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Forthcoming
Jayne M. "Adult Literacy and the Place of Kiswahili.". In: proceedings on Language Curriculum Development. Kenyatta University; Forthcoming.
Imonje RK, Nyagah G. "Academic Staff effectiveness in mainstreaming disability interventions for students with special needs in public universities in Kenya.". In: 2nd Africe International Conference. University of Nairobi, Kenya Science Campus; Forthcoming.
Cheruiyot EK, Mito CO, Kaduki KA, Laneve G, Khoshelham K. "Aquatic vegetation prediction models based on water quality parameters and meteorological conditions.". Forthcoming.
Muchiri J. "The Art of Narrating Pain in Margaret Ogola’s Place of Destiny.". In: Readings on Margaret Ogola. Nairobi: Native Intelligence; Forthcoming.
O. KG. "Advance Geomorphology.". Forthcoming. Abstract
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Submitted
MWANGI MUREITHISTEPHEN. "Aboveground net primary productivity in grazed and ungrazed pastures: Grazing optimisation hypothesis or local extinction of vegetation species. Otieno, S.G., T.J. Njoka, T.P. Young, S.M. Mureithi and Ngugi, R.K. .". In: Nature Proceedings. Afr. J. Range For. Sci.; Submitted. Abstract

The controversy that has surrounded herbivory studies in the last few decades prompted our investigation to establish the extent to which herbivore optimisation hypothesis or compensatory growth evidence is real. We used the traditional movable cage method to collect primary productivity data on herbage, functional groups and key individual grass species in various controlled large herbivore treatments in an east African savanna. The herbivore treatments in triplicate blocks included cattle, wild herbivores with and without mega herbivores and combinations of cattle and wild herbivores also with and without mega herbivores. The findings revealed that at herbage level, most grazed treatments (four out of five) had higher productivity than the ungrazed control and three showed grazing optimisation curve at sixth polynomial degree between monthly productivity and grazing intensity (1-g/ng). At functional group level forbs productivity was higher in the ungrazed control than in any of the grazed treatments while at individual grass species level Themeda triandra productivity was higher in all grazed treatments than in ungrazed control. We conclude against presence of herbivore optimisation hypothesis at herbage, functional group and species level because of lack of attributable grazing effect in grazed treatments that matches complex ecological effects in the ungrazed treatment.

Kariuki S, Mirza N, Mitema ES, Olsvik O. "Acquired tetracycline resistance genes in nosocomial Salmonella typhimurium infection in a Kenyan hospital.". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Tetracyclines have been among the most widely used antibiotics worldwide. Plasmid-mediated tetracycline resistance among hospital strains of bacteria has continued to rise and of major concern has been the transfer of resistance to pathogenic organisms. Bacteraemia due to hospital acquired S. typhimurium has been a major cause of morbidity at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), hence the need to study drug susceptibility pattern of this organism. This study also characterized the tetracycline resistance genes using oligonucleotide probes. Ninety seven S. typhimurium strains isolated from patients at KNH were used. Agar dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Plasmids were isolated from each strain and the different plasmid profiles were grouped by their molecular weights into 6 patterns. Out of 97, 87 (88%) strains were resistant. MIC ranged from 1 microgram/ml to 128 micrograms/ml. Genes encoding for tetracycline resistance were located on plasmids of molecular weights 65 MDa, 5.2 or both. Plasmid-encoded antimicrobial resistance is likely to spread to other pathogenic organisms, reduce our ability to treat the infection and increase the cost and duration of treatment.

Olsvik O, Mitema ES, Gathuma J, Mirza N. "Acquired tetracycline resistance genes in nosocomial Salmonella typhimurium infection in a Kenyan hospital.". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Tetracyclines have been among the most widely used antibiotics worldwide. Plasmid-mediated tetracycline resistance among hospital strains of bacteria has continued to rise and of major concern has been the transfer of resistance to pathogenic organisms. Bacteraemia due to hospital acquired S. typhimurium has been a major cause of morbidity at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), hence the need to study drug susceptibility pattern of this organism. This study also characterized the tetracycline resistance genes using oligonucleotide probes. Ninety seven S. typhimurium strains isolated from patients at KNH were used. Agar dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Plasmids were isolated from each strain and the different plasmid profiles were grouped by their molecular weights into 6 patterns. Out of 97, 87 (88%) strains were resistant. MIC ranged from 1 microgram/ml to 128 micrograms/ml. Genes encoding for tetracycline resistance were located on plasmids of molecular weights 65 MDa, 5.2 or both. Plasmid-encoded antimicrobial resistance is likely to spread to other pathogenic organisms, reduce our ability to treat the infection and increase the cost and duration of treatment.

MUTONGA PENINAH. "Adaptation of Swahili architecture and identity, a case of Lamu and Shela." Africa Habitat Review Journal. Submitted;1(1/2019):50.
African Capacity Enhancement Programme (ACEP) leading to Post Graduate Certificate in Material Development in Open, Distance and e-Learning. African Virtual University (AVU) and Association of Colleges and Universities of Canada; Submitted.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Kabwana I. Alfa na Omega (Play). Nairobi: Oxford University Press; Submitted. Abstract

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Wasamba P. Angela the Hammer. London: World Englishes Press; Submitted.
Odhiambo MA. Antimicrobial and phytochemical properties of some medicinal plants used by the Luo community of Kenya.; Submitted. Abstract

The Luo community of Kenya have traditionally used plants for treatment of various disease conditions,
some of which we now know to be caused by microbial infections. Some of these plants, namely Lannea
stuhlmanii, Carissa edulis, Combretum fragrans, Conyza sumatrensis, Ormocarpum trichocarpum, Sida
cuneifolia, Plumbago zeylanica, and Rhoicissus revoilii, were studied. Their ethanol extracts were
screened for their antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus
and Bacillus pumulus.
Ethanolic root extract of C sumatrensis had good antibacterial activity against E. coli, while extracts of
C fragrans root bark, C edulis root, S. cuneifolia whole plant, R. revoilii tubers and leaf extract of C
sumatrensis in the same solvent had good activity against it. Activity against B. pumulus was observed in
all extracts except those of L. stuhlmanii bark and R. revoilii tubers. Good activity against S. aureus was
observed for C fragrans, S. cuneifolia and L. stuhlmanii.
R. revoihi, L. stuhlmanii, C fragrans and C edulis exhibited good antifungal activity against Candida
albicans.
Combretum fragrans bark extract had the highest overall antimicrobial activity of all the different plant
extracts examined and was subsequently chosen for further studies. All its ethanol, methanol, ethyl
acetate and chloroform extracts were found to have significant antimicrobial activity.
Combretum fragrans bark powder was found to contain saponins, cardiac glycosides, free anthraquinones
(anthracene glycosides), tannins and flavonoids. However, it had no starch nor alkaloids.
The chloroform extract of C fragrans was subjected to column chromatographic separation and
sitosterol (with stigmasterol as a minor compound) was isolated and identified. Sitosterol was shown to
have antifungal activity against C albicans and antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli.
The results of this work would therefore appear to lend support to the traditional use of Lannea
stuhlmanii, Combretum fragrans, Conyza sumatrensis (tineasis), Plumbago zeylanica, and Rhoicissus
revoilii in disease conditions where microbial infections may be a factor. Use of growth enhancers like
Carissa edulis in combination therapy may be justified on the basis of their immune boosting activity.

Wolfgang Richard Mukabana, Janet Achieng Onyango CKM. "Artisanal fishing supports breeding of malaria mosquitoes in Western Kenya.". Submitted.
Omolo MJ. Assessment Of Knowledge And Attitude On Antiretroviral Therapy Among Nursing Students.; Submitted. Abstract

Title: Assessment of knowledge and attitude on antiretroviral therapy among nursing students. Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitude of final year nursing students at Kenyatta National Hospital. Specific Objectives were to establish the knowledge of nursing students on Anti-retroviral therapy and to determine the attitude of students towards patients who are on Anti-retroviral therapy Method: The study done at Kenyatta National hospital administered questionnaires to 150 students and 138 were found eligible. Data collected was analyzed using STATA. Results: The findings of the study showed that 39.8% of the nursing students had knowledge about Anti-Retroviral drugs; 42% of the students had some ideas while 18% of the students did not have adequate knowledge. Married and older students seemed to have better knowledge on ART compared to young and single Nurses significant at a P-value of 0.033. Attitude towards ART was positive from 34.8% of the students while 65.2% of the nursing students had not expressed their feeling. There was significant association between attitude and sex. Conclusion: This study confirmed lack of adequate knowledge on Antiretroviral therapy among newly qualified nursing students. The study recommended inclusion of HIV/AIDS based units in the basic training of nurses

Njoroge PK. Assessment of parental sex education to own adolescents among parents in a Peri urban community.; Submitted. Abstract

This was a Survey of Parents' Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of sex education to their own adolescents. The study was conducted between January and March in three divisions of Kiambaa Division of Kiambu District, Central Province of Kenya. This study area is located about 20 km from the city of Nairobi. The study population were parents with at least one child in adolescence. Depending on availability either one or both parents were included in the study. The study instrument was structured, mainly pre-coded questionnaire. The data was obtained through personal interviews conducted from house La ho u sc . The sample population was made up of 729 parents, 70.4% of whom were females. The survey found that 46.3% of parents gave sex education to their own adolescents, majority of them giving it to those of their sex only. Parents gave their adolescents sex education from a mean age (of the adolescent) of 10.33 years (SD=3.51) and the practice was associated with Parents Social, Economic and Demographic factors. 'Of these factors, knowledge that own adolescents received sex education from sources other than the parent had highest odds ratio 10R=4.l8). Age of the parent was the only other factor with odds for the practice (OR=.l.03 ). The level of sex education given to adolescents was higher for girls than for boys. The level of practice to boys was associated with age and socio-economic status (SES) inde~ of the parent. Knowledge of sex education among parents was high and associated with a parents' sex and SES index. Males scored signi ficantly higher than females and parents of Jow SES scored significantly higher than those of high SES index. The attitude to sex education was positive, with nearly all parents feeling that sex education for adolescents was appropriate and that it should be given by own parents, starting from a mean age of 10.61 years (SD=2. 84) and that it should include contraceptive education. The study recommended further studies on parents to understand why the level of practice is unmatched with the high levels of knowledge and attitude and to determine why those parents who know that their adolescents receive sex education from other sources are more likely to give sex education to their adolescents than those who did not. 'Other recommendations were: a study to assess the feasibility of using PTA' s to impart sex education to adolescents in schools, beginning Family Life education in primary schools at standard four (corresponding to age .10-11 years),and establishing of community based centres for sex education counselling for parents with adolescents and adolescents out of school.

