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2013
Mureramanzi S, Stoylov SP. "Electric Field Light Scattering: Application to biological systems." International Journal of BioChemiPhysics. 2013;21(ISSN 1019 - 7648):17-29.
Gichuhi S, Sagoo MS, Weiss HA, Burton MJ. "Epidemiology of ocular surface squamous neoplasia in Africa." Trop Med Int Health.. 2013;18(12):1424-43. Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To describe the epidemiology and an aetiological model of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) in Africa.

METHODS:

Systematic and non-systematic review methods were used. Incidence was obtained from the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and the reference lists of articles retrieved. Meta-analyses were conducted using a fixed-effects model for HIV and cigarette smoking and random effects for human papilloma virus (HPV).

RESULTS:

The incidence of OSSN is highest in the Southern Hemisphere (16° South), with the highest age-standardised rate (ASR) reported from Zimbabwe (3.4 and 3.0 cases/year/100 000 population for males and females, respectively). The mean ASR worldwide is 0.18 and 0.08 cases/year/100 000 among males and females, respectively. The risk increases with exposure to direct daylight (2-4 h, OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2-2.4 and ≥5 h OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.1) and outdoor occupations (OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.6). Meta-analysis also shows a strong association with HIV (6 studies: OR = 6.17, 95% CI: 4.83-7.89) and HPV (7 studies: OR = 2.64, 95% CI: 1.27-5.49) but not cigarette smoking (2 studies: OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.94-2.09). The effect of atopy, xeroderma pigmentosa and vitamin A deficiency is unclear.

CONCLUSIONS:

Africa has the highest incidence of OSSN in the world, where males and females are equally affected, unlike other continents where male disease predominates. African women probably have increased risk due to their higher prevalence of HIV and HPV infections. As the survival of HIV-infected people increases, and given no evidence that anti-retroviral therapy (ART) reduces the risk of OSSN, the incidence of OSSN may increase in coming years.

J N, SG K, Gathumbi P K, AN M, J K. "Erythrina abyssinica ameliorates meningoencephalitis and conserves proteins in Trypanosoma brucei brucei chronic mouse model.". In: 15th International Neuroscience Winter Conference. Austria; 2013.
D.W. Gakuya, S.M.Itonga, J.M. Mbaria, J.K.Muthee, J.K.Musau. "Ethnobotanical survey of biopesticides and other medicinal plants traditionally used in Meru Central district of Kenyaf ." Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2013;145:547-553.
TN Niyireba, C Ebong, S Agili, J Low, Lukuyu B, J Kirui, J Ndirigwe, G Uwimana, L Kakundiye, M Mutimura, Gahakwa D, Gachuiri CK. "Evaluation of dual purpose sweet potato [Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam] cultivars for root and fodder production in Eastern Province, Rwanda." Medwell Publishing. 2013;8(5):242-247.
Sylvain Beourou, Anne-Cécile Le Lamer, Séverine Maurel-Chevalley PCMFSCMNAVB. "Evaluation of the antiplasmodial activity of extracts of plants used in traditional medicine in Kenya." International Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2013;2(6):219-224.evaluation-of-the-antiplasmodial-activity-of-extracts-of-plants-used-in-traditional-medicine-in-kenya.pdf
Kairu-Wanyoike SW, Kaitibie S, Taylor NM, Gitau GK, Heffernan C, Schnier C, Kiara H, Taracha E, McKeever D. "Exploring farmer preferences for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia vaccination: A case study of Narok District of Kenya." Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2013;110(3-4):356-369. Abstractexploring_farmer_preferences_for_contagious_bovine_pleuropneumonia_vaccination.pdf

Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is an economically important disease in most of sub-Saharan Africa. A conjoint analysis and ordered probit regression models were used to measure the preferences of farmers for CBPP vaccine and vaccination attributes. This was with regard to inclusion or not of an indicator in the vaccine, vaccine safety, vaccine stability as well as frequency of vaccination, vaccine administration and the nature of vaccination. The analysis was carried out in 190 households in Narok District of Kenya between October and December 2006 using structured questionnaires, 16 attribute profiles and a five-point Likert scale. The factors affecting attribute valuation were shown through a two-way location interaction model. The study also demonstrated the relative importance (RI) of attributes and the compensation value of attribute levels. The attribute coefficient estimates showed that farmers prefer a vaccine that has an indicator, is 100% safe and is administered by the government (p < 0.0001). The preferences for the vaccine attributes were consistent with expectations. Preferences for stability, frequency of vaccination and nature of vaccination differed amongst farmers (p > 0.05). While inclusion of an indicator in the vaccine was the most important attribute (RI = 43.6%), price was the least important (RI = 0.5%). Of the 22 household factors considered, 15 affected attribute valuation. The compensation values for a change from non inclusion to inclusion of an indicator, 95–100% safety, 2 h to greater than 2 h stability and from compulsory to elective vaccination were positive while those for a change from annual to biannual vaccination and from government to private administration were negative. The study concluded that the farmers in Narok District had preferences for specific vaccine and vaccination attributes. These preferences were conditioned by various household characteristics and disease risk factors. On average the farmers would need to be compensated or persuaded to accept biannual and private vaccination against CBPP. There is need for consideration of farmer preferences for vaccine attribute levels during vaccine formulations and farmer preferences for vaccination attribute levels when designing delivery of vaccines.

KM M, M Z, K S, S K, Y S, N I. "Expression, immunolocalization and serodiagnostic value of Tc38630 protein from Trypanosoma congolense." Parasitology Research. 2013;112(9):3357-3363.
Shah P. "Facts about water in Africa." OERB Reach 16 (2013):16.
Maciel S, Amimo J, Martins M, Okeyo AM, Scholtz MM, Neser FWC. "Feedlot performance of the Nguni ecotypes in southern Mozambique." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2013;25(6):article 111.
Kibore B, Gitao CG, Sangula A, Kitala P. "Foot and Mouth Disease Sero-prevalence in Cattle in Kenya." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health. 2013;5(9):262-268.FMD jvm kibore.pdf
Kamamia EK, Maitho T, Purushotham K, Pratima S, Rajsree I, Ajay KK, Sudheer KM. "Formulation development of orally retentive antimalarial lozenges for pediatric patients." Medical Research and Practice. 2013;(2)7:197-200.
S.M. M. From Qatar with the Love for the Soil. From Qatar with the Love for the Soil; 2013.
Saidi H, Njuguna E MSWAOAHIA. "Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST).". In: National Guidelines for Cancer Management Kenya . Nairobi: Ministry of Heath, Kenya; 2013.
M G, S M. "Glaucoma in phakomatosis pigmentovascularis in a 4 year old African girl: A case report." Journal of Ophthalmology of Eastern Central and Southern Africa. 2013;17(1):36-40.
Bukachi SA, Onyango-Ouma W, Siso JM, Nyamongo IK, Mutai JK, Hurtig AK, Olsen OE, Byskov J. "Healthcare priority setting in Kenya: a gap analysis applying the accountability for reasonableness framework." The International Journal of Health Planning and Management. 2013:DOI: 10.1002/hpm.2197.Health Prioritysetting A4R_2013.pdf
Saidi H, Mutiso B. "High Burden, Morbidity and Cost of Motorcycle Injuries at a Tertiary Referral Hospital in Kenya." European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery. 2013;DOI 10.1007/s00068-013-0280-.
Sammy M;, Awori K;, Odula P;, Munguti J. "Histological Organization of the Portal Vein: a Structural Adaptation.". 2013. Abstract

The extra hepatic portion of the portal vein has been known to physiologically act as a capacitance vessel while its intra hepatic portion behaves as a resistance vessel. However, the histological basis for these observations has not been clearly defined. The aim of this study was therefore to describe the histological organization of the portal vein in reference to the observed functional differences in its intra- and extra hepatic portions. Sections of the portal vein were harvested from 24 livers during autopsies at the Chiromo funeral parlor, University of Nairobi, Kenya. They were processed for light microscopic histological evaluation. The structure of both portions was then noted and described. The extra hepatic portion had circular, oblique and longitudinal muscle bundles in its tunica intima, media and adventitia respectively. On the other hand, the intra hepatic portion had abundant fibro-elastic fibers with longitudinal smooth muscles scattered in their tunica media and adventitia. From the results of the current study, the functional differences of both the extra-hepatic and intra-hepatic portions of the PV are accounted for by their different histological structures.

Kiama TN, Sirma AJ, Senerwa DM, Ochungo P, Waithanji EM, Lindahl J, EK K'ethe, D. G. "How qualitative studies and gender analysis can add value to the assessment of dietary exposure to aflatoxins in Kenya.".; 2013.
Saito M;, Nathan I;, Treue T. How to reduce the risk and effects of elite capture.; 2013.
Shah PS. "Human dimensions of Biodiversity." OERB Reach No 16 (2013):14-18.
Blϋmmel M;, Toye P;, Mwai OA;, Wright I;, Randolph T;, Staal S. "Importance of livestock and the technological and policy challenges facing the development of livestock in Africa."; 2013.
Sinei K, Mwangi JW, Munenge RW, Mwaura AM. An in vitro study on the oxytocic action of Adenia globosa Engl.. Second International Scientific Conference of the College of Health Sciences,University of Nairobi & Kenyatta National Hospital; 2013. Abstract

BACKROUND: Adenia globosa Engl. (Passifloracea) is found in many parts of Kenya, Tanzania and Somalia. It is a shrub or climber with stems emerging from above-ground tuber of up to 2.5M wide. Some local names (of Adenia ssp.) are: Kilyambiti, Kasikimara, Ghole, Ngoli, Mugore, Mgore, Munua Nyoka etc.

PROPERTIES AND USES: Many of the Adenia species are extremely toxic and have been used for homicidal or suicidal purposes or for poisoning wild animals and fish. Nevertheless, several of the species are used in traditional herbal medicine: an anthelmintic, remedy for snake bite, antidote for arrow poison, orchitis, malaria and syphilis. It is also claimed that freshly prepared juice of the tuber of given to cows and goats that have difficulty in giving birth to hasten the process.

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study was to investigate the effect of the water extract of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus and how this could be affected by well known uterine stimulants such as ergometrine, oxytocin and prostaglandin F2α. and also by antagonists of acetylcholine and adrenaline.

SETTING: Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacognosy Laboratory, School of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi, KNH Campus.
STUDY DESIGN: It was a laboratory based study. The crude extract and the other drugs were tested on isolated rat uterus set up in an organ bath under the usual laboratory conditions.

RESULTS: The results obtained demonstrated that the plant extract caused a dose-depended contraction of the rat uterus which was not antagonized by atropine nor phenoxybenzamine. The contractile effect was however potentiated by small doses of ergometrine, oxytocin and prostaglandin F2α.

CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded from these observations that the contractile action was not mediated through cholinergic nor adrenergic system. Secondly, it was postulated that since prostaglandin F2α and oxytocin are also released at the time of labour, the potentiatory action probably occurs in vivo when the plant preparation is given to domestic animals to ease and speed up the process of giving birth as claimed in the traditional use of this plant. This traditional use of the plant preparation is therefore scientifically justifiable

Schumer M, Birger R, Tantipathananandh C, Aurisano J, Maggioni M, Mwangi P. "Infestation by a Common Parasite is Correlated with Ant Symbiont Identity in a Plant-Ant Mutualism." Biotropica. 2013;45(3):276-279. Abstract

In East Africa, up to four symbiotic ant species associate with the obligate myrmecophyte Acacia drepanolobium. These ant species differ in the extent to which they defend their host trees from both vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores, but other potential roles of ants in tree defense have not been studied. We investigate the distribution of a new species of parasitic midge targeting A. drepanolobium in a region where A. drepanolobium is inhabited almost exclusively by two ant species—Crematogaster nigriceps and C. mimosae. We find that the frequency of infestation correlates strongly with the identity of the ant occupant: trees inhabited by C. nigriceps are significantly less likely to be infested with parasitic midges. Although the two ant species responded similarly to simulated large herbivore disturbances, trees inhabited by C. nigriceps also had a lower invertebrate load than trees inhabited by C. mimosae. We suggest that differences in defensive behavior towards invertebrates could be one explanation of the observed differences in infestation of A. drepanolobium by parasitic midges.

Keywords:

Acacia ;
Crematogaster ;
gall midge;
herbivory;
Laikipia, Kenya;
myrmecophyte;
parasitism;
plant-ant interactions

Saidi H;, Mutiso B. "Injury Outcomes in Elderly Patients Admitted at an Urban African Hospital.". 2013. Abstract

Background: Elderly patients have worse outcomes for similar severity when compared to younger trauma patients. Elderly patients form smaller proportions of the trauma population in the developing world in comparison to high in-come countries. Due to limited data capabilities, elderly trauma has been infrequently studied. Objective: To describe the common injuries that afflict elderly trauma patients associated resource utilization and the determinants of outcome in Kenyan urban hospital. Methods: Seventy two patients aged 60 years and older admitted for trauma from diverse mechanisms, were recruited over a period of one year (November 2009-December 2010). Data on the specific mecha-nism and type of injury, age, sex, intensive care unit (ICU) use, hospital length of stay, and cost were recorded. Survi-vors and those who died during admission were compared to determine associated factors. Elderly patients were also compared to younger trauma patients to determine significant group peculiarities using X2 analysis or Fisher’s exact test as appropriate. Results: Elderly trauma cases (mean age 70.5 + 9.1 years) formed 4.5% of all trauma admissions during the study period. The intent was accidental in 84.7% of cases. The predominant mechanisms of injury were traf-fic (44.4%) and falls (41.7%). Females comprised 41.7% of all patients and lower limb fractures predominated (54.9%). The average injury severity score was 7.82 + 4.4. (median 9.0). The proportion admitted to the ICU was 6%. The me-dian length of hospital stay was 24 days, cost of treatment Kshs. 27,153 Kenya shillings and overall hospital mortality rate was 13.9% (25% for ISS > 15). Only gender and head injury were predictors of mortality. Conclusions: Traffic and falls are the predominant mechanisms in geriatric trauma in Kenya. Unique features of geriatric trauma are higher fe-male involvement, prolonged length of hospital stay and fewer predictors of mortality compared to younger patients.

2 TN, Ngugi K, Santie de Villiers, Dan Kiambi, Mutitu E, Sarah Osama, Ngugi AJ. "Introgressing Striga Resistance from a Mapped Donor Source into a Rwandan Adapted Sorghum Variety ." Journal of Renewable Agriculture . 2013;1(1):6-10.
Sinei K, Okalebo FA, Mugo HN, Mwalukumbi JM. "An investigation of anti-microbial activity of Acmella caulirhiza." The African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2013;2(4):130-133. Abstract

Background: Acmella Caulirhiza is a plant that is used traditionally to treat several disorders such as oral thrash, mouth ulcers, toothache and earache, among others. It is a small annual or perennial herb whose location is widespread worldwide.

Objectives: The objective of the study was to determine whether the leaves, stem and the flowers extract of the plant possess antibacterial and antifungal activity and to find out which part of the plant is the most active, if any.

Methodology: Acmella caulirhiza was collected from the wild in Kericho County. The flower heads, the leaves and the stems were dried separately, ground into a powder and extracted with chloroform. The plant extracts were tested for activity against Escherichia Coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Bacillus pumilus.

Results and Discussion: The plant extracts significantly inhibited the growth of Escherichia Coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus pumilus. The activity was highest in the stems extracts. The extracts, however, did not have any anti-fungal activity when tested against Candida albicans. It was concluded from these results that the anti-bacterial activity may aid in the efficacy when the plant is used to treat mouth ulcers or oral thrash.

Sinei K, Okalebo FA, Mugo HN, Mwalukumbi JM. "An Investigation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Acmella caulirhiza." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. . 2013;2(4):130-133.
Sinei K, Okalebo FA MHNMJM. "An Investigation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Acmella caulirhiza." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2013;2(4):130-133.
M. GM, M.M. K, S.A. M. "Knowledge Level On Glaucoma Among Glaucoma Patients Attending Clinic At Kenyatta National Hospital." Journal of Ophthalmology of Eastern, Central and Southern Africa. 2013;17(2):61-65. Abstract

Background: Glaucoma is a characteristic optic neuropathy which typically results in specific patterns of progressive visual field loss and who’s most important risk factor is raised intraocular pressure (IOP). It is second to cataract as a leading cause of global blindness and is the leading cause of irreversible visual loss. In Kenya it is ranked third after cataract and trachoma. Previous population and hospital based studies have shown patients to have very poor levels of knowledge on their condition. This has not been verified in our setting as no study on the levels of knowledge in glaucoma patients have been done in Kenya to date.

Results: We interviewed 78 patients, 47(60%) were male and 31(40%) were female. Age ranged from 19-89 years with a mean age of 61.1 (SD +11.5) years. Fifty three (67.9%) patients were classified as having some knowledge using a predefined classification system. Patients had wrong expectation of both treatment and surgery with 29.5% and 32.5% expecting cure from medical and surgical treatment respectively.

Conclusion: There is still a wide gap in knowledge that exists and that needs to be addressed through counseling and further patient education.

Gachago MM, MM K, SA M. "Knowledge level on glaucoma among glaucoma patients attending clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital." Journal of Ophthalmology of Eastern Central and Southern Africa. 2013;17(2):61-66.
B. K, S.M. M, Ouko C. "Lessons Learned from Smallholder Agroforestry Project in Semi Arid Regions of Kenya." Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 2013.
Shah PS. "Life of Wangari Maathai." OERB Reach 16 (2013):9-11.
Onyari JM, Addis Teshome, Suresh K. Raina, Kabaru JM, Fritz Vollrath, Suresh K. Raina. "Mechanical and thermal degradation properties of silk from African wild silkmoths.". 2013. AbstractFull text link

Variations among silk of four African wild silkmoths, Argema mimosae, Anaphe panda, Gonometa postica, and Epiphora bauhiniae, was studied regarding their mechanical properties and thermal degradation behaviors. Cocoon shells and individual degummed fibers were examined using tensile testing, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). A. mimosae and G. postica cocoon shells had marginally higher initial moduli and strains at maximum stress. The stress–strain curves of Bobmyx mori and A. panda degummed fibers lacked clear yielding points. G. postica fibers had the highest breaking energy (76.4 J/cm3) and breaking strain (41.3%). The ultimate tensile strength was the highest for B. mori (427 MPa). Fiber pull-out and detachment was predominant in fracture surfaces of both the cocoon shells and the fibers. Wild cocoon shells and degummed fibers had higher temperature for dehydration loss than B. mori. A. mimosae fibers (11.9%) and G. postica cocoon shells (13.3 %) had the highest weight loss due to dehydration. E. bauhinae cocoon shells and B. mori fibers had the highest total weight losses of 97.2 and 93.4%, respectively. The African silks exhibited variations in their mechanical and thermal degradation properties related to their physical and chemical structure and composition. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 2013

Yangyuoru PM, Zhang AYQ, Shi Z, Koirala D, Balasubramanian S, Mao H. "Mechanochemical Properties of Individual Human Telomeric RNA (TERRA) G‐Quadruplexes." ChemBioChem. 2013;14(15):1931-1935.
Paul BK, Vanlauwe B, Ayuke F, Gassnerc A, Hoogmoed M, Hurissoa TT, Koala S, Lelei D, Ndabamenyea T, Six J. "Medium-term impact of tillage and residue management on soil aggregate stability, soil carbon and crop productivity." Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 2013;164:14-22. Abstract

Conservation agriculture is widely promoted for soil conservation and crop productivity increase,
although rigorous empirical evidence from sub-Saharan Africa is still limited. This study aimed to quantify
the medium-term impact of tillage (conventional and reduced) and crop residue management (retention
and removal) on soil and crop performance in a maize–soybean rotation. A replicated field trial
was started in sub-humid Western Kenya in 2003, and measurements were taken from 2005 to 2008.
Conventional tillage negatively affected soil aggregate stability when compared to reduced tillage, as
indicated by lower mean weight diameter values upon wet sieving at 0–15 cm (PT < 0.001). This suggests
increased susceptibility to slaking and soil erosion. Tillage and residue management alone did not affect
soil C contents after 11 cropping seasons, but when residue was incorporated by tillage, soil C was higher
at 15–30 cm (PT*R = 0.037). Lack of treatment effects on the C content of different aggregate fractions
indicated that reduced tillage and/or residue retention did not increase physical C protection. The weak
residue effect on aggregate stability and soil C may be attributed to insufficient residue retention. Soybean
grain yields tended to be suppressed under reduced tillage without residue retention, especially
in wet seasons (PT*R = 0.070). Consequently, future research should establish, for different climatic zones
and soil types, the critical minimum residue retention levels for soil conservation and crop productivity.
Keywords: Reduced tillage, Crop residue management, Soil aggregate stability, Crop yields, Soil organic, carbon, Sub-Saharan Africa

Sandhu N.K, Axe L NJPKK. "Metal and Metalloid Concentrations in Domestic and Imported Glass Beads used for Highway Marking." Environmental Engineering Science. 2013;30(7):387-392.
Omwansa, T.K., Waema TM, Chen C, Sullivan NP. "The Mobile Phone as the Tool to Redefine Savings for the Poor: Evidence from Kenya." African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2013;5(4):1-7.
Amimo" "JO, Okoth" "E, Jung'a" "JO, Ogara" "WO, Njahira" "MN, Wang" "Q, Vlavosa" "AN, Saif" "LJ, Djikeng" "A. "Molecular detection and genetic characterization of kobuviruses and astroviruese in asymptomatic local pigs in East Africa." Arch Virol. 2013;10:00705-0013.
Okeyo AM, Ibrahim MNM;, Ali, A; Bhuiyan AKFH;, Choudhury MP;, Sarker SC;, Islam F;. Morphometry and performance of Black Bengal goats at the rural community level in Bangladesh.; 2013. AbstractWebsite

Data on morphometrics and performance of 106 Black Bengal goats were collected through an in-depth monitoring survey conducted in 73 families of Gangatia, Borachala and Pachpai villages of Bhaluka Upazila, Mymensingh, Bangladesh using a structured

Souza JP, Gülmezoglu AM, Vogel J, Carroli G, Lumbiganon P, QURESHI ZAHIDA. "Moving beyond essential interventions for reduction of maternal mortality (the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health): a cross-sectional study." Lancet. 2013;381(9879):1747-1755. Abstract

Summary

Background: We report the main findings of the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health (WHOMCS), which aimed to assess the burden of complications related to pregnancy, the coverage of key maternal health interventions, and use of the maternal severity index (MSI) in a global network of health facilities.

