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Wanzala WS, Onyango-Abuje JA, Kang'ethe EK, Kang'ethe EK, Zessin KH, Kyule MN, Ochanda H, Harrison LJS. "Distribution of Taenia saginata cysts in carcases and implications for meat inspection.". 2005.Website
Wanzala W, Onyango-Abuje JA, Kang’ethe EK, Ochanda H, Harrison LJS. "A comparison of meat inspection method and an antigen-ELISA in the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis in Kenyan cattle." Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences . 2002;2:265-277.
Wanzala W, N.M. K, K.H. Z, Onyango-Abuje JA, Kang’ethe EK, Ochanda H, Harrison LJS. "Evaluation of an antigen-ELISA in the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis in Kenyan cattle." Parasitology Research . 2007;100:539-548. Abstract

A monoclonal antibody-based antigen - ELISA (Ag-ELISA) was studied in kenyan cattle with the objective of evaluating its reliability in diagnosing bovine cysticerconsis. A total of 55 cattle divided into artificially (n=30) and nuturally (n=25) infested animals, were utilized. total dissection was used as gold standard of validity at autopsy. in natural infestations, the essay identified 16 cases

WANZALA ANYANGOMAUREEN, Ogallo LA, Opijah FJ, Mutemi JN. PERFOMANCE OF THE CMIP5 MODELS IN SIMULATION OF PRESENT AND FUTURE PRECIPITATION OVER THE LAKE VICTORIA BASIN. Nairobi: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2015. Abstract

The usefulness and limitations in climate information are due to uncertainty inherent in the climate system. The reduction of errors increases the reliability of the information. Therefore, for any given region to have sustainable development there is need to apply climate information into its socio-economic strategic plans.
The overall objective of the study was to assess the performance of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) over the Lake Victoria Basin. The data used in the study included the observed point station data, gridded rainfall data from Climate Research Unit, University of East Anglia (CRU) and hindcast data from eight Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) for the period 1971 to 2005 for historical and 2006-2100 for model future projections. The methodology employed included trend analysis, spatial analysis, correlation analysis, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) regression analysis, and categorical statistical skill score.

Wanzala W, Hassanali A, Wolfgang Richard Mukabana, Takken W. "Repellent activities of essential oils of some plants used traditionally to control the brown ear tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus." Journal of parasitology research. 2014;2014.
Wanzala W, Onyango-Abuje JA, Kang’ethe EK, Ochanda H, Harrison LJS. "Serodiagnosis of bovine cysticercosis live Taenia saginata cysts using a monoclonal antibody-based antigen-ELISA. ." Journal of the South African Veterinary Association . 2002;73:201-206.
Wanzala W, Onyango-Abuje JA, Kang’ethe EK, Ochanda H, Harrison LJS. "Distribution of Cysticercus bovis in bovine carcasses of naturally and artificially infected Kenyan cattle and its implication for routine meat inspection method. ." Online Journal of Veterinary Research . 2005;9:66-73.
Wanzala W, Onyango-Abuje JA, Kang’ethe EK, Zessin KH, N.M. K, Baumann MPO, Ochanda H, Harrison LJS. "Analysis of post-mortem diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis in Kenyan cattle. ." Online Journal of Veterinary Research . 2002;1:1-9.
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. ""Reforming Family Law in Kenya: the Place of the Repealed Affiliation Act 1959: (Published in Mute, L., and Kibwana, K., (Eds.) (2000) Law and the Quest for Gender Equality in Kenya (Nairobi: Claripress.).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. ""The Gender Question in Judicial Reforms: Access to Justice for all as the Challenge Kenyan Must Rise up to" Paper Written for the Kenya Chapter of the International Commission of Jurists (ICJ-Kenya)'s Judicial Reforms Project.". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "Transitional Justice for Kenya: What Institutional Framework? (LL.M Dissertation).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. ""The Place of Transitional Justice in Kenya's Impending Political Transition" in Kioko,W.M., Mute, L., and Akivaga, K., Building an Open Society: The Politics of Transition in Kenya (Nairobi:Clairpress, 2002).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "Kioko, W.M., and Wanjala, S., Recognizing the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in Kenya's New Constitutional Order: The Case of the Ogiek (Forthcoming Publication.).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "Death Row and Human Righst: Enlarging the Scope of Section 74 of the Kenyan Constitution (LL.B Dissertation).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1999. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "The State of Constituional Development in Kenya 2000 (Written for a Regional Conference in Kampala, Uganda on Constitutions in Transition in Africa, Central and Eastern Europe.).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. ""Reforming Family Law in Kenya: the Place of the Repealed Affiliation Act 1959: (Published in Mute, L., and Kibwana, K., (Eds.) (2000) Law and the Quest for Gender Equality in Kenya (Nairobi: Claripress.).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "Kioko, W.M., Mute, L., and Akivaga, K., (Eds.) Building an Open Society: The Politics of Transition in Kenya (Nairobi: Clairpress, 2002) (Editor).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "Transitional Justice for Kenya: What Institutional Framework? (LL.M Dissertation).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. ""The Gender Question in Judicial Reforms: Access to Justice for all as the Challenge Kenyan Must Rise up to" Paper Written for the Kenya Chapter of the International Commission of Jurists (ICJ-Kenya)'s Judicial Reforms Project.". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "Kioko, W.M., and Wanjala, S., Recognizing the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in Kenya's New Constitutional Order: The Case of the Ogiek (Forthcoming Publication.).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "The State of Constituional Development in Kenya 2000 (Written for a Regional Conference in Kampala, Uganda on Constitutions in Transition in Africa, Central and Eastern Europe.).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "Death Row and Human Righst: Enlarging the Scope of Section 74 of the Kenyan Constitution (LL.B Dissertation).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1999. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "Kioko, W.M., Mute, L., and Akivaga, K., (Eds.) Building an Open Society: The Politics of Transition in Kenya (Nairobi: Clairpress, 2002) (Editor).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. ""Reforming Family Law in Kenya: the Place of the Repealed Affiliation Act 1959: (Published in Mute, L., and Kibwana, K., (Eds.) (2000) Law and the Quest for Gender Equality in Kenya (Nairobi: Claripress.).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. ""The Place of Transitional Justice in Kenya's Impending Political Transition" in Kioko,W.M., Mute, L., and Akivaga, K., Building an Open Society: The Politics of Transition in Kenya (Nairobi:Clairpress, 2002).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "Transitional Justice for Kenya: What Institutional Framework? (LL.M Dissertation).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. ""The Gender Question in Judicial Reforms: Access to Justice for all as the Challenge Kenyan Must Rise up to" Paper Written for the Kenya Chapter of the International Commission of Jurists (ICJ-Kenya)'s Judicial Reforms Project.". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "The State of Constituional Development in Kenya 2000 (Written for a Regional Conference in Kampala, Uganda on Constitutions in Transition in Africa, Central and Eastern Europe.).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "Kioko, W.M., Mute, L., and Akivaga, K., (Eds.) Building an Open Society: The Politics of Transition in Kenya (Nairobi: Clairpress, 2002) (Editor).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. ""The Place of Transitional Justice in Kenya's Impending Political Transition" in Kioko,W.M., Mute, L., and Akivaga, K., Building an Open Society: The Politics of Transition in Kenya (Nairobi:Clairpress, 2002).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "Death Row and Human Righst: Enlarging the Scope of Section 74 of the Kenyan Constitution (LL.B Dissertation).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1999. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "Kioko, W.M., and Wanjala, S., Recognizing the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in Kenya's New Constitutional Order: The Case of the Ogiek (Forthcoming Publication.).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Wanyonyi WC, Onyari JM SPMMFJ. "Enzymatic Decolorization of Malachite Green Dye by a Newly Isolated Bacillus Cereus Strain wwcp1." IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology. 2014;Vol 8(Issue 12 Ver. III (Dec. 2014)):58-64.
Wanyonyi WC, Onyari JM SPM. "Adsorption of Congo Red Dye from Aqueous Solutions Using Roots of Eichhornia crassipes: Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies." The International Conference on Technologies and Materials for Renewable Energy, Environment and Sustainability, TMREES14, Energy Procedia. 2014;50:862-869.
Wanyonyi LS. "Further remarks on unitary equivalence of some classes of operators in Hilbert spaces." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2020;5(3):06-10. Abstractfull text

In this paper we investigate results on unitary equivalence of operators that include n-binormal, skew
binormal and n-power-hyponormal operators acting on complex Hilbert space H.
AMS subject classification 47B47, 47A30, 47B20.

