least 30% of all primary tumours of bone. In the jaw bones, OS accounts for about 4% of all the primary malignant neoplasms. In the general skeleton, the highest incidence is observed in the second decade of life; the neoplasm is said to be unusual before the age of 5 years and very rare after age 50 years. The aetiology and precise pathogenesis of this disease remain unknown. A diagnosis of clinically and radiologically suspicious OS requires meticulous histologic examination. However, histologic diagnosis may also be difficult since the different varieties of OS may have different morphological patterns in different sample sites. Currently, the two therapeutic modalities used in the primary treatment of OS include radical surgery and cytotoxic chemotherapy. In the general skeleton, the use of surgery alone results in a 90% rate of recurrence of OS. Notably, the advent of adjuvant and neoadjuvant cytotoxic chemotherapy as an adjunct to radical surgery has greatly improved the prognosis of many cases of OS of the jaw bones.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML.Traditional dental practices.East Afr Med J. 1995 Apr;72(4):205-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Apr;72(4):205-6. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1995. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 7621750 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "CHINDIA, M. L., GUTHUA S.W.: Neonatal chondroblastic oesteosarcoma of the mandible. E. Afri. Med. J. (In Press).". In: E. Afri. Med. J. (In Press). Elsevier; 1983. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "CHINDIA, M.L, GUTHUA, S.W., KIMARO, S.S., MOSHY, J.: Gangrenous Stomatitis (Cancrum Oris): Clinical Features, aetiology factors and complications. Quintessence International 28:277-281, April 1997.". In: Quintessence International 28:277-281. Elsevier; 1997. Abstract
Osteosarcoma (OS) is a highly malignant tumour and is the most common primary neoplasm of bone; although rare, especially in the maxillofacial skeleton. This article presents 14 Kenyan cases of OS of the maxillofacial bones seen between January 1991 and July 1997: 11 in the mandible, two in the maxilla and one in the right zygomatic arch. Patients ranged in age from one week to 50 years (Mean = 29.7), with an equal gender distribution. While pain and rapid swelling were the commonest clinical features, the radiographic and histopathological characteristics were as varied as has been described elsewhere. Generally, effective management of most of the cases was poor due to late presentation for treatment.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "CHINDIA, M.L., GUTHUA S.W.: Florid Periapical Cemento-Osseous Dysplasia. IADR, Dec. 1992 (Abs).". In: Florid Periapical Cemento-Osseous Dysplasia. IADR. Elsevier; 1992. Abstract
S.W. Guthua* and D.L. Mwaniki** Afr. Dental Journal 1992, 6: 30-33 SUMMARY: Analysis of 110 records of patients who presented with impacted mandibular 3 rd molars was carried out to determine the frequency of occurrence of unilateral and bilateral impactions and their characteristics. 68.2% of the patients had bilaterial impactions. Among the patients with bilateral impactions, 72% had mesioangular impaction occurring either bilaterally or in combination with other types of impaction. Furthermore, 38.7% mesioangular impactions were observed on the right and left sides in the patients with bilateral impactions. Among the patients with unilateral impactions, 40.2% presented with mesioangular impaction, while 25.7% presented with distoangular impactions. While these observations support the general consensus regarding aetiology of mandibular 3 rd molar impactions as being tooth-tissue discrepancy, the possible influence of other factors is suggested.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "CHINDIA, M.L., GUTHUA, S.W. Bacterial infections in head and neck region. Association of ENT Surgeons Conference, 25th - 26th March, 1994, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Association of ENT Surgeons Conference, 25th - 26th March, 1994, Nairobi, Kenya. Elsevier; 1994. Abstract