Methods: In our cross-sectional study, we included women attending health facilities in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East that dealt with at least 1000 childbirths per year and had the capacity to provide caesarean section. We obtained data from analysis of hospital records for all women giving birth and all women who had a severe maternal outcome (SMO; ie, maternal death or maternal near miss). We regarded coverage of key maternal health interventions as the proportion of the target population who received an indicated intervention (eg, the proportion of women with eclampsia who received magnesium sulphate). We used areas under the receiver operator characteristic curves (AUROC) with 95% CI to externally validate a previously reported MSI as an indicator of severity. We assessed the overall performance of care (ie, the ability to produce a positive effect on health outcomes) through standardised mortality ratios.

Results: From May 1, 2010, to Dec 31, 2011, we included 314 623 women attending 357 health facilities in 29 countries (2538 had a maternal near miss and 486 maternal deaths occurred). The mean period of data collection in each health facility was 89 days (SD 21). 23 015 (7•3%) women had potentially life-threatening disorders and 3024 (1•0%) developed an SMO. 808 (26•7%) women with an SMO had post-partum haemorrhage and 784 (25•9%) had preeclampsia or eclampsia. Cardiovascular, respiratory, and coagulation dysfunctions were the most frequent organ dysfunctions in women who had an SMO. Reported mortality in countries with a high or very high maternal mortality ratio was two-to-three-times higher than that expected for the assessed severity despite a high coverage of essential interventions. The MSI had good accuracy for maternal death prediction in women with markers of organ dysfunction (AUROC 0•826 [95% CI 0•802–0•851]).

Interpretation: High coverage of essential interventions did not imply reduced maternal mortality in the health-care facilities we studied. If substantial reductions in maternal mortality are to be achieved, universal coverage of lifesaving interventions need to be matched with comprehensive emergency care and overall improvements in the quality of maternal health care. The MSI could be used to assess the performance of health facilities providing care to women with complications related to pregnancy.

Funding: UNDP–UNFPA–UNICEF–WHO–World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction (HRP); WHO; USAID; Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan; Gynuity Health Projects.

and S.K Imagiri KPJMGP. "Normality of the products of nth-Aluthge transforms of w-Hyponormal operators." Far East Jnr. Of Maths. 2013.
SO Gunga, LM Ngesu AKK’OEMMLNW. "ODel-Teacher Education: Philosophical Implications of Work-Play-Study Triad." international Journal of Innovative Research and Studies. 2013.
Musundi SW, Sitati IN, Nzimbi BM, Murwayi AL. "On almost similarity operator equivalence relation." IJRRAS. 2013;15(3):293-299.
Siro L, Kamuti I. "On the Actions of the Symmetric Group, Sn, n ≤ 7 on Unordered Quadruples, X(4)." International Journal of Algebra. 2013;Vol. 8, 2014(no. 3):115-120.
G.N. M, C.K K, W.O. O, S.O. A, P.U. M. "PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF NATURAL RIVER SAND WITH CRUSHED ROCK SAND IN CONCRETE PRODUCTION." Global Engineers & Technologists Review. 2013.abuodha.docx
Sitienei JJ, Kihara AB, Kosgei RJ, Cheserem EJ, Siika AM, Nangami M, Kimaiyo S, Maina F. "Patients’ views on the care they receive in Express Care, a task-shifting model in HIV care, at AMPATH, Western Kenya ." Journal of Scientific & Innovative Research. 2013;2(2):243-251.patients_views_on_the_care_they_receive_in_express_care_a_task-shifting.pdf
Magoma G, Saidi H, Kaisha W. "The pattern of external laryngeal nerve relation to the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population." Anatomy Journal of Africa . 2013;1(1):27-29.
Ogeng’o JA, Olabu BO, Sinkeet SR, Ong’era D. "Pattern of peripheral vascular Disease in an African country." MEDICOM – Afr J Hosp sci pract . 2013;28(1):5-8.
Wahome A, Ngunjiri GMN, Shitanda D, Ogola WO. "Performance Characteristics of Blended Rice Bran Biodiesel in a Diesel Engine." International Journal of Engineering Science Invention. 2013;2(5):35-41.alice_journal.pdf
Samanta P. "A Philosophy of Corruption etc”(planned seminar).". In: School of Economics,UON.; 2013.
Stomeo F;, Wamalwa, M;,, Harvey J;, Miano DW;, Boonham N;, Kilalo D;, Adams J;, Djikeng A;. "Plant virome ecology in African farming systems: A genomics and bioinformatics framework for high-throughput virus detection and pathogen discovery."; 2013.
Stomeo F;, Wamalwa M;, Harvey J;, Miano DW;, Boonham N;, Kilalo D;, Adams J;, Djikeng A. "Plant virome ecology in African farming systems: A genomics and bioinformatics framework for high-throughput virus detection and pathogen discovery."; 2013.
Gachohia JM, Kitala PM, Ngumi PN, Skiltone RA, Betta B. "Population attributable fractions of farm vector tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus) presence on Theileria parva infection seroprevalence under endemic instability.". 2013. Abstract

The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus tick presence (exposure variable) on Theileria parva infection seroprevalence (outcome variable) in a group of cattle belonging to a farm using population attributable fractions (PAF). The analyses were based on a representative sample of 80 traditional smallholder mixed farms. The farms were selected by first stratifying the population administratively and implementing a multistage random sampling in Mbeere district in Kenya. The PAFs were estimated using the stratified, Bruzzi, and sequential partitioned PAF approaches. A secondary objective was, thus, to evaluate the impact of the approaches on the PAF estimates. The stratified and Bruzzi approaches estimated proportion of T. parva infection cases directly attributable to the exposure after controlling for confounding by agro-ecological zone (AEZ). The sequential partitioned PAF approach estimated a PAF associated with exposure after adjusting for any effect that the AEZ may have had by influencing the prevalence of the exposure. All analyses were carried out at the farm level where a farm was classified as infested if the tick was found on cattle on a farm, and infected if at least one animal on a farm was positive for T. parva antibodies. Variance estimation for PAFs was implemented using ‘delete-a-group’ jackknife re-sampling method. The stratified PAF (26.7% [95% CI: 9.0%, 44.4%]) and Bruzzi PAF (26.4% [95% CI: 9.6%, 43.2%]) were consistent in estimating a relatively low impact of farm vector tick presence with a relatively high level of uncertainty. The partitioned PAF (15.5% [95% CI: 1.5%, 29.6%]) suggested that part of the impacts estimated using the stratified PAF and Bruzzi approaches was driven by AEZ effects. Overall, the results suggested that under endemic instability in Mbeere district, (1) presence of R. appendiculatus was not a good indicator of T. parva infection occurrence on a farm; (2) ecological variation could play a role in determining infection impacts. This study provides a preliminary basis for evaluating the potential value and utility of estimating PAFs for variables amenable to control in tick-borne diseases (TBDs) epidemiological studies.

Ismaiel Y, Anand P, Megan L, Karen M, C. FK, Sam O, Nyongesa S, Francis Maiga, H. A, O SAB, Stefanos L, Wole S, M ASCE. "Porosity, Flow, and Filtration Characteristics of Frustum-Shaped Ceramic Water Filters." Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2013.
Paul Kamau, Samuel Ngigi. "Potential for Women Fish Traders to Upgrade within the Fish Trade Value Chain: Evidence from Kenya ." DBA Africa Management Review. 2013;3(2):93-107.
Omwansa TK, Sullivan NP. "Prepaid & Pay-as-you-go Models for Asset Financing Analysis of Mobile-Money Business Models for Kickstart (irrigation pumps) and M-KOPA (solar panels) in Kenya.". 2013. AbstractPrepaid &amp; Pay-as-you-go Models for Asset Financing Analysis of Mobile-Money Business Models for Kickstart (irrigation pumps) and

Acceptance of the prepaid airtime model-along with the emergence of mobile money-sets the foundation for new business models that allow innovative financing for people living on irregular incomes or with an aversion to credit. The new pay-in-advance (prepaid) or pay-as-you-go models are electronic hybrids of oldfashioned savings and credit plans-but mobile-money systems give sellers and lenders the ability to collect millions of frequent micro-payments, which is impractical with manual or cash systems. The key to prepaid models is their flexibility-you buy (or pay down or pay forward) what you can afford when you want, with no pressure to buy more or adhere to a fixed payment schedule. In all, this nascent model suggests that it might be possible to scale new and innovative products much faster, with a highly efficient system of financing, than has been possible before.

Muramba V, Mageto M, Gaitho F, Odari V, Musembi, Simiyu J. Preparation and Characterization of Transparent and Conducting Doped Tin Oxide. United Kenya Club; 2013.
Kimani K, Lindfield R, Senyonjo L, Mwaniki A, Schmidt E. "Prevalence and Causes of Ocular Morbidity in Mbeere District, Kenya. Results of a Population-Based Survey.". 2013. Abstract

Ocular morbidity (OM) describes any eye disease regardless of resultant visual loss. Ocular morbidity may affect large numbers of people in low income countries and could lead to many episodes of care. However there is limited evidence about the prevalence of ocular morbidity or resulting health-seeking behavior. This study in Mbeere District, Kenya, set out to explore both these issues. Methods: A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in 2011. Trained teams moved from house to house examining and questioning residents on ocular morbidity and health-seeking behavior. Data were collected on standardized proformas and entered into a database for analysis. Results: 3,691 people were examined (response rate 91.7%). 15.52% (95% CI 13.86–16.92) had at least one ocular morbidity in at least one eye. The leading cause was presbyopia which affected 25.11% (95% CI 22.05–28.45) of participants over 35 and increased with age. Other leading causes of OM were conditions that affected the lens (32.58%) and the conjunctiva (31.31%). No association was found between educational attainment or employment and OM. 9.63% (7.87–11.74) self-reported an ocular morbidity in the previous six months and 45.94% (95% CI 37.1–55.04) stated that they had sought treatment for the condition. Conclusion: A large number of people were affected by an ocular morbidity in this survey. Most of these people could potentially be managed in their own communities through primary care services (e.g. those with presbyopia). Further work is required to understand the best way of providing an effective, equitable service for ocular morbidity.