Wanyonyi WC, Onyari JM, Shiundu PM, Mulaa FJ. "Effective biotransformation of Reactive Black 5 Dye Using Crude Protease from Bacillus Cereus Strain KM201428." Energy Procedia. 2019;157:815-824. Abstract

Effective effluent treatment is a paramount step towards conserving the dwindling clean water resources. The present study describes the use of crude protease extract from Bacillus Cereus Strain KM201428 biotransformation of azo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5). Batch experimental results displayed over 97% decolorization efficiency with initial dye concentration of 1.0 x 10-4M. The decolorization process was highly dependent on contact time, dye concentration and pH. The optimum contact time and pH for decolorization were 120 hours and pH 9 respectively at 25˚C. Biotransformation of RB5 dye was monitored using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and formed metabolites characterized by LC–QTOF-MS. Comparison of resultant LC–QTOF-MS chromatograms after decolorization confirmed complete cleavage of RB5 dye. First order kinetic fitted well with experimental data for different RB5 dye concentrations

Wanyonyi WC, Onyari JM, Shiundu PM, Mulaa FJ. "Biodegradation and detoxification of malachite green dye using novel enzymes from bacillus cereus strain KM201428: kinetic and metabolite analysis." Energy Procedia. 2017;119:38-51. AbstractScience Direct Journal

Description
Enzyme based degradation of organic pollutants is a promising detoxifying approach due to the promiscuous nature of the enzyme, efficiency, cost effective and ecofriendly. In the present study, we have carried out detailed decoloration and degradation studies on a model triphenyl methane group of dyes (Malachite Green dye (MG)) using a newly isolated enzyme from Bacillus cereus KM201428 under the static condition. Biodegradation of dyes was monitored by UV-VIS spectrophotometer and the resultant metabolites analyzed by Liquid Chromatography–Hybrid Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (LC–QToF-MS) and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC - MS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that enzymatic degradation of MG dye resulted in complete mineralization and benzene ring-removal; the latter known for organic dye toxicity. Kinetic study results revealed that first-order kinetic …

Wanyonyi WC, Onyari JM, Shiundu PM, Mulaa FJ. "Biodegradation and Detoxification of Malachite Green Dye Using Novel Enzymes from Bacillus cereus Strain KM201428: Kinetic and Metabolite Analysis.". 2017. AbstractFull text link

Enzyme based degradation of organic pollutants is a promising detoxifying approach due to the promiscuous nature of the enzyme, efficiency, cost effective and ecofriendly. In the present study, we have carried out detailed decoloration and degradation studies on a model triphenyl methane group of dyes (Malachite Green dye (MG)) using a newly isolated enzyme from Bacillus cereus KM201428 under the static condition. Biodegradation of dyes was monitored by UV-VIS spectrophotometer and the resultant metabolites analyzed by Liquid Chromatography–Hybrid Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (LC–QToF-MS) and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC - MS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that enzymatic degradation of MG dye resulted in complete mineralization and benzene ring-removal; the latter known for organic dye toxicity. Kinetic study results revealed that first-order kinetic model was best applicable for describing MG dye decoloration. Michaelise-Menten kinetics, Lineweaver–Burk plot and Eadie-Hofstee plot models were used to establish the kinetic parameters for the dye decoloration. Lineweaver–Burk plot provided the best theoretical correlation of the experimental data with maximum rate (Vmax) of 17.70 mg l-1h-1 and Michaelis constant (Km) of 124 mgl-1. Results provide evidence that crude enzyme from Bacillus cereus strain KM201428 offers an effective, renewable, ecofriendly and affordable biotechnology for treatment of industrial effluents polluted with organic dye.

Wanyonyi PN, Guto PM. "Electroanalytical Determination of Cadmium and Lead using Edge Plane Prolytic Graphite/Polyaniline Electrode." International Journal of Science and Technology (IJST). 2018;6(7):10-14.
Wanyonyi WC, Onyari JM, Shiundu PM, Mulaa FJ. "Effective biotransformation of Reactive Black 5 Dye Using Crude Protease from Bacillus Cereus Strain KM201428." Energy Procedia. 2019;157:815-824. AbstractEnergy Procedia

Description

Effective effluent treatment is a paramount step towards conserving the dwindling clean water resources. The present study describes the use of crude protease extract from Bacillus Cereus Strain KM201428 biotransformation of azo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5). Batch experimental results displayed over 97% decolorization efficiency with initial dye concentration of 1.0 x 10-4M. The decolorization process was highly dependent on contact time, dye concentration and pH. The optimum contact time and pH for decolorization were 120 hours and pH 9 respectively at 25˚C. Biotransformation of RB5 dye was monitored using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and formed metabolites characterized by LC–QTOF-MS. Comparison of resultant LC–QTOF-MS chromatograms after decolorization confirmed complete cleavage of RB5 dye. First order kinetic fitted well with experimental data for different RB5 dye concentrations …