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis is a distressing affliction that denies the victim the benefit of normal diet, careers that require normal speech and causes severe facial disfigurement that aggravates psychological stress. Opinions in current literature portray controversy in its management. Hurried clinicians take shortcuts and partially treat symptoms and often make the condition worse. Others ignore shortcomings and erroneously prescribe their preferred techniques as absolute indication to the peril of the affected children. Gap arthroplasty if applied in a growing maxillofacial skeleton as in children, causes iatrogenic arrest of facial growth. The intended correction of facial disfigurement is therefore not achieved. Early detection and immediate psychological support by excision and reconstruction of ankylosed TMJ with a costochondral graft, improves patient comfort and rehabilitation when used as a planned part of a comprehensive therapy. This paper questions prior varied opinions and discusses scientific baseline considerations in management of long standing TMJ ankylosis in children in relatively affordable circumstances.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "CHINDIA, M.L., GUTHUA, S.W.: Florid Periapical Cemento-osseous Dysplasia. IADR Conference, Harare, Zimbabwe, Dec. 1992.". In: IADR Conference, Harare, Zimbabwe, Dec. 1992. Elsevier; 1992. Abstract
S.W. Guthua* and D.L. Mwaniki** Afr. Dental Journal 1992, 6: 30-33 SUMMARY: Analysis of 110 records of patients who presented with impacted mandibular 3 rd molars was carried out to determine the frequency of occurrence of unilateral and bilateral impactions and their characteristics. 68.2% of the patients had bilaterial impactions. Among the patients with bilateral impactions, 72% had mesioangular impaction occurring either bilaterally or in combination with other types of impaction. Furthermore, 38.7% mesioangular impactions were observed on the right and left sides in the patients with bilateral impactions. Among the patients with unilateral impactions, 40.2% presented with mesioangular impaction, while 25.7% presented with distoangular impactions. While these observations support the general consensus regarding aetiology of mandibular 3 rd molar impactions as being tooth-tissue discrepancy, the possible influence of other factors is suggested.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "CHINDIA, M.L., GUTHUA, S.W.: Orofacial neoplasms in children. Afr. Health; 17(5) 20-21, July 1995.". In: Afr. Health; 17(5) 20-21. Elsevier; 1995. Abstract
FG Macigo, DL Mwaniki and SW Guthua East Afr. Med. Journal 1995, 72: 778 - 782 SUMMARY: The prevalence of oral leukoplakia and related lesions in a Kenyan rural population was determined in a systematic house to house survey of individuals aged 15 years and above. Among the 803 individual examined, the following prevalence of lesions was observed: leukoedema (26%), melanosis (12.7%), leukoplakia (10.6%), palatal keratosis (6.4%), frictional keratosis (5.5%), pre-leukoplakia (4.1%), borderline leukoplakia (2.4%), cheek/lip biting (1.3%), and snuff dippers lesion (0.4%), 48.6% of the subjects had at least one of these lesions. Statistically significant preponderance was demonstrated for oral leukoplakia, palatal keratosis, leukoedema and frictional keratosis among males and melanosis among females. With regard to clinical classification of oral leukoplakia, the prevalence was 10% for homogeneous and 0.6% for non-homogeneous lesions. On the basis of aetiological classification, the prevalence was 8.3% for tobacco associated and 2.2% for idiopathic leukoplakia, 22.5% of leukoplakia lesions biopsied had evidence of epithelial dysplasia. In view of the premalignant potential of oral leukoplakia, our findings suggest a need for greater attention towards prevention and control of this lesion in the study community.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "CHINDIA, ML., AWANGE, D.O., GUTHUA, S.W., MWANIKI, D.L, Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's Disease) in Kenyan African Girls. Case reports. East Afr. Med. J.: 70(9): 595-596, 1993.". In: East Afr. Med. J.: 70(9): 595-596. Elsevier; 1993. Abstract

Loss of 1st and 2nd molars among adolescents due to dental caries is not uncommon in developing countries. Whilst their replacement is indicated, conventional methods of treatment, namely, bridging and dentures are in most cases inaccessible because of prohibitive cost. Given that it is in the same age group that diagnosis of unfavourably embedded wisdom teeth becomes feasible, autotransplantation of the latter to replace the unsalvageable 1st and 2nd molars could be an alternative treatment. Available literature suggests a success rate of over 82% based on follow-up studies of over ten years. Observations at the Dental School Clinic of the University of Nairobi, Kenya, indicate that the time it takes the transplant to 'take' and assume its functional position is 4 to 8 weeks and 2.5 to 3.5 months respectively. Since the method is relatively straightforward, we are of the view that training undergraduates and practising dental surgeons in this technique should enhance utilisation of otherwise "useless" teeth to replace the lost 1st and 2nd molars in occlusal rehabilitation.