Shawa K, Mwega F, Manda D. "'Private Investment in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Dynamic Panel Approach' ." Journal of Economic Research. 2013.
Makanga W, Wasike R, Saidi H. "A profile of female breast cancer patients in a Kenyan private hospital." Annals of African Surgery . 2013;10(1):3-7.
Gakunga, Daniel K, Brovermann S, Sadhna G. Promoting Girls Education in Kenya,WiserBridge Progamme in Muhuru Bay. Mauritious: Lambert Academic Publishers; 2013.
Sebastian W, Justus S, Robinson M, Alex O. Promoting photovoltaic energy in Kenya through training.; 2013.
Mosol P, Kosgei RJ, Mabeya H, Sitienei J, Sum T, Chelagat D, Namaloba R, Braitstein P, Siika A. "Providing Reproductive Health Module Within HIV Care and Treatment Centre in Kenya." Journal of Nursing and Health Science. 2013;3(1):19-20.providing_reproductive_health_module_within_hiv_care_and_treatment_centre_in_kenya.pdf
Musieba F, Sheila O, Mibey RK, Wanjiku S, Moraa K. "Proximate composition, amino acids and vitamin profile of Pleurotus citrinopileatus: An indigenous mushroom in Kenya." American Journal of Food and Technology. 2013;8:1-7.
Njenga M, Karanja N, Jamnadass R, Kithinji J, Sundberg C, Jirjis R. "Quality of cooking fuel briquettes produced locally from charcoal dust and sawdust in Kenya." Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy. 2013;7(3):315-322. AbstractJournal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy

Description
Fuel briquettes are made by compressing biomass material into a uniform solid and present an opportunity for good quality cooking fuel. The study evaluated the quality of locally produced fuel briquettes in Kenya and their combustion properties, chemical composition and emissions of gases and fine particulate matter. Briquette made from charcoal dust bonded with paper, soil or corn starch and sawdust briquettes bonded with gum arabica were studied. Charcoal dust briquettes bonded with corn starch or paper had the highest calorific values of 23.6 kJ/g and 21.4 kJ/g respectively. Contaminants comprising of chromium, mercury and lead were high in briquettes made from material sourced from garbage heaps in informal settlements and dumpsites. Charcoal dust briquettes bonded with soil was the safest in terms of indoor air concentrations of carbon monoxide and fine particulate matter when burned. Burning …

Otieno SPV. Rainmaker. Githinji K, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2013.
Kinyamario JI, Squires VR. Rangeland Ecophysiology.; 2013.
Saidi H, Njuguna E MSWAO-ANAOAHIA. "Rectal Cancer.". In: National Guidelines for Cancer Management Kenya . Nairobi: Ministry of Heath, Kenya; 2013.
Kagira JM, Kanyari PN, Maingi N, Samuel Maina Githigia, Ng’ang’a C, Gachohi J. "Relationship between the Prevalence of Ectoparasites and Associated Risk Factors in Free-Range Pigs in Kenya." ISRN Veterinary Science. 2013;2013. Abstractthe_relationship_between_the_prevalence_of_ectoparasites.pdf

A cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites and possible risk factors in free-range pigs from 135 farms of Busia District, Kenya. Three hundred and six pigs were examined for presence of external parasites using standard parasitological methods. Data on management practices including housing and history of acaricide spraying were also collected. The ectoparasites found in the pigs were Haematopinus suis (96.1%), Sarcoptes scabiei (63.7%), and ticks (29.7%). The tick species included Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (70%), Boophilus decoloratus (31%), and Amblyomma variegatum (12%). The occurrence of the infestations was associated with age, being highest in sows (S. scabiei) and finishers (ticks and H. suis). Male pigs had highest prevalences of H. suis and ticks, while female pigs had highest prevalence of S. scabiei. The prevalence of the parasitic infestations was significantly ( ) associated with their origin being either lower (H. suis and S. scabiei) or higher (ticks) in pigs originating from divisions with high rainfall. Housed pigs had significantly ( ) lower prevalence of H. suis and ticks than those from households without pig housing. It is concluded that the free-range pigs have high prevalence of ectoparasites, and effective control strategies focussing on improved animal husbandry and acaricide use should be implemented.

J. M. Kagira, P. N. Kanyari, N. Maingi, S. M. Githigia, Ng’ang’a C, J.Gachohi. Relationship between the Prevalence of Ectoparasites and Associated Risk Factors in Free-Range Pigs in Kenya.. Hindawi Publishing Corporation; 2013.3_kagira_et_al_2013.pdf
Onjala J, Ndiritu S, Stage J. "Risk Perception, Choice of Drinking Water, and Water Treatment.". In: Environment for Development Discussion Paper Series EfD DP 13-10 July 2013. Gothenborg Sweden: Environment for Development; 2013.water_risk_perception2013.pdf
TIMAMMY RAYYA, SWALEH AMIRI. Riwaya ya Kiswahili (BSW 308) . Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013.
Shah P. "The role of Oshwal Community in Environmental Management." OERB Reach 16 (2013):76-77.
Eyase FL, Akala HM, Ingasia L, Cheruiyot A, Omondi A, Okudo C, Juma D, Yeda R, Andagalu B, Wanja E, Kamau E, Schnabel D, Bulimo W, Waters NC, Walsh DS, Johnson JD. "The role of Pfmdr1 and Pfcrt in changing chloroquine, amodiaquine, mefloquine and lumefantrine susceptibility in western-Kenya P. falciparum samples during 2008-2011." PloS one. 2013;8:e64299. Abstracteyase_et_al._2013.pdf

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Pfmdr1, and Pfcrt, genes of Plasmodium falciparum may confer resistance to a number of anti-malaria drugs. Pfmdr1 86Y and haplotypes at Pfcrt 72-76 have been linked to chloroquine (CQ) as well as amodiaquine (AQ) resistance. mefloquine (MQ) and lumefantrine (LU) sensitivities are linked to Pfmdr1 86Y. Additionally, Pfcrt K76 allele carrying parasites have shown tolerance to LU. We investigated the association between Pfmdr1 86/Pfcrt 72-76 and P. falciparum resistance to CQ, AQ, MQ and LU using field samples collected during 2008-2011 from malaria endemic sites in western Kenya. Genomic DNA from these samples was genotyped to examine SNPs and haplotypes in Pfmdr1 and Pfcrt respectively. Additionally, immediate ex vivo and in vitro drug sensitivity profiles were assessed using the malaria SYBR Green I fluorescence-based assay. We observed a rapid but steady percent increase in wild-type parasites with regard to both Pfmdr1 and Pfcrt between 2008 and 2011 (p<0.0001). Equally, a significant reciprocate decrease in AQ and CQ median IC50 values occurred (p<0.0001) during the same period. Thus, the data in this study point to a significantly rapid change in parasite response to AQ and CQ in the study period. This may be due to releasing of drug pressure on the parasite from reduced use of AQ in the face of increased Artemisinin (ART) Combination Therapy (ACT) administration following the intervention of the Global Fund in 2008. LU has been shown to select for 76K genotypes, thus the observed increase in 76K genotypes coupled with significant cross resistance between LU and MQ, may herald emergence of tolerance against both drugs in future.

Eyase FL, Akala HM, Ingasia L, Cheruiyot A, Omondi A, Okudo C, Juma D, Yeda R, Andagalu B, Wanja E, Kamau E, Schnabel D, Bulimo W, Waters NC, Walsh DS, Johnson JD. "The Role of Pfmdr1 and Pfcrt in Changing Chloroquine, Amodiaquine, Mefloquine and Lumefantrine Susceptibility in Western-Kenya P. falciparum Samples during 2008–2011.". 2013. Abstract

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Pfmdr1, and Pfcrt, genes of Plasmodium falciparum may confer resistance to a number of anti-malaria drugs. Pfmdr1 86Y and haplotypes at Pfcrt 72-76 have been linked to chloroquine (CQ) as well as amodiaquine (AQ) resistance. mefloquine (MQ) and lumefantrine (LU) sensitivities are linked to Pfmdr1 86Y. Additionally, Pfcrt K76 allele carrying parasites have shown tolerance to LU. We investigated the association between Pfmdr1 86/Pfcrt 72-76 and P. falciparum resistance to CQ, AQ, MQ and LU using field samples collected during 2008-2011 from malaria endemic sites in western Kenya. Genomic DNA from these samples was genotyped to examine SNPs and haplotypes in Pfmdr1 and Pfcrt respectively. Additionally, immediate ex vivo and in vitro drug sensitivity profiles were assessed using the malaria SYBR Green I fluorescence-based assay. We observed a rapid but steady percent increase in wild-type parasites with regard to both Pfmdr1 and Pfcrt between 2008 and 2011 (p<0.0001). Equally, a significant reciprocate decrease in AQ and CQ median IC50 values occurred (p<0.0001) during the same period. Thus, the data in this study point to a significantly rapid change in parasite response to AQ and CQ in the study period. This may be due to releasing of drug pressure on the parasite from reduced use of AQ in the face of increased Artemisinin (ART) Combination Therapy (ACT) administration following the intervention of the Global Fund in 2008. LU has been shown to select for 76K genotypes, thus the observed increase in 76K genotypes coupled with significant cross resistance between LU and MQ, may herald emergence of tolerance against both drugs in future

Sikei, Geophrey; Mburu J; LJ. Rural households’ response to Fuelwood scarcity around Kakamega Forest, Western Kenya.; 2013. Abstract

The debate on forest degradation in Kenya is mainly concerned with the utilization and exploitation of forest resources. Of particular interest is fuelwood, whose scarcity is a major forest degradation concern. Fuelwood gathered from the forested commons is the most important source of domestic energy in the rural areas of many developing countries. For the case of Kakamega, as shown by this study, there is a declining trend in the availability of fuelwood. Despite this state, rural households still depend largely on it for energy provision in the face of limited options constrained by low capital base. This study sought to examine how these households cope with the existing scarcity of fuelwood. The study employed both primary and secondary sources of data. For primary data, a total of 140 households were selected and interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Response mechanisms were analyzed through descriptive methods by looking at collection attributes, use patterns and fuel saving technologies applied by households. Majority of households in Kakamega have resorted to planting trees on their own farms to ease problems of fuelwood shortage. Findings further reveal that households in their endeavor to circumvent the problem of continued scarcity, have resorted to poorer quality tree/bushes for fuelwood, alongside other innovative methods of responding to the fuelwood scarcity. With improved economic well being, households become less reliant on forests for their livelihoods. Since reduced forest reliance is positively related with reduced demand for forest products, the findings suggest complementarities between strategies aimed at poverty alleviation and those towards forest conservation.

Gall AM, Madadi V, Shisler JL, Mariñas BJ. The Safe Global Water Institute: An integrated, collaborative approach for improving drinking water and sanitation globally. USA: Water Environment Federation; 2013.
undefined, S. P, M OJ. "School feeding program and pupils’ participation in primary schools in Kenya. A study of Taita Taveta and Nairobi districts." Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies (JETERAPS) . 2013;Vol 1 No 1.khatete_5.pdf
Mark SR, Kelly MR, Gheorghe C, Raymond M, Nikolay A, Sansanee C, Navy H, Karen KA, Odada EO, Oscar P, Geoffrey P, Sergei R. "Science and Management of Transboundary Lakes: Lessons Learned from the Global Environment Facility Program.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

The International Waters Science Project Lakes Working Group reviewed 58 Global Environment Facility (GEF) projects that addressed serious environmental and human development issues in transboundary lakes. The lessons learned from the review of these projects were integrated with the intention to contribute to the design and success of future projects. Issues that will continue to impact lake ecosystems and their management include changing agricultural practices, resource extraction, emerging contaminants, energy policies, and water allocation. Future lakes projects addressing these issues must also consider the potential confounding effects of changing land use and climate on watershed processes, water quality, food web structure and biodiversity. Current and future scientific challenges include developing strategies for climate adaptation, improving the capacity to detect change and enhancing the application of an ecosystem approach within lakes management. Failure to consider the unique physical and biological features and processes in lakes can be a barrier to effective remediation. The spatial and temporal variability in lakes and their often slow response to remedial actions need to be considered in the design of monitoring programs. Factors that improved the success of GEF transboundary projects included early and strong communication, engagement of stakeholders, rigorous peer review and international science teams linked to local capacity building and policy development. The application of both natural and socio-economic science based assessment, and adaptive management were essential for full project implementation and led to optimization of water resources allocation while sustaining ecosystems on which social and economic systems depend.

