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2014
Shepelo GP, Maingi N. "Major causes of poultry mortality in Nairobi and its environs established from autopsie." A Journal of The Kenya Veterinary Association. 2014;38(1):32-42.
Wairimu J, Sallet G, Ogana W. "Mathematical analysis of a large scale vector SIS malaria model in a patchy environment." Scientific Research Publishing. 2014;5(13):1913-1926. AbstractWebsite

We answer the stability question of the large scale SIS model describing transmission of highland malaria in Western Kenya in a patchy environment, formulated in [1]. There are two equilibrium states and their stability depends on the basic reproduction number, 0  [2]. If 0 1  ≤ , the dis-ease-free steady solution is globally asymptotically stable and the disease always dies out. If 0 1  > , there exists a unique endemic equilibrium which is globally stable and the disease persists. Application is done on data from Western Kenya. The age structure reduces the level of infection and the populations settle to the equilibrium faster than in the model without age structure.

Kimani S, Sinei K, Bukachi F, Tshala-Katumbay D, Maitai C. "Memory deficits associated with sublethal cyanide poisoning relative to cyanate toxicity in rodents." Metabolic Brain Disease. 2014;29(1):105-112. Abstract

Food (cassava) linamarin is metabolized into neurotoxicants cyanide and cyanate, metabolites of which we sought to elucidate the differential toxicity effects on memory. Young 6-8 weeks old male rats were treated intraperitoneally with either 2.5 mg/kg body weight (bw) cyanide (NaCN), or 50 mg/kg bw cyanate (NaOCN), or 1 μl/g bw saline, daily for 6 weeks. Short-term and long-term memories were assessed using a radial arm maze (RAM) testing paradigm. Toxic exposures had an influence on short-term working memory with fewer correct arm entries (F 2, 19 = 4.57 p < 0.05), higher working memory errors (WME) (F 2, 19 = 5.09, p < 0.05) and longer RAM navigation time (F 2, 19 = 3.91, p < 0.05) for NaOCN relative to NaCN and saline treatments. The long-term working memory was significantly impaired by cyanide with fewer correct arm entries (F 2, 19 = 7.45, p < 0.01) and increased working memory errors (F 2, 19 = 9.35 p < 0.05) in NaCN relative to NaOCN or vehicle treated animals. Reference memory was not affected by either cyanide or cyanate. Our study findings provide an experimental evidence for the biological plausibility that cassava cyanogens may induce cognition deficits. Differential patterns of memory deficits may reflect the differences in toxicity mechanisms of NaOCN relative to NaCN. Cognition deficits associated with cassava cyanogenesis may reflect a dual toxicity effect of cyanide and cyanate

Kimani S, Sinei K, Bukachi F, Tshala-Katumbay D, Maitai CK. "Memory deficits associated with sublethal cyanide poisoning relative to cyanate toxicity in rodents." Metabolic Brain Disease. 2014;29:105-112.
Shee Ali, Onyari JM WJNMD. "Methylene Blue Adsorption onto Coconut husks/Polylactide Blended Films: Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies." Chemistry and Materials Research. 2014;Vol.6(No.11):28-37.
Sserumaga JP, Makumbi D, Ji H, Njoroge K, Muthomi JW, Chemining’wa GN, Si-myung L, Asea G, Kim H. "Molecular characterization of tropical maize inbred lines using microsatellite DNA markers." Maydica . 2014;59:267-274.
Amimo JO, Okoth E, Owino JJ, Ogara WO, Njahira M, Vlasova AN, Saif LJ, Djikeng A. "Molecular detection and genetic characterization of kobuviruses and astroviruses in asymptomatic local pigs in East Africa." Archives of Virology. 2014;159:1313-1319.
" "JAO, " "EO, Junga" "JO, " "WOO, " "MNN, " "QW, " "AVN, Saif" "LJ, Djikeng" "A. "Molecular detection and genetic characterization of kobuviruses and astroviruses in asymptomatic local pigs in East Africa." Archives of Virology. 2014;159(6):1313-1319.
B.W. J, P.G. W, W.D. B, E.K. W, M.M. M, S. K. "Molecular detection of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli surface antigens from patients in Machakos District Hospital, Kenya." East and Central Africa Medical Journal. 2014;1:62-68. Abstractmolecular_detection_of_enterotoxigenic.pdf

Introduction: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is known for its public health importance globally, however, a protective vaccine is yet to be developed. Information regarding the immunology of ETEC’s virulence proteins that can lead to studies on vaccine development such as the heat stable toxins (ST), heat-labile toxin (LT), colonization factors (CFs) and coli surface antigens (CS) from many regions of the world is available. In Kenya, specific CFAs and CS have not been adequately characterized. This study looked at the surface antigens of diarrhoeagenic E. coli in search of indicators for vaccine materials development. Methodology: Multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay were employed to detect diarrhoeagenic E. coli pathotypes and enteroxigenic Escherichia coli surface antigens/ colonization factors antigens from 300 patients in Machakos Hospital, Kenya. Results: Enteroaggrigative Escherichia coli was the most predominant (13.7%) followed by ETEC (11%), Enteroinvesive E. coli (8.3%) and Enteropathogenic E. coli (4.3%). Among the colonization factor anti¬gens, CFAI was detected at 25 (23%), CS1, CSII 2(1.9%), CS3 1(0.9%), CS6 13(12%), CS7 2 (1.9%), CS12 1(0.9%), CS19 11 (10.25%) and those without colonization factor 37 (34.3%). Conclusions: ETEC isolates carrying ST or STLT toxins had more recoverable CFs than those with LT alone (P<0.05). The CS6 is increasing and CS19 was detected for the first time in Kenya and shown to be persistent adhesins. These may be further investigated as possible candidates for the formulation of a novel vaccine for the prevention of diarrhoea in Kenya and the region.

Gichuhi S, Onyuma T, Macharia E, Kabiru J, Zindamoyen AM, Sagoo MS, Burton MJ. "Ocular rhinosporidiosis mimicking conjunctival squamous papilloma in Kenya - a case report." BMC Ophthalmology. 2014;45(14). Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Ocular rhinosporidiosis is a chronic granulomatous infection caused by a newly classified organism that is neither a fungus nor bacterium. It often presents as a benign conjunctival tumour but may mimic other ocular conditions. It is most often described in India. In Africa cases have been reported from South Africa, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Uganda, Congo and Ivory Coast.

CASE PRESENTATION:

A 54 year old man was seen in Kenya with a lesion that resembled a conjunctival papilloma. We report resemblance to conjunctival papilloma and the result of vital staining with 0.05% Toluidine Blue.

CONCLUSION:

Ocular rhinosporidiosis occurs in East Africa. It may resemble conjunctival squamous papilloma. Vital staining with 0.05% Toluidine blue dye did not distinguish the two lesions well.

Nic S, Muthumbi AWN, Sharma J. "Order Enoplida."; 2014.
S Masoud AK, JOSHI MD, Otieno CF, Acharya K. "P24 Quality of glycemic control among insulin treated ambulatory patients with diabetes mellitus at Kenyatta national hospital." Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2014;103:s39. AbstractWebsite

Methods: Retrospective study was done and analysed by SPSS programm version 15, whereby a total of 652 patients aged above 18 years, tested for lipids profile and using HAART for not less than 9 months were recruited from 5 care and treatment centres out of 15 centres from Ilala district in Dar es salaam. This study was done for one year from January, 2011 to December 2011. Results: Out of 652 people living with HIV/AIDS 332 (50.9%) were females and 320 (49.1%) were males. About 60% of participants were obese, and about ...

Gichuhi S, Ohnuma S, Sagoo MS, Burton MJ. "Pathophysiology of ocular surface squamous neoplasia." Experimental Eye Research. 2014;129:172-182. Abstractfull text

The incidence of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) is strongly associated with solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, HIV and human papilloma virus (HPV). Africa has the highest incidence rates in the world. Most lesions occur at the limbus within the interpalpebral fissure particularly the nasal sector. The nasal limbus receives the highest intensity of sunlight. Limbal epithelial crypts are concentrated nasally and contain niches of limbal epithelial stem cells in the basal layer. It is possible that these are the progenitor cells in OSSN. OSSN arises in the basal epithelial cells spreading towards the surface which resembles the movement of corneo-limbal stem cell progeny before it later invades through the basement membrane below. UV radiation damages DNA producing pyrimidine dimers in the DNA chain. Specific CC → TT base pair dimer transformations of the p53 tumour-suppressor gene occur in OSSN allowing cells with damaged DNA past the G1-S cell cycle checkpoint. UV radiation also causes local and systemic photoimmunosuppression and reactivates latent viruses such as HPV. The E7 proteins of HPV promote proliferation of infected epithelial cells via the retinoblastoma gene while E6 proteins prevent the p53 tumour suppressor gene from effecting cell-cycle arrest of DNA-damaged and infected cells. Immunosuppression from UV radiation, HIV and vitamin A deficiency impairs tumour immune surveillance allowing survival of aberrant cells. Tumour growth and metastases are enhanced by; telomerase reactivation which increases the number of cell divisions a cell can undergo; vascular endothelial growth factor for angiogenesis and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that destroy the intercellular matrix between cells. Despite these potential triggers, the disease is usually unilateral. It is unclear how HPV reaches the conjunctiva.

Paul O, Kioko U, Muriithi EM, Odhiambo T, Samwel O. Mwanda. "Peer Education and Behaviour Change on Hiv/Aids Prevention in Secondary Schools in Rachuonyo District, Kenya: Prospects and Policy." Global Journal of Human Social Sciences . 2014;14-G(4 Version 1.0).
Calatayud PA, Silvain JF, Branca A, Dupas S, Gigot G, Ong'amo G, LeRu B, Campagne P, Sezonlin M, Faure N. "Phylogeography in continuous space: coupling species distribution models and circuit theory to assess the effect of contiguous migration at different climatic periods on ….". 2014.
Yenesew A, Judith O, Saffudin D, Catherine L. "Phytochemical screening of Dierama cupuliflorum Klatt. (Iridaceae)." Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2014; 8:589-592. Abstractpaper_72_judith_et_al_jou_of_pharma._res._2014.pdf

Background: Plants continue to play a vital role in their therapeutic value. This is because of the vast secondary metabolites that many of them produce. These natural products have been utilised as single or in combination with other compounds for utilization as source of drugs for many ailments in form of antibacterials, antifungals, antivirals, antihelminthes, and antimalarials among others. Plants evaluated phytochemically in most cases have previous reports on biological activity, ethnomedicinal or traditional medicine usage. However, many other plants with no such previous reports may be as important with variety of natural products with potential significance in pharmaceuticals for drug development. Dierama cupuliflorum is one such plant. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of phytochemicals in this plant. Method : The organic solvent extracts from Methanol: Dichloromethane (1:1) along with dry powder/ground portions from corms and aerial parts were screened for the presence of selected phytochemicals using standard chemical procedures. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of terpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavanoids, glycosides and anthraquinones. More phytochemicals were detected in corms than in the aerial parts. Conclusion: Although there is no available report on the use of this plant for medicinal purposes, the phytochemical data presented here has demonstrated that this plant has the potential to be used significantly for therapeutic purposes in many health challenges. This study has therefore laid down a good foundation for future studies on this plant whose bioactivity studies are currently underway.