K PROFNDELEJOHNSON. "Academia .". In: The Nairobi Journal of Medicine Vo. 19 No. 2 pp 30-34. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
The present studies were designed and carried out to determine if hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is involved in the regulation of erythropoietin (Epo) gene expression and stimulation of Epo production in the hepatocellular (Hep 3B) cells. Hep 3B cells were incubated with varying concentrations of H2O2 for periods of 6 hours or 24 hours. In other experiments Hep 3B cells were incubated for 24 hours with or without increasing concentrations of catalase and in the presence of H2O2. Culture medium levels of Epo were determined and quantitation of Epo mRNA was also made. The results indicate that H2O2 increases the levels of Epo mRNA and Epo hormone production in Hep 3B cells, and that catalase, the specific scavenger of hydrogen peroxide, inhibits Epo production in these cells. Based on these findings, it is concluded that H2O2 takes part in the signal transduction mechanisms in Epo production. It is recommended that further studies be undertaken to find out the source of the hydrogen peroxide in the hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Accountancy - The Making of Professional Accountants." Part II, by J.D. Newtron ad N.D. Nzomo. This article continues the analysis and discussions started in Part 1 above.It presents data on citizenship, age, education and projects into the future of the.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management, (pages 24-25). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Accountancy - The Making of Professional Accountants." Part II, by J.D. Newtron ad N.D. Nzomo. This article continues the analysis and discussions started in Part 1 above.It presents data on citizenship, age, education and projects into the future of the.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management, (pages 24-25).; Submitted. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Accounting for Harambee" This article presents the rationale for auditing harambee funds, discusses practical procedures for doing so and then calls for legislation to regulate authorization, safe custody, management and reporting as aspects of national .". In: Journal of the Accounting Students Association, Faculty of Commerce, University of Nairobi, pages 3 & 4. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Accounting for Harambee" This article presents the rationale for auditing harambee funds, discusses practical procedures for doing so and then calls for legislation to regulate authorization, safe custody, management and reporting as aspects of national .". In: Journal of the Accounting Students Association, Faculty of Commerce, University of Nairobi, pages 3 & 4.; Submitted. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Accounting for Stock-Devidends" . This article discusses the theoretical inconsistencies in the Accounting treatment of stock dividends and the commensurate capitalization of Retained Earnings.". In: National Association of Black Accountants, USA Spectrum, Vol. 7, , New York, (pages 8-10). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
No abstract available
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Accounting Versus Accountability." This article highlights the need for financial accountability in our economy. It cites the collapsing financial institutions and the costly mismanagement exposed by the likes of "the multi-billion Bura Irrigation Scheme.". In: Journal for the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 4-6). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Accounting Versus Accountability." This article highlights the need for financial accountability in our economy. It cites the collapsing financial institutions and the costly mismanagement exposed by the likes of "the multi-billion Bura Irrigation Scheme.". In: Journal for the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 4-6).; Submitted. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Accumulation of DDT residues in aquarium fish, sediment, plant and water," Accepted, J. Environment International.". In: Submitted to Journal of Electrochimica Acta. Survey Review; Submitted. Abstract
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KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Adult Education and political culture, S.K. Akivaga.". In: East Afr. Medi. Journal. Elsevier; Submitted. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
CLAUDIO MRACHOLA. "Algebra 1 and 11 (O.D.L Lecture Notes).". In: E.A.E.P. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; Submitted.
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""All Expenditures must be properly authorized." Continuing on the theme of planning and management control, this article delineates and discusses some of the most effective financial control mechanisms. Management:.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management. (pages 9-10). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""All Expenditures must be properly authorized." Continuing on the theme of planning and management control, this article delineates and discusses some of the most effective financial control mechanisms. Management:.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management. (pages 9-10).; Submitted. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Analysis of Chemical Pollution in Some Kenya Water Systems with Special Reference to Lake Nakuru.". In: in the Role of Water Resources in Development, Proceedings of the 13th Annual Symposium of the East African Academy, September 1977, p.120. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; Submitted. Abstract
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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Analysis of Nitrosamines in Grains, Flours and Local Alcoholic Beverages.". In: Final Report to the National Council for Science and Technology Grant No. NCST/SEC/440055, 1983. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; Submitted. Abstract
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Aduda BOC, Egbe PDDDAM, Musembi RJ, WAITA SEBASTIAN, Kaduki KA, Simiyu J, Agacho A, Nyongesa F. "ANSOLE Mini-Symposium in Kenya (AMSK 2013).". Submitted. Abstract
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B. PROFESTAMBALEBENSON. "Antibodies in the serum of golden hamsters experimentally infected with the intestinal trematode Echinostoma caproni. J Helminthol. 1991 Dec;65(4):239-47. Erratum in: J Helminthol 1992 Mar;66(1):78.". In: J Helminthol. 1991 Dec;65(4):239-47. Erratum in: J Helminthol 1992 Mar;66(1):78. Taylor & Francis; Submitted. Abstract
The serum antibody response in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with the intestinal trematode Echinostoma caproni was examined with ELISA, SDS-PAGE and Western blot, and IFAT techniques. All methods showed that the hamsters responded slowly but developed a clear positive humoral response to the infection. In most hamsters, an antibody response to infection could not be detected earlier than 11-13 weeks after infection with 6 or 25 metacercariae, and responses were weak when compared to previous results from mice infected with the same parasite. IFAT with positive hamster sera on live juvenile E. caproni showed only fluorescence at the posterior tip, which is a different pattern from that seen using from infected mice, indicating a different response to antigens on the juvenile parasites by these two hosts. The results are discussed in relation to the limited selfcure and development of resistance which is observed in golden hamsters infected with E. caproni.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "The antihypertensive Effect of an extract from the Bark of Podocarpus Sp",.". In: Submitted, East Africa Medical Journal. Survey Review; Submitted. Abstract
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NGUTA DRJOSEPHMWANZIA. "Antimalarial herbal remedies of Msambweni, Kenya J.M. Nguta, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama.". In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology 128 (2010) 424. ELSEVIER; Submitted.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Antimicrobial susceptibility of non-sorbitol fermenting Escherichia coli isolated from cattle feaces and milk samples.". In: Journal. African Journal of Microbiology Research; Submitted.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Antimicrobial susceptibility of non-sorbitol fermenting Escherichia coli isolated from cattle feaces and milk samples.". In: Journal. African Journal of Microbiology Research; Submitted.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Antimicrobial susceptibility of non-sorbitol fermenting Escherichia coli isolated from cattle feaces and milk samples.". In: Journal. African Journal of Microbiology Research; Submitted.
AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM, K. MRNGARISAMUEL. ""Application of Ground Charcoal as a Coarse Medium in Dual Media Filtration of Water". East African Journal of Engineering.". In: Jadini Beach Hotel, Mombasa. IBIMA Publishing; Submitted. Abstract
Joint exhibition of paintings and sculptures
AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM, K. MRNGARISAMUEL. ""Application of Ground Charcoal as a Coarse Medium in Dual Media Filtration of Water". East African Journal of Engineering.". In: Canadian and International Education Journal. VOL: 19, No:1'1990. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; Submitted. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM, K. MRNGARISAMUEL. ""Application of Ground Charcoal in the Removal of Organic Matter in Water Treatment". East African Journal of Engineering.". In: East African Journal of Engineering. IBIMA Publishing; Submitted. Abstract
Joint exhibition of paintings and sculptures
AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM, K. MRNGARISAMUEL. ""Application of Ground Charcoal in the Removal of Organic Matter in Water Treatment". East African Journal of Engineering.". In: East African Journal of Engineering. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; Submitted. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

ARAP MRKENDUIWOJOHNK. "An Application of The Transportation Model: The case of Inter-factory Transfer of Bulk Whole Milk at The Kenya co-operative Creameries (KCC) Limited (MBA Research project paper of the University of Nairobi).". In: E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27. Folio Morphol; Submitted. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
PAUL PROFBAKI. "Astrophysics In The Quest for Renewable Source of Energy, Proceedings of The Third TWAS .". In: The Third TWAS . Heinrich Boll Foundation.; Submitted.
In Press
2020
Muia BM, Mbaria JM, Kanja LW, Gitahi N, Okumu PO, Okumu MO. "Acute and sub-acute toxicity study of the root extracts of Fagaropsis hildebrandtii in mice and evaluation of their antimicrobial effects." F1000Research,. 2020;8(1444).
Andima M, Coghi P, Yang LJ, Wong VKW, Ngule CM, Heydenreich M, Ndakala AJ, Yenesew A, Derese S. "Antiproliferative Activity of Secondary Metabolites from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides Lam: In vitro and in silico Studies." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2020;10(1). AbstractPharmacognosy Communications

Description
Background: Plant derived compounds have provided proming leads in search for safer anticancer chemotherapies. Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides is a common medicinal plant in Uganda whose bioactive composition has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative potential of compounds isolated from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and their probable in silico anticancer mechanisms of action. Methods: Column chromatography was used to isolate compounds from MeOH: CH2Cl2 (1: 1) extract of the stem bark extract of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by NMR and MS analyses. MTT assay was used to measure cell viability. Using in silico docking, the interaction of the compounds with key target proteins in the p53 pathway was determined. Results: From the root bark of this plant five compounds were isolated, namely; dihydrochelerythrine (1), skimmianine (2), tridecan-2-one (3), sesamin (4) and hesperidin (5). Dihydrochelerythrine (1) inhibited proliferation of liver cancer (HCC) cells (IC50 21.2), breast cancer (BT549) cells,(IC50 21.2 μM). Similarly, sesamin (4) exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against BT549 cancer cells (IC50 47.6 μM). Hesperidin (5) showed low inhibitory activity against A549 and HEp2 (Larynx) cells but was significantly toxic to normal liver and lung cells.
In silico docking studies showed that all the compounds strongly bind to cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK2 and CDK6) and weakly bind to caspases 3 and 8 suggesting that they inhibit cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Conclusion: This study indicates …

GO O, EK G, S N. "Audit on the management of early rheumatoid arthritis in Nairobi." Afr J Rheumatol. 2020;8(1):22-25. Abstractaudit_on_the_management_of_early_rheumatoid_arthitis_in_nairobi.pdf

Background
: Clinical audit for rheumatoid arthritis on patients over
the age of 18 years in Nairobi, Kenya within the first three months of referral to a specialist. Objective: The audit gives detailed
information on the following; access to care, quality of treatment and
care received by patients from their rheumatology team in these first 3 months and the early impact of arthritis on the patient’s life.
Design: This was a cross-sectional
survey. Results
: The audit included 100 patients referred to the Nairobi Arthritis
Clinic between January and April 2018. A majority (54%) had symptoms for
more than 6 months before being referred to a rheumatologist. Most of
the patients (83%) were seen within 3 weeks of referral. Disease Modifiying
Antirheumatic Drugs (DMARDs) were commenced in 90% within 6 weeks of
being seen at the clinic. Treatment to target was done in 98% of the patients
with a further 60% able to access the clinic within a day of flare of symptoms. Conclusion: The audit revealed the
need to improve on referral time to the rheumatologist. It was encouraging
to note that once they saw the rheumatologists the patients were
commenced on the proper treatment with the treat to target strategy. An area
that needs improvement is the time to access the rheumatologist in case of
side effect from the treatment or flare of the disease

2019
Lokken EM, Manguro GO, Abdallah A, Ngacha C, Shafi J, Kiarie J, Jaoko W, Srinivasan S, Fiedler TL, Munch MM, Fredricks DN, McClelland SR, Balkus JE. "Association between vaginal washing and detection of by culture and quantitative PCR in HIV-seronegative Kenyan women: a cross-sectional analysis." Sex Transm Infect. 2019. Abstract

Vaginal washing has been associated with reductions in cultivable and an increased risk of both bacterial vaginosis (BV) and HIV infection. The effect of vaginal washing on the quantity of individual species is not well characterised. This analysis tested the hypothesis that vaginal washing would be associated with a lower likelihood of spp. detected by both culture and quantitative PCR (qPCR).