Kosgei RJ, Szkwarko D, Callens S, Gichangi P, Temmerman M, Kihara AB, Sitienei JJ, Cheserem EJ, Ndavi PM, Reid AJ, Carter EJ. "Screening for tuberculosis in pregnancy do we need more than a symptom screen Experience from western Kenya." Public Health Action . 2013;3(4):294-298.screening_for_tuberculosis_in_pregnancy_do_we_need_more_than_a_symptom_screen_experience_from_western_kenya.pdf
Kosgei RJ, Szkwarko D, Callens S, Gichangi P, Temmerman M, Kihara AB, Sitienei JJ, Cheserem EJ, Ndavi PM, Reid AJ, Carter EJ. "Screening for tuberculosis in pregnancy: do we need more than a symptom screen? Experience from western Kenya." Public Health Association. 2013;3:294-298.
Stoute JA, Aluoch JR, Gondi SMO, Odera MM, Estambale BBA, Otieno W. "Sickle Cell Trait (HbAS) is Associated with Increased Expression of Erythrocyte Complement Regulatory Proteins CR1 and CD55 Levels in Children.". 2013. Abstractbenson_b._a._estambale.pdfAbstractAbstract

Erythrocyte complement regulatory proteins, complement receptor 1 (CR1) and decay accelerating factor (CD55) protect red blood cells (RBCs) from complement mediated damage by controlling complement activation cascade and potentially protect RBCs from complement mediated damage that may occur when immune complexes are formed following malaria infection. Given the important role of RBCs in regulation of complement activation, we considered the competence of sickle cell trait RBCs in these functions. Methods: Children (age 0-192 months; n=116) were enrolled in a nested case controlled study conducted in Kombewa Division, Kisumu west District between October and December 2004. Based on hemoglobin (Hb) type, children were stratified into those with HbAS (n=47) and HbAA (n=69). The 47 HbAS individuals were matched to the 69 HbAA individuals of similar age (± 2 months or ± 24 months for those below or more than 192 months, respectively) at a ratio of 1:1 or 1:2. Circulating CR1 levels and CD levels were quantified using a FACScan cytometer under normal and reduced oxygen saturation. Results: The mean CR1 copy numbers per RBC was comparable in the two groups. However, between the ages of 49-192 months, the mean CR1 copy numbers per erythrocyte was significantly higher in children who had HbAS compared to those with HbAA (P=0.0332). The mean CD55 levels were comparable between the two groups but after deoxygenation, the mean CD levels in RBCs of individuals with HbAS was significantly higher than in the HbAA (P=0.011). Conclusion: The mean CR1 and CD55 copy numbers per RBC were comparable between the two groups under normal and reduced oxygen saturation. Beyond the age of 49 months, the CR1 copy numbers was higher in the HbAS compared to HbAA and this was also true for CD55 levels under deoxygenated conditions. Taken together, these results demonstrate that in the younger age groups, the protection afforded by HbAS against severe manifestations of malaria may be due to other factors other than complement regulatory proteins but beyond the age of 49 months, this protection may be partly due to the high CR1 copy numbers in the HbAS individuals.

Sabuni ZA, Mbuthia PG, Maingi N, Nyaga PN, Njagi LW, Bebora LC, Michieka JN. "Skin lesions associated with ectoparasitic infestation in indigenous chickens in Eastern province of Kenya." Research Journal of Poultry Sciences. 2013;6(3):53-58.sabuni_et_al._2013-ectopara.lesions-research_journal_of_poultry_science.pdf
Sabuni AZ, Mbuthia PG, Maingi N, Nyaga PN, Njagi LW, Bebora LC, Michieka JN. "Skin lesions associated with ectoparasitic infestation in indigenous chickens in Eastern Province of Kenya. ." Research Journal of Poultry Sciences. 2013;6:53-58.
ONGETI K, Ogeng’o J, Saidi H. "Structural organization of the human carotid artery." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2013;2(1).
Ongeti K, Ogeng’o J, Saidi H. "Structural Organization of the Human Common Carotid Artery." Anatomy Journal of Africa . 2013;2(1):100-104.
Ongeti K, Ogeng'o J, Saidi H. "Structural Organization Of The Human Common Carotid Artery." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2013;2(1):100-105 .
L M, K S, S Y, K M, S K, N I. "Study on endocytosis and haemoglobin uptake in different developmental stages of Trypanosoma congolense, IL3000 strain." Journal of Protozoology Research. 2013;23:14-20.
Lily B, Portas O, William O, Samuel O, Maurice O, Rubina A. "Survey of bacterial and parasitic organisms causing disease and lowered production in indigenous chickens in Southern Nyanza, Kenya.". 2013. Abstractabstract2.pdfWebsite

A cross-sectional study was carried out to identify bacteria and parasites that caused disease and lowered productivity in indigenous chickens in Rachuonyo and Migori districts in Southern Nyanza, Kenya. A total of 21 chickens from 11 randomly-selected homesteads, within a group that was recruited into the African Institute of Capacity building and Development (AICAD) project, were used in the study. The chicken-keepers routinely vaccinated their birds against Newcastle disease and were recovering from an outbreak of Gumboro disease which had caused high mortalities. Picking of the chickens for postmortem examination was by random selection at household level and also geared towards picking those that showed signs of disease. Bacterial isolations were done from pooled oro-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs, and swabs from liver and/or other organs showing pathology. Parasitological isolations were done from skins and gastro-intestinal tracts. Pasteurella and Klebsiella were isolated from cases that were showing respiratory signs, while Salmonella Gallinarum was isolated from liver and spleen of a few birds showing signs of mild peritonitis. Other bacteria isolated, from oro-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs, included: Staphylococcus, Bacillus, E. coli, and Enterobacter. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from a case of skin wounds and defeathering. Parasitological isolations included: ascarids, tape worms, flukes, pin worms, tetrameres, stick-tight fleas and scaly-leg mites. These organisms were associated with various pathological lesions. Since they indirectly cause stress that is associated with increased susceptibility to other diseases and reduction in productivity of the birds, it was found advisable that, in addition to vaccination against the viral diseases, the poultry-keepers exercised regular deworming and dusting of the birds with acaricides, as well as treating the birds whenever they appear sick.

William O, Portas O, Samuel O, Maurice O, Rubina A. "Survey of bacterial and parasitic organisms causing disease and lowered production in indigenous chickens in Southern Nyanza, Kenya.". 2013. Abstractabstract2.pdfWebsite

A cross-sectional study was carried out to identify bacteria and parasites that caused disease and lowered productivity in indigenous chickens in Rachuonyo and Migori districts in Southern Nyanza, Kenya. A total of 21 chickens from 11 randomly-selected homesteads, within a group that was recruited into the African Institute of Capacity building and Development (AICAD) project, were used in the study. The chicken-keepers routinely vaccinated their birds against Newcastle disease and were recovering from an outbreak of Gumboro disease which had caused high mortalities. Picking of the chickens for postmortem examination was by random selection at household level and also geared towards picking those that showed signs of disease. Bacterial isolations were done from pooled oro-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs, and swabs from liver and/or other organs showing pathology. Parasitological isolations were done from skins and gastro-intestinal tracts. Pasteurella and Klebsiella were isolated from cases that were showing respiratory signs, while Salmonella Gallinarum was isolated from liver and spleen of a few birds showing signs of mild peritonitis. Other bacteria isolated, from oro-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs, included: Staphylococcus, Bacillus, E. coli, and Enterobacter. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from a case of skin wounds and defeathering. Parasitological isolations included: ascarids, tape worms, flukes, pin worms, tetrameres, stick-tight fleas and scaly-leg mites. These organisms were associated with various pathological lesions. Since they indirectly cause stress that is associated with increased susceptibility to other diseases and reduction in productivity of the birds, it was found advisable that, in addition to vaccination against the viral diseases, the poultry-keepers exercised regular deworming and dusting of the birds with acaricides, as well as treating the birds whenever they appear sick.

Lorenz LM, Keane A, Moore JD, Munk CJ, Seeholzer L, Mseka A, Simfukwe E, Ligamba J, Turner EL, Biswaro LR, Okumu FO, GF K, WR M, SJ. M. "Taxis assays measure directional movement of mosquitoes to olfactory cues. Parasites & Vectors." Parasites & Vectors. 2013;3(6):131.
Félix A-E, Calatayud P-A, LeRu B, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Ong’amo G, Silvain J-F, Frérot B. "To be or not to be a species: use of reproductive isolation experiments and genetic analysis to clarify the taxonomic status of two Busseola (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) species in Kenya." Annales de la Société entomologique de France . 2013;49(3):345-354. Abstract

Phylogenetic analysis combined with chemical ecology can contribute to the delimitation of closely related insect species, particularly in Lepidoptera. In this study, the taxonomic status of a species in the genus Busseola (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was discussed using morphological data, cross-mating experiments, sex pheromone chemistry, field-trapping, and molecular classification. The results of the chemical ecology experiments corroborated those from the phylogeny studies. It was concluded that several reproductive isolation components, namely host plants, geography, pheromone emission time, pheromone blend, and post-zygotic isolation factors, led to the separation of Busseola n. sp. from its closely related species B. segeta. Molecular data showed a strong difference between these two species, regardless of the marker used. The new species named Busseola nairobica was morphologically described and a hypothesis about the evolutionary history of the studied species was put forward.