Dorothy McCormick, Kamau. P. "Chinese Ascendancy in the Global Textile Trade.". In: : African Clothing Exports in the Post-MFA Era.’ Paper presented at final workshop of project on ‘Chinese Ascendancy in the Global Clothing Industry. Nairobi - Silver Springs Hotel; 2012.
Onjala J. "Chinese Direct Investments in Africa: Motivations and Environmental Implications." Georgetown Journal of International Affairs. 2016;Volume XVII(Number 1):91-102.
Onjala J. "The Chinese Factor in Africa’s Urban Infrastructure Development: Lessons from Nairobi and Kisumu Cities in Kenya.". In: 2015 International Conference on Chinese and African Sustainable Urbanization. University of Ottawa Canada; 2015.
P PROFONIANG&#39;OCLEMENTM. "Chinua A. Achebe Things Fall Apart. DINI NA MILA, Vol. VII, No. 1 pp 40-42, 1975. Makerere University Kampala.". In: Makerere Historical Journal, Vol. 1 No. 1 1975 (pp 103-112).; 1975. Abstract
n/a
N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Chlamydia as a cause of late neonatal pneumonia at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2002 Sep;79(9):476-9. PMID: 12625688 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Were FN, Govedi AF, Revathi G, Wambani JS.". In: East African Med J, 79; 7-10:2002. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Neonatal pneumonia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. The problem is known to be higher in resource poor third world countries. Organisms (such as chlamydia) not covered by routine laboratory tests and regular antibiotic regimes may frequently contribute towards the causation of late neonatal pneumonia. It is therefore useful to gather epidemiological evidence to guide in the routine diagnosis and treatment of such infections. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of chlamydia associated pneumonia among infants developing the disease between the 7th and 30th days of life (late neonatal pneumonia). DESIGN: Cross sectional survey. SETTING: Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Fifty two newborns clinically diagnosed as having late neonatal pneumonia. They were all subjected to chest X-rays to confirm the clinical diagnosis. Nasopharyngeal aspirates for chlamydia antigen detection tests were then performed on all patients. The study was undertaken during the months of September through to November 2000. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The proportion of newborns with late neonatal pneumonia that have chlamydia trachomantis as the sole or contributory causative agent. RESULTS: Fifty two newborns of postnatal age between seven and 30 days were recruited. Their sex distribution was about 1:1. Thirty three (63.5%) of these infants were found with chlamydia in their upper airways. Thirty out of 47 available chest X-rays, representing 63.8% had evidence of interstitial pneumonitis. Chlamydia associated pneumonia indicated by the presence of both interstitial pneumonia and colonization of the upper air ways was present in 24 out of 47 patients, 51% of the total cases of late neonatal pneumonia. When X-rays alone were compared with our gold standard for the diagnosis of chlamydia pneumonia (radiology and colonization), we computed a sensitivity of 100%, specificity 73%, negative predictive value 100% and positive predictive value of 80%. Mode of delivery, birth weight and gestation had no association with nasopharyngeal colonization by chlamydia or actual diagnosis of chlamydia pneumonia. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of chlamydia associated infection among newborns with late neonatal pneumonia at Kenyatta National Hospital is 51%, eight times more than that reported elsewhere. Chest X-rays appear to be a reliable diagnostic tool in this group. The use of antichlamydial drugs in addition to the regular antibiotics whenever a diagnosis of late neonatal pneumonia is made is justifiable.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Chloris roxburghiana Schult grass genetic variation between ecological sites: the case for in situ reseeding seed multiplication. A paper presented at the VIIth International Rangeland Congress, Durban, South Africa, 26th July .". In: Journal of Human Ecology , 16: 83-89. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2003. Abstract