Judith O, Saffudin D, Catherine L, Abiy Y. "Phytochemical screening of Dierama cupuliflorum Klatt.(Iridaceae)." Journal of Pharmacy Research Vol. 2014;8(4):589-592.
Judith O, Saffudin D, Catherine L, Abiy Y. "Phytochemical screening of Dierama cupuliflorum Klatt.(Iridaceae)." Journal of Pharmacy Research Vol. 2014;8(4):589-592.
SD G, D P, Linden A AG, E B, J.F C, SR F, P J, M K, M L, F L, MA M, E O'F, S O, R R, F A. "A pilot comparison of standardized online surgical curricula for use in low- and middle-income countries." JAMA Surg. 2014;149(4):341-316.
Kibore B, Gitao C.G, Sangula A, P. K. "Porcine FMD Sero-prevalence in Kenya and its potential effect." American Journal of Research Communication. 2014;2(10):105-126.kibore_2.pdf
Sitienei JK, Kipruto K, Borus P, Nyambati V, Sitienei JC, Kihara AB, Kosgei RJ. "Predictors of low body mass index among patients with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Kenya." International Journal of Tropical Disease & Health. 2014;4(4):427-436.predictors_of_low_body_mass_index_among_patients_with_smear_positive_pulmonary_tuberculosis_in_kenya.pdf
Edwards JK, Thiongó A, den Bergh VR, Kizito W, Kosgei RJ, Sobry A, Vandenbulcke A, Zuniga I, Reid AJ. "Preventable but neglected: rickets in an informal settlement, Nairobi, Kenya." Public Health Action. 2014;4(2):122-127.preventable_but_neglected-_rickets_in_an_informal_settlement__nairobi_kenya.pdf
Twikirize JM, Spitzer H, Wairire GG, Maboyo ZM, Rutikanga C. "Professional Social Work in East Africa: Towards Social Development, Poverty Reduction and Gender Equality.". In: Professional Social Work in East Africa: Empirical Evidence. Kampala: Fountain Publishers; 2014.
Simiyu J, WAITA SEBASTIAN, Robinson Musembi, Ogacho A, Aduda B. "Promotion of PV Uptake and Sector Growth in Kenya through Value Added Training in PV Sizing, Installation and Maintenance." Energy Procedia . 2014;57 :817-825.
Simiyu J, WAITA SEBASTIAN, Robinson Musembi, Ogacho A, Aduda B. "Promotion of PV Uptake and Sector Growth in Kenya through Value Added Training in PV Sizing, Installation and Maintenance." Energy Procedia. 2014;7:817-825.
Simiyu J., Waita S, Musembi R, Ogacho A, Aduda B. Promotion of PV Uptake and Sector Growth in Kenya through Value Added Training in PV Sizing, Installation and Maintenance. Cancun, Mexico: Science Direct Energy Procedia ; 2014.
Simiyu J, WAITA SEBASTIAN, Robinson Musembi, Ogacho A, Aduda B. "Promotion of PV Uptake and Sector Growth in Kenya through Value Added Training in PV Sizing, Installation and Maintenance." Energy Procedia. 2014;57:817-825. Abstract

Sub-Saharan Africa, and more specifically the East African region, has the lowest rates of access to electricity in the world. On average, at most 15% of the rural population has access to electricity. Rural households and remote institutions use traditional energy sources such as charcoal, firewood, kerosene and diesel for generator sets, batteries and dry cell batteries. On the other hand, the region is one of the most promising in the world in economic development with growth levels being high and market saturation is a far away future problem. This growth has
however been hampered by several factors with lack of energy being one of them. Kenya being one of the countries
in the region faces a similar problem with the traditional sources of hydro facing weather related challenges. The
situation is more wanting in the rural setting having only achieved electrification rates of between 5 and 10%. The rural being where the majority of low-income earning groups reside is further compounded with large geographical imbalance in electricity demand and supply. The main challenge to adopting pv utilization however, is lack of local capacity to handle the uptake all the way from solar home systems to grid connected and hybrid systems. According to Kenya Renewable Energy Association (KEREA), it is estimated that between 800 and 1000 pv technicians have been in practice since this sector started in Kenya in the late eighties, majority of them having the basic skills but no formal training to provide the service. They however have been offering necessary service to end-users and are hence an important aspect in the pv sector as a whole. Currently the pv (mainly SHS) comprise an over the counter trade system which provides loopholes when it comes to quality of products and installation. To safeguard the quality and safety of installations, formal training has to be incorporated in the system.

Mailu SK, Wanyoike M, Serem JK, Gachuiri CK. "Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) breed characteristics, farmer objectives and preferences in Kenya: a correspondence analysis." Discourse Journals. 2014;2(4):118-125.
Sarguta R, Ottieno JAM. "Recursive Route to Mixed Poisson distributions using Integration by Parts." Mathematical Theory and Modeling. 2014;4(14):144-152.
Kivengea GM, Mtiba MJ, Sigana DO, Muthumbi AW. "Reproductive biology of common octopus Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier, 1797), on the Kenyan South coast." Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science. 2014;13(1):47-56.
E M, B B, J C, J E, C H-F, M K, A M, D M, I S, G S, M S, B M, R R, N M, S O, AO M, C H-H, O O, A ES, C M, J M, M E, J DV, M L, G S, H C, G P, B K, A M, E S, JC M, B H, N B, M N, C A, N L, M M, S K, P K, M S, L S, M MC, C R. "Research capacity. Enabling the genomic revolution in Africa." Science. 2014;344(6190):1346-1348.
Birithia RK, Subramanian S, Muthomi JW, Narla RD. "Resistance to Iris yellow spot virus and onion thrips among onion varieties grown in Kenya." International Journal of Tropical Insect Science . 2014;34(2):73-79.
Sihanya B. "Rights in a performance in Kenya." South African Intellectual Property Law Journal . 2014:59-85.
Onjala J, Ndiritu SW, Stage J. "Risk perception, choice of drinking water and water treatment: evidence from Kenyan Towns." Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development. 2014;04(2):268-280.
Irandu EM, Shah P. "The Role of Ecotourism in Promoting Women Empowerment and Community Development: Some Reflections from Kenya ." Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Management. 2014; 2(6):245-259.
Nyerere YFAGOJ, J. MO, D. Fuh N, Sulemana, Mutisya E, Fadairo O, Ameyaw J, Oluoko-Odingo AA. "The Role of Higher Education in Building a Sustainable African Society." African journal of Sustainable Development.. 2014;Vol. 4 (3), (Special).
Otieno GL, Opijah FJ, Mutemi JN, Ogallo LA, Anyah RO, Ongoma V, Sabiiti G. "Seasonal rainfall forecasting using the Multi-Model Ensemble Technique over the Greater Horn of Africa." International Journal of Physical Sciences. 2014;2(6):095-104. AbstractICPAC

This study evaluated the skill of forecasting seasonal rainfall over the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) using Ensemble Model Technique from a cluster of four General Circulation Climate Models (GCMs) from Global Producing Centers (GPCs). The spatial distribution of rainfall anomalies of the observed models output during extreme events showed that the ensemble model was able to simulate El-Niño (1997) and La-Niña (2000) years. The ensemble models did not show good skill in capturing the magnitude of the extreme events. The skill of the ensemble model was higher than that for the member models in terms of its ability to capture the rainfall peaks during the El-Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomena. The analysis for the correlation coefficients showed higher values for the ensemble model output than for the individual models over the Equatorial region with the stations in the northern and southern sectors of the GHA comparatively giving low skill. The ensemble modeling technique significantly improved the skill of forecasting, including the sectors where individual models had low skill. In general, the skill of the models was relatively higher during the onset of the ENSO event and became low towards the decaying phase of the ENSO period. Generally, the study has shown that the ensemble seasonal forecasting significantly adds skill to the forecasts especially for October-December (OND) rainy seasons. From the study, ensemble seasonal forecasting significantly adds skill to the forecasts over the region

Mulwa JK, Kimata F, Suzuki S, Kuria ZN. "The seismicity in Kenya (East Africa) for the period 1906 – 2010: A review." Journal of African Earth Sciences. 2014;89(1):72-78. AbstractWebsite

Kenya has had a seismic station since 1963 as part of the World Wide Standardized Seismograph Network (WWSSN). In 1990, the University of Nairobi in collaboration with GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ) started to build up a local seismological network, the Kenya National Seismic Network (KNSN), which operated for about ten years between 1993-2002. This, however, experienced a myriad of problems ranging from equipment breakdown, vandalism and lack of spares. Kenya is seismically active since the Kenya rift valley traverses through the country from north to south bisecting the country into eastern and western regions. In the central part, the Kenya rift branches to form the NE-SW trending Kavirondo (Nyanza) rift. The Kenya rift valley and the Kavirondo (Nyanza) rift are the most seismically active where earthquakes of local magnitude (Ml) in the order of 2.0 – 5.0 occur. Furthermore, historical records show that earthquakes of magnitudes of the order of Ml  6.0 have occurred in Kenya. Such large magnitude earthquakes include the January 6, 1928 Subukia earthquake (Ml 7.1) and an aftershock (Ml 6.2) four days later, as well as the 1913 Turkana region earthquake (Ml 6.2). Since early 1970’s, numerous seismic investigations have been undertaken in Kenya in order to understand the formation and structure of the Kenyan part of the East African rift valley. Earthquake data from these studies is, however, rather disorganized and individual datasets, including that acquired during the period 1993-2002, cannot furnish us with comprehensive information on the seismicity of Kenya for the past ~100 years. The purpose of this paper is, therefore, to review the seismicity in Kenya for the period 1906-2010 by utilizing data and results from different sources. The general seismicity of Kenya has been evaluated using historical data, data recorded by local seismic networks, the United States Geological Survey catalogue as well as earthquake data from the numerous seismic investigations by different individuals and research groups. On the basis of earthquake data from these sources, the entire N-S trending Kenya rift valley and the NE-SW trending Nyanza (Kavirondo) rift are characterized by a high rate of seismicity, and the USGS network has been effective in detecting local M > 3.0 earthquakes. A peculiar trend is exhibited by earthquakes of Ml  5.1 in that these occur along the N-S and NE-SW trending Kenya rift valley and the Kavirondo (Nyanza) rift zone respectively. Earthquake data from the various sources for the period 1906-2010 is complete for Ml  4.4 earthquakes with a b-value of 0.79 which is characteristic of tectonic active regions like rifts. There is need to revive and extend the KNSN for a greater coverage and effective seismic monitoring in Kenya.

Mulwa JK, Kimata F, Suzuki S, Kuria ZN. "The seismicity in Kenya (East Africa) for the period 1906–2010: A review." Journal of African Earth Sciences. 2014;89:72-78. AbstractFull Text

Kenya has had a seismic station since 1963 as part of the World Wide Standardized Seismograph Network (WWSSN). In 1990, the University of Nairobi in collaboration with GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ) started to build up a local seismological network, the Kenya National Seismic Network (KNSN), which operated for about ten years between 1993–2002. This, however, experienced a myriad of problems ranging from equipment breakdown, vandalism and lack of spares. Kenya is seismically active since the Kenya rift valley traverses through the country from north to south bisecting the country into eastern and western regions. In the central part, the Kenya rift branches to form the NW-SE trending Kavirondo (Nyanza) rift. The Kenya rift valley and the Kavirondo (Nyanza) rift are the most seismically active where earthquakes of local magnitude (Ml) in the order of ⩽2.0–5.0 occur. Furthermore, historical records show that earthquakes of magnitudes of the order of Ml ⩾ 6.0 have occurred in Kenya. Such large magnitude earthquakes include the January 6, 1928 Subukia earthquake (Ml 7.1) and an aftershock (Ml 6.2) four days later, as well as the 1913 Turkana region earthquake (Ml 6.2). Since early 1970’s, numerous seismic investigations have been undertaken in Kenya in order to understand the formation and structure of the Kenyan part of the East African rift valley. Earthquake data from these studies is, however, rather disorganized and individual datasets, including that acquired during the period 1993–2002, cannot furnish us with comprehensive information on the seismicity of Kenya for the past ∼100 years. The purpose of this paper is, therefore, to review the seismicity in Kenya for the period 1906–2010 by utilizing data and results from different sources. The general seismicity of Kenya has been evaluated using historical data, data recorded by local seismic networks, the United States Geological Survey catalogue as well as earthquake data from the numerous seismic investigations by different individuals and research groups. On the basis of earthquake data from these sources, the entire N–S trending Kenya rift valley and the NW-SE trending Nyanza (Kavirondo) rift are characterized by a high rate of seismicity, and the USGS network has been effective in detecting local M > 3.0 earthquakes. A peculiar trend is exhibited by earthquakes of Ml ⩾ 5.1 in that these occur along the N-S and NW-SE trending Kenya rift valley and the Kavirondo (Nyanza) rift zone respectively. Earthquake data from the various sources for the period 1906–2010 is complete for Ml ⩾ 4.4 earthquakes with a b-value of 0.79 which is characteristic of tectonic active regions like rifts. There is need to revive and extend the KNSN for a greater coverage and effective seismic monitoring in Kenya.