Siriba DN, Mwenda JN. Towards Kenya’s Profile of the Land Administration Domain Model (LADM). , Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: International Federation of Surveyors (FIG); 2013.
Saidi H, Mutiso B. "Trauma deaths outside the hospital: Uncovering the typology in the Kenyan Capital." J Forensic Leg Med.. 2013;20 (6):570-4.
Keter LK, Mwikwabe NM, Mbaabu MP, Sudheer HM, Festus M Tolo, Dhanani P, Orwa JA. "Validation of Safety and Efficacy of Antitussive Herbal Formulations. African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics.". 2013;2(1):26-31.
Munguti J, Odula P, Awori K, Ogeng’o J, Samy M. "Variant anatomy of the right portal vein in a black Kenyan population." Anat J Afr. 2013;2(2):175-181. Abstractkirsteen_awori.pdf

Surface mapping of the liver before invasive procedures depends on a proper understanding of its segmental vasculature. The right portal vein ramification and lengths show marked variations and these mostly involve its right posterior sectoral branch. Their incidence is variable among populations and altogether undocumented among Africans. One hundred livers obtained during autopsies and dissections at the Department of Human anatomy, University of Nairobi, were used in this study. Gross dissection was done to reveal and determine the branching pattern of the right portal vein and the origin of the right posterior sector branch. The lengths of the right portal vein were also measured and recorded. When present, the right portal vein terminated by bifurcation in 61% of the cases, trifurcated in 20.8% and quadrifircated in 18.2%. Its length was between 0.5cm and 4cm. The right posterior sector vein was given off the main portal vein in 34 cases, the common left portal vein trunk in 15 cases, and the right portal vein in 42 cases. In 9 cases, it was not observed at the porta hepatis. We report significant different incidences of the variant anatomy of the right portal vein compared to those found in previous studies and this should be borne in mind when doing surgical interventions

Munguti J, Odula P, Awori K, Ogeng'o J, Sammy M. "Variant anatomy of the right portal vein in a black Kenyan population.". 2013. Abstractkirsteen_awori.pdf

Surface mapping of the liver before invasive procedures depends on a proper understanding of its segmental vasculature. The right portal vein ramification and lengths show marked variations and these mostly involve its right posterior sectoral branch. Their incidence is variable among populations and altogether undocumented among Africans. One hundred livers obtained during autopsies and dissections at the Department of Human anatomy, University of Nairobi, were used in this study. Gross dissection was done to reveal and determine the branching pattern of the right portal vein and the origin of the right posterior sector branch. The lengths of the right portal vein were also measured and recorded. When present, the right portal vein terminated by bifurcation in 61% of the cases, trifurcated in 20.8% and quadrifircated in 18.2%. Its length was between 0.5cm and 4cm. The right posterior sector vein was given off the main portal vein in 34 cases, the common left portal vein trunk in 15 cases, and the right portal vein in 42 cases. In 9 cases, it was not observed at the porta hepatis. We report significant different incidences of the variant anatomy of the right portal vein compared to those found in previous studies and this should be borne in mind when doing surgical interventions

Munguti J, Odula P, Awori K, Ogeng'o J, Sammy M. "Variant anatomy of the right portal vein in a black Kenyan population.". 2013. Abstractkirsteen_awori.pdf

Surface mapping of the liver before invasive procedures depends on a proper understanding of its segmental vasculature. The right portal vein ramification and lengths show marked variations and these mostly involve its right posterior sectoral branch. Their incidence is variable among populations and altogether undocumented among Africans. One hundred livers obtained during autopsies and dissections at the Department of Human anatomy, University of Nairobi, were used in this study. Gross dissection was done to reveal and determine the branching pattern of the right portal vein and the origin of the right posterior sector branch. The lengths of the right portal vein were also measured and recorded. When present, the right portal vein terminated by bifurcation in 61% of the cases, trifurcated in 20.8% and quadrifircated in 18.2%. Its length was between 0.5cm and 4cm. The right posterior sector vein was given off the main portal vein in 34 cases, the common left portal vein trunk in 15 cases, and the right portal vein in 42 cases. In 9 cases, it was not observed at the porta hepatis. We report significant different incidences of the variant anatomy of the right portal vein compared to those found in previous studies and this should be borne in mind when doing surgical interventions

Mbuthia E-DEM, Sanja E-ML. “Alionja Asali na hadithi nyingine” . Nairobi: Focus Publishers ; 2013.
Kariuki J, Stuart-Shor EM, Kimani S, Muchira J, DeMita J, Milton H, Kamau M, Mutuma V, Golden D, Kariuki P. "Awareness, Treatment and Control of Hypertension in Kenya.". 2013. Abstract
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Sinkeet S, Mwachaka P, Muthoka J, Saidi H. "Branching Pattern of Inferior Mesenteric Artery in a Black African Population: A Dissection Study." {ISRN} Anatomy. 2013;2013:1-4. AbstractWebsite
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Setty SNRS, Katikireddi RS. "Cadaveric study of arterial pattern of caecum and vermiform appendix - research article." International Journal of Current Research and Review. 2013;5:73-75. AbstractWebsite
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Shah KS, Butt FMA, Dimba EAO. "Case Report: Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor)." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2013;2:135-136. Abstract
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Peng B, Smallenburg F, Imhof A, Dijkstra M, van Blaaderen A. "Colloidal clusters by using emulsions and dumbbell-shaped particles: Experiments and simulations." Angewandte Chemie. 2013;125:6841-6844. Abstract
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Stuart-Shor E. "Community-based participatory research: The roxbury: Heart and sole clinical trial.". In: 141st APHA Annual Meeting (November 2-November 6, 2013). APHA; 2013. Abstract
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Ambuko J, Sekozawa Y, Sugaya S, Gemma H, others. "A comparative evaluation of postharvest quality attributes of two banana (Musa spp) varieties as affected by preharvest production conditions." Journal of Agricultural Science (Toronto). 2013;5:170-178. Abstract
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Kariuki JK, Stuart-Shor EM, Hayman LL. "The concept of risk as applied to cardiovascular disease." Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. 2013;28:201-203. Abstract
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Deng Z, Zhu H, Peng B, Chen H, Sun Y, Gang X, Jin P, Wang J. "Correction to synthesis of PS/Ag nanocomposite spheres with catalytic and antibacterial activities." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 2013;5:6774. Abstract
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Ofula VO, Franklin AB, Root JJ, Sullivan HJ, Gichuki P, Makio A, Bulimo W, Abong'o BO, Muchai M, Schnabel D. "Detection of avian influenza viruses in wild waterbirds in the Rift valley of Kenya using fecal sampling." Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 2013;13:394-400. Abstract
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Ambuko J, Yumbya PM, Hutchinson MJ, Shibairo SI, Gemma H, Owino WO. "Efficacy of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) in Purple Passion (Passiflora edulis Sims) Fruits as Affected by Dosage and Maturity Stage.". In: HORTSCIENCE. Vol. 48. AMER SOC HORTICULTURAL SCIENCE 113 S WEST ST, STE 200, ALEXANDRIA, VA 22314 …; 2013:. Abstract
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Kariuki JK, Stuart-Shor EM, Leveille SG, Hayman LL. "Evaluation of the performance of existing non-laboratory based cardiovascular risk assessment algorithms." BMC cardiovascular disorders. 2013;13:1-13. Abstract
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Githaka N, Konnai S, Skilton R, Kariuki E, Kanduma E, Murata S, Ohashi K. "Genotypic variations in field isolates of Theileria species infecting giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi and Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) in Kenya." Parasitology international. 2013;62:448-453. Abstract
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Kariuki J, Stuart-Shor EM, Zhang L, Volkova A, Halliday J, Sayer S, DeMita J, Golden D, Muchira J, Kimani S, others. "Global risk assessment of cardiovascular disease in resource constrained settings.". 2013. Abstract
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Kariuki JK, Stuart-Shor EM, DeMita J, Golden D, Halliday J, Kimani S, Muchira J, Zhang L. "Global Risk Assessment of Cardiovascular Disease in Resource Constrained Settings: Kenya.". In: Nursing research. Vol. 62. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS 530 WALNUT ST, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19106-3621 USA; 2013:. Abstract
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Finch B, Bjørnstad G, Shanni I, Muchai M, Bishop A, Hanotte O, Bishop R. "High levels of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence diversity are present within the Anthus similis complex in sub-Saharan Africa." Ostrich. 2013;84:145-151. Abstract
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Crabtree MM, Stuart-Shor E, McAllister M. "Home blood pressure monitoring: An integrated review of the literature." The Journal for Nurse Practitioners. 2013;9:356-361. Abstract
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Kariuki JK, Stuart-Shor EM, Zhang L, Volkova A, Golden D, Muchira J, Kimani S, Maina F. Implementing Global Risk Assessment in Resource-Constrained Primary Care Settings: Kenya. Am Heart Assoc; 2013. Abstract
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Crabtree MM, Gifford L, McAllister M, Stuart-Shor E. "Integrating Home Blood Pressure Monitoring Into Usual Care of Hypertensive Patients: A Quality Improvement Intervention.". In: NURSING RESEARCH. Vol. 62. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS 530 WALNUT ST, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19106-3621 USA; 2013:. Abstract
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Maina EN, Webb TT, Arrand JR, Whittington J, Soni S, Boer H, Clarke D, Holland AJ. "Investigation of Prader-Willi-like Phenotype using a Whole Genome Array." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2013;1. Abstract
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Simiyu BN, Butt F, Dimba EA, Wagaiyu EG, Awange DO, Guthua SW, Slootweg PJ. "Keratocystic odontogenic tumours of the jaws and associated pathologies: a 10-year clinicopathologic audit in a referral teaching hospital in Kenya." Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery. 2013;41:230-234. Abstract
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Walsh JH, Kariuki J, Stuart-Shor E. "The Meaning of Cross-Cultural Service Learning for Nursing Students: Kenya Heart and Sole (KHAS).". In: NURSING RESEARCH. Vol. 62. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS 530 WALNUT ST, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19106-3621 USA; 2013:. Abstract
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Setty SNRS, Katikireddi RS. "Morphometric {Study} of {Human} {Cadaveric} {Caecum} and {Vermiform} {Appendix}." International Journal of Health Sciences and Research (IJHSR). 2013;3:48-55. AbstractWebsite
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Xu X, Kyaw AKK, Peng B, Zhao D, Wong TKS, Xiong Q, Sun X, Heeger AJ. "A plasmonically enhanced polymer solar cell with gold–silica core–shell nanorods." Organic electronics. 2013;14:2360-2368. Abstract
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Kariuki JK, Stuart-Shor EM, Hayman LL. "Progress in Prevention.". 2013. Abstract
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Gakunga, Daniel K, Brovermann S, Sadhna G. Promoting Girls Education in Kenya,WiserBridge Progamme in Muhuru Bay. Mauritious: Lambert Academic Publishers; 2013. Abstract
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Sika JO, Gravenir FQ, Riechi A. "Rate and Trends of Academic Performance Index and Level of Subject Satisfactory Outcomes." Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development. 2013;4:127-133. Abstract
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Ambuko J, Zanol GC, Sekozawa Y, Sugaya S, Gemma H. "Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging in hot air preconditioning mediated alleviation of chilling injury in banana fruits." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2013;5:319. Abstract
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Nayak SB, George BM, Mishra S, Surendran S, Shetty P, Shetty SD. "Sessile ileum, subhepatic cecum, and uncinate appendix that might lead to a diagnostic dilemma." Anatomy & Cell Biology. 2013;46:296. AbstractWebsite
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Chaudhari ML, Kapadia DM, Kanani SD, Patel JP, Shah RK, Nirvan AB. "A study of morphology of vermifrom appendix in 200 cases." International Journal of Medical Research & Health Sciences. 2013;2:780. AbstractWebsite
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Deng Z, Zhu H, Peng B, Chen H, Sun Y, Gang X, Jin P, Wang J. "Synthesis of PS/Ag Nanocomposite Spheres with Catalytic and Antibacterial Activities (vol 4, pg 5625, 2012)." ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES. 2013;5:6774. Abstract
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Stenmark KR, Yeager ME, El Kasmi KC, Nozik-Grayck E, Gerasimovskaya EV, Li M, Riddle SR, Frid MG. "The {Adventitia}: {Essential} {Regulator} of {Vascular} {Wall} {Structure} and {Function}." Annual Review of Physiology. 2013;75:23-47. AbstractWebsite

The vascular adventitia acts as a biological processing center for the retrieval, integration, storage, and release of key regulators of vessel wall function. It is the most complex compartment of the vessel wall and is composed of a variety of cells, including fibroblasts, immunomodulatory cells (dendritic cells and macrophages), progenitor cells, vasa vasorum endothelial cells and pericytes, and adrenergic nerves. In response to vascular stress or injury, resident adventitial cells are often the first to be activated and reprogrammed to influence the tone and structure of the vessel wall; to initiate and perpetuate chronic vascular inflammation; and to stimulate expansion of the vasa vasorum, which can act as a conduit for continued inflammatory and progenitor cell delivery to the vessel wall. This review presents the current evidence demonstrating that the adventitia acts as a key regulator of vascular wall function and structure from the outside in.