Wanyoike MW. "Technology and Provision of Quality and Inclusive Education.". In: International Conference on “Uplifting the Poor”, Linkoping University and University of Nairobi February 15th -16th 2013. University of Nairobi; 2013.
WANYOIKE DRGICHUHIJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Reproductive Health: Abortion, Pregnancy, Fertility, Contraception A chapter in: Forensic medicine, Medical Law and Ethics in East Africa (2005). Contribution from: J. Wanyoike Gichuhi, Peter Kimani, Editors: Mahomed A. Dada, Kirasi A. Olumbe, David J. Mc.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East Africa. Vol. 18 No. 1:1-66 May 2005. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2005. Abstract
Effects of calcium supplementation in patient at risk of pregnancy induced Hypertension. (This was an experimental double blind randomized clinical trial.) J. Obset. Gynaecol. East Cent.Afr 2005, 18:49-59
WANYOIKE DRGICHUHIJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Wanyoike J G. A case of reproductive technology in Africa: Wanyoike J G. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and central Africa. Volume 17 No 1:1-80 February 2004.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and central Africa. Volume 17 No 1:1-80 February 2004. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of post-caesarean wound infection. DESIGN: Prospective descriptive study. SETTING: Maternity unit of Kiambu District Hospital in Central Province of Kenya. SUBJECTS: All women undergoing caesarean delivery during the study period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Overall incidence of post-caesarean wound infection, relationship between incidence and socio-demographic characteristics, pre-operative labour events, intrapartum events as well as HIV status. RESULTS: The caesarean delivery rate was 7.8%. The overall post-caesarean wound infection rate was 19%. The incidence was 32% among single women as compared to 16% among married women, but this difference is not statistically significant. Among the 35% of women who laboured for more than 12 hours, the incidence of wound infection was 33% compared to 15% among those who laboured for 12 hours or less (p < 0.01). Rupture of membranes (ROM) for more than 12 hours was associated with high incidence of wound infection than among women in whom ROM was 12 hours or less (38% and 14% respectively, p < 0.001). Also duration of operation exceeding 60 minutes was associated with much higher incidence of wound infection (71%) compared to when the operation lasted 60 minutes or less (16%, p < 0.001). The incidence of post-caesarean wound infection does not appear to be significantly affected by HIV status or whether caesarean delivery was emergency or elective. CONCLUSION: The overall post-caesarean wound infection rate is quite high. Prolonged pre-operative duration of labour, prolonged ROM and long duration of operation are associated with significantly higher incidence of wound infection. This should be seen against a background of a relatively low caesarean delivery rate and high incidence of prolonged labour. Strict labour management policies need to be inculcated in labour wards in District Hospitals in order to ensure timely caesarean delivery interventions, and hence, reduce post-caesarean wound infection rates.
WANYOIKE DRGICHUHIJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Gachuno O W, Wanyoike Gichuhi J, Rukaria R M K Effects of calcium supplementation in patients at risk of pregnancy induced hypertension Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East Africa. Vol. 18 No. 1:1-66 May 2005. Gachuno O W, Wanyoike Gichuhi J, Ruk.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East Africa. Vol. 18 No. 1:1-66 May 2005. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection on treatment outcome of laparoscopically verified acute salpingitis. METHODS: Women aged 18-40 years with laparoscopically verified acute salpingitis received antibiotic therapy that included cefotetan 2 g intravenously and doxycycline 100 mg orally every 12 hours and laparoscopically guided drainage of tuboovarian abscesses of 4 cm or more. Clinical investigators blinded to HIV-1 serostatus used predetermined clinical criteria, including calculation of a clinical severity score and a standard treatment protocol to assess response to therapy. RESULTS: Of the 140 women with laparoscopically confirmed acute salpingitis, 61 (44%) women had mild, 38 (27%) had moderate, and 41 (29%) had severe disease (ie, pyosalpinx, tuboovarian abscesses, or both). Fifty-three (38%) were HIV-1-infected. Severe disease was more common in HIV-1-infected in comparison with HIV-1-uninfected women (20 [38%] compared with 21 [24%]
WANYOIKE DRGICHUHIJOSEPH. "Biophysical profile scores and resistance indices of the umbilical artery as seen in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension. East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):96-101.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):96-101. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2006. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The role of Biophysical Profile Score and resistive index of the umbilical artery for monitoring pre-eclampsia patients. DESIGN: Descriptive prospective study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital and Mater Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: One hundred and ten cases during a three month period. RESULTS: Normal biophysical profile scores were found in 93 (84.5%), and 17 (17.5%) cases had abnormal scores ranging from mild to severe foetal distress. Resistive index of umbilical artery (RI-UA) were normal in 72 (66.1%) and high resistive index accounted for 33.9%. Intra-Uterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) was a prominent finding accounting for 30.5%. A positive relationship was shown to exist between IUGR and RI-UA and also with severity of hypertension with P-values < 0.05. Resistive index of umbilical artery was positively related to the duration of illness confirming its dependence on chronicity (P = 0.004). Resistive index of umbilical artery proved to be an earlier indicator of foetal compromise before any foetal distress becomes obvious. CONCLUSION: Regular obstetrical ultra sound foetal surveillance in pre-eclampsia patients is important for foetal wellbeing. Doppler evaluation of high risk patients is more sensitive test than the biophysical profile score.
Wanyoike MM;, Wahome RG. "Small-scale farming systems."; 2004.
Wanyoike MW. "Educational Reforms and Value-creating education in post-colonial Kenya: A Historical perspective.". In: International Conference on Value-Creating Education and Sustainable Development. University of Nairobi; 2016.
WANYOIKE DRGICHUHIJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Wanyoike J G. A case of reproductive technology in Africa: Wanyoike J G. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and central Africa. Volume 17 No 1:1-80 February 2004.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and central Africa. Volume 17 No 1:1-80 February 2004. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2004. Abstract
Effects of calcium supplementation in patient at risk of pregnancy induced Hypertension. (This was an experimental double blind randomized clinical trial.) J. Obset. Gynaecol. East Cent.Afr 2005, 18:49-59
WANYOIKE DRGICHUHIJOSEPH, K. PROFSINEISAMUEL, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Cohen R, Joseph Gichuhi, Rukaria R, Sinei SK, Gultai S.Investigation of immunogenetic correlates for Chlamydia trachomatis associated tubal infertility. American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 .". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Wanyoike M, Holmes W. "The effects of winter nutrition on the subsequent Jive-we ght performance and intake of herbage by beef cattle.". 1981. Abstract

Thirty-six Friesian and Friesian cross-bred cattle about 11 months old were fed to grow at the rates of 0·50 (low) and 1·08 (high) kg/day in a 12-week winter feeding period and then turned out on high quality pasture. For 12 weeks after turning out the ‘low’ and ‘high’ animals gained weight at 1·17 and 0·90 kg/day respectively. There was a negative correlation (– 0·57, P < 0·01) between winter and grazing live-weight gain. On two occasions herbage intake was estimated. Average intake of ‘low’ animals was 12% higher than of ‘high’ animals although herbage digestibility, estimated from faecal N, was similar for the two treatments. Differences in live-weight gain on pasture between treatments were largely accounted for by differences in intake. The low rate of winter growth did not have any significant effects on age at slaughter, carcass weights or grades attained by the restricted animals.