WAITA SEBASTIAN, Simiyu J, Kiragu AN, Imali V, Aduda B. "A Simple Low Cost Solar Cell Characterization Laboratory Experiment for Senior Undergraduate Students.". 2014. AbstractFull text link

A simple low cost solar cell characterization experiment has been developed for senior undergraduate students in the Department of Physics, University of Nairobi. Experiments were conducted with 20 W and 40 W power solar modules on different sunny days and times at the open roof top of Physics Department, University of Nairobi. It was observed that the current- voltage (I-V) curves obtained for all the measurements were very similar for each module despite the day or time of measurement. The fill factor (FF), short circuit current (Isc), open circuit voltage (Voc), maximum current (Im) and maximum voltage (Vm) were very similar to those supplied by the manufacturer, an indication of reliability and accuracy of the method. The technique eliminates the need for expensive characterization equipment like solar simulators.

Ebeshi BU, Bolaji OO, Oluka MN, Edebi VN, Soyinka JO, Guantai AN. "Simple Reversed-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Estimation of the Antiretroviral Agent Efavirenz from Human Plasma." British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2014;4(1):145-157. Abstract2014_-_simple_reversed-phase_high_performance.pdf

Aims: Sequel to the resurgence of TB co-infection in HIV/AIDS patients in sub-Saharan Africa, efavirenz has become an important component of the highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). The objective of this study therefore is to provide a simple reversedphase high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of efavirenz in human plasma.

Study Design: Method development and experimental study.
Place and Duration of Study: School of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya, between October 2009 and September 2010.

Methodology: A 500μl drug-free plasma sample was each placed in six different centrifuge tubes (2ml) and varying aliquots of the stock solution (100μg/ml) of efavirenz were spiked and vortexed for 60sec to give concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 and 16μg/ml for calibration standards and 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 and 16.0μg/ml for quality control samples. The off-column sample pretreatment was carried out by protein precipitation
using ice-cold acetonitrile. The samples were chromatographed in a phenomenex (C18) 5μm particle size column with 250x4.6mm I.D and UV detection at 254nm using a mobile phase, which was made up of a mixture of solutions A and B. Both consisted of acetonitrile, 25mM ammonium acetate buffer and glacial acetic acid in proportions of 90:10:0.1 and 10:90:0.1(v/v), respectively. The analytical technique was validated for precision, accuracy and analyte recovery.

Results: The calibration plot for efavirenz was found to be linear over the concentration range of 0.5 to 16.0μg/ml with the regression line equation obtained as y=26842x–409.4 and the regression coefficient (R2=0.999), which allows for accurate reading of the concentrations of the test samples. The RSD (%) in intraday and interday assays ranged from 0.44 to 0.78%. Accuracy ranged from 92 to 110% and the recovery was >97%.

Conclusion: This new HPLC method is simple, reproducible and cost-effective and can be used for therapeutic drug monitoring of efavirenz in HIV/AIDS patients on HAART as demonstrated in this study.

Ebeshi BU, Bolaji OO, Oluka MN, Edebi VN, Soyinka JO, Guantai AN. "Simple Reversed-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Estimation of the Antiretroviral Agent Efavirenz from Human Plasma." Br. J. Pharmaceut. Res. . 2014;4(1):145-157.
Yusuf A, Gitu P, Bhatt BM, Njogu M, Salim A, Orata D. "Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis of Arginine-vasopressin With Amide Side chain of Asparagine Protected With 1-Tetralinyl Group." Journal of Chemistry & Materials Research. 2014;6(4):60-65.
Yusuf AO, Gitu PM, Bhatt BM, Njogu M, Salim A, Orata D. "Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis of Arginine-vasopressin With Amide Side chain of Asparagine Protected With 1-Tetralinyl Group." Journal of Chemistry & Materials Research. 2014;6(4):60-65.cmr_spps_arg_vaso.pdf
Yusuf A, Gitu P, Bhatt B, Njogu M, Salim A, Orata D. "Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis of Arginine-vasopressin with Amide Side-chain of Asparagine Protected with 1-Tetralinyl Group." Chemistry and Materials Research. 2014;6(4):60.scan0010.pdf
Yusuf A, Gitu P, Bhatt B, Njogu M, Salim A, Orata D. "Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis of Arginine-vasopressin with Amide Side-chain of Asparagine Protected with 1-Tetralinyl Group." Chemistry and Materials Research. 2014;6(4). AbstractChemistry and Materials Research

Description
Arginine-vasopressin, a nonapeptide amide, was synthesized on a benzhydryl-resin using the Boc-strategy. Benzyl group was used in the protection of sulfhydryl group of cysteine and tyrosine side-chain. Benzhydryl, tetralinyl and tosyl groups were used in the protection of glutamine, asparagine and arginine side-chains respectively. TFMSATFA-thioanisole-1, 2-ethanedithiol (2: 20: 2: 1 v/v) was used to cleave the peptide from the resin under different conditions to obtain arginine-vasopressin in a one-pot reaction. The cleavage at 40 C for two hours gave argininevasopressin quantitatively (77% yield)

M. NL, S G, L W, N. KE. "Some Determinants of Students Performance in Biology in KCSE: A Case of Central Division of Machakos District. ." International Journal of Innovative Research & Studies. 2014;3(1):553-567.Website
Wabwire B, Saidi H. "Stratified Outcome Evaluation of Peritonitis." Afr Surg . 2014;11:29-34.
Mutonyi J, Shibairo SI, Chemining’wa GN, Olubayo FM, Nyongesa HW. "Sugarcane response to liming, manuring and inorganic fertilizers on acid acrisols in western Kenya. ." International Journal of Recent Scientific Research . 2014;5(9):1703-1707.
Okumu PO, Gathumbi PK, Karanja DN, Bebora LC, Mande JD, Serem JK, Wanyoike MM, Gachuiri C, Mwanza RN, Mailu SK. "Survey of health status of domestic rabbits in selected organized farms in Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Sciences. 2014;4(1):15-21.
Samuel Kiboi, Kazue Fujiwara PM. "Sustainable Management of Urban Green Environments: Challenges and Opportunities.". In: sustainable living with enviromental risks. tokyo heidelberg newyork dordrecht london: springer open; 2014.abstract_sustainable_living_with_environmental_risks.pdf
Siriba DN, Mwenda JN, Dalyot S. "Time-enabled two-dimensional digital cadastre: Case of the Kenyan cadastre." South-Eastern European Journal of Earth Observation and Geomatics. 2014;3(1):109-121.
Siriba DN, Mwenda JN, Dalyot S. "Time‐Enabled Two‐Dimensional Digital Cadastre: Case of the Kenyan Cadastre." South‐Eastern European Journal of Earth Observation and Geomatics. 2014;3(1s):109-121.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Sanja L, Mbuthia E. "Towards Re -defining the Institution of Marriage: New Historicism Approach to Kiswahili Prose." International Journal of Liberal Arts and Social Science. 2014;2(7):115-123.
Birech Z, Schwoerer M. "Ultrafast dynamics of excitons in tetracene single crystals." The Journal of Chemical Physics. 2014;140:114501.birech_et_al.pdf
S G, E EH, W. A. "Understanding as a Concept in Education: Conceptions and Alternative Interpretations." Journal of Educational and Social Research. 2014;4(1):339-344. Website
Sihanya B. "Understanding IP and related rights." Utafiti News a publication of the Office of the Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Research Production and Extension), University of Nairobi. 2014.
Ogeng’o J, Olabu B, Sinkeet R, Ogeng’o NM, Elbusaid H. "Vertebral Artery Hypoplasia in a Black Kenyan Population." Hindawi Publishing Corporation International Scholarly Research Notices. 2014;2014:5. AbstractVertebral Artery Hypoplasia in a Black Kenyan Population

Vertebral artery hypoplasia (VAH) refers to those arteries
with diameter of less than 2.0mm [1–3].This condition predisposes
to posterior circulation stroke [4–7] and vertebral
artery (VA) atherosclerosis [2, 8, 9] and can be confusedwith
pathological occlusion from, say, atherosclerosis or dissection
[10]. It is also associated deformities of other arterial components
of posterior circulation including basilar and posterior
communicating arteries [11, 12].Characteristics of this condition
are also important in selection andmoulding of catheters
during interventional neuroradiological procedures as well
as mitigating complications of endovascular treatment and
prognostication of cerebrovascular disease [11].
These characteristics of VAH show ethnic variation [13,
14]. As intracranial cerebral atherosclerosis becomes more
common in Sub-Saharan African countries [15], there is
need for data on African populations to informmanagement
of disorders in posterior circulation. There are, however,
currently few data from black African populations. This
study, therefore, investigated the pattern of vertebral artery
hypoplasia in an adult black population.

Negera A, Matthias H, Midiwo JO, Ndakala A, Majer Z, Neumann B, Stammler H, Sewald N, Yenesew A. "A xanthone and a phenylanthraquinone from the roots of Bulbine frutescens and the revision of six seco-anthraquinones into xanthones." Phytochemistry Letters. 2014;9:67-73.
Anthony Egeru, Osaliya R, MacOpiyo L, Mburu J, Oliver Wasonga, Barasa B, Said M, Aleper D, Majaliwa Mwanjalolo G-J. "Assessing the spatio-temporal climate variability in semi-arid Karamoja sub-region in north-eastern Uganda." International Journal of Environmental Studies. 2014;71:490-509. Abstract
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Kimani PM, Mulanya MM, Narla RD, Ambuko J, Ouma L, Shibairo S, Hutchinson M, Owino WO, Njuguna J, Kosgei PK, others. "Breeding runner bean for grain yield, disease resistance and short-day adaptation in eastern Africa.". In: Proc. Fourth RUFORUM Biennial Conference.; 2014:. Abstract
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Ulrich W, Soliveres S, Maestre FT, Gotelli NJ, Quero JL, Delgado-Baquerizo M, Bowker MA, Eldridge DJ, Ochoa V, Gozalo B, others. "Climate and soil attributes determine plant species turnover in global drylands." Journal of biogeography. 2014;41:2307-2319. Abstract
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Ouma L, Ambuko J, Shibairo SI, Owino WO, Hutchinson M, Njuguna J, Books R, Oer R, Scarda R. "Comparison of quality attributes of mango fruits produced from two contrasting agro-ecological zones of Kenya.". 2014. Abstract
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Thakral M, Leveille S, Stuart-Shor E. "A Critical Analysis of Multidimensional Pain Instruments.". In: NURSING RESEARCH. Vol. 63. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS 530 WALNUT ST, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19106-3621 USA; 2014:. Abstract
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Birech Z, Schwoerer M, Pflaum J, Schwoerer H. "Davydov splitting in triplet excitons of tetracene single crystals.". In: Frontiers in Optics. Optical Society of America; 2014:. Abstract
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Brooks P, Spillane JJ, Dick K, Stuart-Shor E. "Developing a strategy to identify and treat older patients with postoperative delirium." AORN journal. 2014;99:256-276. Abstract
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Nyambura M, Gatari M, Hillier S, Shepherd KD,... "Development of an X-ray method for mineralogical analysis of Africa soils using a benchtop diffractometer." Food and nutrition …. 2014. AbstractWebsite

Page 1. www.mtt.fi/foodafrica Development of an x-ray method for mineralogical analysis of Africa soils using a benchtop diffractometer 16 June 2014, Helsinki, Finland. FoodAfrica midterm seminar Mercy Nyambura1*, 2, Michael Gatari1, Stephen Hillier3*, Keith D. Shepherd2, Esala Martti4 …