This study was conducted in the northern part of Kenya, in Kakuma division, Turkana district. Kakuma is a semi-arid area under nomadic pastoralism as the main activity. The presence of a refugee camp has attracted many people from within the Turkana community and also the outside community. The study aimed at documenting the effects of emergent land use changes on vegetation resources and the socio-economic environment in Kakuma. Data on vegetation density and cover was collected. Socio-economic data was collected from the local Turkana population and the settlement camp. The data was analysed using SPSS computer package and descriptive statistics. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in vegetation cover and density with increasing distance away from the settlement camp. The mean tree crown cover was low near the settlement camp (6.2%) but high away from the settlement camp (57.7%). Mean tree density was high near the settlement camp (13 individuals/ 100m2). Shrub crown cover was low (0.9%) in the areas that had settlements. The need for fencing and building materials was the main cause of low shrub cover. The density of the shrub species generally increased as one moved away from the settlement camp (17 individuals/ 16m2). Herb species cover and density was high near the settlement camp(68% and 202 individuals/ 1m2 respectively) but this comprised mostly of species unpalatable to livestock like Tribulus terrestris and Portulaca oleraceae. The study revealed that droughts and livestock raids in the previous years had set in motion social and ecological changes. The loss of livestock through raids and droughts encouraged sedenterization. This affected the cultural patterns and has had an effect on the rangeland condition. Lack of mobility concentrated livestock in specific areas, thus depleting the forage resources and creating conditions for soil erosion. Trading activities between the refugees and the Turkana had both positive and negative impact on the economic, social and cultural setup of the local community. The increase in population around Kakuma and the settlement camp has set in motion changes that have affected vegetation and social structures. The immediate social and economic returns from the exploitation of resources have overridden the long-term benefits. In regard to this there is a need for education on the impacts, both short-term and long-term, of the various activities on the vegetation, livestock resources and also the pastoral lifestyle. Key words: Pastoralism, Settlement, Land use, Environmental impact.
N PROFGUANTAIA. "Chloroquine Drug Interactions Part I: Interaction with drugs acting at the neuromuscular junction.". In: EAST AND CENTRAL AFRICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES, VOL. I. ANASTASIA N. GUANTAI , IVAN ADDAE-MENSAH, DAVID K. NJOROGE; 1998. Abstract

Chloroquine is extensively used in the management of malaria in Kenya. It is widely available for self medication. Often it is used concurrently with other drugs. In the present paper, possible drug interactions with Chloroquine have been investigated. Isolated rat phrenic nerve diaphragm preparation was used to study the effect of Chloroquine alone and in combination with several drugs on neuromuscular impulse transmission. Chloroquine in the dose range 0.025 - 0.3 vg/m1 organ bath concentration induced a dose-dependent neuromuscular junction (NMJ) transmission blockade. The drug significantly potentiated the NMJ transmissionblockade induced by commonly used agents gallamine, succinylcholine and lignocaine. It antagonised the NMJ facilitatory action of physostigmine, calcium chloride and barium chloride. Chloraquine could. be interfering with ion conductance processes. It is suggested that Chloroquine should be used with caution in conditions characterised by muscle contractile disorders or during treatment with drugs that cause decreased skeletal muscle activity. Key Words: Chloroquine, interactions, neuromuscular junction.

M. DRGUANTAIERIC. "Chloroquine Resistance: Proposed Mechanisms and Countermeasures.". In: Current Drug Delivery. DMW; 2010. Abstract
Malaria has been, and remains, one of the biggest global health concerns as far as infectious diseases are concerned, with yearly incidence and mortality figures running into millions. One of the major drawbacks to the control of this disease has been the emergence of drug resistant strains of the causative agent, which limits the successful use of many clinically available antimalarial drugs. This review discusses chloroquine resistance; it highlights some of the proposed molecular mechanisms of chloroquine resistance, but dwells more on efforts at reversing chloroquine resistance and the concept of chloroquine resistance-reversal agents.