WANYOIKE DRGICHUHIJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Amniotic fluid embolism: case report and review. Wanyoike J G Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and central Africa. Vol 18 NO 1:1-66 May 2005.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and central Africa. Vol 18 NO 1:1-66 May 2005. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2005. Abstract
Effects of calcium supplementation in patient at risk of pregnancy induced Hypertension. (This was an experimental double blind randomized clinical trial.) J. Obset. Gynaecol. East Cent.Afr 2005, 18:49-59
WANYOIKE DRGICHUHIJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Reproductive Health: Abortion, Pregnancy, Fertility, Contraception A chapter in: Forensic medicine, Medical Law and Ethics in East Africa (2005). Contribution from: J. Wanyoike Gichuhi, Peter Kimani, Editors: Mahomed A. Dada, Kirasi A. Olumbe, David J. Mc.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East Africa. Vol. 18 No. 1:1-66 May 2005. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection on treatment outcome of laparoscopically verified acute salpingitis. METHODS: Women aged 18-40 years with laparoscopically verified acute salpingitis received antibiotic therapy that included cefotetan 2 g intravenously and doxycycline 100 mg orally every 12 hours and laparoscopically guided drainage of tuboovarian abscesses of 4 cm or more. Clinical investigators blinded to HIV-1 serostatus used predetermined clinical criteria, including calculation of a clinical severity score and a standard treatment protocol to assess response to therapy. RESULTS: Of the 140 women with laparoscopically confirmed acute salpingitis, 61 (44%) women had mild, 38 (27%) had moderate, and 41 (29%) had severe disease (ie, pyosalpinx, tuboovarian abscesses, or both). Fifty-three (38%) were HIV-1-infected. Severe disease was more common in HIV-1-infected in comparison with HIV-1-uninfected women (20 [38%] compared with 21 [24%]
WANYOIKE DRGICHUHIJOSEPH, WANYOIKE DRGICHUHIJOSEPH. "Mugo NR, Kiehlbauch JA, Nguti R, Meier A, Gichuhi JW, Stamm WE, Cohen CR. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Effect of human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection on treatment outcome of acute salpingitis.Obs.". In: PMID: 16582116 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2006. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection on treatment outcome of laparoscopically verified acute salpingitis. METHODS: Women aged 18-40 years with laparoscopically verified acute salpingitis received antibiotic therapy that included cefotetan 2 g intravenously and doxycycline 100 mg orally every 12 hours and laparoscopically guided drainage of tuboovarian abscesses of 4 cm or more. Clinical investigators blinded to HIV-1 serostatus used predetermined clinical criteria, including calculation of a clinical severity score and a standard treatment protocol to assess response to therapy. RESULTS: Of the 140 women with laparoscopically confirmed acute salpingitis, 61 (44%) women had mild, 38 (27%) had moderate, and 41 (29%) had severe disease (ie, pyosalpinx, tuboovarian abscesses, or both). Fifty-three (38%) were HIV-1-infected. Severe disease was more common in HIV-1-infected in comparison with HIV-1-uninfected women (20 [38%] compared with 21 [24%]
Wanyoike AN, Oleche OM. "Determinants of Utilization of Health Care Services in Kenya." International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences. 2017;7(10).
WANYOIKE DRGICHUHIJOSEPH, K. PROFSINEISAMUEL, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Cohen R, Joseph Gichuhi, Rukaria R, Sinei SK, Gultai S.Investigation of immunogenetic correlates for Chlamydia trachomatis associated tubal infertility. American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 .". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2003. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANYOIKE DRGICHUHIJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Gachuno O W, Wanyoike Gichuhi J, Rukaria R M K Effects of calcium supplementation in patients at risk of pregnancy induced hypertension Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East Africa. Vol. 18 No. 1:1-66 May 2005. Gachuno O W, Wanyoike Gichuhi J, Ruk.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East Africa. Vol. 18 No. 1:1-66 May 2005. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2005. Abstract
Effects of calcium supplementation in patient at risk of pregnancy induced Hypertension. (This was an experimental double blind randomized clinical trial.) J. Obset. Gynaecol. East Cent.Afr 2005, 18:49-59
WANYOIKE DRGICHUHIJOSEPH. "Incidence of wound infection after caesarean delivery in a district hospital in central Kenya. East Afr Med J. 2005 Jul;82(7):357-61.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Jul;82(7):357-61. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of post-caesarean wound infection. DESIGN: Prospective descriptive study. SETTING: Maternity unit of Kiambu District Hospital in Central Province of Kenya. SUBJECTS: All women undergoing caesarean delivery during the study period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Overall incidence of post-caesarean wound infection, relationship between incidence and socio-demographic characteristics, pre-operative labour events, intrapartum events as well as HIV status. RESULTS: The caesarean delivery rate was 7.8%. The overall post-caesarean wound infection rate was 19%. The incidence was 32% among single women as compared to 16% among married women, but this difference is not statistically significant. Among the 35% of women who laboured for more than 12 hours, the incidence of wound infection was 33% compared to 15% among those who laboured for 12 hours or less (p < 0.01). Rupture of membranes (ROM) for more than 12 hours was associated with high incidence of wound infection than among women in whom ROM was 12 hours or less (38% and 14% respectively, p < 0.001). Also duration of operation exceeding 60 minutes was associated with much higher incidence of wound infection (71%) compared to when the operation lasted 60 minutes or less (16%, p < 0.001). The incidence of post-caesarean wound infection does not appear to be significantly affected by HIV status or whether caesarean delivery was emergency or elective. CONCLUSION: The overall post-caesarean wound infection rate is quite high. Prolonged pre-operative duration of labour, prolonged ROM and long duration of operation are associated with significantly higher incidence of wound infection. This should be seen against a background of a relatively low caesarean delivery rate and high incidence of prolonged labour. Strict labour management policies need to be inculcated in labour wards in District Hospitals in order to ensure timely caesarean delivery interventions, and hence, reduce post-caesarean wound infection rates.
WANYOIKE DRGICHUHIJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Amniotic fluid embolism: case report and review. Wanyoike J G Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and central Africa. Vol 18 NO 1:1-66 May 2005.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and central Africa. Vol 18 NO 1:1-66 May 2005. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection on treatment outcome of laparoscopically verified acute salpingitis. METHODS: Women aged 18-40 years with laparoscopically verified acute salpingitis received antibiotic therapy that included cefotetan 2 g intravenously and doxycycline 100 mg orally every 12 hours and laparoscopically guided drainage of tuboovarian abscesses of 4 cm or more. Clinical investigators blinded to HIV-1 serostatus used predetermined clinical criteria, including calculation of a clinical severity score and a standard treatment protocol to assess response to therapy. RESULTS: Of the 140 women with laparoscopically confirmed acute salpingitis, 61 (44%) women had mild, 38 (27%) had moderate, and 41 (29%) had severe disease (ie, pyosalpinx, tuboovarian abscesses, or both). Fifty-three (38%) were HIV-1-infected. Severe disease was more common in HIV-1-infected in comparison with HIV-1-uninfected women (20 [38%] compared with 21 [24%]
Wanyoike, MM; Wahome RG; MSG, Wahome, RG; Mbogoh SG, Wahome, RG; Mbogoh SG. "Issues Constraining Production, Processing and Marketing of Dairy and Other Livestock Products."; 2005.
WANYOIKE DRGICHUHIJOSEPH, K. PROFSINEISAMUEL, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Cohen R, Joseph Gichuhi, Rukaria R, Sinei SK, Gultai S.Investigation of immunogenetic correlates for Chlamydia trachomatis associated tubal infertility. American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 .". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 2003. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Wanyoike G, Rukaria RK, Gachuno OW. "Risk factors associated with tubal infertility.". 2009.
Wanyoike AN, Oleche OM. "Determinants of Demand for Healthcare Services in Private Hospitals in Kenya." International Journal of Novel Research in Marketing Management and Economics . 2017;4(3):9-30.
Wanyoike, MM; Wahome RG. "Small-scale farming systems."; 2004.
WanyanguSamuel, AngolioA, MachariaS, LitamoiJK, OdongoMahacla. "A preliminary serological survey for leptospiral agglutinins in sheep and goats in Kenya." The East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. 1990;56 (1):15-19.
Wanyande, Peter; Omosa M; CL. "Governance and Transition Politics in Kenya .". 2007.Website
Wanyande P, and Asingo PO. "Beyond Election Campaign Rhetoric: Challenges Facing NARC Government in Kenya." African Review Journal . 2004;31 ( 1&2 ):38-56.
Wanyande P, Njeru G, Mute L, Owiti MOD. Civic Education for Marginalised Communities.; 2001.
Wanyande P. "Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons: A Governance Perspective. In Regional Development Studies." A journal of the United Nations Centre for Regional Development. 2006:pp145-160.
Wanyande P, Omosa M, Ludeki C. Governance Issues in Kenya: An Overview.; 2007.Website
Wanyande P, Odhiambo-Mbai C. Public Service Ethics in Kenya.; 2001.Website
Wanyande P. "Reflections on Electoral Systeme and Practice in Kenya in Hekima ." A Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2003;Volume 11(May-JULY 2003-1):PP23-25.
Wanyande P. "Nationalism In Kenya: Weakening the Ties that Bind." Maseno University Journal. 2012;volume 1:pp207-219.
Wanyama J, Mpoke L, Mbaria JM, Kaburia HFA, Gathuma JM. "Participatory validation of medicinal plants used to treat livestock diseases by pastoralists of Kenya: A case of Samburu and Turkana pastoralists.". In: Proceedings of the First National Workshop on medicinal, aromatic and other underutilized plant species in Kenya. Kenya Wildlife Service Training Institute, Naivasha, Kenya; 2001.
Wanjohi M, Gitao CG, Bebora L. "The Prevalence of Brucella spp. in camel milk marketed from North Eastern Province, Kenya." Research Opinions in Animal & Veterinary Sciences. 2012;2(7):425-434. Abstractcamel_milk_brucellosis.pdf

