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2015
P. K, S.W. M, M.R. C, G. K, T.O. A, W.E. M, A.N. K, J.D. M. "A Retrospective Study on Findings of Canine Hip Dysplasia Screening in Kenya." Veterinary World . 2015;8(11):1326-1330 .
MS Machoki MS, Saidi H, Raja H, Ndonga A, Njue A, Biomdo I, Kimani S, Arudo J, Mushtaq A. "Risk Factors for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Kenyan Population." Ann. Afr. Surg.. 2015;12(1):38-43.
T D, I G, F P, A G, Mumo M, Holleran J, Duffy S, Fitzpatrick PA, Heydenreich M, G L, S D, Avery V, Rissanen K, Erdélyi M, A Y. "Rotenoids, Flavonoids, and Chalcones from the Root Bark of Millettia usaramensis." J Nat Prod. 2015;78(12):2932-9. Abstract

J Nat Prod. 2015 Dec 24;78(12):2932-9. doi: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.5b00581. Epub 2015 Dec 14.
Rotenoids, Flavonoids, and Chalcones from the Root Bark of Millettia usaramensis.
Deyou T1, Gumula I1, Pang F2, Gruhonjic A, Mumo M1, Holleran J3, Duffy S3, Fitzpatrick PA, Heydenreich M4, Landberg G, Derese S1, Avery V3, Rissanen K2, Erdélyi M, Yenesew A1.
Author information
Abstract
Five new compounds, 4-O-geranylisoliquiritigenin (1), 12-dihydrousararotenoid B (2), 12-dihydrousararotenoid C (3), 4'-O-geranyl-7-hydroxyflavanone (4), and 4'-O-geranyl-7-hydroxydihydroflavanol (5), along with 12 known natural products (6-17) were isolated from the CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1) extract of the root bark of Millettia usaramensis ssp. usaramensis by chromatographic separation. The purified metabolites were identified by NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses, whereas their absolute configurations were established on the basis of chiroptical data and in some cases also by X-ray crystallography. The crude extract was moderately active (IC50 = 11.63 μg/mL) against the ER-negative MDB-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line, and accordingly compounds 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, and 16 also showed moderate to low cytotoxic activities (IC50 25.7-207.2 μM). The new natural product 1 exhibited antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values of 3.7 and 5.3 μM against the chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 and the chloroquine-resistant Dd2 Plasmodium falciparum strains, respectively, and was also cytotoxic to the HEK293 cell line.

Waita, S.M., Simiyu J, Kiragu, A.N., Imali V, Aduda B. A simple low cost solar panel/cell characterization experiment for senior undergraduate Students.; 2015.
Muhingi WN, Mutavi T, Kokonya D, Simiyu NV, Musungu B, Obondo A, Kuria MW. "Social Networks and Students’ Performance in Secondary Schools: Lessons from an Open Learning Centre, Kenya." Journal of Education and Practice. 2015;6(21):171-177.
Simiyu, J., Dulo. "Spatiotemporal Analysis of Borehole Locations in Nairobi County 1930-2013." International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management. 2015;4(3):230-238.
Olago D, van der Lubbe HJL, Sier MJ, Feibel CS, Beck C, Dupont-Nivet G, Vonhof H, Joordens JJ, Cohen A, Prins M. "Sr isotope stratigraphy and lithogenic grain-size distributions of the Pleistocene Turkana Basin, Kenya."; 2015.
S N, E D, V Y, MO F, ES A. "Strategies for Oral Health Research in Africa and the Middle Eastern Region." Advances in Dental Research. 2015.
Okumu PO, Gathumbi PK, Karanja DN, Bebora LC, Mande JD, Serem JK, Wanyoike MM, Gachuiri C, Mwanza RN, Mailu SK. "Survey of health status of domestic rabbits in selected organized farms in Kenya." Inter J Vet Sci. 2015;4(1):15-21.15-211.pdf
Okumu PO, Gathumbi PK, Karanja DN, Bebora LC, Mande JD, Serem JK, Wanyoike MM, Gachuiri C, Mwanza RN, Mailu SK. "Survey of health status of domestic rabbits in selected organized farms in Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2015;4(1):15-21.
MO N, P M, SG K, M MG, M TS, AO B, B B, RM M, MK N. "A Systematic Review of Rift Valley Fever Epidemiology 1931-2014." Infect Ecol Epidemiol. 2015;5:28024.
Gichuhi S, Macharia E, Kabiru J, Zindamoyen AM, Rono H, Ollando E, Wanyonyi L, Wachira J, Munene R, Onyuma T, Jaoko WG, Sagoo MS, Weiss HA, Burton MJ. "Toluidine Blue 0.05% Vital Staining for the Diagnosis of Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia in Kenya." JAMA Ophthalmology. 2015;133(11):1314-1321. AbstractWebsite

IMPORTANCE:
Clinical features are unreliable for distinguishing ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) from benign conjunctival lesions.

OBJECTIVE:
To evaluate the adverse effects, accuracy, and interobserver variation of toluidine blue 0.05% vital staining in distinguishing OSSN, confirmed by histopathology, from other conjunctival lesions.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:
Cross-sectional study in Kenya from July 2012 through July 2014 of 419 adults with suspicious conjunctival lesions. Pregnant and breastfeeding women were excluded.

EXPOSURES:
Comprehensive ophthalmic slitlamp examination was conducted. Vital staining with toluidine blue 0.05% aqueous solution was performed before surgery. Initial safety testing was conducted on large tumors scheduled for exenteration looking for corneal toxicity on histology before testing smaller tumors. We asked about pain or discomfort after staining and evaluated the cornea at the slitlamp for epithelial defects. Lesions were photographed before and after staining.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:
Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology. Six examiners assessed photographs from a subset of 100 consecutive participants for staining and made a diagnosis of OSSN vs non-OSSN. Staining was compared with histopathology to estimate sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values. Adverse effects were enumerated. Interobserver agreement was estimated using the κ statistic.