Katz MA, Marangu D, Attia EF, Bauwens J, Bont LJ, Bulatovic A, Crane J, Doroshenko A, Ebruke BE, Edwards KM, Fortuna L, Jagelaviciene A, Joshi J, Kemp J, Kovacs S, Lambach P, Lewis KDC, Ortiz JR, Simões EAF, Turner P, Tagbo BN, Vaishnavi V, Bonhoeffer J. "Acute wheeze in the pediatric population: Case definition & guidelines for data collection, analysis, and presentation of immunization safety data." Vaccine. 2019;37(2):392-399.
Chepkonga S. "Administrative Strategies for Using Social Media in Higher Education Institutions in Kenya.". In: International Conference on Research and Innovation in Education University of Nairobi.; 2019.
HM M. "Academic Processes of postgraduate studies; from admission to graduation." Kenya Climate Smart Agriculture postgraduate induction workshop, Nakuru; 2019.
Mbwika JM, wa Mberia K, Oduor JAN. "Adaptation Strategies in Rabai Loanwords." Asian Journal of African Studies (AJAS). 2019;46(ISSN 2466- 1821.).
Mwaniki JM, Onyatta JO, Yusuf AO. "Adsorption of Heavy Metal Ions from Aqueous Solutions and Wastewater using Water Hyacinth Powder ." International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) . 2019;4(1):1-5.
Makunda CS. "African Development and Management: 6A - Development in Nairobi: Three Into One Does Not Go!". In: Intrinsic Capability: Implementing Intrinsic Sustainable Development for an Ecological Civilisation. London: World Scientific; 2019.
OLUOCH M F. "Age And Effective Human Resource Management." European Scientific Journal. 2019;15(34):ISSN: 1857-7881 (Print) e - ISSN 1857-7431.
Mutembei H, Tsuma V, Kios D. "Alternative Follicle Stimulating Hormone Dose Rate for Embryo Production in Dairy Cattle." Journal of Dairy & Veterinary Sciences. 2019;10(3):1-7.mutembei-kios_2019.pdf
Ondiek MA, Moturi CA. "An An assessment of the sustainability of Living Labs in Kenya." Innovation & Management Review. 2019;16(4):391-403. Abstract10-1108_inmr-08-2018-0058.pdf

Purpose – There has been a high rate of failure among the Living Labs in Kenya resulting in the expected
outcomes not fully realized. This paper aims to assess the sustainability of Living Labs in Kenya.
Design/methodology/approach – Based on the four capital method of sustainable development evaluation framework, data were collected through interviews and questionnaires from innovators, users and employees among the 25 living labs in Kenya.
Findings – The research found that some innovators are not familiar with the living labs, the living labs are innovative and prepared to survive in future, some labs have strategic plans on how to pursue future environment and have developed ways of choosing right people to incubate, inability to get enough funding from the host organizations and limited knowledge on the supervision level of the operations. A model is proposed that can be generalized to other living labs in developing countries.
Research limitations/implications – The study was done in Nairobi where most of the living labs are situated.
Practical implications – The study concludes by emphasizing on the user involvement during innovation process. There is need to expand the capacities of living labs to accommodate more people to ensure more innovations are supported at a time. The senior managers in charge of the living labs should increase the level of supervision to ensure that the labs are effective in their incubation efforts and institutionalize support of the host organization to the labs to ensure continued growth and expansion.
Originality/value – The findings of this study are of value to research community, the decision and policymakers as it seeks to document the current status of the living labs in the Kenya
Keywords Sustainableinnovation,Livinglabs,Innovationecosystem,Innovationlab, Innovation space, User-driven innovation

and I DKECM. "An Analysis of Internal Efficiency in Primary School Education in Western Equatoria State of South Sudan between 2009 and 2013." International Journal of Educational Science and Research (IJESR). 2019;9(1).
T A, L O, I O, I O, J O’o. "Anatomical Pattern of Dorsal Metatarsal Arteries in a black Kenyan Population." J Morphol Sci. 2019. Abstract

Introduction Knowledge of anatomical variations in the origin and in the course of the dorsal metatarsal arteries (DMTAs) is valuable for many procedures, including reconstructive surgeries and flap selection. However, there is a paucity of data on these arteries among black Africans. Materials and Methods The present study studied the origin and the location of DMTAs in 30 formalin-fixed cadaveric feet of adult black Kenyans at the Department of Human Anatomy of the University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. Results Dorsal metatarsal arteries were present in all of the cases. Of the right dorsalis pedis artery (DPA), in the majority of the cases, the 1st DMTA arose as the continuation of the DPA, while the 2nd to 4th DMTAs were given off as branches from the arcuate artery (AA). On the left feet, in the majority of the cases, the 1st DMTA arose as the continuation of the DPA, while the rest were given off as branches from the AA. In relation to the dorsal interossei muscles, all of the the arteries were either within the muscle fibers (53%) or beneath them (47%), on the right side. On the left side, the 1st DMTA was above the muscles in 40% of the cases; within the muscles in 53%; and beneath the muscles in 7%. The 2nd and 3rd DMTAs were above the muscles in 57% and in 53% of the cases, respectively. Conclusion These results reveal that the DMTAs show variation in their origin and position relative to the dorsal interossei muscles. These variations display bilateral asymmetry.

Ogeng’o J, Amuti T, Rwegasira E, Ouko I, Ongeti K. "THE ANATOMICAL PATTERN OF THE DORSALIS PEDIS ARTERY AMONG BLACK KENYANS." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2019;8(1):1444-1451. Abstract

Knowledge of the anatomical pattern of dorsalis pedis artery is important during evaluation of peripheral
circulation, peripheral vascular disease, microvascular flap, ankle and foot surgery. Reports from other
populations on the pattern show wide disparity suggesting ethnic and geographical differences. Data
from black African populations is scanty. This study therefore examined the anatomical pattern of dorsalis
pedis artery among adult black Kenyans. The cadaveric dissection study on 30 formalin fixed specimens
evaluated the origin, position, course and branching pattern of the dorsalis pedis artery. The data were
analysed using SPSS for means, frequency and standard deviation. Student t – test was used to determine
side differences at 95% confidence interval where P – Value of <5% was taken as statistically significant.
The artery was consistently present, as a continuation of the anterior tibial artery. It ran 4.6 mm ± 2.1
mm from the medial malleolus, and about 2.5 ± 0.3mm from the medial border of the base of the first
metatarsal bone. The mean was 4.76 mm on the right, and 4.56 mm on the left. The difference was
statistically significant (P<0.05). Three branching patterns were observed. The conventional pattern was
observed in only 47% of cases. The extensor hallucis longus tendon most frequently crossed the artery
above the ankle joint. There were no cases of crossing below the ankle. These observations reveal that
the dorsalis pedis artery is consistently present, high, relatively medialised, and displays an atypical
branching pattern. Due care should be taken during surgery. Preoperative ultrasound evaluation is
recommended.

Omole RA, Moshi MJ, Heydenreich M, Malebo HM, Gathirwa JW, Oriko RO, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO. "Antiplasmodial Biflavanones from the Stem Bark of Garcinia buchananii Engl." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2019;9(3):96-99.
Omole RA, Moshi MJ, Heydenreich M, Malebo HM, Gathirwa JW, Oriko RO, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO. "Antiplasmodial Biflavanones from the Stem Bark of Garcinia buchananii Engl." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2019;9(3):96-99. AbstractJournal article

Description
Introduction: Plants of the genus Garcinia are traditionally used treat a range of infectious and non-infectious diseases. Garcinia species are reported to have been shown to have a range of biological activities including cytotoxicity antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant, antimalarial and HIV-1 protease inhibitory activity among others. Methods: Solvent extraction was done using CH2Cl2: MeOH (1: 1). Isolation was done using column chromatography with silica gel as the stationery phase and ethyl acetate and n-hexane used as mobile phase in increasing polarity. Thin layer chromatography was used to monitor the isolation. Structure elucidation was done using nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopic techniques. Chloroquine resistant (W2) and chloroquine sensitive (D6) P. falciparum strains were used for antiplasmodial assay. Results: Further bioassay guided fractionation of a CH2Cl2: MeOH (1: 1) extract of Garcinia buchananii led to the isolation of two already reported biflavanones, isogarcinol (1) and guttiferone (2) with promising antiplasmodial activity against a chloroquine resistant (W2) Plasmodium falciparum strain with an IC50 of 2.8
±0.90 µg/mL for compound 1 and IC50 of 3.94±0.38 µg/mL for compound 2. Compounds 1 and 2 also exhibited moderate activity against the chloroquine sensitive (D6) Plasmodium falciparum strain with IC50 of 7.03±0.60 and 10.64±4.50 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: The results provide proof to support the use of G. buchananii by the indigenous community for antimalarial therapy.
Scholar articles
Antiplasmodial Biflavanones from the Stem Bark of Garcinia buchananii Engl.
RA Omole, MJ Moshi, M Heydenreich, HM Malebo… - Pharmacognosy Communications, 2019
All 4 versions

Ogeng’o JA, Ongeti KW. "AORTIC ARCH ORIGIN OF THE VERTEBRAL ARTERY MAY HAVE CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS." Anatomy Journal of Africa . 2019;8(2):1484-1485.
Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "Application of microbial fuel cells in the degradation of 2, 4, 5, 6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile (chlorothalonil)." Journal of Bioscience and Biotechnology Discovery. 2019;4(2):28-35. Abstract

Description
Pesticide’s persistence in the environment due to the relatively slow degradation mechanism leads to their bio-accumulation which in turn has adverse impacts on human health. Bio-remediation involves utilization of microbes from nature to the breakdown of organic molecules. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of microbes in degrading chlorothalonil. Aerobic-anaerobic combined conditions in an H-shaped double chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) were employed for the breakdown of chlorothalonil. Decomposing tomatoes were used as the major substrate with their proximate properties being analyzed using standard method. Glucose loaded with different concentrations of chlorothalonil was introduced to the cells on day 10 when voltage production had stabilized. The voltage and current generated were monitored using a digital multi-meter while pesticide concentrations were obtained using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The highest voltage readings were obtained on day 9 of degradation, with values ranging from 0.463 to 0.537 V. The current ranged from 0.002 to 0.076 mA. Higher voltage and current values were recorded in solutions with lower pesticide concentration. The obtained degradation level was highest in 10 g glucose at 95.95 and 98.75% for day 10 and 20 respectively. The lowest breakdown was observed in the cells without glucose at 10.54 and 31.04% on day 10 and 20 respectively. The results demonstrate that MFC technology can be employed in mineralization of chlorinated pesticides as an alternative for incineration and photo-degradation.

Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "Application of microbial fuel cells in the degradation of 2, 4, 5, 6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile (chlorothalonil)." Journal of Bioscience and Biotechnology Discovery. 2019;4(2):28-35. AbstractJournal of Bioscience and Biotechnology Discovery

Description
Pesticide’s persistence in the environment due to the relatively slow degradation mechanism leads to their bio-accumulation which in turn has adverse impacts on human health. Bio-remediation involves utilization of microbes from nature to the breakdown of organic molecules. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of microbes in degrading chlorothalonil. Aerobic-anaerobic combined conditions in an H-shaped double chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) were employed for the breakdown of chlorothalonil. Decomposing tomatoes were used as the major substrate with their proximate properties being analyzed using standard method. Glucose loaded with different concentrations of chlorothalonil was introduced to the cells on day 10 when voltage production had stabilized. The voltage and current generated were monitored using a digital multi-meter while pesticide concentrations were obtained using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The highest voltage readings were obtained on day 9 of degradation, with values ranging from 0.463 to 0.537 V. The current ranged from 0.002 to 0.076 mA. Higher voltage and current values were recorded in solutions with lower pesticide concentration. The obtained degradation level was highest in 10 g glucose at 95.95 and 98.75% for day 10 and 20 respectively. The lowest breakdown was observed in the cells without glucose at 10.54 and 31.04% on day 10 and 20 respectively. The results demonstrate that MFC technology can be employed in mineralization of chlorinated pesticides as an alternative for incineration and photo-degradation.

Gitau PW, Kunyanga CN, Abong’ GO, Ojiem JO, Muthomi JW. "Assessing Sensory Characteristics and Consumer Preference of Legume-Cereal-Root Based Porridges in Nandi County." Journal of Food Quality. 2019;https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/3035418.
Mumma-Martinon CA, Ododa O. "Assessing the Defector Rehabilitation Programmes in Countering Violent Extremism in Somalia. Religious Extremism and Violence in Africa: Reviewing the Practice of Intervention and Inter-Religious Dialogue.". In: Religious Extremism and Violence in Africa: Reviewing the Practice of Intervention and Inter-Religious Dialogue. Nairobi: HIPSIR - Editor. Opongo E.O; 2019.
Mumma-Martinon CA, Ododa O. "Assessing the Defector Rehabilitation Programmes in Countering Violent Extremism in Somalia. Religious Extremism and Violence in Africa: Reviewing the Practice of Intervention and Inter-Religious Dialogue.". In: Religious Extremisim and Violence in Africa . Nairobi : Hekima Institute of Peace Studies and International Relations ; 2019.
Hassan S, RA Skilton, R Pelle OD, RP Bishop, J Ahmed SBSMHAMEHUM. "Assessment of the prevalence of Theileria lestoquardi in sheep from the Sudan using serological and molecular methods." Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2019;169:104697.
Wangaria WS, Okunya LO. "ASSOCIATION BETWEEN FORMAL CONTINUOUS PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND JOB SATISFACTION AMONG CLINICAL OFFICERS IN NAIROBI COUNTY, KENYA." International Journal of Education and Social Science Research . 2019;2(2):43-67.
Mwaura F. "An audit of environmental impact assessments for mining projects in Kenya." Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy . 2019;119(5) :484-493.
Ndwigah S, Stergachis A, Abuga K, Mugo H, Kibwage I. "Availability and Prices of Antimalarials and Staffing Levels in Health Facilities in Embu County, Kenya." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2019;22(1):26-34. Abstract

Effective treatment of malaria relies on the availability of quality medicines while pricing is a major determinant of affordability. In addition, adequate numbers of competent staff of different cadres is essential for a well-functioning health system and effective health service delivery. The aim of the study was to determine the availability and prices of antimalarial medicines as well as staffing levels in healthcare facilities located in Embu County, Kenya. Antimalarials were sampled from 11 public (government owned) facilities, 29 private pharmacies, 5 private-for-profit and 3 not-for-profit mission health facilities in May-June 2014. The majority of public facilities (91%) had artemether-lumefantrine (AL) tablets in stock. Government and mission facilities did not stock second line antimalarials or sulfonamide-pyrimethamine (SP). All public facilities provided antimalarials free-of-charge to patients. Private pharmacies stocked a wider variety of antimalarials. The facilities studied were stocked with recommended antimalarials both in the private and public domains. No oral artemisinin monotherapies were encountered during the study. Only 45% percent of public facilities employed pharmacists. Of the remaining facilities, 27% employed pharmaceutical technologists while in the rest of the facilities pharmaceuticals were in the custody of nurses. Notably, none of the private-for-profit or mission facilities had pharmacists employed in their establishments; one facility employed a pharmaceutical technologist, while the rest were staffed by nurses. The number of private pharmacies superintended by pharmacists and pharmaceutical technologists were 7 (24%) and 22 (76%), respectively.

Ndwigah S, Stergachis A, Abuga K, Mugo H, Kibwage I. "Availability and prices of antimalarials and staffing levels in health facilities in Embu County, Kenya." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. . 2019;22:26-34.
2018
Kanyinga K. "Amusing game of corruption in Africa as the rule of law fails." Sunday Nation, March 24, 2018.
Njenga L, Nguli1 M, M. J. Gatari1, Shepherd2 K. "Assessment of Selected Micronutrients in Common Beans in Kenya.". In: INTERNATIONAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY CONFERENCE. Best western Meridian Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Mwangi N, Gachago M, Gichangi M, Gichuhi S, Githeko K, Jalango A, Karimurio J, Kibachio J, Muthami L, Ngugi N, Nduri C, Nyaga P, Nyamori J, Zindamoyen ANM, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Adapting clinical practice guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: process and outputs." Implement Sci. 2018;13(1):81. Abstract

The use of clinical practice guidelines envisages augmenting quality and best practice in clinical outcomes. Generic guidelines that are not adapted for local use often fail to produce these outcomes. Adaptation is a systematic and rigorous process that should maintain the quality and validity of the guideline, while making it more usable by the targeted users. Diverse skills are required for the task of adaptation. Although adapting a guideline is not a guarantee that it will be implemented, adaptation may improve acceptance and adherence to its recommendations.

Emily N Kitivo, GH Nyamasyo JKM. "Agroecosytem disservices and service providers." South Eastern Kenya University; 2018.
Matula P, Kyalo N, Mulwa S, Gichui WL. Academic Research Proposal Writing. Principles, Concepts and Structure.. Nairobi: ARTS press; 2018.
Otieno A, Karuku G, Raude J, Koech O. "Accumulation Of Nitrogen And Phosphorous By Vetiver Grass (Chrysopogon Zizanioides) In A Model Constructed Wetland Treatment System For Polishing Municipal Wastewater." International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies . 2018;22(4):291-298 .
Kathuri J, Apindi E, Olaka L, L Olago, et al. "Adaptation to Climate Change-Induced Malaria and Cholera in the Lake Victoria Region." AIACC Working Papers. 2018. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
AIACC Working Papers, published on-line by Assessments of Impacts and Adaptations to Climate Change (AIACC), is a series of papers and paper abstracts written by researchers participating in the AIACC project. Papers published in AIACC Working Papers have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication in the on-line series as being (i) fundamentally sound in their methods and implementation, (ii) informative about the methods and/or findings of new research, and (iii) clearly written for a broad, multi-disciplinary audience. The purpose of the series is to circulate results and descriptions of methodologies from the AIACC project and elicit feedback to the authors. The AIACC project is funded by the Global Environment Facility, the Canadian International Development Agency, the U.S. Agency for International Development, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The project is co-executed on behalf of the United Nations Environment Programme by the global change SysTem for Analysis Research and Training (START) and The Academy of Sciences for the Developing World (TWAS).

et.al. JMI. "Adapting Agriculture to Climate Change: Suitability of Banana Crop Production to Future Climate Change Over Uganda.". In: Limits to Climate Change Adaptation. Springer, Cham; 2018. Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine suitability zones of future banana growth under a changing climate to guide the design of future adaptation options in the banana sub-sector of Uganda. The study used high resolution (~1 km) data on combined bioclimatic variables (rainfall and temperature) to map suitability zones of the banana crop while the Providing Regional Climate for Impacts Studies (PRECIS) regional climate model temperature simulations were used to estimate the effect of rising temperature on banana growth assuming other factors constant. The downscaled future climate projections were based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs, 2.6, 4.5, 6.0 and 8.5) and Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES, A1B and A2) across the period 2011–2090. The methodology involved identification of banana-climate growth thresholds and developing suitability indices for banana production under the high mitigation (RCP 2.6, less adaptation), medium mitigation (RCP 4.5 and RCP 6.0, medium adaptation), no mitigation (RCP 8.5, very high adaptation) scenarios, SRES A1B and A2 scenarios. The FAO ECO-Crop tool was used to determine and map future suitability of banana growth. Banana production indices were determined using a suitability model in the Geographical Information System (GIS) spatial analyst tool. The non-linear banana-temperature regression model was used to assess the impact of future changes in temperature on banana growth. The results revealed unique and distinct banana production suitability and growth patterns for each climate scenario in the sub-periods. RCPs 2.6 and 6.5 are likely to be associated with higher levels of banana production than RCPs 4.5 and 8.5. The results further showed that projected temperature increase under SRES A1B will promote banana growth. In contrast, expected increases in temperatures under SRES A2 are likely to retard banana growth due to high moisture deficits. There is need to develop adaptation option for farming communities to maximize their agricultural production and incomes. The effectiveness of adaptation options needed to combat the impacts will be influenced by the magnitude of the expected climatic changes associated with each scenario, the timing of expected climate change extremes and sensitivity of the crop to climate. This study has provided critical information that will be useful for planning integrated adaptation practices in the banana farming subsector to promote productivity.

Sabiiti G, et al. "Adapting Agriculture to Climate Change: Suitability of Banana Crop Production to Future Climate Change over Uganda.". In: Limits to Climate Change Adaptation. Springer, Cham; 2018. Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine suitability zones of future banana growth under a changing climate to guide the design of future adaptation options in the banana sub-sector of Uganda. The study used high resolution (~ 1km) data on combined bioclimatic variables (rainfall and temperature) to map suitability zones of the banana crop while the Providing Regional Climate for Impacts Studies (PRECIS) regional climate model temperature simulations were used to estimate the effect of rising temperature on banana growth assuming other factors constant. The downscaled future climate projections were based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs, 2.6, 4.5, 6.0 and 8.5) and Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES, A1B and A2) across the period 2011-2090. The methodology involved identification of banana-climate growth thresholds and developing suitability indices for banana production under the high mitigation (RCP 2.6, less adaptation), medium mitigation (RCP 4.5 and RCP 6.0, medium adaptation), no mitigation (RCP 8.5, very high adaptation) scenarios, SRES A1B and A2 scenarios. The FAO ECO-Crop tool was used to determine and map future suitability of banana growth. Banana production indices were determined using a suitability model in the Geographical Information System (GIS) spatial analyst tool. The non-linear banana-temperature regression model was used to assess the impact of future changes in temperature on banana growth.