The camel is the dominant livestock in North Eastern province where it provides sustenance to many people especially during the frequent dry periods when other animals die or are unthrifty. Garissa and Wajir districts in the arid Northern Kenya hosts about 54% of the national camel herd estimated to number over 3 million. Camel milk from North Eastern Province in Kenya is widely marketed in those areas but is also currently being sold in distant markets in Nairobi and other places. An expanded camel milk market provides an opportunity for increased income that can lead to improved pastoral livelihoods. Most of the milk is collected from individual pastoralists, bulked and then taken by transporters to urban areas. While some milk is boiled before sale, some of the milk however is marketed as raw thus exposing the population to zoonotic diseases. In an investigation to find the prevalence of Brucellosis, the main zoonotic agent in milk, samples of milk for marketing were collected as well as serum samples from camels in North Eastern Province A total of three hundred and eighty four (384) camel milk samples from Garrissa and Wajir Districts were tested using the Milk Ring Test (MRT) and out of the total, fifty nine (59) samples (15.36%) tested positive while three hundred and twenty five (325) samples tested negative. From Garrissa District (n = 230), 35 samples (15.22%) were positive for MRT while 24 samples (15.58%) from Wajir District (n = 154) were positive. All the milk samples examined were negative for Brucella Modified Ziehl- Neelsen’s stain as well as primary isolation of Brucella on Tryptose Soy agar (TSA) under high carbon-dioxide (CO2) concentration. The results of the milk ring test on the samples tested indicated that 15.36% of the samples were positive for the presence of Brucella antibodies in milk. A total of two hundred (200) camel serum samples from Garrissa and Wajir Districts were tested using the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT). Four (4) samples (2.0%) tested positive. From Garrissa District (n = 72), 2 samples (2.78%), were positive while 2 samples (1.56%) from Wajir District (n = 128) were positive. The two hundred (200) camel serum samples from Garrissa and Wajir Districts were also tested using the Serum Micro-agglutination Test (SAT). From Garrissa District (n = 72), 13 samples (18.06%) were positive while 8 samples (6.25%) from Wajir District (n = 128) were positive. The seroprevalence of brucellosis in camels is low in extensively kept pastoralist camels. Some of the recommendations to avoid the risk of zoonotic diseases include increased awareness on pasteurization of camel milk, proper milk handling and milk testing before pooling

WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Marriage and Family in Africa, in D. W. Waruta and H.W. Kinoti, Eds., Pastoral Care in African Christianity: Challenging Essays in Pastoral Theology, Nairobi: Uzima Press.". In: All Africa Journal of Theology, Sponsored by the All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) and Conference of African Theological Institutions (CATI), Vol. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Tribalism as a Moral Problem in Contemporary African Society, in J.N.K. Mugambi and A. Nasimiyu Wasike, Eds. Moral and Ethical Issues in African Christianity: Innovative Essays in Moral Theology, Nairobi: Uzima Press.". In: Tangaza Occassional Papers, No. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1992. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Meaning of Mission in Africa Today; Nairobi.". In: Tangaza Occassional Papers, No. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Religious Situation in Africa, A paper presented at International Missions Conference, Limuru, Kenya.". In: Tangaza Occassional Papers, No. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1982. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Marriage and Family in Africa.". In: All Africa Journal of Theology, Sponsored by the All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) and Conference of African Theological Institutions (CATI), Vol. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Ecumenical Initiatives in Eastern Africa: The Current Situation.". In: Tangaza Occassional Papers, No. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1989. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Biblical Hermeneutics in the African Instituted Churches in H.W. Kinoti and J.M. Waligo, Eds., Nairobi, Uzima Press.". In: All Africa Journal of Theology, Sponsored by the All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) and Conference of African Theological Institutions (CATI), Vol. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1997. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Marriage and the Changing Values in the African Family.". In: Tangaza Occassional Papers, No. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1990. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Bible and Prayer in Africa in The International Bible Commentary: A Catholic and Ecumenical Commentary for the 21st Century, William R. Farmer, General Editor, Collegeville, Minnesota, USA: Liturgical Press.". In: All Africa Journal of Theology, Sponsored by the All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) and Conference of African Theological Institutions (CATI), Vol. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1998. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "The Recovery of African Spirituality, A paper presented at the Regional Conference of Ecumenical Association of Third World Theologians (EATWOT), Nairobi.". In: Tangaza Occassional Papers, No. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1990. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective, in A. Nasimiyu Wasike and D. W. Waruta, Eds., Mission in African Christianity: Critical Essays in Missiology, Nairobi: Uzima Press.". In: All Africa Journal of Theology, Sponsored by the All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) and Conference of African Theological Institutions (CATI), Vol. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "The Effect of the Debt Crisis on the Family in Africa.". In: Tangaza Occassional Papers, No. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1991. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective.". In: Tangaza Occassional Papers, No. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1993. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Cast Away Fear, A Joint Contribution to the African Synod, Nairobi: ew People.". In: All Africa Journal of Theology, Sponsored by the All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) and Conference of African Theological Institutions (CATI), Vol. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "S. G. Kibicho and D. W. Waruta, African 'Religion in BRP 201 and 202 Lecture Series.". In: Tangaza Occassional Papers, No. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1989. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Pastoral Counselling in the African Perspective.". In: All Africa Journal of Theology, Sponsored by the All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) and Conference of African Theological Institutions (CATI), Vol. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1995. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Biblical Authority and Interpretation.". In: Tangaza Occassional Papers, No. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1990. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
Wanjohi LM, Moturi CA. "Smartphones Supporting Monitoring Functions: Experiences from Sweet Potato Vine Distribution in sub-Saharan Africa.". In: Digital Technologies for Agricultural and Rural Development in the Global South. Oxfordshire: CAB International; 2018.
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Who Is Jesus in Africa: Priest, Prophet and King in J.N.K. Mugambi and L. Magesa, Eds., Jesus in African Christianity: Experimentation and Diversity in African Christology, Nairobi Initiatives.". In: All Africa Journal of Theology, Sponsored by the All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) and Conference of African Theological Institutions (CATI), Vol. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1998. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "owards an African Church: A Critical Assessment of Alternative Forms and Structures in J.N.K. Mugambi and L. Magesa, Eds. The Church in African Christianity: Innovative Essays in Ecclesiology, Nairobi: Initiatives.". In: Tangaza Occassional Papers, No. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1990. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Social-Historical Structures of Racism in Denton Lotz, Ed., Baptists Against Racism, McLean, Birginia, USA: Baptist World Allicance.". In: All Africa Journal of Theology, Sponsored by the All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) and Conference of African Theological Institutions (CATI), Vol. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1999. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Towards an African Church: A Critical Assessment of Alternative Forms and Structures.". In: Tangaza Occassional Papers, No. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1990. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Co-Editor:Africa Challenge.". In: All Africa Journal of Theology, Sponsored by the All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) and Conference of African Theological Institutions (CATI), Vol. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Religious Tolerance in a Pluralistic World.". In: Tangaza Occassional Papers, No. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1992. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
Wanjohi M, Gitao CG, Bebora L. "Subclinical mastitis affecting hygienic quality of marketed camel milk from North - Eastern Province, Kenya." Microbiology Research International. 2013;1(1):6-15. Abstract13-012.pdf