Xu X, Du Q, Peng B, Xiong Q, Hong L, Demir HV, Wong TKS, Kyaw AKK, Sun X. "Effect of shell thickness on small-molecule solar cells enhanced by dual plasmonic gold-silica nanorods." Applied Physics Letters. 2014;105:148\_1. Abstract
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Mwachaka P, Saidi H, Odula P, Mandela P, Mwachaka P, Saidi H, Odula P, Mandela P. "Effects of {Monocular} {Deprivation} on the {Dendritic} {Features} of {Retinal} {Ganglion} {Cells}." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MORPHOLOGY. 2014;32:1144-1151. AbstractWebsite
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Mwachaka P, Saidi H, Odula P, Mandela P, Mwachaka P, Saidi H, Odula P, Mandela P. "Effects of {Monocular} {Deprivation} on the {Dendritic} {Features} of {Retinal} {Ganglion} {Cells}." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MORPHOLOGY. 2014;32:1144-1151. AbstractWebsite
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Ambuko J, Yumbya MP, Shibairo S, Owino WO. "Efficacy of 1–methylcyclopropene in purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) as affected by dosage and maturity stage." International Journal of Postharvest Technology and Innovation. 2014;4:126-137. Abstract
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Owino WO, Yumbya P, Shibairo S, Ambuko J. "Efficacy of Activebag® packaging on postharvest quality of purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims).". In: XXIX International Horticultural Congress on Horticulture: Sustaining Lives, Livelihoods and Landscapes (IHC2014): 1120.; 2014:. Abstract
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Xu X, Kyaw AKK, Peng B, Du Q, Hong L, Demir HV, Wong TKS, Xiong Q, Sun X. "Enhanced efficiency of solution-processed small-molecule solar cells upon incorporation of gold nanospheres and nanorods into organic layers." Chemical Communications. 2014;50:4451-4454. Abstract
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Stephen M Mureithi, Ann Verdoodt CKKGJNVWSDNEMEVRTO. "Impact of enclosure management on soil properties and microbial biomass in a restored semi-arid rangeland, Kenya." Journal of Arid Land. 2014. Abstract
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Libby JM, Stuart-Shor E, Patankar A. "The implementation of a clinical toolkit and adolescent depression screening program in primary care." Clinical pediatrics. 2014;53:1336-1344. Abstract
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Crabtree MM, Stuart-Shor E. "Implementing Home Blood Pressure Monitoring Into Usual Care." The Journal for Nurse Practitioners. 2014;10:607-610. Abstract
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Cohen B, Cohen JL, Stuart-Shor EM. "Integration of an Advanced Heart Failure Pathway in a Rural Community-based Multispecialty Practice." Circulation. 2014;130:A17603. Abstract
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Saidi H, ONGETI K, Mandela P, Mwachaka P, Olabu B. "Kiman's histology text and manual.". 2014. AbstractWebsite
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Saidi H, ONGETI K, Mandela P, Mwachaka P, Olabu B. "Kiman's histology text and manual.". 2014. AbstractWebsite
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Koyio LN, van der Sanden WJM, Dimba EO, Mulder J, van der Ven AJAM, Merkx MAW, Frencken JE. "Knowledge of Nairobi East District Community Health Workers concerning HIV-related orofacial lesions and other common oral lesions." BMC public health. 2014;14:1-8. Abstract
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Silvestri DM, Blevins M, Afzal AR, Andrews B, Derbew M, Kaur S, Mipando M, Mkony CA, Mwachaka PM, Ranjit N, others. "Medical and nursing students' intentions to work abroad or in rural areas: a cross-sectional survey in {Asia} and {Africa}." Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2014;92:750-759. AbstractWebsite
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Silvestri DM, Blevins M, Afzal AR, Andrews B, Derbew M, Kaur S, Mipando M, Mkony CA, Mwachaka PM, Ranjit N, others. "Medical and nursing students' intentions to work abroad or in rural areas: a cross-sectional survey in {Asia} and {Africa}." Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2014;92:750-759. AbstractWebsite
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Baldassarre R, Mdodo R, Omonge E, Jaoko W, Bradley J, Pappas P, Abans I, Odera S, Suleh A, Jolly PE. "Mortality after clinical management of AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis in Kenya." East African medical journal. 2014;91:145-151. Abstract
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Skoracki M, Klimovičová MIROSLAVA, Muchai M, Hromada M. "New taxa of the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Prostigmata) from African barbets and woodpeckers (Piciformes: Lybiidae, Picidae)." Zootaxa. 2014;3768:178-188. Abstract
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Koyio LN, van der Sanden WJM, Dimba E, Mulder J, Creugers NHJ, Merkx MAW, van der Ven A, Frencken JE. "Oral health training programs for community and professional health care workers in Nairobi East District increases identification of HIV-infected patients." PLoS One. 2014;9:e90927. Abstract
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Hudson LN, Newbold T, Contu S, Hill SLL, Lysenko I, De Palma A, Phillips HRP, Senior RA, Bennett DJ, Booth H, others. "The PREDICTS database." Ecology and Evolution. 2014. Abstract
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Hudson LN, Newbold T, Contu S, Hill SLL, Lysenko I, De Palma A, Phillips HRP, Senior RA, Bennett DJ, Booth H, others. "The PREDICTS database: a global database of how local terrestrial biodiversity responds to human impacts." Ecology and evolution. 2014;4:4701-4735. Abstract
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Glaser E, Stuart-Shor E, Sullivan M. "Redefining global health-care delivery." The Lancet. 2014;383:694-695. Abstract
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Yuan Z, Song W, Liu Y, Kang X, Peng B, Wang T. "Regeneration of SO2-loaded sodium phosphate solution in rotating packed bed." Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan. 2014;47:777-781. Abstract
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Chen S, Peng B, Lu F, Mei Y, Cheng F, Deng L, Xiong Q, Wang L, Sun X, Huang W. "Scattering or Photoluminescence? Major Mechanism Exploration on Performance Enhancement in P3HT-Based Polymer Solar Cells with NaYF4: 2% Er3+, 18% Yb3+ Upconverting Nanocrystals." Advanced Optical Materials. 2014;2:442-449. Abstract
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Peng B, Soligno G, Kamp M, De Nijs B, De Graaf J, Dijkstra M, Van Roij R, van Blaaderen A, Imhof A. "Site-specific growth of polymers on silica rods." Soft Matter. 2014;10:9644-9650. Abstract
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2013
Kharlamov AN, Duckers HJ, van Beusekom HMM, Smits PC, Perin EC, Serruys PW. "Do we have a future with transcatheter adventitial delivery of stem cells?" International journal of cardiology. 2013;165:217-221. Abstract

Critically evaluating the methodology of the adventitial delivery of stem cells, some specific options should be underlined. Adventitia as the most superficial layer, consisting of connective tissue has to be distinguished of perivascular tissues. By strict definition, an adventitia is the outermost connective tissue covering any organ, or vessel. The "adventitial" delivery of stem cells with a 1mm micro-needle means a delivery to superficial so called pericardial myocardium, perivascular fat tissues, including a risk of perforation and injury of soft tissues. In fact, the mapping of the artery with visualization of the three-layer vessel structure and perivascular tissues as well as pericardial space with the state-of-the-art imaging approaches including IVUS (intravascular ultrasound) or OCT (optical coherence tomography) allows to find an optimal site for injection, prevents any technical complications and improves efficacy. NOGA magnetic navigation system still remains the optimal tool for the stem cell delivery to myocardium with appropriate visualization of necrosis and peri-infarct tissues. Potentially, more advanced imaging provides a chance to deliver infusate to the adventitial layer, which is a gate to the vessel wall for inflammation as well as a source of stem and progenitor cells, and myofibroblasts.

Avery K, Barham C, Berrisford R, Blazeby J, Blencowe N, Donovan J, Elliott J, Falk S, Goldin R, Hanna G, Hollowood A, Metcalfe C, Noble S, Sanders G, Streets C, Titcomb D, Wheatley T. "Understanding surgical interventions in {RCTs}: the need for better methodology." The Lancet. 2013;381:27-28. AbstractWebsite
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Tian J, Hu S, Sun Y, Yu H, Han X, Cheng W, Ban X, Zhang S, Yu B, Jang I-K. "Vasa vasorum and plaque progression, and responses to atorvastatin in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis: contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging and intravascular ultrasound study." Heart (British Cardiac Society). 2013;99:48-54. Abstract

{OBJECTIVES: To serially investigate the relationship between vasa vasorum (VV) proliferation and plaque progression in vivo, and the effects of atorvastatin on VV and atherosclerosis as assessed by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging. METHODS: Carotid atherosclerosis was induced in rabbits with a high-cholesterol diet for 20 weeks and balloon injury. At week 16, following the imaging of the right common carotid arteries by CEUS and IVUS, 20 rabbits were randomised into a control or atorvastatin group (2 mg/kg/day). At week 20, CEUS and IVUS were repeated. Normalised maximal video-intensity enhancement (MVE) was calculated to quantify the density of VV. Plaque volume was determined by IVUS. RESULTS: When compared with the control group, lipid levels were not significantly lower following 4 weeks of atorvastatin administration. The increases in the normalised MVE over time were greater in the control group than in the atorvastatin group (p=0.001). The increase in plaque volume from 16 to 20 weeks was significantly greater in the control group than in the atorvastatin group (p=0.001). There was a positive relationship between changes in normalised MVE and plaque volume (r=0.72

Tian J, Hu S, Sun Y, Yu H, Han X, Cheng W, Ban X, Zhang S, Yu B, Jang I-K. "Vasa vasorum and plaque progression, and responses to atorvastatin in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis: contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging and intravascular ultrasound study." Heart (British Cardiac Society). 2013;99:48-54. Abstract

{OBJECTIVES: To serially investigate the relationship between vasa vasorum (VV) proliferation and plaque progression in vivo, and the effects of atorvastatin on VV and atherosclerosis as assessed by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging. METHODS: Carotid atherosclerosis was induced in rabbits with a high-cholesterol diet for 20 weeks and balloon injury. At week 16, following the imaging of the right common carotid arteries by CEUS and IVUS, 20 rabbits were randomised into a control or atorvastatin group (2 mg/kg/day). At week 20, CEUS and IVUS were repeated. Normalised maximal video-intensity enhancement (MVE) was calculated to quantify the density of VV. Plaque volume was determined by IVUS. RESULTS: When compared with the control group, lipid levels were not significantly lower following 4 weeks of atorvastatin administration. The increases in the normalised MVE over time were greater in the control group than in the atorvastatin group (p=0.001). The increase in plaque volume from 16 to 20 weeks was significantly greater in the control group than in the atorvastatin group (p=0.001). There was a positive relationship between changes in normalised MVE and plaque volume (r=0.72

Tofighi H, Taghadosi-nejad F, Abbaspour A, Behnoush B, Salimi A, Dabiran S, Ghorbani A, Okazi A. "The {Anatomical} {Position} of {Appendix} in {Iranian} {Cadavers}." International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Forensic Medicine. 2013;3:126-130. AbstractWebsite

Background : Vermiform appendix is different in terms of anatomical position, length and mesoappendix.  Knowing the anatomical position of vermiform appendix is important for the surgeons in terms of diagnosis and management. The aim of this study is analysis of length, anatomical position and mesoappendix of vermiform appendix. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study on the 400 randomly selected cadavers (306 male and 94 female) who have been referred to the autopsy hall of legal medicine organization of Tehran province to be autopsied between March 21, 2010 and March, 2011. The cause of death was very heterogeneous among autopsied cadavers. Results: According to our results the anatomical positions were pelvic, subcecal, retroileal, retrocaecal, ectopic and preileal in 55.8%, 19%, 12.5%, 7%, 4.2% and 1.5% respectively. The mean length of vermiform appendix was 91.2 mm and 80.3 mm in men and women, respectively. Mesoappendix was complete in 79.5% and incomplete in 20.5%. No association was seen between sex and anatomical position of vermiform appendix. Conclusion: Anterior anatomical position was the most frequent vermiform appendix position in our population which is in discrepancy with most of the reports from western countries. It might be possible that factors such as race, geographical regions and nutritional regiment play roles in determining the position of vermiform appendix.