RESULTS:
A total of 143 of 419 participants (34%) had OSSN by histopathology. The median age of all participants was 37 years (interquartile range, 32-45 years) and 278 (66%) were female. A total of 322 of the 419 participants had positive staining while 2 of 419 were equivocal. There was no histological evidence of corneal toxicity. Mild discomfort was reported by 88 (21%) and mild superficial punctate keratopathy seen in 7 (1.7%). For detecting OSSN, toluidine blue had a sensitivity of 92% (95% CI, 87%-96%), specificity of 31% (95% CI, 25%-36%), positive predictive value of 41% (95% CI, 35%-46%), and negative predictive value of 88% (95% CI, 80%-94%). Interobserver agreement was substantial for staining (κ = 0.76) and moderate for diagnosis (κ = 0.40).

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:
With the high sensitivity and low specificity for OSSN compared with histopathology among patients with conjunctival lesions, toluidine blue 0.05% vital staining is a good screening tool. However, it is not a good diagnostic tool owing to a high frequency of false-positives. The high negative predictive value suggests that a negative staining result indicates that OSSN is relatively unlikely.

Sihanya B. "Understanding copyright." Utafiti News a publication of the Office of the Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Research Production and Extension), University of Nairobi.. 2015.
Vogel JP, Betrán AP, Vindevoghel N, Souza JP, M. R. Torloni ZJ, Tuncalp O, Mori R, Morisaki N, Ortiz-Panozo E, Hernandez B, Pérez-Cuevas R, Qureshi Z, Gülmezoglu AM, Temmerman M. "Use of the Robson classification to assess caesarean section trends in 21 countries." A secondary analysis of two WHO multicountry surveys Lancet Glob Health, 2015.. 2015. Abstract

Background
Rates of caesarean section surgery are rising worldwide, but the determinants of this increase, especially in low-income and middle-income countries, are controversial. In this study, we aimed to analyse the contribution of specific obstetric populations to changes in caesarean section rates, by using the Robson classification in two WHO multicountry surveys of deliveries in health-care facilities. The Robson system classifies all deliveries into one of ten groups on the basis of five parameters: obstetric history, onset of labour, fetal lie, number of neonates, and gestational age.
Methods
We studied deliveries in 287 facilities in 21 countries that were included in both the WHO Global Survey of Maternal and Perinatal Health (WHOGS; 2004–08) and the WHO Multi-Country Survey of Maternal and Newborn Health (WHOMCS; 2010–11). We used the data from these surveys to establish the average annual percentage change (AAPC) in caesarean section rates per country. Countries were stratified according to Human Development Index (HDI) group (very high/high, medium, or low) and the Robson criteria were applied to both datasets. We report the relative size of each Robson group, the caesarean section rate in each Robson group, and the absolute and relative contributions made by each to the overall caesarean section rate.
Findings
The caesarean section rate increased overall between the two surveys (from 26·4% in the WHOGS to 31·2% in the WHOMCS, p=0·003) and in all countries except Japan. Use of obstetric interventions (induction, prelabour caesarean section, and overall caesarean section) increased over time. Caesarean section rates increased across most Robson groups in all HDI categories. Use of induction and prelabour caesarean section increased in very high/high and low HDI countries, and the caesarean section rate after induction in multiparous women increased significantly across all HDI groups. The proportion of women who had previously had a caesarean section increased in moderate and low HDI countries, as did the caesarean section rate in these women.
Interpretation
Use of the Robson criteria allows standardised comparisons of data across countries and timepoints and identifies the subpopulations driving changes in caesarean section rates. Women who have previously had a caesarean section are an increasingly important determinant of overall caesarean section rates in countries with a moderate or low HDI. Strategies to reduce the frequency of the procedure should include avoidance of medically unnecessary primary caesarean section. Improved case selection for induction and prelabour caesarean section could also reduce caesarean section rates.
Funding
None.

Irungu LW, Srinivasan R, Maniania NK. "V. Tumuhaise, S. Ekesi*, SA Mohamed, PN Ndegwa 2." International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 2015;35(1):34-47.
Tharao MK, Oroko P, Abdulkarim A, Saidi H. "Validation of the Ottawa ankle rules at a tertiary teaching hospital." Ann. Afr. Surg.. 2015;12(2):77-80.
Ogeng’o J, Elbusaidy H, Sinkeet S, Olabu B, Mwachaka P, Martin Inyimili. "Variant origin of the superior cerebellar artery in a black Kenyan population." Eur. J. Anat. 2015;19(3):287-290. AbstractVariant origin of the superior cerebellar artery in a black Kenyan population

Knowledge of variant origin of the superior cerebellar
artery is important during neuroradiological
and neurosurgical procedures at the basilar termination
and clivus regions, and may influence the
occurrence of atherosclerosis and aneurysms.
These variations show ethnic differences, but there
are hardly any reports on the black African population.
This study therefore examined the various
origins of 394 superior cerebellar arteries from 173
brains of black adult Kenyans, obtained during autopsy
at the Department of Human Anatomy, University
of Nairobi, Kenya. The cranial cavity was
opened and the brain removed en bloc. Arachnoid
matter was gently removed to expose the arteries
at the base of the brain. The distal third of the basilar
artery was exposed and superior cerebellar
artery identified as that which supplied the superior
surface of the cerebellar hemispheres. It was
traced to its origin and the source recorded. Representative
patterns were photographed with a
high resolution digital camera. The data were analyzed
for frequency and are presented in macrographs
and a table. The conventional single artery
origin from the basilar artery was present in only
284 (72.1%) cases. In the remainder, it was duplicated
in 84 (21.3%), originated from posterior cerebral
artery in 16 (4.0%) and from common trunk
with posterior cerebral artery in 10 (2.5%) cases.
Variant origin of the superior cerebellar artery occurred
in nearly 28% of cases studied. This influences
the pattern of termination of the basilar artery,
may complicate posterior cranial fossa surgery
and predispose to atherosclerosis and aneurysms.
Preoperative evaluation of the superior cerebellar
artery is recommended.