North Eastern Province, camel is the dominant livestock; it provides subsistence to many people especially during the frequent droughts when other animals either die or are unthrifty. This is beca use camel is highly suited for hot environments. In this region, camels number approximately 3 million and are the main producers of milk for the residents, who are mainly of Somali origin, and are pastoralists. Currentl y, the milk is also sold in Nairobi and other far places; and there is a fast growing demand for it. This has necessitated examination of the milk quality, in response to food safety awareness, especially noting that some of the bacteria causing subclinical mastitis can cause disease in humans. This study was carried out to establish the hygienic quality of camel milk from this area, zeroing down to 2 districts, Garissa and Wajir. T hree hundred and eighty four bulk camel milk samples were collected in volumes of 200 to 300 ml. They wer e transport ed to the laboratory in cold/ice boxes and bacterial isolation and characterization done not later than 24 h after arrival at the laboratory. Before culturing, the milk samples were screened using Ca lifornia Mastitis Test (CMT); samples testing positive (a n indication of subclinical mastitis) were then subjected to bacteriological investigation, using standard methods. Results of this study have shown that subclin ical mastitis is prevalent in dromedary camels of Garissa and Wajir districts of North Eastern province of Kenya, and that Gram positive cocci ( Staphylococcus and Streptococcus) are the dominant mastitis pathogens isolated. Other isolated bacteria included Klebsiella/Enterobacter, E scherichia coli and Bacillus. The positive correlation of CMT with the presen ce of mastitis pathogens in camel milk showed that CMT is a useful screening test in the detection of subclinical mastitis in camels; it is thus a useful tool for farm ers, aiding them in picking the affected animals, segregating and treating them. The resu lts also contribute towards coming up with respective control measures so as to keep camel milk fresh for longer periods and als o make it safe for human consumption.

WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Religion as a Source of Oppresion or Resistance, in S. Maimela, Ed., Culture, Religion and Liberation, Pretoria, S.A.: UNISA.". In: All Africa Journal of Theology, Sponsored by the All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) and Conference of African Theological Institutions (CATI), Vol. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Scratching where it itches: Developing Christian Literature in Africa, a paper presented at a Conference on the production of Christian Education materials in Africa, Limuru, Kenya.". In: Tangaza Occassional Papers, No. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1983. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Pastoral Counselling in the African Perspective, in D. W. Waruta, Ed., Caring and Sharing: Pastoral Counselling in the African Perspective, Nairobi: Uzima Press.". In: All Africa Journal of Theology, Sponsored by the All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) and Conference of African Theological Institutions (CATI), Vol. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1995. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "The Church as a Teaching Community in J.N.K. Mugambi, Ed. Christian Mission and Social Transformation, Nairobi, Initiatives & NCCK.". In: Tangaza Occassional Papers, No. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1989. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "A Gospel of Community, Compassion and Continuity in Daniel Carro and Richard E. Wilson, Contemporary Gospel Accents: Coing Theology in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, Macon, Georgia: Mercer University Press.". In: All Africa Journal of Theology, Sponsored by the All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) and Conference of African Theological Institutions (CATI), Vol. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1997. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Oriental Religions in J.N.K. Mugambi, Ed. Comparative Religion, Nairobi, University of Nairobi Press.". In: Tangaza Occassional Papers, No. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1990. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Who Is Jesus in Africa? Priest, Prophet and King in J.N.K.". In: All Africa Journal of Theology, Sponsored by the All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) and Conference of African Theological Institutions (CATI), Vol. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1998. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Oriental Religions in J.N.K.". In: Tangaza Occassional Papers, No. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1990. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
WANJIRU. DRGITARIPATRICIA. "Synthesis and reactions of mixed N, P ligands.". In: European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry. Wiley Interscience; 2005. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
WANJIRU. DRGITARIPATRICIA. "Antimalarial Pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazoles.". In: 5th African Crop Science Society International Conference in Lagos Nigeria October 21-26 2001. American Chemical Society; 2011. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
WANJIRU. DRGITARIPATRICIA. "2, 2.". In: Acta Crystallographica C. International Union of Crystallography; 2004. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
WANJIRU. DRGITARIPATRICIA. "A substance or composition for the treatment of cancer.". In: European Patent Office. World Intellectual Property Organisation; 2009. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
WANJIRU. DRGITARIPATRICIA. "Tris(2-pyridyl) phosphine oxide; how C-H.". In: Acta Crystallographica C. International Union of Crystallography; 2004. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
WANJIRU. DRGITARIPATRICIA. "Synthesis and characterization of alkyltris(2-pyridyl)phosphonium salts.". In: Phosphorus, Sulphur, and Silicon and the Related Elements. Taylor & Francis; 2006. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
Wanjiru Patricia G. Antimalarial Pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazoles.; 2011.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mbithi, P.M.F., Mbiuki, S.M., Mbugua, S.W. and Mitema, E. (1994). Pseudoarthrosis and arthrodesis of the bovine fetlock. Tanzania Vet. Journal.". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1994. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WANJIRU DRNGUGIROSE. "Owen Nyango'ro, Tax and Capital structure: Case of listed firms in Kenya, University of Nairobi, 2003.". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2003. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mbogwa S.W., W.V Lumb, K.W. Smith: . (1978) Plating of Canine Scapular Fractures: Am. J. Vet. ResVol. 39 No. 8: 1327-1330.". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1978. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WANJIRU DRNGUGIROSE. "Yong Yoon; World economic booms and crisis, adjustment policies and the current account: A decomposition analysis for Kenya 1972-1993, University of Nairobi.". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1993. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mande, J.D., I.B.J. Buoro, S.W. Mbugua and P.M.F. Mbithi (2002) Experimental Models of Osteoarthritis. A Review The Kenya Vet. (23) 67-69.". In: East Afri. Med J. 1988 May; 65(5):330-4. IBIMA Publishing; 2002. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mbugua, S.W. (1996) contribution on rabies and worms in .". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1996. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WANJIRU DRNGUGIROSE. "Growth of the NSE primary market: what can we learn? KIPPRA Discussion Paper # 47." The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2005.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mbugua, S.W., Skoglund, L.A., Skjelbred, P. and Lokken, P. (1988): Effects of a glucocorticoid in the post-operative course following experimented orthopaedic surgery in dogs. Acta. Vet. Scand. 29, 415-419.". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1988. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
Wanjiru KG, Samwel Owino Mwanda, Ronnie Midigo. "Computer Based Instruction and Learner Achievement; Implications for Training Art and Design in Kenya’s Secondary Schools." Journal of Academic Research. . 2017;5(5):19-31.
WANJIRU DRNGUGIROSE. "Makoma, L. Wanza; the demand for municipal solid waste disposal services; An econometric analysis of willingness to pay; 1998, University of Nairobi.". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1998. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mbugua, S.W., Skoglund, L.A., Djoseland, O. and Lokken, P. (1988): Adrenocortical suppression by a glucocorticoid: Effect of a single i.m. injection of betamethasone depot versus placeto given prior to orthopaedic surgery in dogs. Acta. Vet. Scand., 29, 4.". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1988. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WANJIRU DRNGUGIROSE. "Rose W. Ngugi, Health Seeking Behavior in Reform Process for Rural Households The Case of Mwea-Kirinyaga District. AERC Research paper # 95.". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1999. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
WANJIRU DRGICHUHIAGNES. "Gichuhi, W. and E. K. Bauni.". In: Measure Macro International, Maryland. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1998. Abstract

Fresh blood lymphocytes from nine health donors have been compared with samples from the same donors, recovered after period of 2 to 21 months storage in liquid nitrogen, for the capacity to respond to a range of mitogens in vitro. A microculture assay was used, requireing aliquots of only 25,000 cells. The mean levels of 14C-thymidine uptake for fresh and frozen samples were closely comparable when the cells had been stimulated by PHA, Pokeweed or mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells. Lymphocytes from six East African donors, frozen by a very simple technique, were recovered after 3 or more years storage in liquid nitrogen. Five of the samples were in good condition as judged by cell viability and the capacity to form spontaneous 'E' rosettes with sheep erythrocytes. These five samples also responded extremely well to PHA, PWM and mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells using the microculture assay. This study extends the range of applications of cell banks in which small aliquots of blood lymphocytes are stored in liquid nitrogen for periods of several years.

WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Bwangamoi, O., Buoro, I.B.J., Price, J.E., DaCosta, R.P.R. and Mbugua, S.W., (1989). Natural Trypanosoma Vivax infection in a domestic cat in Nairobi. Bull. An. Hlth. and prod. in Africa, Special Issue, 147-157.". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1989. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WANJIRU DRNGUGIROSE. "Rose W. Ngugi, Victor Murinde, and Christopher Green, , Key microstructure and policy issues for emerging stock markets. What have we learned? Finance and Development Research Programme Working Paper # 16 May, ISBN 1902518780, Being revised for the SUERF .". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2000. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
WANJIRU DRGICHUHIAGNES. "Gichuhi, Wanjiru, Sarah Bradley and Karen Hardee. 2004. Provision and Use of Family Planning in the Context of HIV/AIDS in Kenya: Perspectives of Providers, Family Planning and Antenatal Care Clients and HIV-Positive Women.". In: Policy Project, Futures Group. International, Washington DC. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2004. Abstract

Fresh blood lymphocytes from nine health donors have been compared with samples from the same donors, recovered after period of 2 to 21 months storage in liquid nitrogen, for the capacity to respond to a range of mitogens in vitro. A microculture assay was used, requireing aliquots of only 25,000 cells. The mean levels of 14C-thymidine uptake for fresh and frozen samples were closely comparable when the cells had been stimulated by PHA, Pokeweed or mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells. Lymphocytes from six East African donors, frozen by a very simple technique, were recovered after 3 or more years storage in liquid nitrogen. Five of the samples were in good condition as judged by cell viability and the capacity to form spontaneous 'E' rosettes with sheep erythrocytes. These five samples also responded extremely well to PHA, PWM and mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells using the microculture assay. This study extends the range of applications of cell banks in which small aliquots of blood lymphocytes are stored in liquid nitrogen for periods of several years.

WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Karim, F., Kanui, T.I. and, Mbugua S.W.(1993). Effects of codein, naproxen and dexamethasone on formalin-induced pain in the naked mole rat (Heterocephalus Glaber). Nuero Report. Vol.1, No.1, Pg.25-28.". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1993. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WANJIRU DRNGUGIROSE. "Deregulation and management of interest rates, IPAR Discussion Paper # 38." The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2003.
WANJIRU DRMWANGIJANE, G PROFGATEIDAVID. "Hepatitis B virus, hepatocellular carcinoma and liver cirrhosis in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1993 Apr;70(4 Suppl):34-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Apr;70(4 Suppl):34-6. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1993. Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma is the third most common malignancy in Kenyan males occurring with a peak incidence at 40 years of age. A worldwide correlation has been noted between the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma and prevalence of hepatitis B virus. Liver biopsies with histological diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), cirrhosis and the normals were reviewed by the authors. They were then stained for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis e core antigen (HBcAg). Only 2.5% of normal livers were positive for HBsAg compared with 33% of HCC and 25% of cirrhosis respectively. Hepatitis core antigen was not demonstrated in normal liver biopsies but it was present in 11.5% of HCC and 14% of cirrhosis. Background cirrhosis was noted in 52% of biopsies showing HCC. It is clear that a causal association exists between hepatitis B virus (HBV) and both liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Higher antigen markers, up to 80% have been reported in South East Asia and India. This difference may be due to the type of biopsy examined (needle biopsy vs open biopsy) but the possibility that other factors such as aflatoxin and non A/non B hepatitis viruses play a more significant role in the causation of liver disease in Kenya than has previously been assumed should be explored.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mbugua, S.W., (1994). Establishing a breeding kennel; Care of the bitch and neonates. Kenya Veterinary Association - Central Branch scientific meeting.". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1994. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WANJIRU DRNGUGIROSE. "Rose W. Ngugi , Determinants of Interest rate spread in Kenya, African Journal of Economic Policy.". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2003. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Ndiritu, C.G., S.W. Mbogwa, P.D. Sayer (1977) Extragenitally located transmissible venereal tumour in dogs. Modern Vet. Practice. 940-946.". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1977. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mande, J.D., , I.B.J. Buoro, P.M.F. Mbithi, and S.W. Mbugua (2002) Polysulfated Glycosaminoglycans in the Treatment of Osteoarthritis: A Review. The Kenya Vet.(23) 70-71.". In: East Afri. Med J. 1988 May; 65(5):330-4. IBIMA Publishing; 2002. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Perry, B.D., Kyendo, T.M., Mbugua, S.W., Price, J.E. and Varma, S.(1995). Increasing rabies vaccination coverage in urban dog populations of high human population density suburbs - A case study in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1995. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WANJIRU DRNGUGIROSE, Ngugi RW. "Luka Kandie Kiptui, Exchange rate pass-through to domestic prices in Kenya: 1972-2004, University of Nairobi, 2005." The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mbugua, S.W., (1987). Steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatories in surgery. Paper presented during Kenya Veterinary Association - Coast Branch scientific meeting in Mombasa.". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1987. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
Wanjiru KG. "Instructional Resources for preschool children; Teaching Children: Ahandbook for preschool teachers. .". In: A handbook for preschool teachers. NAIROBI: Vidic Investment Ltd. ; 2014.
WANJIRU DRNGUGIROSE. "Chacha, R. Njeri; Factors determining the development of NSE, 1998, University of Nairobi.". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1998. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mande, D.J., P.M.F.Mbithi, S.W. Mbugua.I.B.J. Buoro and P. K. Gathumbi (2003) Volume of the Ligamentum Capitis Femoris in Osteoarthritic Hip Joints of Adult Dogs. J. S. Afr.Vet. Ass. 74 (1) 11-13.". In: East Afri. Med J. 1988 May; 65(5):330-4. IBIMA Publishing; 2003. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
Wanjiru TM. "Nairobi.". 2012.Website
WANJIRU MRSKARIUKILUCY, KINYUA DRNGUUEDWARD, W. DRKINYANJUIPETER, BULIMO DRDIMBUSONWALLACE. "L.W. Kariuki, E.K. Nguu, R.M. Njogu, P. W. Kinyanjui, J.O.Midiwo, W.D. Bulimo, J.K.Kiaira. MAESANIN: A BENZOQUINONE FROM MAESA LANCEOLATA THAT COMPLETELY INHIBITS RESPIRATION IN BLOODSTREAM TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI BRUCEI.". In: 5th International Congress of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS). ELSAYED EL BANHAWY,1 L. IRUNGU1 & H. MUGO2; 2008.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mburu, D.N., Mbugua, S.W., Skoglund, L.A and lokken, P. (1988): Effects of paracetamol and acetylsalicylic acid on the post-operative course after experimental orthopaedic surgery in dogs. J.Vet. Pharmacol. Therap. 11, 163-171.". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1988. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
Wanjiru KG, Digolo Patrick Ochieng Obonyo, Boniface N, Owino MS. "Effect of Computer Based Instruction on Learners’ Performance in Art and Design in public secondary schools in Kenya. ." The International Journal of Humanities & Social Studies.. 2017;5(6).
WANJIRU DRNGUGIROSE. "Onyancha C.; Are foreign exchange and stock markets related? An empirical analysis of the Kenyan case, 1998, University of Nairobi.". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1998. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
WANJIRU DRWANGARIVERONICA. "KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES AND PERCEPTIONS OF PARENTS OF CHILDREN AGED 3-12 ON ASSOCIATION OF THUMB SUCKING, TONGUE THRUSTING AND ANTERIOR OPEN BITE.". In: oral health sciences journal. Wangari Veronica Wanjiru; 2009.
WANJIRU DRGICHUHIAGNES. "Gichuhi, W.". In: Measure Macro International, Maryland. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1993. Abstract