2012
Gitao CG, Kihu SM, Bebora LC, Njenga JM, Wairire GG, Maingi N, Muse E, E K, Misinzo G, Mellau LSB, Msoffe PLM, Swai ES, Albano. "Comparison of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) disease between Tanzania and Kenya.". In: Third Ruforum Biennial Meeting. Kampala, Uganda; 2012.gitao_523_3.pdf
Cornish LA, Shongwe MB, Odera B, Odusote JK, Witcomb MJ, Chown LH, Rading GO, Papo MJ. "Update on the development of platinum-based alloys for potential high-temperature applications. .". In: Proceedings of Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Platinum 2012 Conference. Sun City, South Africa; 2012.
Swamy M, Searle RF. "Anatomy teaching with portable ultrasound to medical students." BMC Medical Education. 2012;12:99. AbstractWebsite

PMID: 23088725

Marre O, Amodei D, Deshmukh N, Sadeghi K, Soo F, Holy TE, Berry MJ. "Mapping a {Complete} {Neural} {Population} in the {Retina}." The Journal of Neuroscience. 2012;32:14859-14873. AbstractWebsite

Recording simultaneously from essentially all of the relevant neurons in a local circuit is crucial to understand how they collectively represent information. Here we show that the combination of a large, dense multielectrode array and a novel, mostly automated spike-sorting algorithm allowed us to record simultaneously from a highly overlapping population of {\textgreater}200 ganglion cells in the salamander retina. By combining these methods with labeling and imaging, we showed that up to 95% of the ganglion cells over the area of the array were recorded. By measuring the coverage of visual space by the receptive fields of the recorded cells, we concluded that our technique captured a neural population that forms an essentially complete representation of a region of visual space. This completeness allowed us to determine the spatial layout of different cell types as well as identify a novel group of ganglion cells that responded reliably to a set of naturalistic and artificial stimuli but had no measurable receptive field. Thus, our method allows unprecedented access to the complete neural representation of visual information, a crucial step for the understanding of population coding in sensory systems.

Marre O, Amodei D, Deshmukh N, Sadeghi K, Soo F, Holy TE, Berry MJ. "Mapping a {Complete} {Neural} {Population} in the {Retina}." The Journal of Neuroscience. 2012;32:14859-14873. AbstractWebsite

Recording simultaneously from essentially all of the relevant neurons in a local circuit is crucial to understand how they collectively represent information. Here we show that the combination of a large, dense multielectrode array and a novel, mostly automated spike-sorting algorithm allowed us to record simultaneously from a highly overlapping population of {\textgreater}200 ganglion cells in the salamander retina. By combining these methods with labeling and imaging, we showed that up to 95% of the ganglion cells over the area of the array were recorded. By measuring the coverage of visual space by the receptive fields of the recorded cells, we concluded that our technique captured a neural population that forms an essentially complete representation of a region of visual space. This completeness allowed us to determine the spatial layout of different cell types as well as identify a novel group of ganglion cells that responded reliably to a set of naturalistic and artificial stimuli but had no measurable receptive field. Thus, our method allows unprecedented access to the complete neural representation of visual information, a crucial step for the understanding of population coding in sensory systems.

Mamatha H, D'Souza AS, null Pallavi, Suhani S. "Human cadaveric study of the morphology of the basilar artery." Singapore Medical Journal. 2012;53:760-763. Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Nourishment for the brain, a highly vascular organ, is derived from a unique structure called the 'circle of Willis', which is formed by the terminal branches of the internal carotid arteries (ICAs) and basilar arteries (BAs). The circle of Willis forms an anastomotic link between the carotid and vertebrobasilar systems in the arterial supply of the brain, while the BA forms an important component of the brain's posterior circulation and supplies its many vital parts. METHODS: A study was performed on 20 brain specimens used for routine dissections at the Anatomy Department, Kasturba Medical College, in order to examine the morphology of BAs in the brain. RESULTS: In most specimens, the position of the termination of BA was normal, although variations were present in the mode of termination. In one specimen, the BA terminated by dividing into two superior cerebellar arteries. The posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs) arose from ICAs on both sides in this specimen, and a communicating branch was present between the terminal point of the BA and PCA on the left. In another specimen, unilateral variation was seen, with the PCA arising from the ICA on the right and a posterior communicating artery arising from the PCA, connecting it with the BA. The anatomy on the left side was normal. CONCLUSION: We highlight the morphological aspects of the BA, the knowledge of which would help neurosurgeons safely diagnose, as well as plan and execute vascular bypass and shunting procedures for the treatment of stenosis, aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations in the posterior cranial fossa.

Corselli M, Chen C-W, Sun B, Yap S, Rubin PJ, Péault B. "The {Tunica} {Adventitia} of {Human} {Arteries} and {Veins} {As} a {Source} of {Mesenchymal} {Stem} {Cells}." Stem Cells and Development. 2012;21:1299-1308. AbstractWebsite
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Campbell KA, Lipinski MJ, Doran AC, Skaflen MD, Fuster V, McNamara CA. "Lymphocytes and the adventitial immune response in atherosclerosis." Circulation research. 2012;110:889-900. Abstract

Although much of the research on atherosclerosis has focused on the intimal accumulation of lipids and inflammatory cells, there is an increasing amount of interest in the role of the adventitia in coordinating the immune response in atherosclerosis. In this review of the contributions of the adventitia and adventitial lymphocytes to the development of atherosclerosis, we discuss recent research on the formation and structural nature of adventitial immune aggregates, potential mechanisms of crosstalk between the intima, media, and adventitia, specific contributions of B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes, and the role of the vasa vasorum and surrounding perivascular adipose tissue. Furthermore, we highlight techniques for the imaging of lymphocytes in the vasculature.

Stenmark KR, Frid MG, Yeager M, Li M, Riddle S, McKinsey T, El Kasmi KC. "Targeting the adventitial microenvironment in pulmonary hypertension: {A} potential approach to therapy that considers epigenetic change." Pulmonary circulation. 2012;2:3-14. Abstract

Experimental data indicate that the adventitial compartment of blood vessels, in both the pulmonary and systemic circulations, like the connective tissue stroma in tissues throughout the body, is a critical regulator of vessel wall function in health and disease. It is clear that adventitial cells, and in particular the adventitial fibroblast, are activated early following vascular injury, and play essential roles in regulating vascular wall structure and function through production of chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The recognition of the ability of these cells to generate and maintain inflammatory responses within the vessel wall provides insight into why vascular inflammatory responses, in certain situations, fail to resolve. It is also clear that the activated adventitial fibroblast plays an important role in regulating vasa vasorum growth, which can contribute to ongoing vascular remodeling by acting as a conduit for delivery of inflammatory and progenitor cells. These functions of the fibroblast clearly support the idea that targeting chemokine, cytokine, adhesion molecule, and growth factor production in activated fibroblasts could be helpful in abrogating vascular inflammatory responses and thus in ameliorating vascular disease. Further, the recent observations that fibroblasts in vascular and fibrotic diseases may maintain their activated state through epigenetic alterations in key inflammatory and pro-fibrotic genes suggests that current therapies used to treat pulmonary hypertension may not be sufficient to induce apoptosis or to inhibit key inflammatory signaling pathways in these fibroblasts. New therapies targeted at reversing changes in the acetylation or methylation status of key transcriptional networks may be needed. At present, therapies specifically targeting abnormalities of histone deacytelase (HDAC) activity in fibroblast-like cells appear to hold promise.

Loh TP, Saw S, Sethi SK. "Bedside monitoring of blood ketone for management of diabetic ketoacidosis: proceed with care." Diabetic Medicine: A Journal of the British Diabetic Association. 2012;29:827-828. Abstract
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Skilton MR, Sullivan TR, Ayer JG, Harmer JA, Toelle BG, Webb K, Marks GB, Celermajer DS. "Carotid extra-medial thickness in childhood: early life effects on the arterial adventitia." Atherosclerosis. 2012;222:478-482. Abstract

{OBJECTIVE: Structural modification of the arterial adventitia may be an early event in atherosclerosis. Carotid extra-medial thickness is a new measure of arterial adventitial thickness. We examined the association of cardiovascular risk factors with extra-medial thickness, in childhood. METHODS: Carotid extra-medial thickness was assessed by high-resolution ultrasound in 389 non-diabetic children aged 8-years. A non-fasting blood sample was collected from 314 participants. Associations of gender, age, lipoproteins, blood pressure, BMI z-score, waist:height ratio and parental history of early vascular disease, with extra-medial thickness were examined. RESULTS: Carotid extra-medial thickness was lower in girls (r=-.163

Wadegu M, Bulimo W, Achilla R, Majanja J, Mukunzi S, Osuna F, Wangui J, Opot B, Njiri J, Mitei K, Nyambura J, Mwangi J, Schnabel D, Wurapa E. "Genotypic characterization of antiviral susceptibility of Influenza A viruses isolated in Kenya from 2008 to 2011." Int J Infect Dis. 2012;16:E437-E438. AbstractWebsite
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Schindelin J, Arganda-Carreras I, Frise E, Kaynig V, Longair M, Pietzsch T, Preibisch S, Rueden C, Saalfeld S, Schmid B, Tinevez J-Y, White DJ, Hartenstein V, Eliceiri K, Tomancak P, Cardona A. "Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis." Nature Methods. 2012;9:676-682. AbstractWebsite

Fiji is a distribution of the popular open-source software ImageJ focused on biological-image analysis. Fiji uses modern software engineering practices to combine powerful software libraries with a broad range of scripting languages to enable rapid prototyping of image-processing algorithms. Fiji facilitates the transformation of new algorithms into ImageJ plugins that can be shared with end users through an integrated update system. We propose Fiji as a platform for productive collaboration between computer science and biology research communities.

Gage GJ, Kipke DR, Shain W. "Whole {Animal} {Perfusion} {Fixation} for {Rodents}." Journal of Visualized Experiments. 2012. AbstractWebsite
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Simionescu M, Sima AV. "Morphology of {Atherosclerotic} {Lesions}." In: Wick G, Grundtman C, eds. Inflammation and {Atherosclerosis}. Springer Vienna; 2012:. Abstract

Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial and multipart progressive disease manifested by the focal development within the arterial wall of lesions – the atherosclerotic plaques – in response to various deleterious insults that affect the vessel wall’s cells. Among the risk factors, as identified by classical epidemiology, there are dyslipidemia, vasoconstrictor hormones incriminated in hypertension, products of glycoxidation associated with hyperglycemia, pro-inflammatory cytokines and smoking, out of which the first is a prerequisite for the initiation and progression of about half of arterial lesions. In other instances, an inflammatory reaction induced by putative antigens that stimulate T lymphocytes, certain heat shock proteins, components of plasma lipoproteins, and potentially, microbial structures induce atherosclerotic plaque in the absence of systemic hypercholesterolemia [1, 2]. Thus, the process is more complex than previously thought. The conventional view that stressed the role of dyslipidemia in the generation of atherosclerosis was rounded by extensive evidence that inflammation is a key contributor to all stages of this disease, from the initial lesion to the ruptured plaque [2]. In all cases, the atheroma formation entails a progressive process in which the gradual implication of various cells and their secretory products define a sequence of events that leads from the fatty streak to fibro-lipid plaque, and ultimately to plaque rupture and atherothrombosis.