Sambai K, Ru BLP, Gathara M, Ong’amo G, Elijah Njuguna, Juma G, Mwalusepo S, Okuku G, Calatayud PA, Gatebe E, Johansson T. "Variation of soil nutrients in maize growing areas along the altitudinal gradient of Taita hills transect in Kenya.". 2015.
Kisumbi BK, Simila OH, Omondi BI, Nyagah J. "Choice of Impression Materials and Techniques by Dentists.". In: 33rd Kenya Dental Association Annual Scientific Conference & Exhibition.; 2015. Abstract
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Speicher DJ, Wanzala P, D'Lima M, Njiru A, Chindia M, Dimba E, Johnson NW. "Diagnostic challenges of oral and cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma in resource-constrained settings." Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine. 2015;44:842-849. Abstract
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Johnson NW, Dimba E, Chindia M, Njiru A, D'Lima M, Wanzala P, Speicher DJ. "Diagnostic challenges of oral and cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma in resource-constrained settings.". 2015. Abstract
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Muchira J, Stuart-Shor E, Kariuki J, Mukuna A, Ndigirigi I, Gakage L, Mutuma V, Karani A. "Distribution and characteristics of risk factors for cardiovascular–metabolic disease in a rural Kenyan community." International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences. 2015;3:76-81. Abstract
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Opiyo F, Oliver Wasonga, Nyangito M, Schilling J, Munang R. "Drought adaptation and coping strategies among the Turkana pastoralists of northern Kenya." International Journal of Disaster Risk Science. 2015;6:295-309. Abstract
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Nyangito M, Schilling J, Munang R, Oliver Wasonga, Opiyo F. "Drought Adaptation and Coping Strategies Among the Turkana Pastoralists of Northern Kenya.". 2015. Abstract
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Mwachaka PM, Saidi H, Odula PO, Mandela PI. "Effect of monocular deprivation on rabbit neural retinal cell densities." Journal of ophthalmic & vision research. 2015;10:144. AbstractWebsite
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Mwachaka PM, Saidi H, Odula PO, Mandela PI. "Effect of monocular deprivation on rabbit neural retinal cell densities." Journal of ophthalmic & vision research. 2015;10:144. AbstractWebsite
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Xu X, Kyaw AKK, Peng B, Xiong Q, Demir HV, Wang Y, Wong TKS, Sun X. "Influence of gold-silica nanoparticles on the performance of small-molecule bulk heterojunction solar cells." Organic Electronics. 2015;22:20-28. Abstract
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Maina SW, Nyaga JM, Kisumbi BK, Kassim AB, Dienya TM, Simila HO. "Is the Safety of Dental Amalgam Still in Question? A Literature Review." African Journal of Oral Health Sciences. 2015;2. Abstract
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Silvestri D, Blevins M, Afzal A, Andrews B, Derbew M, Kaur S, Mipando M, Mkony C, Mwachaka P, Ranjit N, others. "Medical and nursing students' intentions to work abroad or in rural areas: {An} eight-country cross-sectional survey in {Asia} and {Africa}." Annals of Global Health. 2015;81:52. AbstractWebsite
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Silvestri D, Blevins M, Afzal A, Andrews B, Derbew M, Kaur S, Mipando M, Mkony C, Mwachaka P, Ranjit N, others. "Medical and nursing students' intentions to work abroad or in rural areas: {An} eight-country cross-sectional survey in {Asia} and {Africa}." Annals of Global Health. 2015;81:52. AbstractWebsite
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Kariuki JK, Stuart-Shor EM, Leveille SG, Hayman LL. "Methodological challenges in estimating trends and burden of cardiovascular disease in sub-Saharan Africa." Cardiology research and practice. 2015;2015. Abstract
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Silvestri D, Blevins M, Afzal A, Andrews B, Derbew M, Kaur S, Mipando M, Mkony C, Mwachaka P, Ranjit N, others. "Non-cognitive attributes predict medical and nursing students’ intentions to migrate or work rurally: {An} eight-country cross-sectional survey in {Asia} and {Africa}." Annals of Global Health. 2015;1:63. AbstractWebsite
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Silvestri D, Blevins M, Afzal A, Andrews B, Derbew M, Kaur S, Mipando M, Mkony C, Mwachaka P, Ranjit N, others. "Non-cognitive attributes predict medical and nursing students’ intentions to migrate or work rurally: {An} eight-country cross-sectional survey in {Asia} and {Africa}." Annals of Global Health. 2015;1:63. AbstractWebsite
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Peng B, Zhang H, Shao H, Xu Y, Zhang X, Zhu H. "Novel Lattice Thermal Transport in Stanene." arXiv preprint arXiv:1508.02156. 2015. Abstract
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Ogunbodede EO, Kida IA, Madjapa HS, Amedari M, Ehizele A, Mutave R, Sodipo B, Temilola S, Okoye L. "Oral health inequalities between rural and urban populations of the African and Middle East region." Advances in dental research. 2015;27:18-25. Abstract
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Ogunbodede EO, Kida IA, Madjapa HS, Amedari M, Ehizele A, Mutave R, Sodipo B, Temilola S, Okoye L. "Oral health inequalities between rural and urban populations of the African and Middle East region." Advances in dental research. 2015;27:18-25. Abstract
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Koyio LN, van der Sanden WJM, Mulder J, Dimba EO, Creugers NHJ, Merkx TMAW, Stelma FF, van der Ven Andre JAM. "Pseudomembranous Candidiasis Indicates High Level Drug Resistance among Patients on Antiretroviral Treatment in Nairobi East District, Kenya." Journal of HIV for Clinical and Scientific Research. 2015;2:040-044. Abstract
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Wafula H, Robinson M, Juma A, Sakwa T, Kitui M, Araoz R, Fischer C-H. "Role of Cl on diffusion of Cu in In2S3 layers prepared by ion layer gas reaction method." Coatings. 2015;5:54-62. Abstract
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Peng B, Zhang H, Shao H, Zhang X, Zhu H. "Towards intrinsic phonon transport in single-layer MoS2: the diffusive limit of thermal conductivity." arXiv preprint arXiv:1508.03435. 2015. Abstract
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Ogeng’o J, Elbusaidy H, Sinkeet S, Olabu B, Mwachaka P, Martin Inyimili. "Variant origin of the superior cerebellar artery in a black {Kenyan} population." Eur. J. Anat. 2015;19:287-290. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Ogeng’o J, Elbusaidy H, Sinkeet S, Olabu B, Mwachaka P, Martin Inyimili. "Variant origin of the superior cerebellar artery in a black {Kenyan} population." Eur. J. Anat. 2015;19:287-290. AbstractWebsite
n/a
2014
Francoz M, Fenolland J-R, Giraud J-M, El Chehab H, Sendon D, May F, Renard J-P. "Reproducibility of macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness measurement with cirrus {HD}-{OCT} in normal, hypertensive and glaucomatous eyes." The British journal of ophthalmology. 2014;98:322-328. Abstract