Melakebehan H, Z.T. Z M, Yildiz S, Schmidt T, Teal T, Qi J, Gronseth J. "Hidden biological secrets that could revolutionize ecosystem based food security and adaptation to climate change in degraded sub-Saharan Africa soils.". In: UNEP Conference on Harnessing Ecosystem Services. Nairobi, Kenya; 2013.
Gathumbi PK, Varma VS, Gathumbi JK, Shah DN. "Ocular Neoplastic Lesions of the Horse in Kenya from Specimens Recceived between 1967 and 2013 in the University of Nairobi, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitiology.". In: 47th Annual Conference of the Kenya Veterinary Association. Mombasa, Kenya; 2013.
Gathumbi PK, Varma VS, Gathumbi JK, Shah DN. "Ocular Neoplastic Lesions of the Horse in Kenya from Specimens Recceived between 1967 and 2013 in the University of Nairobi, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitiology.". In: 47th Annual Conference of the Kenya Veterinary Association. Mombasa, Kenya; 2013. Abstract
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Ofula VO, Franklin AB, Root JJ, Sullivan HJ, Gichuki P, Makio A, Bulimo W, Abong'o BO, Muchai M, Schnabel D. "Detection of Avian Influenza Viruses in Wild Waterbirds in the Rift Valley of Kenya Using Fecal Sampling." Vector borne and zoonotic diseases (Larchmont, N.Y.). 2013. Abstractofula_et_al._2103.pdf

Abstract Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/H5N1 has been reported in 11 African countries. Migratory waterbirds have the potential of introducing A/H5N1 into east Africa through the Rift Valley of Kenya. We present the results of a wild bird surveillance system for A/H5N1 and other avian influenza viruses based on avian fecal sampling in Kenya. We collected 2630 fecal samples in 2008. Viral RNA was extracted from pools of 3-5 fecal samples and analyzed for presence of avian influenza virus RNA by real-time RT-PCR. Twelve (2.3%) of the 516 sample pools were positive for avian influenza virus RNA, 2 of which were subtyped as H4N6 viruses. This is the first report of avian influenza virus in wild birds in Kenya. This study demonstrates the success of this approach in detecting avian influenza virus in wild birds and represents an efficient surveillance system for avian influenza virus in regions with limited resources.

Karuga S, GATARI MJ, Maina DM, Shepherd KD, Nyambura, M., Galgallo A, Gichohi BM. "Uptake of Zinc in Sugarcane: An Experiment using samples from Nairobi River Basin.". In: 6th Africa Soil Science Society (ASSS) and the 27th Soil Science Society of East Africa (SSSEA) conference. Nakuru, Kenya; 2013.
Schroeder H. "S/A pivot in Toposa clause chaining.". In: Nilo-Saharan-Colloqium 2013. Cologne, Germany ; 2013.
Dimova I, Hlushchuk R, Makanya A, Styp-Rekowska B, Ceausu A, Flueckiger S, Lang S, Semela D, Le Noble F, Chatterjee S, Djonov V. "Inhibition of Notch signaling induces extensive intussusceptive neo-angiogenesis by recruitment of mononuclear cells." Angiogenesis. 2013;16(4):921-37. Abstract

Notch is an intercellular signaling pathway related mainly to sprouting neo-angiogenesis. The objective of our study was to evaluate the angiogenic mechanisms involved in the vascular augmentation (sprouting/intussusception) after Notch inhibition within perfused vascular beds using the chick area vasculosa and MxCreNotch1(lox/lox) mice. In vivo monitoring combined with morphological investigations demonstrated that inhibition of Notch signaling within perfused vascular beds remarkably induced intussusceptive angiogenesis (IA) with resultant dense immature capillary plexuses. The latter were characterized by 40 % increase in vascular density, pericyte detachment, enhanced vessel permeability, as well as recruitment and extravasation of mononuclear cells into the incipient transluminal pillars (quintessence of IA). Combination of Notch inhibition with injection of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells dramatically enhanced IA with 80 % increase in vascular density and pillar number augmentation by 420 %. Additionally, there was down-regulation of ephrinB2 mRNA levels consequent to Notch inhibition. Inhibition of ephrinB2 or EphB4 signaling induced some pericyte detachment and resulted in up-regulation of VEGFRs but with neither an angiogenic response nor recruitment of mononuclear cells. Notably, Tie-2 receptor was down-regulated, and the chemotactic factors SDF-1/CXCR4 were up-regulated only due to the Notch inhibition. Disruption of Notch signaling at the fronts of developing vessels generally results in massive sprouting. On the contrary, in the already existing vascular beds, down-regulation of Notch signaling triggered rapid augmentation of the vasculature predominantly by IA. Notch inhibition disturbed vessel stability and led to pericyte detachment followed by extravasation of mononuclear cells. The mononuclear cells contributed to formation of transluminal pillars with sustained IA resulting in a dense vascular plexus without concomitant vascular remodeling and maturation.

Ásbjörnsdóttir KH, Slyker JA, Weiss NS, Mbori-Ngacha D, Maleche-Obimbo E, Dalton Wamalwa, John-Stewart G. "Breastfeeding is associated with decreased pneumonia incidence among HIV-exposed, uninfected Kenyan infants." AIDS. 2013;27(17):2809-15. Abstract

HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants have higher infectious disease morbidity and mortality than unexposed infants. We determined the incidence and risk factors for pneumonia, a leading cause of infant mortality worldwide, in a cohort of HEU infants. Identifying predictors of pneumonia among HEU infants may enable early identification of those at highest risk.

Amornkul PN, Karita E, Kamali A, Rida WN, Sanders EJ, Lakhi S, Price MA, Kilembe W, Cormier E, Anzala O, Latka MH, Bekker L-G, Allen SA, Gilmour J, Fast PE. "Disease progression by infecting HIV-1 subtype in a seroconverter cohort in sub-Saharan Africa." AIDS. 2013;27(17):2775-86. Abstract

To describe immunologic, virologic, and clinical HIV disease progression by HIV-1 subtype among Africans with well documented estimated dates of HIV infection (EDIs).

Santos da Silva E, Mulinge M, Perez Bercoff D. "The frantic play of the concealed HIV envelope cytoplasmic tail." Retrovirology. 2013;10:54. Abstract

Lentiviruses have unusually long envelope (Env) cytoplasmic tails, longer than those of other retroviruses. Whereas the Env ectodomain has received much attention, the gp41 cytoplasmic tail (gp41-CT) is one of the least studied parts of the virus. It displays relatively high conservation compared to the rest of Env. It has been long established that the gp41-CT interacts with the Gag precursor protein to ensure Env incorporation into the virion. The gp41-CT contains distinct motifs and domains that mediate both intensive Env intracellular trafficking and interactions with numerous cellular and viral proteins, optimizing viral infectivity. Although they are not fully understood, a multiplicity of interactions between the gp41-CT and cellular factors have been described over the last decade; these interactions illustrate how Env expression and incorporation into virions is a finely tuned process that has evolved to best exploit the host system with minimized genetic information. This review addresses the structure and topology of the gp41-CT of lentiviruses (mainly HIV and SIV), their domains and believed functions. It also considers the cellular and viral proteins that have been described to interact with the gp41-CT, with a particular focus on subtype-related polymorphisms.

Souza JP, Gülmezoglu AM, Vogel J, Carroli G, Lumbiganon P, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Costa MJ, Fawole B, Mugerwa Y, Nafiou I, Neves I, Wolomby-Molondo J-J, Bang HT, Cheang K, Chuyun K, Jayaratne K, Jayathilaka CA, Mazhar SB, Mori R, Mustafa ML, Pathak LR, Perera D, Rathavy T, Recidoro Z, Roy M, Ruyan P, Shrestha N, Taneepanichsku S, Tien NV, Ganchimeg T, Wehbe M, Yadamsuren B, Yan W, Yunis K, Bataglia V, Cecatti JG, Hernandez-Prado B, Nardin JM, Narváez A, Ortiz-Panozo E, Pérez-Cuevas R, Valladares E, Zavaleta N, Armson A, Crowther C, Hogue C, Lindmark G, Mittal S, Pattinson R, Stanton ME, Campodonico L, Cuesta C, Giordano D, Intarut N, Laopaiboon M, Bahl R, Martines J, Mathai M, Merialdi M, Say L. "Moving beyond essential interventions for reduction of maternal mortality (the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health): a cross-sectional study." Lancet. 2013;381(9879):1747-55. Abstract

We report the main findings of the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health (WHOMCS), which aimed to assess the burden of complications related to pregnancy, the coverage of key maternal health interventions, and use of the maternal severity index (MSI) in a global network of health facilities.

Slyker JA, Casper C, Tapia K, Richardson B, Bunts L, Huang M-L, Maleche-Obimbo E, Ruth Nduati, John-Stewart G. "Clinical and virologic manifestations of primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in Kenyan infants born to HIV-infected women." J. Infect. Dis.. 2013;207(12):1798-806. Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a risk factor for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphomas. Characterizing primary infection may elucidate risk factors for malignancy.

Slyker JA, Casper C, Tapia K, Richardson B, Bunts L, Huang M-L, Maleche-Obimbo E, Ruth Nduati, John-Stewart G. "Clinical and virologic manifestations of primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in Kenyan infants born to HIV-infected women." J. Infect. Dis.. 2013;207(12):1798-806. Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a risk factor for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphomas. Characterizing primary infection may elucidate risk factors for malignancy.

Stevens KA, Paruk F, Bachani AM, Wesson HHK, Wekesa JM, Mburu J, Mwangi JM, Saidi H, Hyder AA. "Establishing hospital-based trauma registry systems: lessons from Kenya." Injury. 2013;44 Suppl 4:S70-4. Abstract

In the developing world, data about the burden of injury, injury outcomes, and complications of care are limited. Hospital-based trauma registries are a data source that can help define this burden. Under the trauma care component of the Bloomberg Global Road Safety Partnership, trauma registries have been implemented at three sites in Kenya. We describe the challenges and lessons learned from this effort.

Zachariah R, Reid T, Van den Bergh R, Dahmane A, Kosgei RJ, Hinderaker SG, Tayler-Smith K, Manzi M, Kizito W, Khogali M, Kumar AMV, Baruani B, Bishinga A, Kilale AM, Nqobili M, Patten G, Sobry A, Cheti E, Nakanwagi A, Enarson DA, Edginton ME, Upshur R, Harries AD. "Applying the ICMJE authorship criteria to operational research in low-income countries: the need to engage programme managers and policy makers." Trop. Med. Int. Health. 2013;18(8):1025-8.applying_the_icmje_authorship_criteria_to_operational_research_in_low-income_countries_the_need_to_engage_programme_managers_and_policy_makers.pdf
Simiyu BN, Butt F, Dimba EA, Wagaiyu EG, Awange DO, Guthua SW, Slootweg PJ. "Keratocystic odontogenic tumours of the jaws and associated pathologies: a 10-year clinicopathologic audit in a referral teaching hospital in Kenya." J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2013;41(3):230-4. Abstractkcot_published_edition_.pdf

To establish the pattern of occurrence and the clinicopathological features of keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) over a 10-year period.

Neumann CG, Jiang L, Weiss RE, Grillenberger M, Gewa CA, Siekmann JH, Murphy SP, Bwibo NO. "Meat supplementation increases arm muscle area in Kenyan schoolchildren." Br. J. Nutr.. 2013;109(7):1230-40. Abstractmeat_supplementation_increases_arm_muscle_area_in_kenyan_schoolchildren.pdf

The present study examines the effect of animal-source-food (ASF) intake on arm muscle area growth as part of a larger study examining causal links between ASF intake, growth rate, physical activity, cognitive function and micronutrient status in Kenyan schoolchildren. This randomised, controlled feeding intervention study was designed with three isoenergetic feeding interventions of meat, milk, and plain traditional vegetable stew (githeri), and a control group receiving no snack. A total of twelve elementary schools were randomly assigned to interventions, with three schools per group, and two cohorts of 518 and 392 schoolchildren were enrolled 1 year apart. Children in each cohort were given feedings at school and studied for three school terms per year over 2 years, a total of 9 months per year: cohort I from 1998 to 2000 and cohort II from 1999 to 2001. Food intake was assessed by 24 h recall every 1-2 months and biochemical analysis for micronutrient status conducted annually (in cohort I only). Anthropometric measurements included height, weight, triceps skinfold (TSF) and mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC). Mid-upper-arm muscle area (MAMA) and mid-upper-arm fat area (MAFA) were calculated. The two cohorts were combined for analyses. The meat group showed the steepest rates of gain in MUAC and MAMA over time, and the milk group showed the next largest significant MUAC and MAMA gain compared with the plain githeri and control groups (P< 0·05). The meat group showed the least increase in TSF and MAFA of all groups. These findings have implications for increasing micronutrient intake and lean body mass in primary schoolchildren consuming vegetarian diets.