Mwangi N, Gachago M, Gichangi M, Gichuhi S, Githeko K, Jalango A, Karimurio J, Kibachio J, Ngugi N, Nyaga P, Nyamori J, Zindamoyen ANM, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Adapting clinical practice guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: process and outputs." Implement Sci . 2018;13(81):https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-018-0773-2.
N M, M G, M G, Gichuhi S, G K, A J’o. "Adapting clinical practice guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: process and outputs." Implementation Science. 2018;13(1):81.
Kinuthia JW, Odiemo L. "ADULT EDUCATION AND SELF-EFFICACY: A TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING PERSPECTIVE ." INTERNATIONAL OF CURRENT RESEARCH. 2018;10(07).joyce_kinuthia_31164-_2018.pdf
Wondimu W, Bogale A, Babege T. "AJPS Articles." Evaluation. 2018.
Derese S. "Alkenyl cyclohexanone derivatives from Lannea rivae and Lannea schweinfurthii." Phytochemistry Letters. 2018;23:141-148. Abstractalkenyl_cyclohexanone_derivatives_from_lannea_rivae_and_lannea.pdfWebsite

Phytochemical investigation of the CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1) extract of the roots of Lannea rivae (Chiov) Sacleux (Anacardiaceae) led to the isolation of a new alkenyl cyclohexenone derivative: (4R,6S)-4,6-dihydroxy-6-((Z)-nonadec-14′-en-1-yl)cyclohex-2-en-1-one (1), and a new alkenyl cyclohexanol derivative: (2S*,4R*,5S*)-2,4,5-trihydroxy-2-((Z)-nonadec-14′-en-1-yl)cyclohexanone (2) along with four known compounds, namely epicatechin gallate, taraxerol, taraxerone and β-sitosterol; while the stem bark afforded two known compounds, daucosterol and lupeol. Similar investigation of the roots of Lannea schweinfurthii (Engl.) Engl. led to the isolation of four known compounds: 3-((E)-nonadec-16′-enyl)phenol, 1-((E)-heptadec-14′-enyl)cyclohex-4-ene-1,3-diol, catechin, and 1-((E)-pentadec-12′-enyl)cyclohex-4-ene-1,3-diol. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of compound 1 was established by quantum chemical ECD calculations. In an antibacterial activity assay using the microbroth kinetic method, compound 1 showed moderate activity against Escherichia coli while compound 2 exhibited moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Compound 1 also showed moderate activity against E. coli using the disc diffusion method. The roots extract of L. rivae was notably cytotoxic against both the DU-145 prostate cancer cell line and the Vero mammalian cell line (CC50 = 5.24 and 5.20 μg/mL, respectively). Compound 1 was also strongly cytotoxic against the DU-145 cell line (CC50 = 0.55 μg/mL) but showed no observable cytotoxicity (CC50 > 100 μg/mL) against the Vero cell line. The roots extract of L. rivae and L. schweinfurthii, epicatechin gallate as well as compound 1 exhibited inhibition of carageenan-induced inflammation.

Yaouba S, Koch A, Guantai EM, Derese S, Irungu B, Heydenreich M, Yenesew A. "Alkenyl cyclohexanone derivatives from Lannea rivae and Lannea schweinfurthii." Phytochemistry letters. 2018;23:141-148. AbstractJornal article

Abstract
Phytochemical investigation of the CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1) extract of the roots of Lannea rivae (Chiov) Sacleux (Anacardiaceae) led to the isolation of a new alkenyl cyclohexenone derivative: (4R,6S)-4,6-dihydroxy-6-((Z)-nonadec-14′-en-1-yl)cyclohex-2-en-1-one (1), and a new alkenyl cyclohexanol derivative: (2S*,4R*,5S*)-2,4,5-trihydroxy-2-((Z)-nonadec-14′-en-1-yl)cyclohexanone (2) along with four known compounds, namely epicatechin gallate, taraxerol, taraxerone and β-sitosterol; while the stem bark afforded two known compounds, daucosterol and lupeol. Similar investigation of the roots of Lannea schweinfurthii (Engl.) Engl. led to the isolation of four known compounds: 3-((E)-nonadec-16′-enyl)phenol, 1-((E)-heptadec-14′-enyl)cyclohex-4-ene-1,3-diol, catechin, and 1-((E)-pentadec-12′-enyl)cyclohex-4-ene-1,3-diol. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of compound 1 was established by quantum chemical ECD calculations. In an antibacterial activity assay using the microbroth kinetic method, compound 1 showed moderate activity against Escherichia coli while compound 2 exhibited moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Compound 1 also showed moderate activity against E. coli using the disc diffusion method. The roots extract of L. rivae was notably cytotoxic against both the DU-145 prostate cancer cell line and the Vero mammalian cell line (CC50 = 5.24 and 5.20 μg/mL, respectively). Compound 1 was also strongly cytotoxic against the DU-145 cell line (CC50 = 0.55 μg/mL) but showed no observable cytotoxicity (CC50 > 100 μg/mL) against the Vero cell line. The roots extract of L. rivae and L. schweinfurthii, epicatechin gallate as well as compound 1 exhibited inhibition of carageenan-induced inflammation.

Graphical abstract

Masenge EM, Wandiga SO, Shiundu PM, Madadi VO. "Analysis of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Water from Ngong and Mathare Rivers, Nairobi County, Kenya." IJSRSET. 2018;4(8):252-256.
Masenge EM, Wandiga SO, Shiundu PM, Madadi VO. "Analysis of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Water from Ngong and Mathare Rivers, Nairobi County, Kenya." IJSRSET. 2018;4(8):252-256. Abstract

Description

Unsustainable industrial development has created negative impacts to global ecosystem quality and biodiversity due to increased load of chemical and biological contaminants released into environment. Ecological sustainability of Nairobi River Basin in Kenya, hangs in the balance between socioeconomic exploitation and environmental management. Nairobi, Ngong and Mathare rivers constitute the three main tributaries of Nairobi River Basin. The basin has witnesssed increased pollution load, destruction of the wetlands and encroachment of the buffer zones due to rapid urbanisation. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) contamination in Mathare and Ngong rivers. We collected water from eight sampling sites constituting the upstream, midstream and downstream of the two rivers. The samples were extracted using HPLC grade dichloromathane and analysed for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) using a Gas Chromatography equipped with Flame Ionisation Detector. TPH in Mathare River ranged from 59.66±8.64 to 463.92±2.63 µg/L, whereas levels in Ngong’River ranged from 11.85±0.10 to 1,219.95 µg/L. The concentration increased downstream indicating the influence of industrial and urbanistion on the pollution load. The results suggest that industries and municipal activities in the City are contributing to TPH contamination in the Nairobi River Basin tributaries and therefore they are likely to jeopardize ecological quality of the rivers ecosystems if protective measures are not taken.

THUKU FM, Butt F, Guthua SW, Chindia M. "An Anatomic study of the Facial Nerve Trunk and Branching Pattern in an African population." J. CranioMaxillofacial Trauma and Reconstruction Open (CMTR Open 2018). 2018:e31-e37.
Muiva-Mutisya LM, Atilaw Y, Heydenreich M, Koch A, Akala HM, Cheruiyot AC, Brown ML, Irungu B, Okalebo FA, Derese S, Mutai C, Yenesew A. "Antiplasmodial prenylated flavanonols from Tephrosia subtriflora." Natural product research. 2018;32(12):1407-1414. AbstractJournal article

Abstract
The CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1) extract of the aerial parts of Tephrosia subtriflora afforded a new flavanonol, named subtriflavanonol (1), along with the known flavanone spinoflavanone B, and the known flavanonols MS-II (2) and mundulinol. The structures were elucidated by the use of NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of the flavanonols was determined based on quantum chemical ECD calculations. In the antiplasmodial assay, compound 2 showed the highest activity against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum reference clones (D6 and 3D7), artemisinin-sensitive isolate (F32-TEM) as well as field isolate (KSM 009) with IC50 values 1.4–4.6 μM without significant cytotoxicity against Vero and HEp2 cell lines (IC50 > 100 μM). The new compound (1) showed weak antiplasmodial activity, IC50 12.5–24.2 μM, but also showed selective anticancer activity against HEp2 cell line (CC50 16.9 μM).

Keywords: Tephrosia subtriflora, Leguminosae, prenylated flavanonol, subtriflavanonol, antiplasmodial, cytotoxicity

Derese S. "Antiplasmodial prenylated flavanonols from Tephrosia subtrifloran ." Natural product research. 2018;32(12):1407-1414. Abstract

The CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1) extract of the aerial parts of Tephrosia subtriflora afforded a new flavanonol, named subtriflavanonol (1), along with the known flavanone spinoflavanone B, and the known flavanonols MS-II (2) and mundulinol. The structures were elucidated by the use of NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of the flavanonols was determined based on quantum chemical ECD calculations. In the antiplasmodial assay, compound 2 showed the highest activity against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum reference clones (D6 and 3D7), artemisinin-sensitive isolate (F32-TEM) as well as field isolate (KSM 009) with IC50 values 1.4–4.6 μM without significant cytotoxicity against Vero and HEp2 cell lines (IC50 > 100 μM). The new compound (1) showed weak antiplasmodial activity, IC50 12.5–24.2 μM, but also showed selective anticancer activity against HEp2 cell line …

Patrice K, Gideon NN, Paul NN, Christopher A, Robert K. "Apis mellifera adansonii Is the Most Defensive Honeybee in Uganda." Psyche. 2018;201:6.
Dr. Laban Shihembetsa EM. "Application of Brick as a Building Material for Low Cost Housing in Hot and Dry Climates." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publication, . 2018;Volume 8, (Issue 9, September 2018 (619-623). ISSN: 2250-3153.).
UngaiShihembetsa DL. "An Appraisal of Community Initiative in the Provision and Management of Water and Sanitation Facilities in the Kiambiu Slum Settlement in Nairobi." IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), . 2018;Volume 23, (Issue 10, Ver. 1(October. 2018) 49-62. e-ISSN: 2279-0837, p-ISSN: 2279-0845).
WAMBUI MBOTEBETH, Opere A, GITHAIGA JOHNM, Karanja FK. "Assessing the Impacts of Climate Variability and Climate Change on Biodiversity in Lake Nakuru, Kenya." Bonorowo Wetlands. 2018;8(1):13-24. Abstractassessing_the_impacts_of_climate_variability_and_climate_change_on_biodiversity_in_lake_nakuru_kenya.pdfSMUJO (smujo.id)