MOCHACHE DRJASONMOSOMI. "Chobe District Settlement Strategy, Botswana: A Participatory Pilot Approach for District Settlement Planning. In collaboration with United Nations Centre for Human Settlements. UNDP and Government of Botswana June 2000 (Forthcoming in UNCHS Publications).". In: Bristol University, UK, September 1989. University of Nairobi; 1983. Abstract
Seventeen cows of various breeds with varying degrees of severity of advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma were treated by radical surgery, which included enucleation and extirpation of the surrounding ocular muscles and tissues. The degree of severity and the extent of the carcinoma lesion was correlated with the outcome of treatment for each case. It was observed that: 1. eyeball involvement, 2. ulceration and subsequent infection of carcinoma lesion involving the eyelids and 3. involvement of the regional lymphnodes especially the parotid , are some of the main factors that could be used to draw prognosis of such cases. Although the initial surgery may not be costly, the overall cost of managing postoperative complications is prohibitive and results to vast economic losses that should not be ignored.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Chohan BH, lavreys L, Mandaliya KN, Kreiss JK, Bwayo JJ, Ndinya-Achola JO,Martin HL Jr. Validation a modified commercial enzyme-linked immunoassay for detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 immunnoglobulin G antibodies in saliva. Clin Diagn Lab .". In: Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2001;8:346-8. IBIMA Publishing; 2001. Abstract
This study was performed to evaluate the performance of a saliva collection device (OmniSal) and an enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA) designed for use on serum samples (Detect HIV1/2) to detect human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibodies in the saliva of high-risk women in Mombasa, Kenya. The results of the saliva assay were compared to a "gold standard" of a double-EIA testing algorithm performed on serum. Individuals were considered HIV-1 seropositive if their serum tested positive for antibodies to HIV-1 by two different EIAs. The commercial serum-based EIA was modified to test the saliva samples by altering the dilution and lowering the cutoff point of the assay. Using the saliva sample, the EIA correctly identified 102 of the 103 seropositive individuals, yielding a sensitivity of 99% (95% confidence interval [CI], 94 to 100%), and 96 of the 96 seronegative individuals, yielding a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 95 to 100%). In this high-risk population, the positive predictive value of the assay was 100% and the negative predictive value was 99%. We conclude that HIV-1 antibody testing of saliva samples collected with this device and tested by this EIA is of sufficient sensitivity and specificity to make this protocol useful in epidemiological studies.
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Chohan VH, Baeten J, Benki S, Graham SM, Lavreys L, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Jaoko WG, Overbaugh J & McClelland RS (2009) A prospective study of risk factors for Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 acquisition among high-risk HIV-1 seronegative Kenyan women.". In: UoN research meeting. Sexually Transmitted Infections 85(7):489-92; 2009. Abstract
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W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Chohan VH, Baeten J, Benki S, Graham SM, Lavreys L, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Jaoko WG, Overbaugh J & McClelland RS (2009) A prospective study of risk factors for Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 acquisition among high-risk HIV-1 seronegative Kenyan women.". In: Beverage among the Abagusii of Western Kenya. Sexually Transmitted Infections 85(7):489-92; 2009. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Choice Between The Human Capital Approach and Willingness To Pay Approach in Evaluation of Primary Health Care Programmes -A Kenyan Example, in Economics, Health and Tropical Diseases, ed. A.N. Herrin, P.L. Rosenfield, University of the Philippines, Schoo.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30. SITE; 1988. Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

Serra AJ, McNicholas KW, Olivier HF, Boe SL, Lemole GM. "The choice of anticoagulation in pediatric patients with the St. Jude Medical valve prostheses." J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino). 1987;28(5):588-91. Abstract

Between February 1982 and January 1984 27 St. Jude Medical cardiac valve prostheses were implanted in 24 children ranging in age from 5 to 20 years (mean 12.38 years). There were 10 isolated aortic valve replacements, 14 isolated mitral valve replacements and one triple valve replacement (aortic, mitral and tricuspid). There was one operative and four late deaths. All patients were maintained on Aspirin and Dipyridamole from the early postoperative period. There were six documented thromboembolic events occurring in five patients. There were 0.68 thromboembolic events per patient year in the aortic valve group and 0.19 events in the mitral valve group. Because of the significant incidence of thromboembolic events in our patients, we now recommend universal anticoagulation with Coumadin in all pediatric age patients in whom the St. Jude Medical prosthesis is implanted.