AIM: To evaluate the intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility of macular retinal ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) thickness measurement by automated detection on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) images in normal, hypertensive (ocular hypertensive (OHT)) and glaucomatous eyes. METHODS: A total of 138 eyes were enrolled in three groups: 69 normal, 35 OHT and 34 primary open-angle glaucoma eyes. All patients underwent a complete ocular examination, 24-2 automated perimetry, biometry and pachymetry. Macular imaging was performed in each eye using the Cirrus HD-OCT 4000 with software V.6.0. (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, California, USA) three times on the same day by each of two observers, and the GC analysis (GCA) algorithm provided parameters expressed as average, minimum and six sectoral GC-IPL thicknesses. Reproducibility was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variation (CV) and test-retest variability (TRTV) calculated as 1.96 times the SD. RESULTS: Mean GC-IPL thickness was 82.27±7.37 μm, 76.84±7.01 μm and 66.16±11.16 μm in normal, OHT and glaucoma groups, respectively. GC-IPL thickness was significantly lower in glaucomatous eyes than in normal and OHT eyes (p{\textless}0.0001 for all parameters). In all groups, ICC ranged from 96.4 to 99.9% and 92.5 to 99.8%, CV ranged from 0.41 to 2.24% and 0.55 to 1.67%, and TRTV ranged from 0.61 to 2.64 μm and 0.83 to 2.22 μm for intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of GCA algorithm reproducibility in normal, OHT and glaucomatous eyes. The reproducibility of GC-IPL thickness measurements using the Cirrus HD-OCT GCA algorithm was found to be highly satisfactory. GC-IPL thickness may be a promising new OCT parameter for analysis of ganglion cell damage in glaucoma.

Alekseenko SV, Shkorbatova YP, Toporova SN. "Effects of {Strabismus} and {Monocular} {Deprivation} on the {Sizes} of {Callosal} {Cells} in {Cortical} {Fields} 17 and 18 in the {Cat} {Brain}." Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology. 2014;44:101-106. AbstractWebsite

Structural changes in the visual cortex were studied in conditions of deranged binocular experience by assessing the sizes (body areas) of callosal cells in fields 17 and 18 in monocularly deprived cats and in cats with convergent strabismus. These cells were detected by injection of horseradish peroxidase into columns in cortical fields 17 and 18 and the fields 17/18 transitional zone. In both groups, the mean size of callosal cells in field 17 was greater than normal, though this difference in field 18 was seen only in monocularly deprived cats. Differences in the mean sizes of field 17 and 18 cells in cats of the study groups were found to be due to the number of large cells. In cats with strabismus, callosal cells of size greater than 200 μm2 accounted for 58% of cells in field 17 and 8% in field 18. In monocularly deprived cats, there was no difference in the proportions of large callosal cells in these fields (28% and 26%, respectively). These data provide evidence that cytoarchitectonic changes occurred in layers of the visual cortex, serving as sources of interhemisphere connections, in conditions of early derangement of binocular experience.

Alekseenko SV, Shkorbatova YP, Toporova SN. "Effects of {Strabismus} and {Monocular} {Deprivation} on the {Sizes} of {Callosal} {Cells} in {Cortical} {Fields} 17 and 18 in the {Cat} {Brain}." Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology. 2014;44:101-106. AbstractWebsite

Structural changes in the visual cortex were studied in conditions of deranged binocular experience by assessing the sizes (body areas) of callosal cells in fields 17 and 18 in monocularly deprived cats and in cats with convergent strabismus. These cells were detected by injection of horseradish peroxidase into columns in cortical fields 17 and 18 and the fields 17/18 transitional zone. In both groups, the mean size of callosal cells in field 17 was greater than normal, though this difference in field 18 was seen only in monocularly deprived cats. Differences in the mean sizes of field 17 and 18 cells in cats of the study groups were found to be due to the number of large cells. In cats with strabismus, callosal cells of size greater than 200 μm2 accounted for 58% of cells in field 17 and 8% in field 18. In monocularly deprived cats, there was no difference in the proportions of large callosal cells in these fields (28% and 26%, respectively). These data provide evidence that cytoarchitectonic changes occurred in layers of the visual cortex, serving as sources of interhemisphere connections, in conditions of early derangement of binocular experience.