Wambui MB, Opere A, Githaiga MJ, Karanja FK. 2017. Assessing the impacts of climate variability and climate change on biodiversity in Lake Nakuru, Kenya. Bonorowo Wetlands 1: 13-24. This study evaluates the impacts of the raised water levels and the flooding of Lake Nakuru and its surrounding areas on biodiversity, specifically, the phytoplankton and lesser flamingo communities, due to climate change and climate variability. The study was to review and analyze noticed climatic records from 2000 to 2014. Several methods were used to ascertain the past and current trends of climatic parameters (temperature, rainfall and evaporation), and also the physicochemical characteristics of Lake Nakuru (conductivity, phytoplankton, lesser flamingos and the lake depth). These included time series analysis, and trend analysis, so the Pearson’s correlation analysis was used to show a relationship between the alterations in lake conductivity to alterations in population estimates of the lesser flamingos and the phytoplankton. Data set extracted from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) (IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) Atlas subset) models were subjected to time series analysis method where the future climate scenarios of near surface temperature, rainfall and evaporation were plotted for the period 2017 to 2100 (projection) for RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 relative to the baseline period 1971 to 2000 in Lake Nakuru were analysed. The results were used to evaluate the impact of climate change on the lesser flamingos and phytoplankton abundance. It was noticed that there was a raise in the mean annual rainfall during the study period (2009 to 2014) which brought the increment in the lake’s surface area from a low area of 31.8 km² in January 2010 to a high of 54.7 km² in Sept 2013, indicating an increment of 22.9 km² (71.92% surface area increment). Mean conductivity of the lake also lessened leading to the loss of phytoplankton on which flamingos feed making them to migrate. A strong positive correlation between conductivity and the lesser flamingo population was noticed signifying that low conductivity affects the growth of phytoplankton and since the lesser flamingos depend on the phytoplankton for their feed, this subsequently revealed that the phytoplankton density could be a notable predictor of the lesser flamingo occurrence in Lake Nakuru. There was also a strong positive correlation noticed between phytoplankton and the lesser flamingo population which confirms that feed availability is a key determining factor of the lesser flamingo distribution in the lake. It is projected that there would be an increment in temperatures, rainfall and evaporation for the period 2017 to 2100 under RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 relative to the baseline period 1971 to 2000 obtained from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) multi-model ensemble. As a result, it is expected that the lake will further increment in surface area and depth by the year 2100 due to increased rainfall thereby affecting the populations of the lesser flamingos and phytoplankton, as the physicochemical factors of the lake will alter as well during the projected period.
Keywords: Biodiversity, climate change, Lake Nakuru, Kenya

Uwizeyimana D, Karuku NG, Mureithi MS, Kironchi G. "Assessing the potential of surface runoff generated from a conserved catchment under drought prone agro-ecological zone in Rwanda." Journal of Hydrologeology & Hydrologic Engineering. 2018;7 (1):1-9.
Kisangaki P, Nyamasyo G, Ndegwa P, Kajobe R. "Assessment of honey bee colony performance in the agro-ecological zones of Uganda." Current Investigations in Agriculture and Current Research. 2018;1(5):1-6.
Kasangaki P, Gideon Nyamasyo, Paul Ndegwa RK. "Assessment of Honeybee Colony Performance in the Agro-Ecological Zones of Uganda." Current Investigations in Agriculture and Current Research. 2018;1(5):122-127.
Simeon Lesrima, GH Nyamasyo KKK. "Assessment of the trends and presence of Water Related Conflicts in the Upper Ewaso Nyiro North River Basin: A Case for Laikipia County." Journal of International Business, Innovation and Strategic Management. 2018;1(8):22-40.
Simeon Lesrima, GH Nyamasyo KKK. "Assessment of Water resources Access, Use and Management, in the Upper Ewaso Nyiro North River Basin: A Case for Laikipia County." Journal of International Business, Innovation and Strategic Management. 2018;1(8):1-21.
Okunya LO, Mwangi DN. "ASSOCIATION BETWEEN DURATION OF INSTITUTIONALIZATION AND PSYCHOLOGICAL COPING STRATEGIES AMONG ADOLESCENTS ." International Journal of Education and Social Science Research . 2018;1(6).diana_njoki_coping_paper_ijessr_01_99.pdf
Oduor J. "An Autosegmental Analysis of the Downstepped High Tone in Dholuo.". In: In Helga and Prisca Jerono (eds.) Nilo-Saharan Issues and Perspectives. Cologne: Köppe, pp. 43 - 56.; 2018.
2017
Kanyinga K. "Avert tendency of ending up with battered economy after every poll." Sunday Nation, November 18, 2017.
I M, A A, S M, C B, J W, E M, Onyango N, Nyagol J. Assessment of MNCH services provided by private health care providers in Kibra Sub-county of Nairobi County. . Nairobi: Kibra Private Health Care Providers Study Report; Ministry of Health Report, Kenya; 2017.
Kanyinga K. "Agriculture can help uproot poverty." Sunday Nation, April 22, 2017.
Marangu D, Mwaniki H, Nduku S, Maleche-Obimbo E, Jaoko W, Babigumira J, John-Stewart G, Rao D. "ADAPTING A STIGMA SCALE FOR ASSESSMENT OF TUBERCULOSIS-RELATED STIGMA AMONG ENGLISH/SWAHILI-SPEAKING PATIENTS IN AN AFRICAN SETTING." Stigma Health. 2017;2(4):326. Abstract

To adapt a validated instrument that quantitatively measures stigma among English/Swahili speaking TB (tuberculosis) patients in Kenya, a high burden TB country.

Birech Z, Mwangi PW, Bukachi F, Mandela KM. "Application of Raman spectroscopy in type 2 diabetes screening in blood using leucine and isoleucine amino-acids as biomarkers and in comparative anti-diabetic drugs efficacy studies." PLoS ONE. 2017;12(9):e0185130. Abstractapplication_of_raman_spectroscopy_in_type_2_journal.pone_.0185130.pdf

Diabetes is an irreversible condition characterized by elevated blood glucose levels. Currently, there are no predictive biomarkers for this disease and the existing ones such as hemoglobin A1c and fasting blood glucose are used only when diabetes symptoms are noticed. The objective of this work was first to explore the potential of leucine and isoleucine amino acids as diabetes type 2 biomarkers using their Raman spectroscopic signatures. Secondly, we wanted to explore whether Raman spectroscopy can be applied in comparative efficacy studies between commercially available anti-diabetic drug pioglitazone and the locally used anti-diabetic herbal extract Momordica spinosa (Gilg.)Chiov. Sprague Dawley (SD) rat's blood was used and were pipetted onto Raman substrates prepared from conductive silver paste smeared glass slides. Prominent Raman bands associated with glucose (926, 1302, 1125 cm-1), leucine (1106, 1248, 1302, 1395 cm-1) and isolecucine (1108, 1248, 1437 and 1585 cm-1) were observed. The Raman bands centered at 1125 cm-1, 1395 cm-1 and 1437 cm-1 associated respectively to glucose, leucine and isoleucine were chosen as biomarker Raman peaks for diabetes type 2. These Raman bands displayed decreased intensities in blood from diabetic SD rats administered antidiabetic drugs pioglitazone and herbal extract Momordica spinosa (Gilg.)Chiov. The intensity decrease indicated reduced concentration levels of the respective biomarker molecules: glucose (1125 cm-1), leucine (1395 cm-1) and isoleucine (1437 cm-1) in blood. The results displayed the power and potential of Raman spectroscopy in rapid (10 seconds) diabetes and pre-diabetes screening in blood (human or rat's) with not only glucose acting as a biomarker but also leucine and isoleucine amino-acids where intensities of respectively assigned bands act as references. It also showed that using Raman spectroscopic signatures of the chosen biomarkers, the method can be an alternative for performing comparative efficacy studies between known and new anti-diabetic drugs. Reports on use of Raman spectroscopy in type 2 diabetes mellitus screening with Raman bands associated with leucine and isoleucine molecules acting as reference is rare in literature. The use of Raman spectroscopy in pre-diabetes screening of blood for changes in levels of leucine and isoleucine amino acids is particularly interesting as once elevated levels are noticed, necessary interventions to prevent diabetes development can be initiated.

Steven Awino, Afullo A. "Analytic BER of OFDM Powerline Communication at different IAT of Impulsive Noise.". In: SAUPEC. StellenBosch, South Africa; 2017.
Ambale 1. CA, Sinei KA, Amugune BK, Oluka MN. "Accessibility of medicines used in the management of substance use disorders in selected hospitals in Nairobi." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2017;6(2):102-108.
A. S. Azi, Riechi A. R., Khatete I. W. "Adequacy Assessment of Government’s Budgetary Allocations for the Provision of Lecture Halls in Nigeria’s Federal Universities." International Journal of Social Sciences and Information Technology. 2017;II(XI):1455-1467.abstract_5.doc
Wanjala, G., Akumu Maurice O. "Adminstrative Strategies Towards Disaster Awareness and Preparedness in Secondary Schools in Homa-Bay County, Kenya." International Journal of Development Research . 2017;7(10):16420-16423 .abstract3.pdf
Sherrif SS, Madadi V. "Adsorption of Lambda Cyhalothrin onto Athi River Sediments: Apparent Thermodynamic Properties." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2017;3(3):568-574.
Muinde VM, Onyari JM, Wamalwa B, Wabomba J, Nthumbi RM. "Adsorption of Malachite Green from Aqueous Solutions onto Rice Husks: Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies." Journal of Environmental Protection. 2017;8(03):215. AbstractWebsite

A study was done to evaluate the removal of a cationic dye from simulated waste water onto rice husks (RH). Spectroscopic methods such as FTIR and SEM/EDX were used for adsorbent characterization. Experimental dependency on solution pH, initial dye concentration, agitation speed, adsorbentparticle size, temperature of the solution and contact time was evaluated. The adsorption data was tested using both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The data fitted well into Langmuir isotherm model with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 6.5 mg/g. Further, the separation factor (RL) value was less than unity indicating a favorable adsorption process. Adsorption kinetics was determined using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion models. The results showed that the adsorption of malachite green onto rice husks followed pseudo-second-order model with a determination coefficient of 0.986. This work has revealed that rice husks have a great potential to sequester cationic dyes from aqueous solutions and therefore it can be utilized to clean contaminated effluents.

Muinde VM, Onyari JM, Wamalwa B, Wabomba J, Nthumbi RM. "Adsorption of malachite green from aqueous solutions onto rice husks: Kinetic and equilibrium studies." Journal of Environmental Protection. 2017;8(03):215. Abstract

A study was done to evaluate the removal of a cationic dye from simulated waste water onto rice husks (RH). Spectroscopic methods such as FTIR and SEM/EDX were used for adsorbent characterization. Experimental dependency on solution pH, initial dye concentration, agitation speed, adsorbentparticle size, temperature of the solution and contact time was evaluated. The adsorption data was tested using both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The data fitted well into Langmuir isotherm model with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 6.5 mg/g. Further, the separation factor (RL) value was less than unity indicating a favorable adsorption process. Adsorption kinetics was determined using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion models. The results showed that the adsorption of malachite green onto rice husks followed pseudo-second-order model with a determination coefficient of 0.986. This work has revealed that rice husks have a great potential to sequester cationic dyes from aqueous solutions and therefore it can be utilized to clean contaminated effluents.