Fresh blood lymphocytes from nine health donors have been compared with samples from the same donors, recovered after period of 2 to 21 months storage in liquid nitrogen, for the capacity to respond to a range of mitogens in vitro. A microculture assay was used, requireing aliquots of only 25,000 cells. The mean levels of 14C-thymidine uptake for fresh and frozen samples were closely comparable when the cells had been stimulated by PHA, Pokeweed or mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells. Lymphocytes from six East African donors, frozen by a very simple technique, were recovered after 3 or more years storage in liquid nitrogen. Five of the samples were in good condition as judged by cell viability and the capacity to form spontaneous 'E' rosettes with sheep erythrocytes. These five samples also responded extremely well to PHA, PWM and mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells using the microculture assay. This study extends the range of applications of cell banks in which small aliquots of blood lymphocytes are stored in liquid nitrogen for periods of several years.

WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mbugua, S.W., Skoglund, L.A. and Lokken, P. (1989): Effects of phenylbutazone and indomethacin on the post-operative course following experimental orthopaedic surgery in dogs. Acta. Vet. Scand., 30, 27-35.". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1989. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WANJIRU DRNGUGIROSE. "Njuguna Ndung'u and Rose W. Ngugi. Banking Sector Interest Rate Spread in Kenya. KIPPRA Discussion Paper # 5.". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2000. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
WANJIRU MRSKARIUKILUCY, KINYUA DRNGUUEDWARD, W. DRKINYANJUIPETER, BULIMO DRDIMBUSONWALLACE. "L.W. Kariuki, E.K. Nguu, R.M. Njogu, P. W. Kinyanjui, J.O.Midiwo, W.D. Bulimo, J.K.Kiaira. MAESANIN: A BENZOQUINONE FROM MAESA LANCEOLATA THAT COMPLETELY INHIBITS RESPIRATION IN BLOODSTREAM TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI BRUCEI.". In: 5th International Congress of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS). MBA; 2008.
WANJIRU DRGICHUHIAGNES. "Malawi National Strategic Framework HIV/AIDS Programme: Monitoring and Evaluation Plan,National Aids Commission.". In: Measure Macro International, Maryland. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2002. Abstract

Fresh blood lymphocytes from nine health donors have been compared with samples from the same donors, recovered after period of 2 to 21 months storage in liquid nitrogen, for the capacity to respond to a range of mitogens in vitro. A microculture assay was used, requireing aliquots of only 25,000 cells. The mean levels of 14C-thymidine uptake for fresh and frozen samples were closely comparable when the cells had been stimulated by PHA, Pokeweed or mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells. Lymphocytes from six East African donors, frozen by a very simple technique, were recovered after 3 or more years storage in liquid nitrogen. Five of the samples were in good condition as judged by cell viability and the capacity to form spontaneous 'E' rosettes with sheep erythrocytes. These five samples also responded extremely well to PHA, PWM and mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells using the microculture assay. This study extends the range of applications of cell banks in which small aliquots of blood lymphocytes are stored in liquid nitrogen for periods of several years.

WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mbugua, S.W. (1993). A Perspective of the Kenya Veterinary Board on curriculum development and veterinary needs into the 21st century. Kenya Veterinary Association annual scientific meeting in Nairobi.". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1993. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WANJIRU DRNGUGIROSE. "Rose W. Ngugi, An Empirical Analysis of Interest Rate Spread in Kenya. AERC Research Paper # 106.". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mbugua, S.W. (1994) Rabies: A practical approach. Presented in 3 workshops ( Ngecha, Gatundu and Kathiani in Kenya) for the Kenya Veterinary Association.". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1994. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WANJIRU DRNGUGIROSE. "Rose W. Ngugi, What defines the liquidity of stock market? The case for Nairobi Stock Exchange, KIPPRA Discussion Paper # 29.". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2003. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mbogwa S.W., J.G Wandera: ( 1977). Lymphosarcoma in Dog: A case report. The Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 1. No. 2 pg 15-16.". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1977. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mbugua, S.W.(1995) The role of the Kenya Veterinary Board in the veterinary profession. Paper presented in the Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference..". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1995. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WANJIRU DRNGUGIROSE. "Justus Nyameyio Agoti, The impact of dividend announcements on firm value: An event study of the case of the NSE, University of Nairobi, 2004." The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Nyaga, P.W., S.M. Njiro, C.G. Ndiritu, S.W. Mbugua (1980) Pulmonary geotrichosis in Kenya: Bulletin of Animal Production in Africa, Vol, 4 No. 1 pg 6-9.". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1980. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
Wanjiru KG. Art and Craft for early childhood education (Module). . NAIROBI: University of Nairobi: Open and Distance learning.; 2012.
WANJIRU DRNGUGIROSE. "Rose, W. Ngugi, Ikiara, M. M. and Makhoha J., 1996. Solid waste management in the city of Nairobi, perceptions, practices, and possibilities, SYLFF Working Paper # 2 November (JREX International Award Winning Research Paper, a condition for the publicatio.". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1996. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mande, D.J., P.M.F.Mbithi, S.W. Mbugua.I.B.J. Buoro and P. K. Gathumbi (2003) Volume of the Ligamentum Capitis Femoris in Osteoarthritic Hip Joints of Adult Dogs. J. S. Afr.Vet. Ass. 74 (1) 11-13.". In: East Afri. Med J. 1988 May; 65(5):330-4. IBIMA Publishing; 2003. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mbugua, S.W., A. Bencivenga,S. Varma, J. Wambua, E. Wambua, T. Manyibe and G. Muchemi (1998) Repair of Posterior Cruciate and Collateral Ligaments Rupture in a Male Cheetah.". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1998. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mburu, D.N., Mbugua, S.W., Skoglund, L.A and lokken, P. (1988): Effects of paracetamol and acetylsalicylic acid on the post-operative course after experimental orthopaedic surgery in dogs. J.Vet. Pharmacol. Therap. 11, 163-171.". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1988. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
Wanjiru KG. "Computer Based Instruction and Gender effect on learners’ performance in Art and Design in public secondary schools in Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research.. 2017;5(6):ISSN:2309-0404 .
WANJIRU DRNGUGIROSE. "Njuguna Isaac Kiambo; an empirical study of the efficient market hypothesis on the NSE, 1998, University of Nairobi.". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1998. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.

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