J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Choice of fresh vegetable retail outlets by developing-country urban consumers: The case of kale consumers in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: European Journal of Development Research. The Kenya Medical Association; 2012. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Choice of fresh vegetable retail outlets by developing-country urban consumers: The case of kale consumers in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: European Journal of Development Research. 1. Okello, J.J., C. J. Lagerkvist, S. Hess, M. Ngigi, and N. Karanja; 2011. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
Kisumbi B.K, Simila O.H ONBIJ. "Choice of Impression Materials and Techniques by Dentists.". In: 33rd Kenya Dental Association Annual Scientific Conference & Exhibition. Boma Inn, Eldoret Kenya; 2015.
Kisumbi BK, Simila HO, Osiro OA, Omondi BI, Nyagah J. "Choice of impression materials and techniques by dentists.". In: IADR ESAD. Eldoret, Kenya; 2015.
PRESTON CHITERE. "Choice of methods of farmer contact." Agricultural Administration. 1982;11(3).
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "Choice of methods of farmer contact. In: Agricultural Administration, Vol. 11 (3).". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1989.
Paschalia Mbutu, Dr. Wanjiru Gichuhi DGN. "Choice of Place of Delivery during Pregnancy in Kenya: A Case of Kitui West Sub-County." International Journal ofbScience Arts and Commerce. 2018;3(5).
Otedo AEO, Otieno JO, Otieno CF, Oyoo GO. "Cholangiopathy in a Cohort of HIV Positive Kenyan Patients." East African Medical Journal. 2013;90(12):25-32.
O PROFORINDADA. "Cholelithiasis in the Kenyan African. East Afr Med J. 1990 Sep;67(9):656-60.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 Sep;67(9):656-60. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1990. Abstract
A prospective and retrospective review of 20 cases of cholelithiasis diagnosed at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) between June 1987 and June 1989 was done. Females were more often affected (6 times) than their male counterparts. 94% of the females were parous with a mean parity of 5.6. Most patients were in the 4th decade at the time of diagnosis. Qualitative analysis for gall-stones showed evidence of cholesterol in all stones analysed with calcium being detected in only one female patient.
Fluck RA, Jaffe MJ. "Cholinesterases from plant tissues. VI. Preliminary characterization of enzymes from Solanum melongena L. and Zea mays L." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;410(1):130-4. Abstract

Enzymes capable of hydrolyzing esters of thiocholine have been assayed in extracts of Solanum melongena L. (eggplant) and Zea Mays L. (corn). The enzymes from both species are inhibited by the anti-cholinesterases neostigmine, physostigmine, and 284c51 and by AMO-1618, a plant growth retardant and they both have pH optima near pH 8.0. The enzyme from eggplant is maximally active at a substrate concentration of 0.15 mM acetylthiocholine and is inhibited at higher substrate concentrations. On the basis of this last property, the magnitude of inhibition by the various inhibitors, and the substrate specificity, we conclude that the enzyme from eggplant, but not that from corn, is a cholinesterase.

T.M. O, Guthua SW, Chindia ML. "Chondrosarcoma of the Temporomandibular joint.". 2007.

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