Mwachaka P, El-busaidy H, Sinkeet S, Ogeng&\#x2019, O J. "Variations in the {Position} and {Length} of the {Vermiform} {Appendix} in a {Black} {Kenyan} {Population}." ISRN Anatomy. 2014;2014:e871048. AbstractWebsite

Background. Topography of the appendix influences its mobility, degree of mobilization of the cecum, and need for additional muscle splitting during appendectomy. Although appendectomy is a common surgical procedure, there is a paucity of data on its topography in black Africans. Methods. The position and length of the appendix and relation of the appendicular base with spinoumbilical line were determined in 48 cadavers obtained from the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Results. The commonest appendicular types in males were retrocecal 10 (27&\#x25;) while in females was subileal 4 (36.4&\#x25;). The average length of the appendix was 76.5 &\#xb1; 23.6&\#x2009;mm. The base of the appendix was located along, below, and above the spinoumbilical line in 25 (52.1&\#x25;), 9 (18.8&\#x25;), and 14 (29.2&\#x25;) cases, respectively. Conclusion. The topography of appendix in Kenyans shows variations from other populations. Knowledge of these variations is important during appendicectomy.

Mwachaka P, El-busaidy H, Sinkeet S, Ogeng&\#x2019, O J. "Variations in the {Position} and {Length} of the {Vermiform} {Appendix} in a {Black} {Kenyan} {Population}." ISRN Anatomy. 2014;2014:e871048. AbstractWebsite

Background. Topography of the appendix influences its mobility, degree of mobilization of the cecum, and need for additional muscle splitting during appendectomy. Although appendectomy is a common surgical procedure, there is a paucity of data on its topography in black Africans. Methods. The position and length of the appendix and relation of the appendicular base with spinoumbilical line were determined in 48 cadavers obtained from the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Results. The commonest appendicular types in males were retrocecal 10 (27&\#x25;) while in females was subileal 4 (36.4&\#x25;). The average length of the appendix was 76.5 &\#xb1; 23.6&\#x2009;mm. The base of the appendix was located along, below, and above the spinoumbilical line in 25 (52.1&\#x25;), 9 (18.8&\#x25;), and 14 (29.2&\#x25;) cases, respectively. Conclusion. The topography of appendix in Kenyans shows variations from other populations. Knowledge of these variations is important during appendicectomy.

S.N.Wambugu, Mwangi PW, Mwonjoria J, Mathiu PM, Gakuya DW, Kanui TI, Kiama SG. "Antinociceptive properties of selected medicinal plants used in the treatment of chronic joint pains in Eastern Kenya.". In: 9th Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific conference and Exhibition. PHPT Auditorium,CAVS,University of Nairobi; 2014.
Amimo JO, Saif LJ, Junga J, Vlasova AN, Okoth EA, Njahira MN, Ogara WO, Djikeng A. "Detection and molecular characterization of selected swine enteric viruses in smallholder farms in Kenya and Uganda.". In: 9th Biennial Conference and exhibition of the faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Upper Kabete Campus, Nairobi; 2014.detection_and_molecular_characterization_of_selected_swine_enteric_viruses_in_smallholder_farms_in_kenya_and_uganda__9thbiennial_jamimo-18-08-2014_final.pdf
S.A.M.Johnson, D.W. Gakuya, P.G. Mbuthia, N. Maingi, J.D. Mande. "Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths and management practices for dogs in the greater Accra region of Ghana.". In: 9th Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific conference and Exhibition. PHPT Auditorium,CAVS,University of Nairobi; 2014.
J.M. Mbaria, S.M.Itonga, D.W. Gakuya, P. K. Gathumbi, I.M.Mapenay. "Study of bioactivity and acute toxicity of Tephrosia vogelii growing in Meru, Kenya.". In: 9th Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific conference and Exhibition. PHPT Auditorium,CAVS,University of Nairobi; 2014.
Simila HO, Karpukhina N, Hill RG, Bushby A. "Bioglass Incorporation into Biodentine: Impact on Biological and Physical Properties.". In: Internationa Association of Dental Research. Capetown, South Africa; 2014.
Shah PS, Irandu EM. "The potential and challenges of promoting ecotourism in Kenya’s Wetlands.". In: Building communities, saving nature . Strathmore University, Centre for Tourism and Hospitality; 2014.
R.O.Onzago, S.G.Kiama, J.M. Mbaria, Z.M.Rukenya, D.W. Gakuya. "Efficacy and safety of Vernonia hymenolepis a medicinal plant used in Kenya for oral health.". In: 48th KVA Annual scientific conference. Boma Inn,Eldoret,Uasin Gishu county,Kenya; 2014.
R.O.Onzago, S.G.Kiama, Mbaria JM, Z.M.Rukenya, Gakuya DW. "Efficacy and safety of Vernonia hymenolepis a medicinal plant used in Kenya for oral health,.". In: . Published in the Proceeding of the 48th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual scientific conference . Boma Inn,Eldoret,Uasin Gishu county, Kenya; 2014.
Birech Z, Schwoerer H. "Davydov splitting in triplet excitons of tetracene single crystals.". In: Frontiers in Optics. Tucson, Arizona United States; 2014.fio-2014-ftu1g.8_davydov_splitting.pdf
Li X, Price MA, He D, Kamali A, Karita E, Lakhi S, Sanders EJ, Anzala O, Amornkul PN, Allen S, Hunter E, Kaslow RA, Gilmour J, Tang J. "Host genetics and viral load in primary HIV-1 infection: clear evidence for gene by sex interactions." Hum. Genet.. 2014;133(9):1187-97. Abstract