Henry M. "Advances in Embryo Transfer Techniques." KVA Kisumu Branch Conference, Kisumu; 2017.
Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Kibwage IO, Hausler T, Luy B, Kuballa T, Rehm J, Lachenmeier DW. "Aflatoxin contamination in unrecorded beers from Kenya – A health risk beyond ethanol." Food Control. 2017;79:344-348. Abstract

Samples of unrecorded opaque beers (n=58; 40 based on maize, 5 on sorghum and 13 on other plants) and recorded wines (n=8) in Kenya were screened for aflatoxins using a rapid ELISA technique followed by confirmation using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Six of the maize beers were obtained from Kibera slums in Nairobi County. Aflatoxin contamination was detected in six unrecorded beers (10%), but in none of the recorded wines. Remarkably, three of the aflatoxin positive samples were from the Kibera slums.
The concentration of aflatoxins in the positive samples had a mean of 3.5 µg/L (range 1.8–6.8 µg/L), corresponding for an average consumption of 500 mL (1 standard drink) to a margin of exposure (MOE) of 36 (range: 15–58), which is considered as risk. On the other hand, the alcoholic strength of the aflatoxin positive samples had a mean of 4.3% vol (range 3.5-4.8%) corresponding to a MOE of 2.5 (range of 2.2-3.0) for the equivalent consumption volume. While aflatoxins pose a risk to the consumer, this risk is about 10 times lower than the risk of ethanol.
The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives sets no acceptable daily intake for aflatoxins since they are genotoxic carcinogens and instead recommends for the reduction of aflatoxin dietary exposure as an important public health goal, particularly in populations who consume high levels of any potentially aflatoxins contaminated food. Nevertheless, ethanol still posed a considerably higher risk in the unrecorded beers examined. However, consumers should be informed about aflatoxins, as these are an involuntary and unknown risk to them. In addition, producers should be educated about measures to reduce aflatoxins.

Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Kibwage IO, Hausler T, Luy B, Kuballa T, Rehm J, Lachenmeier DW. "Aflatoxin contamination in unrecorded beers from Kenya – A health risk beyond ethanol." Food Control. 2017;79(9):344-348.Website
Udomkun P, Wiredu AN, Mutegi C, Atehnkeng J, Nagle M, Nielsen F, Müller J, Vanlauwe B, Bandyopadhyay R. "Aflatoxin distribution in crop products from Burundi and Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.". 2017:1.
Genga EK, Oyoo O, Espinoza LR, Adebajo A. "Africa Journal of Rheumatology: enhancing the visibility of rheumatology in Africa.". 2017. Abstractajr_enhancing_the_visibility_of_rheumatology_in_africa_2017-clinical_rheumatology.pdf

Africa Journal of Rheumatology: enhancing the visibility
of rheumatology in Africa
Eugene K. Genga1,2 & Omondi Oyoo1,2 & Luis R. Espinoza3 & Adewale Adebajo4
Received: 5 July 2017 /Accepted: 10 July 2017
# International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR) 2017
Clinical Rheumatology welcomes the African Journal of
Rheumatology as an important development for the furtherance
of rheumatological scholarship and education on the
African continent and for rheumatology research in
Africans. It is hoped that this development will in turn raise
the profile of rheumatological conditions in Africa and among
Africans. In particular, it is hoped that this will lead to the
much needed collection of African musculoskeletal epidemiological
and health services data, assist in the training of
African rheumatologists, help to open up African rheumatology
to the global rheumatology community, and ultimately
improve the quality of care for myriads of Africans with rheumatic
disorders.
The current population of Africa is 1,241,858,354
which is equivalent to 16.36% of the total world population
based on the latest United Nations estimates [1].
There are many challenges facing Africa including limited
financial resources, misuse of finances, malnutrition, poor
water, and sanitation among others. Despite these many
challenges faced in Africa, in recent times, the continent
has undergone rapid economic growth and development.
The available healthcare resources are overburdened by
the high burden of communicable diseases and the rising
prevalence of non-communicable diseases. Rheumatic
diseases are therefore not considered a high priority by
the various African governments. Part of the reason for
this is due to the limited epidemiological data on rheumatic
diseases and their burden in Africa. Scientific
journals play a central role in the dissemination of research
results which will ultimately impact on policy
change. Horton et al. [2] noted that researchers and policy
makers in developing countries believe that the main way
to solve problems of developing countries is by using
information from Western research rather than using local
data to solve regional problems. He, however, noted that
in Africa “there is already a well-developed local information
culture that needs support, not swamping,” noting,
moreover, the lack of African journals in MEDLINE [2].
Researchers in Africa and the developing world require
access not only as readers but also as authors: for them
to feel part of the global science community, they need
not only to obtain information but also to be able to contribute
to it and take part in the global discourse. The
continent’s resources are prioritized towards infectious
diseases like HIV and malaria over the now increasing
non-communicable diseases. Data on rheumatic diseases
in Africa has been limited partly due to lack of infrastructure
thus under diagnosis but also due to low scholarly
output. Thus, the Africa Journal of Rheumatology was
born. Since its inception 5 years ago, it has provided an
uninterrupted forum through which medical practitioners
and scientists from Africa and beyond can publish their
rheumatology research. It has become a rich source of
information about rheumatic disorders in the continent
and a timely addition to our worldwide rheumatology
community [3]. The journal has published various research
articles on diseases once thought to be rare in Africa. They
* Adewale Adebajo
a.o.adebajo@sheffield.ac.uk
1 Department of Clinical Medicine and Therapeutics, College of
Health Sciences, University of Nairobi/Kenyatta National Hospital,
Nairobi, Kenya
2 Nairobi Arthritis Clinic, Nairobi, Kenya
3 Louisiana State University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA,
USA
4 Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health, University of Sheffield,
Sheffield, UK
Clin Rheumatol
DOI 10.1007/s10067-017-3761-z
range from rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, gout, myositis to rheumatology
in HIV. Research articles published in the journal
shows rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, systemic
lupus erythematosus, and antiphospholipid syndrome to
be increasing in frequency in the indigenous populations of
East, West, Central, and Southern Africa [4–7]. The HIV pandemic
has changed the epidemiological spectrum of diseases
in Africa. It has led to an increase in a variety of previously
rarely seen conditions like spondyloarthropathies, fibromyalgia,
pyomyositis, and scleroderma. Various scholars have
shared their experiences in the journal [8–12]. The journal
has also provided a forum through which scholars have been
able to share their experiences in management of the rheumatic
diseases with biologic therapy. The results have been similar
to data from around the world [13, 14]. Case reports of rare
diseases and review articles have not been left out and have
enriched the content of the journal bringing diversity in the
articles published.
The visibility of the journal is hampered by the low scholarly
output. This is in part due to severe limitations in the
overall economic development and especially in research infrastructure.
Researchers have limited access to funding for
research as most African countries have no national agencies
that are responsible for research. This is compounded by limitations
in scientific writing, designing, and conducting research
and in reporting the results. Partnership with international
journals like the African Journal Partnership Project is
welcome to bridge that gap by training African health researchers
to improve the quality and visibility of their research
and make the Africa journal of rheumatology a better resource
for local researchers and policy makers [15].
This journal has become a site for exchange of knowledge
of local rheumatic diseases, research, and debate and providing
a forum through which international research can be made
applicable to the African set-up. The Africa Journal of
Rheumatology encourages international agencies, which conduct
research in the region to support the journal through
submission of research and subscription to the publication. It
is our hope that this journal will provide a big step to bridge
the big gaps in rheumatology in Africa.
Compliance with ethical standards
Disclosures None.
References
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Gor SO. "The African Regional Integration Index: a Selective Audit." Trade and Development Review. 2017;9(1-2):86-98.
Wachege PN, Cherono F. "African Socio-religio Cultural Understanding of Family and Parenting: A Case of the Agikuyu, Kenya." The International Journal of Humanities and Social Studies. 2017;5(3):23-28.wachege_cherono_article2.pdf
Nyamai C, Daniel Ichang'i, Wamunyu AW, Feneyrol J, Giuliani G, et al. "Age and origin of the tsavorite and tanzanite mineralizing fluids in the Neoproterozoic Mozambique Metamorphic Belt." The Canadian Mineralogist. 2017;55(4):763-786. AbstractFull Text

The genetic model previously proposed for tsavorite- (and tanzanite-) bearing mineralization hosted in the Neoproterozoic Metamorphic Mozambique Belt (stretching from Kenya through Tanzania to Madagascar) is refined on the basis of new Sm-Nd age determinations and detailed Sr-O-S isotope and fluid-inclusion studies. The deposits are hosted within meta-sedimentary series composed of quartzites, graphitic gneisses, calc-silicate rocks intercalated with meta-evaporites, and marbles. Tsavorite occurs either in nodules (also called “boudins”) oriented parallel to the metamorphic foliation in all of the deposits in the metamorphic belt or in quartz veins and lenses located at the hinges of anticlinal folds (Lelatema fold belt and Ruangwa deposits, Tanzania). Gem tanzanite occurs in pockets and lenses in the Lelatema fold belt of northern Tanzania.

The Sm-Nd isotopic data for tsavorites and tanzanites hosted in quartz veins and lenses from Merelani demonstrate that they formed at 600 Ma, during the retrograde metamorphic episode associated with the East African Orogeny. The tsavorites hosted in nodules do not provide reliable ages: their sedimentary protoliths had heterogeneous compositions and their Sm-Nd system was not completely rehomogenized, even at the local scale, by the fluid-absent metamorphic recrystallization.

The initial 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratios of calcite from marble and tanzanites from Merelani fit with the strontium isotopic composition of Neoproterozoic marine carbonates. Seawater sediment deposition in the Mozambique Ocean took place around 720 Ma.

The quartz-zoisite O-isotopic thermometer indicates a temperature of formation for zoisite between 385 and 448 °C.

The sulfur isotopic composition of pyrite (between –7.8 and –1.3‰ V-CDT) associated with tsavorite in the Lelatema fold belt deposits suggests the contribution of reduced marine sulfate. The sulfur in pyrite in the marbles was likely derived from bacterial sulfate reduction which produced H2S. Fluid inclusion data from tsavorite and tanzanite samples from the Merelani mine indicate the presence of a dominant H2S-S8±(CH4)±(N2)±(H2O)-bearing fluid. In the deposits in Kenya and Madagascar, the replacement of sulfate by tsavorite in the nodules and the boron isotopic composition of tourmaline associated with tsavorite are strong arguments in favor of the participation of evaporites in garnet formation.

Chimoita EL, Onyango CM, Kimenju JW, ph -Onyango JGP. "Agricultural Agents influence on the Uptake of Improved Sorghum Technologies." Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017;5(4):219-225.
Chimoita EL, Onyango CM, John W. Kimenju, Gweyi-Onyango JP. "Agricultural Extension Approaches Influencing Uptake of Improved Sorghum Technologies in Embu County, Kenya." Universal Journal of Agricultural Research . 2017;5(1):45-51.
Kibera AN, Kuria MW, Kokonya DA. "Alcohol Use Disorders among HIV and AIDS Patients at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Comprehensive Care Centre, Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of Research and Health Sciences. 2017;2(7):21-30.
Inyega HN, Inyega JO. All teachers teaching reading all children reading: a pedagogical shift in teacher education in Kenya. Nairobi: Jo-Vansallen Publishing Company ; 2017.
GT AROTIBA, J HILLE, Guthua SW, H ADEOLA, W ODHIAMBO. "Ameloblastoma in Black Africans the Need for Multi-National Collaborative Research." JSM Dent Surg. 2017;2(2):10-14.
Mureithi AW, Onyari JM, Wanyonyi WC, Mulaa FJ. "Amino acid Composition of Gelatin Extracted from the Scales of Different Marine Fish Species in Kenya.". 2017. AbstractFull text link

Gelatin in this study was extracted by an enzymatic process from the scales of three marine fish species; Lutjanus
sebea (Red snapper), Lethrinus harak (Black spot emperor) and Scalus ghobban (Blue barred parrot fish).
Concentration of bacteria for mass production of enzyme was done in a fermentation medium using a bio reactor.
Scales were hydrolyzed at 500C and the pH maintained at 12. Complete hydrolysis took between 20 and 23 days for
all species. The yield for the dried gelatin was between 28.2% and 41.4% for the marine fish scales under study.
Fourier transform infrared spectra showed the presence of amide bands and two other additional absorption bands,
indicating the presence of amide bonds for all the three species. The amino acid composition analysis for the gelatin
of three species was then done showing the presence of 16 amino acids. Glycine was the most abundant for all the
three species with about 35% followed by Alanine both adding up to around 50% of the total amino acid
compositions. The amount of Proline was high for red snapper at over 14.2% compared to 11.1% and 11.6% for
blue barred parrot fish and black spot emperor respectively.