Mulinge M, Lemaire M, Servais J-Y, Rybicki A, Struck D, Santos da Silva E, Verhofstede C, Lie Y, Seguin-Devaux C, Schmit J-C, Perez Bercoff D. "HIV-1 tropism determination using a phenotypic Env recombinant viral assay highlights overestimation of CXCR4-usage by genotypic prediction algorithms for CRF01_AE and CRF02_AG [corrected]." PLoS ONE. 2013;8(5):e60566. Abstract

Human Immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV) entry into target cells involves binding of the viral envelope (Env) to CD4 and a coreceptor, mainly CCR5 or CXCR4. The only currently licensed HIV entry inhibitor, maraviroc, targets CCR5, and the presence of CXCX4-using strains must be excluded prior to treatment. Co-receptor usage can be assessed by phenotypic assays or through genotypic prediction. Here we compared the performance of a phenotypic Env-Recombinant Viral Assay (RVA) to the two most widely used genotypic prediction algorithms, Geno2Pheno[coreceptor] and webPSSM.

Marson KG, Tapia K, Kohler P, McGrath CJ, John-Stewart GC, Richardson BA, Njoroge JW, Kiarie JN, Sakr SR, Chung MH. "Male, mobile, and moneyed: loss to follow-up vs. transfer of care in an urban African antiretroviral treatment clinic." PLoS ONE. 2013;8(10):e78900. Abstract

The purpose of this study was to analyze characteristics, reasons for transferring, and reasons for discontinuing care among patients defined as lost to follow-up (LTFU) from an antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic in Nairobi, Kenya.

Sartorius BKD, Chersich MF, Mwaura M, Meda N, Temmerman M, Newell ML, Farley TMM, Luchters S. "Maternal anaemia and duration of zidovudine in antiretroviral regimens for preventing mother-to-child transmission: a randomized trial in three African countries." BMC Infect. Dis.. 2013;13:522. Abstract

Although substantiated by little evidence, concerns about zidovudine-related anaemia in pregnancy have influenced antiretroviral (ARV) regimen choice for preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1, especially in settings where anaemia is common.

Siriba DN, Mwenda JN. "Towards Kenya’s Profile of the Land Administration Domain Model.". In: LADM 2013: 5th FIG International Land Administration Domain Model Workshop. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2013.
Sullivan N, Omwansa T. "Prepaid & Pay-as-you-go Models for Asset Financing.". In: Extreme Inclusion. Boston, USA; 2013.prepaid_nicholas_sullivan_and_tonny_omwansa.pdf
Odula" "C, J" "N, J.G" "K, S" "M, Anne.B." "K. "Abortion is legal yet women are still dying in Kenya.". In: Kenya Obstetrics and Gynecology Society 37th Conference. Sirikwa, Eldoret; 2013.
Beatrice" "KA-, P" "K, M" "T, J' "A, Okoro" "D, E" "CJ, S" "M, J." "K, P" "N. "Title: Role of reproductive health clinical officers in provision of safe motherhood at Kangundo District Hospital .". In: Kenya Obstetrics and Gynecology Society 37th Conference. Sirikwa, Eldoret; 2013.
Johnson N, SG K, NA M, Gathumbi P K, JM K. "Erythrina abyssinica ameliorates neuroinflammation in African Trypanosomiasis mouse model.". In: 11th SONA International Conference. Rabat, Morocco; 2013.
AB K, Kosgei RJ, EJ C, S M, P O, NM O, JG K. " case report of breaking bad news with maternal death." AJOL . 2013;vol 25,( number 1, 2013 Abstract ISSN 1012, 8867).
SWALEH AMIRI, TIMAMMY RAYYA. "3. Androgyny and Women’s Identity in Ari Katini Mwachofi’s Mama Ee." International Journal of Education and Research . 2013;1(8):1-12 .
TIMAMMY RAYYA, SWALEH AMIRI. "4. Characterization and the Construction of Gender Identity in John Habwe’s Maumbile si Huja." International Journal of Education and Research. 2013;vol. 1(No. 9):1-18 .
TIMAMMY RAYYA, SWALEH AMIRI. "5. A Thematic Analysis of Utendi wa Mwana Kupona: A Swahili/Islamic Perspective." Journal of Education and Practice. 2013;vol. 4(No. 28):Journal of Education and Practice.
and Sofia Gruskin, Kelly Safreed-Harmon TEAGJCPK-M. "ACCESS TO JUSTICE: EVALUATING LAW, HEALTH AND HUMAN RIGHTS PROGRAMMES IN KENYA." Journal of the International AIDS Society. 2013;1(16):2-16.
R.W. W, P.G. K, Mbaria J.M., F.K N, G. N, S.O. R. "Acute and Sub-Acute Toxicological Evaluation of Ethanolic Leaves Extract of Prosopis juliflora (Fabaceae." Journal of Natural Sciences Research. 2013; 3(1): 8-15.
E.I. T, W.A. ODHIAMBO, M.K. A, S.W. G. "Aetiology, Occurrence and Management of Maxillofacial Injuries at Mulago Teaching Hospital, Uganda." East Africa Medical Journal. 2013;Vol. No1 January 2013.
El-busaidy H, Saidi H, Odula P, Ogeng'o J, Hassanali J. "Age Changes in the structure of human atrioventricular annuli." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2013;1(1):30-38.
Ngowi HA, Mukaratirwa S, Lekule FP, Maingi N, Waiswa C, Sikasunge C, Afonso S, Sumbu J, Ramiandrasoa S, penrith ML, Willingham AL. "Agricultural Impact of Porcine Cysticercosis in Africa: A Review.". In: Novel Aspects on Cysticercosis and Neurocysticercosis. Jeneza Tirdine Rijeka, Croatia: INTECH; 2013.
Wahome A, Ngunjiri GMN, Shitanda D, Ogola WO. "Alternative Diesel Engine Fuel From Kenyan Pishori Rice Bran." International Journal of Engineering Science Invention. 2013;2(8):75-79.journal_paper__-_aug_2013.pdf
R.Birithia, S.Subramanian, H.R.Pappu, Muthomi J, R.D.NARLA. "Analysis of Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV, genus Tospovirus) replication in vector and non-vector thrips species." Plant Pathology . 2013;(12057).
S.M.Kihu, Gachohi JM, Gitao CG, Bebora LC, Njenga JM, Wairire GG, Maingi N, Wahome RG. "Analysis of small ruminants’ pastoral management practices as risk factors of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) spread in Turkana District, Kenya." Research Opinions in Animal & Veterinary Sciences. 2013;3(9):304-313.pub_2_kihu_et_al_303-314.pdf
Endale M, Ekberg A, Alao JP, Akala HM, Ndakala A, Sunnerhagen P, Erdelyi M, Yenesew A. "Anthraquinones of the roots of Pentas micrantha." Molecules. 2013;18:311-321.
Nyangeri EN, Omosa I, Shikoli. "Application of water demand management strategies in Kenya journal of civil engineering research and practice under review.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.

Kimani G.N., S. C. "An assessment of Head Teachers Preparedness in School Management on First Appointment in Public Secondary Schools in Kenya." Kenya Journal of Educational Management. 2013;6(ISSN 2074 – 5400).kimani_9.pdf
S. M. Githigia, M. Mutugi, P. G. Kareru, F. K. Njonge, R. Waihenya, Nyakundi. WO. "Assessment of herbal anthelmintics used by the farmers in Kirinyaga county, Kenya, for the treatment of helminthiosis in cattle." African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2013;Vol. 7(29):2100-2104. Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess and validate the herbal anthelmintic remedies used by farmers in
Kirinyaga county, Kenya for the treatment of their cattle against gastrointestinal nematodes. The herbs
used were identified via questionnaire surveys through focused group discussions. The aqueous
extracts of plants used: Aspillia pluriseta, Vernonia lasiopus, Entada leptostachya and Erythrina
abyssinica were prepared and using dosage between 10 and 30%, the viability of infective strongyle
larvae were assessed for a period of 48 h. The results of the in vitro antihelmintic study indicated a high
to moderate anthelmintic activity for the tested extracts. E. leptostachya exhibited the highest in vitro
anthelmintic activity, while E. abyssinica had the lowest activity. The anthelmintic activity may have
been due to the presence of saponins in the herbal remedies. There was a positive correlation between
the saponin concentration and the anthelmintic activity of the extracts. In general, the in vitro
anthelmintic activity increased with the extract concentration for the medicinal plants examined.

Were FH. Assessment of Levels of Selected Heavy Metals among Industrial Workers and Related Occupational Health Effects in the City of Nairobi and Athi River Township in Kenya. Kamau GN, Shiundu PM, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013. Abstract

The study assessed the concentrations of heavy metals among factory workers (N = 282) and their related adverse health effects in Nairobi and Athi River Township in Kenya. Sets of whole blood, spot urine, scalp hair and personal breathing zone air samples were collected from these workers in various sections of 6 different plants, and analysed for cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr) levels using atomic absorption spectrophotometery. This method of analysis was validated using certified reference whole blood samples, BCR®-635 and BCR®-636. The results indicated mean airborne Pb levels ± standard deviation (SD) in production sections as follows: 183.2 ± 53.6 ug/rrr' in battery recycling, 133.5 ± 39.6 ug/m' in battery manufacturing, 126.2 ± 39.9 ug/rrr' in steel and scrap welding, 76.3 ± 33.2 ug/nr' in paint manufacturing, 27.3 ± 12.1 ug/rn" in leather and tannery, and 5.5 ± 3.6 !!g/m3 in the pharmaceutical plant. The average airborne Pb levels in production sections were significantly high (P < 0.05) when t·.... .• compared to those in their respective office areas, which was: 23.9 ± 6.9 ug/rrr', 18.8 ± 1.6 ug/m", 23.5 ± 5.8 ug/m:', 13.8 ± 3.0 ug/rn", 8.0 ± 2.7 ug/m" and 2.1 ± 0.2 ug/nr'. In all cases, the average airborne Pb levels in production areas markedly exceeded the U.S. Occupational Safety Health Administrations' Permissible Exposure Limit of 50 ug/rrr' ~ over an 8-hour Time-Weighted Average except for leather and tannery, and pharmaceutical plant. Blood lead (BPb) levels of all employees correlated positively (r = 0.86) with airborne Pb. All the determined mean BPb values in production workers exceeded 30 ug/dl, proposed by of the American Conference of Governmental for Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) biological exposure indices (BEls), except for employees in leather and tannery, and pharmaceutical plant. Similarly, levels of Cd, Ni and Cr in the ambient air correlated positively (r = 0.99 Cd, 0.89 Ni and 0.84 Cr, N = 282) with those in the urinary samples. The production areas of steel and scrap welding plant had the highest mean levels of 0.13 ± 0.05 ug/rrr' Cd and 10-:-3±4.3 ug/rrr' Ni in the breathing zone air compared to those in the other plants. In this* facility, 50% (20 of 40) and 27.5% (11 of 40) of employees had urinary Ni and Cd levels that exceeded the ACGIH BEls. The average airborne Cr levels of 23.4 ± 11.6 ug/rrr' were highest in production areas of leather and tannery industry, where urinary mean Cr levels of 35.2 ± 12.1 ug/g exceeded the BEIs. Nearly 71% (22 of 31) and 27.5% (11 of 40) of leather tanners and steel and v scrap welders, respectively had urinary Cr levels that exceeded this limit. A positive correlation of r = 0.55 Cr; 0.61 Pb; 0.58 Cd and 0.30 Ni was also observed in the levels between these metals in the ambient air and hair samples. The relationship between levels of heavy metals in the hair and other biomarkers of exposure further indicated correlation coefficient values (r) of 0.57 for urinary-Cr; 0.51, urinary-Cd; 0.21, urinary- Ni; 0.59, blood-Pb; and 0.42 for blood-Cd. The results also established that a high proportion of steel and scrap welders (47.3%, N 19), battery recyclers (39%, N = 16) and battery manufacturers (37.5%, N = 15) had hypertensive range of blood pressure with high incidences of cardiovascular diseases and related symptoms, which were associated with significantly high levels of Pb and Cd. Almost 10.7% of production workers (N = 233) were anaemic, which was associated with elevated levels of BPb. Leather tanners (48.3%, N = 15) and steel and scrap welders (47.5%, N = 19) had high prevalence of respiratory illnesses that were marked by severely reduced forced' vital capacity (FVC) .' . and forced expiratory volume of air in thi -(l.i;t second (FEV i). These were indication of airway obstructions. It was further observed that leather tanners (41.9%, N = 13) and steel and scrap welders (40.0%, N = 13) had high occurrences of dermatological conditions that manifested in the form of rashes and itching and which were associated with elevated airborne levels of Cr and Ni.