Research in the past two decades has generated unequivocal evidence that host genetic variations substantially account for the heterogeneous outcomes following human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. In particular, genes encoding human leukocyte antigens (HLA) have various alleles, haplotypes, or specific motifs that can dictate the set-point (a relatively steady state) of plasma viral load (VL), although rapid viral evolution driven by innate and acquired immune responses can obscure the long-term relationships between HLA genotypes and HIV-1-related outcomes. In our analyses of VL data from 521 recent HIV-1 seroconverters enrolled from eastern and southern Africa, HLA-A*03:01 was strongly and persistently associated with low VL in women (frequency = 11.3 %, P < 0.0001) but not in men (frequency = 7.7 %, P = 0.66). This novel sex by HLA interaction (P = 0.003, q = 0.090) did not extend to other frequent HLA class I alleles (n = 34), although HLA-C*18:01 also showed a weak association with low VL in women only (frequency = 9.3 %, P = 0.042, q > 0.50). In a reduced multivariable model, age, sex, geography (clinical sites), previously identified HLA factors (HLA-B*18, B*45, B*53, and B*57), and the interaction term for female sex and HLA-A*03:01 collectively explained 17.0 % of the overall variance in geometric mean VL over a 3-year follow-up period (P < 0.0001). Multiple sensitivity analyses of longitudinal and cross-sectional VL data yielded consistent results. These findings can serve as a proof of principle that the gap of "missing heritability" in quantitative genetics can be partially bridged by a systematic evaluation of sex-specific associations.

Njuguna IN, Ambler G, Reilly M, Ondondo B, Kanyugo M, Lohman-Payne B, Christine Gichuhi, Dalton Wamalwa, Borthwick N, Black A, Mehedi S-R, Sun J, Maleche-Obimbo E, Chohan B, John-Stewart GC, Jaoko W, Hanke T. "PedVacc 002: a phase I/II randomized clinical trial of MVA.HIVA vaccine administered to infants born to human immunodeficiency virus type 1-positive mothers in Nairobi." Vaccine. 2014;32(44):5801-8. Abstract

A safe, effective vaccine for breastfeeding infants born to HIV-1-positive mothers could complement antiretroviral therapy (ART) for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. To date, only a few HIV-1 vaccine candidates have been tested in infants.

Njuguna IN, Ambler G, Reilly M, Ondondo B, Kanyugo M, Lohman-Payne B, Christine Gichuhi, Dalton Wamalwa, Borthwick N, Black A, Mehedi S-R, Sun J, Maleche-Obimbo E, Chohan B, John-Stewart GC, Jaoko W, Hanke T. "PedVacc 002: a phase I/II randomized clinical trial of MVA.HIVA vaccine administered to infants born to human immunodeficiency virus type 1-positive mothers in Nairobi." Vaccine. 2014;32(44):5801-8. Abstract

A safe, effective vaccine for breastfeeding infants born to HIV-1-positive mothers could complement antiretroviral therapy (ART) for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. To date, only a few HIV-1 vaccine candidates have been tested in infants.

Beima-Sofie K, John-Stewart G, Shah B, Dalton Wamalwa, Maleche-Obimbo E, Kelley M. "Using health provider insights to inform pediatric HIV disclosure: a qualitative study and practice framework from Kenya." AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2014;28(10):555-64. Abstract

Optimal pediatric HIV disclosure impacts illness and developmental experiences while improving access to timely treatment. However, disclosure rates in high HIV prevalence countries remain low and there are limited data on best practices. We conducted a qualitative study of disclosure practices and interviewed healthcare providers from five pediatric HIV clinics in Kenya. We identified themes central to disclosure practices, rationale for approaches, barriers to implementing disclosure, and creative strategies to overcome challenges. We used these insights to develop a practice-based framework for disclosure that is sensitive to practical challenges. Overall, providers had limited training but extensive experience in disclosure, endorsed individualized disclosure practices, invested substantial time on disclosure despite clinical burden, and noted adverse outcomes associated with unplanned or abrupt disclosure. Providers advocated for an approach to disclosure that is child-centered but respects caregiver fears and values. Caregiver support was provided to enable caregivers to be the person who ultimately disclosed HIV status to children. Unplanned or abrupt disclosure to children was reported to have severe and persistent adverse impact and was a stimulus to accelerate disclosure in scenarios when providers believed children may be suspecting their diagnosis. Based on these expert insights, the framework we developed incorporates concurrent evaluation of child and caregiver readiness, identifies cues to prompt disclosure discussions, includes caregiver education and support, and utilizes a gradual approach of unveiling HIV diagnosis to the child.

Vogel JP, Souza JP, Gülmezoglu MA, Mori R, Lumbiganon P, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Carroli G, Laopaiboon M, Fawole B, Ganchimeg T, Zhang J, Torloni MR, Bohren M, Temmerman M. "Use of antenatal corticosteroids and tocolytic drugs in preterm births in 29 countries: an analysis of the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health." Lancet. 2014;384(9957):1869-77. Abstract

Despite the global burden of morbidity and mortality associated with preterm birth, little evidence is available for use of antenatal corticosteroids and tocolytic drugs in preterm births in low-income and middle-income countries. We analysed data from the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health (WHOMCS) to assess coverage for these interventions in preterm deliveries.

Gasper MA, Kunwar P, Itaya G, Lejarcegui N, Bosire R, Maleche-Obimbo E, Dalton Wamalwa, Slyker J, Overbaugh J, Horton H, Sodora DL, John-Stewart G, Lohman-Payne B. "Natural killer cell and T-cell subset distributions and activation influence susceptibility to perinatal HIV-1 infection." AIDS. 2014;28(8):1115-24. Abstract

To determine neonatal immunologic factors that correlate with mother-to-child-transmission of HIV-1.