Mukaria SM, Thenya T, Raphael G Wahome, Karatu K. "Analysis and Perception of Health Impact of Motor Vehicle Emissions on Traffic Police in Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2017;5(3):104-110.
Roberts LC, Otieno DJ, Nyikal RA. "An analysis of determinants of access to and use of credit by smallholder farmers in Suakoko district, Liberia." African Journal of Agricultural Research (AJAR). 2017;12(24)(ISSN – 1991-637x):2093-2100.
Madadi VO, Wandiga SO, Ndunda EN, Mavuti KM. "Analysis of Organochlorine Pesticides in Lake Naivasha Catchment." IJSRSET. 2017;3(5):139-149.
NDIRANGU MAINADAVID, CHIRA ROBERTMUTUGI, Wang’ondu V, Kairo JG. "Analysis of wave energy reduction and sediment stabilization by mangroves in Gazi Bay, Kenya." Bonorowo Wetlands. 2017;7(2):83-94.
NDIRANGU MAINADAVID, CHIRA ROBERTMUTUGI, Wang’ondu V, Kairo JG. "Analysis of wave energy reduction and sediment stabilization by mangroves in Gazi Bay, Kenya." Bonorowo Wetlands. 2017;7(2):83-94.
IRIBEMWANGI PI. "Analytical Issues in Standard Kiswahili Phonology." Reyono Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 2017;6(1):52-68.20180523_172417.jpg20180523_172417.jpg
Makokha E, WAKASIAKA S, Inyama H, Oyieke J. "Antenatal care and birth outcomes relatedto HIV status among pregnant women at Pumwani Maternity Hospital. ." Kenya Journal of Nursing & Midwifery . 2017;2(2).
Odwory M, Oyieke JBO, Machoki JM, Osoti A. "Antental care visits and pregnancy outcomes at a Kenyan rural District Hospita.". 2017.
Musi, C, MIRIKAU, N, D. "Antibacterial and antifungal activities of 10 Kenyan Plectranthus species in the Coleus clade." Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2017;11(8):1003-1014 . Abstractantibacterial_antifungal_plectranthus_2017.pdfWebsite

Background Information: Plectranthus L’Hér. is an economically important genus with horticultural, medicinal and food uses. Most Plectranthus species are used in traditional medicine and have attracted the interest of researchers who have studied them in attempt to explore the bioactivities of their phytoconstituents.
Materials and Methods: The current study investigated the antimicrobial activities of 10 Kenyan Plectranthus species through disc diffusion and broth dilution method.
Results:Results indicated that, dichloromethane/methanol (1:1) total leaf extracts from Plectranthus barbatus displayed the highest antimicrobial activity compared to the other nine Plectranthus species with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 25, 40, 100, 50, and 100 mg/ml against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger, respectively. At a concentration of 200 mg/ml, the antibacterial activity of total leaf extracts of P. barbatus (MIC value = 25 mg/ml) and Plectranthus lanuginosus (MIC value = 40 mg/ml) againstMRSA was not significantly different from positive control drug; amoxicillin. Similarity, at a concentration of 200 mg/ml,total leaf extracts from Plectranthus ornatus (MIC value= 50 mg/ml) and P. barbatus (MIC value = 50 mg/ml) exhibited antifungal activity against C. albicans which was not significantly different from that of the positive control; ketoconazole.
Conclusion: The study reports for the first time, the antimicrobial activity of Plectranthus pseudomarrubioides, Plectranthus edulis, Plectranthus aegyptiacus, Plectranthus Otostegioides, and Plectranthus lanuginosus. The study has demonstrated broad bacteriostatic activity of P. barbatus and thus recommends further studies on this plant aimed at discovery of novel antimicrobial agents.
KEY WORDS: Antimicrobial activity, Bioguidance, Minimum inhibitory concentration, Plectranthus

Musila FM, Nguta JM, Lukhoba CW, Dossaji SF. "Antibacterial and antifungal activities of 10 Kenyan Plectranthus species in the Coleus clade." Journal of Pharmacy Research| Vol. 2017;11(8):1003.
Musila, F.M., Nguta, CM, Lukhoba CW, S.F. D. "Antibacterial and antifungal activities of 10 Kenyan Plectranthus species in the Coleus clade." Journal of Pharmacy Research . 2017;11(8):1003-1014.
Musila FM, Lukhoba CW, Dossaji SF. "Antibacterial and antifungal activities of 10 Kenyan Plectranthus species in the Coleus clade." Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2017;Vol. 11,(Issue 8):pp 1003-1014.
and Gakuubi MWAWJM 4. "Antifungal activity of essential oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. against selected Fusarium spp.". 2017. Abstracthttps://profiles.uonbi.ac.ke/mainawagacha/

The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oil (EO) of
Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. against five Fusarium spp. commonly associated with
maize. The essential oil had been extracted by steam distillation in a modified Clevenger-
type apparatus from leaves of E. camaldulensis and their chemical composition
characterized by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Poisoned food technique was
used to determine the percentage inhibition of mycelial growth, minimum inhibitory …

Kawaljit S, Okombo J, Brunschwig C, Ndubi F, Barnard L, Wilkson C, Njogu PM, Njoroge M, et al. "Antimalarial pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazoles: Lead optimization, parasite life cycle stage profile, mechanistic evaluation, killing kinetics and in vivo oral efficacy in a mouse model." J. Med. Chem. 2017;60(4):1432-1448.
Mubiu JK, Ndwigah SN, Abuga KO, Ongarora DSB. "Antimicrobial activity of extracts and phytosterols from the root bark of Lonchocarpus eriocalyx." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. . 2017;20:13-16. Abstract

The root bark of Lonchocarpus eriocalyx was dried, powdered and extracted using chloroform, methanol and hot water. The extracts exhibited antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and antifungal activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The decoction (100mg/ml) was more active than the chloroform and methanol extracts against the four microorganisms. Chromatographic fractionation of the chloroform extract using normal phase silica yielded the phytosterols lupeol and lupenone. At 100 mg/ml, the compounds were active against all the four microorganisms, with lupeol being more active than lupenone. This is the first report of the isolation of lupenone from Lonchocarpus eriocalyx.

Mubiu JK, Ndwigah SN, Abuga KO, Ongarora DSB. "Antimicrobial activity of extracts and phytosterols from the root bark of Lonchocarpus eriocalyx." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. . 2017;20:13-16.
Chalo DM, Lukhoba CW, Dossaji, S. F. "Antimicrobial activity, toxicity and phytochemical screening of selected medicinal plants of Losho, Narok County, Kenya. ." Journal of Natural Product Biochemistry. 2017;Vol 15((1)):pp. 29-43.
Waithaka PN, Mwaura FB, Wagacha JM, Gathuru EM, Githaiga BM. "Antimicrobial Properties of Actinomycetes Isolated from Menengai Crater in Kenya." CellBio. 2017;06(2):13.
Kama-Kama F, Omosa LK, Nganga J, Maina N, Osanjo G, Yaouba S, Ilias M, Midiwo J, Naessens J. "Antimycoplasmal Activities of Compounds from Solanum aculeastrum and Piliostigma thonningii against Strains from the Mycoplasma mycoides Cluster." Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2017;9:920.
Kama-Kama F, Omosa LK, Nganga J, Maina N, Osanjo G, Yaouba S, Ilias M, Midiwo J, Naessens J. "Antimycoplasmal Activities of Compounds from Solanum aculeastrum and Piliostigma thonningii against Strains from the Mycoplasma mycoides Cluster." Frontiers in pharmacology. 2017;8:920. Abstract

Infections caused by Mycoplasma species belonging to the ‘mycoides cluster’ negatively affect the agricultural sector through losses in livestock productivity. These Mycoplasma strains are resistant to many conventional antibiotics due to the total lack of cell wall. Therefore there is an urgent need to develop new antimicrobial agents from alternative sources such as medicinal plants to curb the resistance threat. Recent studies on extracts from Solanum aculeastrum and Piliostigma thonningii revealed interesting antimycoplasmal activities hence the motivation to investigate the antimycoplasmal activities of constituent compounds. The CH2Cl2/MeOH extracts from the berries of S. aculeastrum yielded a new β-sitosterol derivative (1) along with six known ones including; lupeol (2), two long-chain fatty alcohols namely undecyl alcohol (3) and lauryl alcohol (4); two long-chain fatty acids namely; myristic acid (5) and nervonic acid (6) as well as a glycosidic steroidal alkaloid; (25R)-3β-{O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy-22α-N-spirosol-5-ene (7) from the MeOH extracts. A new furan diglycoside, (2,5-D-diglucopyranosyloxy-furan) (8) was also characterized from the CH2Cl2/MeOH extract of stem bark of P. thonningii. The structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and comparison with literature data. Compounds 1, 3, 4, 7 and 8 isolated in sufficient yields were tested against the growth of two Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm), two M.mycoides. capri (Mmc) and one M. capricolum capricolum (Mcc) using broth dilution methods, while the minimum …

Derese S. "Antiplasmodial prenylated flavanonols from Tephrosia subtriflora." Natural Product Research. 2017;2017:1-8. AbstractWebsite

The CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1) extract of the aerial parts of Tephrosia subtriflora afforded a new flavanonol, named subtriflavanonol (1), along with the known flavanone spinoflavanone B, and the known flavanonols MS-II (2) and mundulinol. The structures were elucidated by the use of NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of the flavanonols was determined based on quantum chemical ECD calculations. In the antiplasmodial assay, compound 2 showed the highest activity against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum reference clones (D6 and 3D7), artemisinin-sensitive isolate (F32-TEM) as well as field isolate (KSM 009) with IC50 values 1.4–4.6 μM without significant cytotoxicity against Vero and HEp2 cell lines (IC50 > 100 μM). The new compound (1) showed weak antiplasmodial activity, IC50 12.5–24.2 μM, but also showed selective anticancer activity against HEp2 cell line (CC50 16.9 μM).

Muthaura CN, Keriko JM, Mutai C, Yenesew A, Heydenreich M, Atilaw Y, Gathirwa JW, Irungu BN, Derese S. "Antiplasmodial, Cytotoxicity and Phytochemical Constituents of Four Maytenus Species Used in Traditional Medicine in Kenya." The Natural Products Journal. 2017;7(2):144-152.

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