L. Fusilli, M. O. Collins, G. Laneve, A. Palombo, Pignatti S, and Santini F. "Assessment of the abnormal growth of floating macrophytes in Winam Gulf (Kenya) by using MODIS imagery time series." International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation. 2013;20:33-41.
Sinkeet S, Mwachaka P, Muthoka J, Saidi H. "Branching pattern of inferior mesenteric artery in a black African population: a dissection study." SRN Anatomy. 2013;doi.org/10.5402/2013/962904.
Shah K, Butt FMA DIEA. "Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic tumour: Pindborg Tumour." Anat Journal of Africa. 2013;2:135-136.pindborg_2013.pdf
Kimani S, Moterroso V, Lasarev M, Sinei K, Bukachi F, Maitai CK, David L, Tshala-Katumbay D. "Carbamoylation correlates of cyanate neuropathy and cyanide poisoning: relevance to the biomarkers of cassava cyanogenesis and motor system toxicity." SpringerPlus. 2013;2:647.
Kimani S, Moterroso V, Lasarev M, Sinei K, Bukachi F, Maitai C, David L, Tshala-Katumbay D. "Carbamoylation correlates of cyanate neuropathy and cyanide poisoning: relevance to the biomarkers of cassava cyanogenesis and motor system toxicity." Springerplus. 2013;2:647. Abstract

We sought to elucidate the protein carbamoylation patterns associated with cyanate neuropathy relative to cyanide poisoning. We hypothesized that under a diet deficient in sulfur amino acids (SAA), the carbamoylation pattern associated with cyanide poisoning is similar to that of cyanate neuropathy. Male rats (6-8 weeks old) were fed a diet with all amino acids (AAA) or 75%-deficiency in SAA and treated with 2.5 mg/kg/body weight (bw) NaCN, or 50 mg/kg/bw NaOCN, or 1 μl/g/bw saline, for up to 6 weeks. Albumin and spinal cord proteins were analyzed using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Only NaOCN induced motor deficits with significant levels of carbamoylation. At Day 14, we found a diet-treatment interaction effect on albumin carbamoylation (p = 0.07). At Day 28, no effect was attributed to diet (p = 0.71). Mean number of NaCN-carbamoylated sites on albumin was 47.4% higher relative to vehicle (95% CI:16.7-86.4%). Only NaOCN carbamoylated spinal cord proteins, prominently, under SAA-restricted diet. Proteins targets included myelin basic and proteolipid proteins, neurofilament light and glial fibrillary acidic proteins, and 2', 3' cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase. Under SAA deficiency, chronic but not acute cyanide toxicity may share biomarkers and pathogenetic similarities with cyanate neuropathy. Prevention of carbamoylation may protect against the neuropathic effects of cyanate.

M. GM, S.A. M. "A Case Report On Glaucoma In Phakomatosis Pigmentovascularis In A 4 Year Old African Girl." Journal of Ophthalmology of Eastern, Central and Southern Africa. 2013. Abstract

Introduction: The phakomatosis syndromes are a group of neural crest disorders that bear many features in common. They include Sturge-Weber Syndrome, Naevus of Ota, Phakomatosis Pigmentovascularis and Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome. They have numerous ocular manifestations in common, some of which are described in this case. Glaucoma is one of these manifestations and has peculiar characteristics when seen in association with phakomatosis syndromes.

Serem 1 JK, Wanyoike MM, Gachuiri CK, Mailu SK, Gathumbi PK, Mwanza RN, Kiarie N, Borter DK. Challenges facing small holder rabbit production in Kenya. Entebbe Uganda: ACSS; 2013.
CM M, D K, S N, T C. "Challenges of parathyroidectomy in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism and end stage renal disease- Case report." African Journal of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care.. 2013;13(2):57-61.
Buard V, den Berg VR, Tayler-Smith K, Godhia P, Sorby A, Kosgei RJ, Szumilin E, Harries AD, Pujades-Rodriguez M. "Characteristics, medical management and outcomes of survivors of sexual gender-based violence, Nairobi, Kenya." Public Health Action . 2013;3(2):109-112.characteristics_medical_management_and_outcomes_of_survivors_of_gender_based_violence.pdf
Serem JK, Wanyoike MM, Gachuiri CK, Mailu SK, Gathumbi PK, Mwanza RN, Kiarie N, Borter DK. "Characterization of Rabbit Production Systems in Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Science and Applications. 2013;2(3):155-159.
Shinuo Cao, Gabriel Oluga Aboge MATMZYLLYYLYGKK. "Cloning, characterization and validation of inosine 5’-monophosphate dehydrogenase of Babesia gibsoni as molecular drug target." Parasitology International. 2013;62(2013):87-94.dr._aboge_1.pdf
Saidi H, Njuguna E MSWAO-ANAOAHIA. "Colon Cancer.". In: National Guidelines for Cancer Management Kenya . Nairobi: Ministry of Heath, Kenya; 2013.
Patel A, Sethuraman R, Prajapati P, Naveen YG. "A comparative analysis of staining characteristics of mouthrinses on provisional acrylic resin: An in vitro study." Journal of Interdisciplinary Dentistry. 2013;3(3):167-173. Abstract

Aim and Objective: Provisionalization is essential for tooth protection and treatment outcome evaluation. Utmost care should be taken to maintain the soft tissue health when provisionals are cemented. Mouthrinses are commonly used as an adjunct to protect against caries and periodontal diseases. Thesesolutions are responsible for discolouration of provisional materials. In the present study, the aim is to assess the staining potentials of a chlorhexidine gluconate rinse, a benzydamine hydrochloride rinse and a tea tree oil rinse on a provisional acrylic material in vitro by application of a digital system for colour analysis Materials and Method: In this study, the staining potentials of a tea tree oil, a chlorhexidine gluconate rinse, and a benzydamine hydrochloride rinse was investigated; whereas distilled water was used as the control. Results: Color change of a commercially available provisional restorative material was evaluated after 24 hours immersion in three different mouthrinses. ∆E values obtained were 1.76 for chlorhexidine gluconate, 1.55 for benzydamine hydrochloride and 1.88 for TTO. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the current study, it is concluded that benzydamine hydrochloride exerts the least perceptible change in colour of bisacryl composite provisional resin material.
Clinical Relevance to Interdisciplinary Dentistry

Dentistry today is vastly different from what it was before.
Today it is in the era of interdisciplinary approach from independent to interdependent.
It is more result oriented and more successful when any case or situation is handled combined by interdisciplinary experts.
Action and role of mouthrinses and their interdisciplinary outcome is evaluated in the present study.

Chung MH, McKenzie KP, De Vuyst H, Richardson BA;, Rana F, Pamnani R, Njoroge JW, Nyongesa-Malava E, Sakr SR, John-Stewart GC, Mugo NR. "Comparing pap smear, via, and hpv cervical cancer screening methods among hiv-positive women by immune status and antiretroviral therapy.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

A rigorous comparison of cervical cancer screening methods utilizing data on immune status, antiretroviral therapy (ART), and colposcopy-directed biopsy has not been performed among HIV-positive women.
METHODS::
Between June and November 2009, 500 HIV-positive women were enrolled at an HIV treatment clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, and underwent Papanicolau (Pap) smear, Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid (VIA), human papillomavirus (HPV), and colposcopy-directed biopsy (gold standard). Positive Pap smear (ASCUS+, LSIL+, HSIL+), VIA, HPV, and their combinations were compared to CIN2/3+. Sensitivity, specificity, and AUC (sensitivity and 1-specificity) were compared using pairwise tests and multivariate logistic regression models that included age, CD4 count, and ART duration.
RESULTS::
Of 500 enrolled, 498 samples were collected. On histology, there were 172 (35%) normal, 186 (37%) CIN1, 66 (13%) CIN2, 47 (9%) CIN3, and 27 (5%) indeterminate. Pap (ASCUS+) was the most sensitive screening method (92.7%), combination of both Pap (HSIL+) and VIA positive was the most specific (99.1%), and Pap (HSIL+) had the highest AUC (0.85). In multivariate analyses, CD4 count ≤350 cells/mm was associated with decreased HPV specificity (p = 0.002); ART duration <2 years was associated with decreased HPV (p = 0.01) and VIA (p = 0.03) specificity; and age <40 years was associated with increased VIA sensitivity (p < 0.001) and decreased HPV specificity (p = 0.005).
CONCLUSIONS::
Pap smear is a robust test among HIV-positive women regardless of immune status or ART duration. Results should be cautiously interpreted when using HPV among those younger, immunosuppressed, or on ART <2 years, and when using VIA among those ≥ 40 years.

Olwande P.O, W.O O, L.C. B, S.O. O. "Comparison of economic impact of alternative constraint control measures in indigenous chicken production in Nyanza Province, Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development (LLRD) . 2013;25(2).
De Vuyst H, Chung MH, Baussano I, Mugo NR, Tenet V, van Kemenade FJ, Rana FS, Sakr SR, Meijer CJ, Snijders PJ, Franceschi S. "Comparison of HPV DNA testing in cervical exfoliated cells and tissue biopsies among HIV-positive women in Kenya.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

HIV-positive women are infected with human papillomavirus (HPV) (especially with multiple types), and develop cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer more frequently than HIV-negative women. We compared HPV DNA prevalence obtained using a GP5+/6+ PCR assay in cervical exfoliated cells to that in biopsies among 468 HIV-positive women from Nairobi, Kenya. HPV prevalence was higher in cells than biopsies and the difference was greatest in 94 women with a combination normal cytology/normal biopsy (prevalence ratio, PR = 3.7; 95% confidence interval, CI: 2.4-5.7). PR diminished with the increase in lesion severity (PR in 58 women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL)/CIN2-3 = 1.1; 95% CI: 1.0-1.2). When HPV-positive, cells contained 2.0- to 4.6-fold more multiple infections than biopsies. Complete or partial agreement between cells and biopsies in the detection of individual HPV types was found in 91% of double HPV-positive pairs. The attribution of CIN2/3 to HPV16 and/or 18 would decrease from 37.6%, when the presence of these types in either cells or biopsies was counted, to 20.2% when it was based on the presence of HPV16 and/or 18 (and no other types) in biopsies. In conclusion, testing HPV on biopsies instead of cells results in decreased detection but not elimination of multiple infections in HIV-positive women. The proportion of CIN2/3 attributable to HPV16 and/or 18 among HIV-positive women, which already appeared to be lower than that in HIV-negative, would then further decrease. The meaning of HPV detection in cells and random biopsy from HIV-positive women with no cervical abnormalities remains unclear.