Njoroge M, Njuguna NM, Mutai P, Ongarora DSB, Smith PW, Chibale K. "Recent Approaches to Chemical Discovery and Development Against Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases Human African Trypanosomiasis and Schistosomiasis." Chem. Rev.. 2014;114(22):11138-11163.
Singh R, Patel V, Mureithi MW, Naranbhai V, Ramsuran D, Tulsi S, Hiramen K, Werner L, Mlisana K, Altfeld M, Luban J, Kasprowicz V, Dheda K, Abdool Karim SS, Ndung'u T. "TRIM5α and TRIM22 are differentially regulated according to HIV-1 infection phase and compartment." J. Virol.. 2014. Abstracttrim5a_and_trim22_are_differentially_regulated_according_to_hiv.pdf

The antiviral role of TRIM E3 ligases in vivo is not fully understood. To test the hypothesis that TRIM5α and TRIM22 have differential transcriptional regulation and distinct anti-HIV roles according to infection phase and compartment, we measured TRIM5α, TRIM22 and type 1 interferon (IFN-1)-inducible MxA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during primary and chronic HIV-1 infection, and in matched PBMCs and central nervous system (CNS)-derived cells. Associations with biomarkers of disease progression were explored. The impact of IFN-1, select pro-inflammatory cytokines and HIV on TRIM E3 ligase-specific expression was investigated. PBMCs from individuals with primary and chronic HIV-1 infection had significantly higher levels of MxA and TRIM22 compared to HIV-1 negative PBMCs (P < 0.05, all comparisons). PBMCs from chronic infection had lower levels of TRIM5α compared to primary infection or HIV-1 uninfected (both P = 0.0001). In matched CNS-derived samples and PBMCs, higher levels of MxA (P = 0.001) and TRIM5α (P = 0.0001) were noted in the CNS. There was negative correlation between TRIM22 levels in PBMC and plasma viral load (r = -0.40, P = 0.04). In vitro, IFN-1 and rarely pro-inflammatory cytokines induced TRIM5α and TRIM22 in cell type-dependent manner and knockdown of either protein in CD4+ lymphocytes resulted in increased HIV-1 infection. These data suggest that there are infection-phase specific and anatomically compartmentalized differences in TRIM5α and TRIM22 regulation involving primarily IFN-1 and specific cell types, and indicate subtle differences in the antiviral role and transcriptional regulation of TRIM E3 ligases in vivo.Importance Interferon type I-inducible TRIM E3 ligases are a family of intracellular proteins with potent antiviral activities mediated through diverse mechanisms. However, little is known about the contribution of these proteins to antiviral immunity in vivo and how their expression is regulated. We show here that TRIM5α and TRIM22, two prominent members of the family, have different expression patterns in vivo and that expression pattern depends on HIV-1 infection status and phase. Furthermore, expression differs in peripheral blood versus central nervous system anatomical sites of infection. Only TRIM22 expression correlates negatively with HIV-1 viral load but gene silencing of both proteins enhances HIV-1 infection of target cells. We report on subtle differences in TRIM5α and TRIM22 gene induction by IFN-1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines in CD4+ lymphocytes, monocytes and neuronal cells. This study enhances our understanding of antiviral immunity by intrinsic antiviral factors and how their expression is determined.

Prentice HA, Price MA, Porter TR, Cormier E, Mugavero MJ, Kamali A, Karita E, Lakhi S, Sanders EJ, Anzala O, Amornkul PN, Allen S, Hunter E, Kaslow RA, Gilmour J, Tang J. "Dynamics of viremia in primary HIV-1 infection in Africans: insights from analyses of host and viral correlates." Virology. 2014;449:254-62. Abstract

In HIV-1 infection, plasma viral load (VL) has dual implications for pathogenesis and public health. Based on well-known patterns of HIV-1 evolution and immune escape, we hypothesized that VL is an evolving quantitative trait that depends heavily on duration of infection (DOI), demographic features, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes and viral characteristics. Prospective data from 421 African seroconverters with at least four eligible visits did show relatively steady VL beyond 3 months of untreated infection, but host and viral factors independently associated with cross-sectional and longitudinal VL often varied by analytical approaches and sliding time windows. Specifically, the effects of age, HLA-B(⁎)53 and infecting HIV-1 subtypes (A1, C and others) on VL were either sporadic or highly sensitive to time windows. These observations were strengthened by the addition of 111 seroconverters with 2-3 eligible VL results, suggesting that DOI should be a critical parameter in epidemiological and clinical studies.

Sobry A, Kizito W, Van den Bergh R, Tayler-Smith K, Isaakidis P, Cheti E, Kosgei RJ, Vandenbulcke A, Ndegwa Z, Reid T. "Caseload, management and treatment outcomes of patients with hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus in a primary health care programme in an informal setting." Trop. Med. Int. Health. 2014;19(1):47-57. Abstractcaseload_management_and_treatment_outcomes_of_patients_with_hypertension_andor_diabetes_mellitus_in_a_primary_health_care_programme_in_an_informal_setting_.pdf

In three primary health care clinics run by Médecins Sans Frontières in the informal settlement of Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya, we describe the caseload, management and treatment outcomes of patients with hypertension (HT) and/or diabetes mellitus (DM) receiving care from January 2010 to June 2012.

Mwololo A, Joshua Nyagol, Rogena E, Ochuk W, Kimani M, Noel Onyango, Pacenti L, Santopietro R, Leoncini L, Mwanda W. "Correlation of EGFR, pEGFR and p16INK4 expressions and high risk HPV infection in HIV/AIDS-related squamous cell carcinoma of conjunctiva." Infect. Agents Cancer. 2014;9(1):7. Abstract

Squamous cell carcinoma of conjunctiva has increased tenfold in the era of HIV/AIDS. The disease pattern has also changed in Africa, affecting young persons, with peak age-specific incidence of 30-39 years, similar to that of Kaposi sarcoma, a well known HIV/AIDS defining neoplasm. In addition, the disease has assumed more aggressive clinical course. The contributing role of exposure to high risk HPV in the development of SCCC is still emerging.