Cunningham M, Scouten CW. "Sacrifice {Perfusion} in {Animal} {Research}.". 2012. AbstractWebsite
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Samuel Maina Githigia. PIG SECTOR REVIEW KENYA. NAIROBI: FAO LIVESTOCK COUNTRY REVIEWS; 2012.fao_pig_sector_review_in_kenya1.pdf
Wong KK, Bulimo WD, Magana J, Achilla RA, Schwarcz SK, Simwa M, Majanja JM, Wadegu MO, Osuna FA, Mukunzi SO, Mwangi JK, Wangui JM, Muthoni JN, Njiri JO, Obura BD, Opot BH, Mitei KK, Barani J, Lifumo S, Schnabel DC. "Epidemiology of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A Virus Subtype H1N1 Among Kenyans Aged 2 Months to 18 Years, 2009–2010." Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2012;206:S68-S73. Abstractj_infect_dis.-2012-wong-s68-73.pdfWebsite

Background.The US Army Medical Research Unit–Kenya (USAMRU-K) conducts surveillance for influenza-like illness (ILI) in Kenya. We describe the temporal and geographic progression of A(H1N1)pdm09 as it emerged in Kenya and characterize the outpatient population with A(H1N1)pdm09 infection.Methods.We included patients with ILI aged 2 months to 18 years enrolled during June 2009–August 2010. Respiratory specimens were tested by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for influenza virus. Patients with A(H1N1)pdm09 infection were compared to those with seasonal influenza A virus infection and those with ILI who had no virus or a virus other than influenza virus identified (hereafter, “noninfluenza ILI”).Results.Of 4251 patients with ILI, 193 had laboratory-confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 infection. The first pandemic influenza case detected by USAMRU-K surveillance was in August 2009; peak activity nationwide occurred during October–November 2009. Patients with A(H1N1)pdm09 infection were more likely to be school-aged, compared with patients with seasonal influenza A virus infection (prevalence ratio [PR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3–3.1) or noninfluenza ILI (PR, 3.2; 95% CI, 2.4–4.3).Conclusions.USAMRU-K ILI surveillance detected the geographic and temporal distribution of pandemic influenza in Kenya. The age distribution of A(H1N1)pdm09 infections included more school-aged children, compared with seasonal influenza A virus infection and noninfluenza ILI.

Onyango CO, Njeru R, Kazungu S, Achilla R, Bulimo W, Welch SR, Cane PA, Gunson RN, Hammitt LL, Scott AJG, Berkley JA, Nokes JD. "Influenza Surveillance Among Children With Pneumonia Admitted to a District Hospital in Coastal Kenya, 2007–2010." Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2012;206:S61-S67. Abstractj_infect_dis.-2012-onyango-s61-7.pdfWebsite

Background.Influenza data gaps in sub-Saharan Africa include incidence, case fatality, seasonal patterns, and associations with prevalent disorders.Methods.Nasopharyngeal samples from children aged <12 years who were admitted to Kilifi District Hospital during 2007–2010 with severe or very severe pneumonia and resided in the local demographic surveillance system were screened for influenza A, B, and C viruses by molecular methods. Outpatient children provided comparative data.Results.Of 2002 admissions, influenza A virus infection was diagnosed in 3.5% (71), influenza B virus infection, in 0.9% (19); and influenza C virus infection, in 0.8% (11 of 1404 tested). Four patients with influenza died. Among outpatients, 13 of 331 (3.9%) with acute respiratory infection and 1 of 196 without acute respiratory infection were influenza positive. The annual incidence of severe or very severe pneumonia, of influenza (any type), and of influenza A, was 1321, 60, and 43 cases per 100 000 <5 years of age, respectively. Peak occurrence was in quarters 3–4 each year, and approximately 50% of cases involved infants: temporal association with bacteremia was absent. Hypoxia was more frequent among pneumonia cases involving influenza (odds ratio, 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.04–1.96). Influenza A virus subtypes were seasonal H3N2 (57%), seasonal H1N1 (12%), and 2009 pandemic H1N1 (7%).Conclusions.The burden of influenza was small during 2007–2010 in this pediatric hospital in Kenya. Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 predominated, and 2009 pandemic influenza A virus subtype H1N1 had little impact.

Bulimo WD, Achilla RA, Majanja J, Mukunzi S, Wadegu M, Osunna F, Mwangi J, Njiri J, Wangui J, Nyambura J, Obura B, Mitei K, Omariba D, Segecha S, Nderitu M, Odindo A, Adega C, Kiponda J, Mupa R, Munyazi F, Kissinger G, Mwakuzimu M, Kamola D, Muhidin E, Kamau D, Kairithia S, Koech M, Sang A, Onge'ta L, Schnabel DC. "Molecular Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of the Hemagglutinin 1 Protein of Human Influenza A Virus Subtype H1N1 Circulating in Kenya During 2007–2008." Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2012;206:S46-S52. Abstractj_infect_dis.-2012-bulimo-s46-52.pdfWebsite

Background.Among influenza viruses, type A viruses exhibit the greatest genetic diversity, infect the widest range of host species, and cause the vast majority of cases of severe disease in humans, including cases during the great pandemics. The hemagglutinin 1 (HA1) domain of the HA protein contains the highest concentration of epitopes and, correspondingly, experiences the most intense positive selection pressure.Objectives.We sought to isolate and genetically characterize influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (A[H1N1]) circulating in Kenya during 2007–2008, using the HA1 protein.Methods.Nasopharyngeal swab specimens were collected from patients aged ≥2 months who presented to 8 healthcare facilities in Kenya with influenza-like illness. We tested specimens for seasonal influenza A viruses, using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Viruses were subtyped using subtype-specific primers. Specimens positive for seasonal A(H1N1) were inoculated onto Madin-Darby canine kidney cells for virus isolation. Viral RNAs were extracted from isolates, and the HA1 gene was amplified by RT-PCR, followed by nucleotide sequencing. Nucleotide sequences were assembled using BioEdit and translated into amino acid codes, using DS Gene, version 1.5. Multiple sequence alignments were performed using MUSCLE, version 3.6, and phylogenetic analysis was performed using MrBayes software.Results.We found that, similar to A/Brisbane/59/2007 (H1N1)–like virus, which was included in the southern hemisphere vaccine for the 2009 influenza season, all 2007 Kenyan viruses had D39N, R77K, T132V, K149R, and E277K amino acid substitutions, compared with A/Solomon Islands/3/2006 (H1N1)–like virus, a component of the southern hemisphere vaccine for the 2008 influenza season. However, the majority of 2008 viruses from Kenya also had R192K and R226Q substitutions, compared with A/Solomon Islands/3/2006 (H1N1)–like virus. These 2 changes occurred at the receptor binding site. The majority of the 2008 Kenyan isolates contained N187S, G189N, and A193T mutations, which differed from A/Brisbane/59/2007 (H1N1)–like virus. The A193T substitution is involved in binding the sialic acid receptor. Phylogenetically, the 2008 Kenyan isolates grouped into 2 clusters. The main cluster contained viruses with N187S and A193T changes; residue 187 is involved in receptor binding, whereas residue 193 is at antigenic site Sb.Conclusion.Overall, the major genetic variations that occurred in seasonal A(H1) viruses either affected receptor binding or altered epitopes at the immunodominant sites. These genetic variations in seasonal A(H1N1) isolated in Kenya during 2007–2008 highlight the importance of continuing surveillance and characterization of emerging drift variants of influenza virus in Africa.

Koh VT, Tham Y-C, Cheung CY, Wong W-L, Baskaran M, Saw S-M, Wong TY, Aung T. "Determinants of ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness measured by high-definition optical coherence tomography." Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2012;53:5853-5859. Abstract

{PURPOSE: To determine the distribution, variation, and determinants of ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) thickness in nonglaucomatous eyes measured by high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT). METHODS: Six hundred twenty-three Chinese adults aged 40 to 80 years were consecutively recruited from a population-based study. All subjects underwent a standardized interview, ophthalmic examination, and automated perimetry. HD-OCT with macular cube protocol was used to measure the GC-IPL thickness. Univariate and multiple linear regression analyses were performed to examine the relationship between GC-IPL thickness with ocular and systemic factors. RESULTS: The mean (±SD) age of study subjects was 52.84 ± 6.14 years, 50.1% were male, and all subjects had normal visual fields with no signs of glaucoma or glaucoma suspect. The mean overall, minimum, superior, and inferior GC-IPL thicknesses were 82.78 ± 7.01 μm, 79.67 ± 9.17 μm, 83.30 ± 7.89 μm, and 80.16 ± 8.31 μm, respectively. In multiple linear regression analysis, GC-IPL thickness was significantly associated with age (β = -0.202, P {\textless} 0.001), female sex (β = -2.367, P {\textless} 0.001), axial length (β = -1.279

DM L, SM G, P C, HM A, JM K. "Management of bovine papilomatosis using autogenous vaccine: A case study in Bukura Agricultural College Western Kenya.". In: Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 8th Biennal and 46th Annual Conference of the Kenya Veterinary Association . Safari Park Nairobi; 2012.
Serem 1 JK, Wanyoike MM, Gachuiri CK, Mailu SK, Gathumbi PK, Mwanza RN, Kiarie N, Borter DK. Characterization of Rabbit Production Systems in Kenya. Nyeri, Kenya: APSK; 2012.
Okano K, Maeda A, Chen Y, Chauhan V, Tang J, Palczewska G, Sakai T, Tsuneoka H, Palczewski K, Maeda T. "Retinal cone and rod photoreceptor cells exhibit differential susceptibility to light-induced damage." Journal of neurochemistry. 2012;121:146-156. Abstract

All-trans-retinal and its condensation-products can cause retinal degeneration in a light-dependent manner and contribute to the pathogenesis of human macular diseases such as Stargardt's disease and age-related macular degeneration. Although these toxic retinoid by-products originate from rod and cone photoreceptor cells, the contribution of each cell type to light-induced retinal degeneration is unknown. In this study, the primary objective was to learn whether rods or cones are more susceptible to light-induced, all-trans-retinal-mediated damage. Previously, we reported that mice lacking enzymes that clear all-trans-retinal from the retina, ATP-binding cassette transporter 4 and retinol dehydrogenase 8, manifested light-induced retinal dystrophy. We first examined early-stage age-related macular degeneration patients and found retinal degenerative changes in rod-rich rather than cone-rich regions of the macula. We then evaluated transgenic mice with rod-only and cone-like-only retinas in addition to progenies of such mice inbred with Rdh8(-/-) Abca4(-/-) mice. Of all these strains, Rdh8(-/-) Abca4(-/-) mice with a mixed rod-cone population showed the most severe retinal degeneration under regular cyclic light conditions. Intense light exposure induced acute retinal damage in Rdh8(-/-) Abca4(-/-) and rod-only mice but not cone-like-only mice. These findings suggest that progression of retinal degeneration in Rdh8(-/-) Abca4(-/-) mice is affected by differential vulnerability of rods and cones to light.

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