Otakwa RVM, Simiyu J, Mwabora JM. The Complementary of Dye-Sensitized and Amorphous Silicon Photovoltaics in Field Application in the Tropics. United Kenya Club, Nairobi, 28-29th November 2013; 2013. Abstract

The complementarity of the Dye-Sensitized and Amorphous Silicon (a-Si) Photovoltaic (PV) modules has been investigated under different outdoor air mass (AM), irradiance intensity and temperature conditions. The performance of the Dye-Sensitized module (DSM) was investigated in Nairobi, Kenya and its performance compared with that of a-Si modules investigated in Lagos, Nigeria. The DSM’s good response to short wavelength radiation caused it to perform better at increased AM values than what has been reported of a-Si PV modules. On the other hand, studies on a-Si showed that its performance favors low AM conditions. The DSM was also found to generally perform better than what is reported of a-Si under irradiance and temperature dependence, but a-Si PV modules’ performance was reported to be remarkable at increased irradiance conditions. These results show that the Dye-Sensitized and the a-Si technologies complement each other’s performance when subjected to the outdoor field AM, irradiance and temperature conditions. These findings are useful in PV sizing, especially in the Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) in the tropics.

Ong’amo GO, LeRu BP, Calatayud P-A, Silvain J-F. "Composition of stem borer communities in selected vegetation mosaics in Kenya." Arthropod-Plant Interactions. 2013;7(3):267-275. Abstract

Busseola fusca (Fuller), Sesamia calamistis Hampson, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) and Chilo orichalcociliellus (Strand) are important stem borer pests of maize and sorghum in East Africa. Persistence of these pests in crop fields is blamed on the influx of diaspore populations from the neighbouring natural habitats. In addition to pest species, natural habitats support numerous non-economic stem borer species, some not known to science. However, due to growing human populations and accompanying global change, some of the natural habitats are undergoing rapid changes, a process that may result in the evolution of ‘‘new’’ pest species. In this study, we investigated stem borer species diversity in four different vegetation mosaics in Kenya, with an aim of establishing the differences in species composition and distributions in both wild and cultivated habitats. We identified 33 stem borer species belonging to 14 different genera in the four families; Noctuidae, Crambidae, Pyralidae and Tortricidae from 37 plant species. In addition to the above stem borer pest species, we found three more species, Busseola segeta Bowden, Pirateolea piscator Fletcher and Eldana saccharina Walker, in the cultivated fields. Together, stem borer pests varied in distribution among vegetation mosaics, suggesting differences in ecological requirement. Despite the variations in distribution patterns, stem borer pests co-existed with non-economic species in the natural habitats, communities that are facing threats due to ongo ing habitat changes. This paper discusses the likely impacts of habitat changes on both pest and non-economic species.

Shah PS. "The current scenario of Lake Naivasha." OERB Reach 16 (2013):84-88.
"Carine Va n Malderen", Ogali" "I, Khasakhala" "A, Muchiri" "SN, Sparks" "C, Oyen" "HV, Speybroeck" "N. "Decomposing Kenyan socio-economic inequalities in skilled birth attendance and measles immunization." International Journal for Equity in Health. 2013;12(3 ):14712-3.
Wekesa VD, Ogeng’o JA, Siongei CV, Elbusaidy H, Iwaret M. "Demographics of patients admitted with Traumatic Intracranial Bleeds in Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya." East Cent Afr J Surg. 2013;18(3):67-70.
Simila HO, Osiro OA, Kisumbi BK. "Dental Biomaterials Science (Module I): Basic Scientific Principles.". In: Dental Biomaterials Science (Module I): Basic Scientific Principles. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013.
Kisumbi BK, Simila HO, Osiro OA. "Dental Biomaterials Science (Module II): Auxiliary Dental Materials.". In: Dental Biomaterials Science (Module II): Auxiliary Dental Materials. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013.
Osiro OA, Simila HO, Kisumbi BK. "Dental Biomaterials Science (Module III): Direct Restorative Materials.". In: Dental Biomaterials Science (Module III): Direct Restorative Materials. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013.
Kisumbi BK, Simila HO, Osiro OA. DENTAL BIOMATERIALS SCIENCE: MODULE II - AUXILLIARY DENTAL MATERIALS. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2013.
Njoroge W, Wangati CK, Karanja PK, Musembi RJ, Simiyu J, Mwabora JM. Deposition and Characterization of Thin Film Deposited by DC-RF Co-sputtering for Photovoltaic Application. United Kenya Club, Nairobi, 28-29th November 2013; 2013. Abstract

Solar cell has the potential of being the main drive to economic prosperity as it is one of the most promising sources of cheap, environmentally friendly and renewable energy. Crystalline silicon based technology currently dominate the solar energy market. However, it is generally expensive and the cell efficiency has reached 24.7% hence approaching theoretical expected maximum of 30%. In order to reduce cost of production, focus is shifting towards thin film based I-III-VI family chalcopyrite compounds where cheaper CuInxGa1-xSe2 absorber semiconductor is reported to have attained the highest efficiency of 20.3 %. This study intends to fabricate and characterize a compound of copper, aluminum, boron and selenium (CuAlxB1-x Se2 ) thin film. The compound is based on I-III-IV family of chalcopyrite which has generated a lot of interest as an absorber material for solar cells due to their high absorption coefficients. The research procedure will involve deposition of CuAlxB1-xSe2 thin film by DC and RF magnetron sputtering of CuAlB alloy and selenium targets respectively. The deposition is done using Edwards Auto 360 RF and DC magnetron vacuum system. Characterization of the resulting thin film based on structural and optoelectronic properties is done using X-Ray diffraction (XRD), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Visible-IR Spectrometer, and the Hall Effect. The outcome of this research will provide fundamental practical science and engineering knowledge base on structural and optoelectronic properties of CuAlxB1-x Se2 compound as solar absorber material among other optoelectronic applications. In general the study will contribute towards achieving greater efficiency in production of “green” energy.

Nderitu FW, Gikonyo GK, Sinei K. "Detection and Management of Adverse Drug Reactions Related to Antiretroviral Drugs among HIV/AIDS Patients in Kiambu Sub-County, Kenya." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013;In press. Abstract

The objective of this study was to establish the prevalence, detection and management of various adverse drug reactions associated with antiretroviral drugs occurring in patients attending Comprehensive Care Centre (CCC) of Kiambu District Hospital. The study was a cross sectional survey where the patients included were those attending the CCC on a monthly basis. The results revealed that 65.2% of the patients had experienced symptoms suggestive of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Of these, 67.2% did not associate the symptoms to the medicines they were taking but rather to the AIDS syndrome. The most prominent reaction was peripheral neuropathy at 0.395 (0.344-0.447 at 95% confidence interval) while the least common was hepatotoxicity. Whereas 71.5% could tell the frequency of the daily dosage, 92.1% did not know the names of the medicines they were taking but could describe them by shape and colour. There was a significant association between occurrence and reporting of ADRs and age (P<0.001), weight (P=0.001), marital status (P=0.016), occupation (P<0.001), religious participation (P<0.001) and education level (P<0.001). Although the health care providers displayed adequate knowledge in management of these reactions, they complained of inadequacy of the current reporting tool (MOH 257) in capturing ADRs. The patients were ill equipped in recognizing the adverse drug reactions.

Shepherd M, Kasem S, Ablett G, Ochieng J, Crawford A. Developing a genetic classification for gene pool management of spotted gums.; 2013. Abstract

Spotted gums (Genus Corymbia Section Politaria) occur as a species replacement series along the eastern seaboard of Australia, their distributions marked by regions of disjunction and sympatry. Their taxonomy remains controversial, with species assignment often challenging and reliant upon knowledge of geographic origin as well as subtle morphological or leaf oil variation. In this paper we explore a classification for spotted gums without assuming predefined geographic or taxonomic groups, instead using genetic structure at microsatellite marker loci (n=9) and a Bayesian model-based clustering approach implemented in STRUCTURE software. The C. torelliana outgroup (n=21; Section Cadagaria) formed a well resolved cluster (min. pairwise Fst = 0.19). Four populations were evident within the spotted gums (n=93) but structure was weak (pairwise Fst range 0.13 -0.05). Geography, both distance and topography were major determinants of structure, with migration among populations approximating a linear stepping-stone model. Corymbia maculata was resolved as a taxon and had the greatest genetic distance to any other population (min pairwise Fst 0.08). Three clusters were evident within the northern taxa but alignment with taxonomic groupings was poor. Corymbia citriodora material from north of a major disjunction in Central Queensland formed a Northern population. Corymbia citriodora, C. variegata and C. henryi material from below this disjunction but north of the Border Ranges, formed a Central population, whereas a Southern population was comprised of C. variegata and C. henryi from predominately south of the Border Ranges. Fewer ambiguous assignments occurred using genetic rather than taxonomic groups for self classification of the spotted gum reference population.

Sihanya B. Devolution and Education.; 2013.
Otakwa RVM, Simiyu J, Mwabora JM. "Dye-Sensitized and Amorphous Silicon Photovoltaic (PV Devices' Outdoor Performance: A Comparative Study." International Journal of Emerging Technological in advanced Engineering . 2013. Abstract

The performance of a dye-sensitized solar module (DSSM) has been investigated under different air mass (AM), irradiance intensity and temperature conditions in Nairobi, Kenya. The good response of the DSSM to short wavelength radiation made it perform well at increased AM values as compared to what is reported of Amorphous Silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic (PV) devices. The DSSM performed better compared to what is reported of a-Si PV devices under irradiance and temperature dependence. The results are useful in PV sizing, especially in the area of Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) in Kenya and the tropics.

Ephantus J Muturi, Mwangangi JM, John C Beier, Millon Blackshear, James Wauna, Sang R, Wolfgang R Mukabana. "Ecology and behavior of Anopheles arabiensis in relation to agricultural practices in central Kenya." Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 2013;29(3):222-230.
Maciel S, Okeyo AM, Amimo J, Scholtz MM, Neser FWC, Martins M. "The effect of geographical region of birth on the reproductive performance of the Nguni in southern Mozambique." South African Journal Of Animal Science. 2013;43(5 (1)):59-62.
Wafula HB, Simiyu J, Waita S, Aduda BO, Mwabora JM. "EFFECT OF NITRATION ON PRESSED TIO2 PHOTOELECTRODES FOR DYE-SENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS.". 2013.Website
J.N.Mwero, S.O.Abuodha, S.W.Mumenya, G.O.Rading, F.P.L.Kavihe. "The Effect of Partial Replacement of Portland Cement with Sugarcane Waste Fibre Ash (SWFA) on Mechanical Properties of Concrete." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2013;6(3):97-114.
J.N.Mwero, S.O.Abuodha, S.W.Mumenya, G.O.Rading, F.P.L.Kavihe. "The Effect of Partial Replacement of Portland Cement with Sugarcane Waste Fibre Ash (SWFA) on Mechanical Properties of Concrete." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2013;Vol 6(3):97-114.mwero_1.docx
J.N.Mwero, S.O.Abuodha, S.W.Mumenya, G.O.Rading, F.P.L.Kavihe. "The Effect of Partial Replacement of Portland with Sugarcane Waste Fibre Ash (SWFA) on Mechanical Properties of Concrete." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2013;6(3):97-114.
Shisia KS, Ngure V, Nyambaka H, Oduor FDO. "Effect of pH and forage species on mineral concentrations in cattle breeds in major grazing areas of Uasin Gishu County, Kenya." Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci. 2013;2(12):247-254. AbstractInt J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci

Description
The nutrition of grazing animals is a complicated interaction of soils, plants, and animals (Rocky, 2013). The performance and health of grazing livestock is dependent on the adequacy and availability of essential mineral elements from pastures. Grazing livestock requires an understanding of the dynamics of a broad range of forage nutrients (Provenza, 2003). This means that adequate intake of forages by grazing animals is essential in meeting mineral requirements. The ability of forage minerals to meet grazing livestock mineral requirements depends upon quantity (the concentration of minerals in the plant) and the bioavailability of those minerals (amount livestock can absorb from the digestive tract). Although mineral concentrations in the forage might be adequate, the percent that is available to the livestock might be much lower (Khan et al., 2006).

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