Slyker J, Farquhar C, Atkinson C, Ásbjörnsdóttir K, Roxby A, Drake A, Kiarie J, Wald A, Boeckh M, Richardson B, Odem-Davis K, John-Stewart G, Emery V. "Compartmentalized cytomegalovirus replication and transmission in the setting of maternal HIV-1 infection." Clin. Infect. Dis.. 2014;58(4):564-72. Abstract

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is associated with adverse outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed infants. Determinants of vertical CMV transmission in the setting of maternal HIV-1 infection are not well-defined.

Bezemer D, Faria NR, Hassan A, Hamers RL, Mutua G, Anzala O, Mandaliya K, Cane P, Berkley JA, Rinke de Wit TF, Wallis C, Graham SM, Price MA, Coutinho RA, Sanders EJ. "HIV Type 1 transmission networks among men having sex with men and heterosexuals in Kenya." AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2014;30(2):118-26. Abstract

We performed a molecular phylogenetic study on HIV-1 polymerase sequences of men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexual patient samples in Kenya to characterize any observed HIV-1 transmission networks. HIV-1 polymerase sequences were obtained from samples in Nairobi and coastal Kenya from 84 MSM, 226 other men, and 364 women from 2005 to 2010. Using Bayesian phylogenetics, we tested whether sequences clustered by sexual orientation and geographic location. In addition, we used trait diffusion analyses to identify significant epidemiological links and to quantify the number of transmissions between risk groups. Finally, we compared 84 MSM sequences with all HIV-1 sequences available online at GenBank. Significant clustering of sequences from MSM at both coastal Kenya and Nairobi was found, with evidence of HIV-1 transmission between both locations. Although a transmission pair between a coastal MSM and woman was confirmed, no significant HIV-1 transmission was evident between MSM and the comparison population for the predominant subtype A (60%). However, a weak but significant link was evident when studying all subtypes together. GenBank comparison did not reveal other important transmission links. Our data suggest infrequent intermingling of MSM and heterosexual HIV-1 epidemics in Kenya.

Juno JA, Lajoie J, Stalker AT, Julius Oyugi, Kimani M, Kimani J, Plummer FA, Fowke KR. "Enrichment of LAG-3, but not PD-1, on double negative T cells at the female genital tract." Am. J. Reprod. Immunol.. 2014;72(6):534-40. Abstract

The expression of inhibitory markers such as LAG-3 and PD-1 on T lymphocytes regulates immune function. Their expression at the genital mucosa is poorly understood, but regulation of immune activation at the female genital tract likely controls susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections.

Day S, Graham SM, Masese LN, Richardson BA, Kiarie JN, Jaoko W, Mandaliya K, Chohan V, Overbaugh J, Scott McClelland R. "A Prospective Cohort Study of the Effect of Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate on Detection of Plasma and Cervical HIV-1 in Women Initiating and Continuing Antiretroviral Therapy." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2014;66(4):452-6. Abstract

: Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) use among HIV-1-infected women may increase transmission by increasing plasma and genital HIV-1 RNA shedding. We investigated associations between DMPA use and HIV-1 RNA in plasma and cervical secretions. One hundred two women initiated antiretroviral therapy, contributing 925 follow-up visits over a median of 34 months. Compared with visits with no hormonal contraception exposure, DMPA exposure did not increase detection of plasma (adjusted odds ratio: 0.81, 95% confidence interval: 0.47 to 1.39) or cervical HIV-1 RNA (adjusted odds ratio: 1.41, 95% confidence interval: 0.54 to 3.67). Our results suggest that DMPA is unlikely to increase infectivity in HIV-positive women who are adherent to effective antiretroviral therapy.

Jain SA, Basu H, Prabhu PS, Soni U, Joshi MD, Mathur D, Patravale VB, Pathak S, Sharma S. "Parasite impairment by targeting Plasmodium-infected RBCs using glyceryl-dilaurate nanostructured lipid carriers." Biomaterials. 2014;35(24):6636-45. Abstract

Antimalarial therapy is a major contributor to declining malaria morbidity and mortality. However, the high toxicity and low bioavailability of current antimalarials and emerging drug resistance necessitates drug-delivery research. We have previously developed glyceryl-dilaurate nanolipid carriers (GDL-NLCs) for antimalarial drug delivery. Here, we show evidence that GDL-NLCs themselves selectively target Plasmodium-infected red blood cells (iRBCs), and cause severe parasite impairment. The glyceryl-dilaurate lipid-moiety was important in the targeting. GDL-NLCs localized to the parasite mitochondrion and uptake led to mitochondrial-membrane polarization and Ca(2+) ion accumulation, ROS release, and stage-specific iRBC lysis. GDL-NLC treatment also resulted in externalization of iRBC-membrane phosphatidylserine and enhanced iRBC clearance by macrophages. GDL-NLC uptake disrupted the parasite-induced tubulovesicular network, which is vital for nutrient import by the parasite. Laser optical trap studies revealed that GDL-NLCs also restored iRBC flexibility. Such restoration of iRBC flexibility may help mitigate the vasculature clogging that can lead to cerebral malaria. We demonstrate the suitability of GDL-NLCs for intravenous delivery of antimalarial combinations artemether-clindamycin and artemether-lumefantrine in the murine model. Complete parasite clearance was achieved at 5-20% of the therapeutic dose of these combinations. Thus, this nanostructured lipid formulation can solubilize lipophilic drugs, selectively target and impair the parasite-infected red cell, and therefore constitutes a potent delivery vehicle for antimalarials.

Masese L, Baeten JM, Richardson BA, Bukusi E, John-Stewart G, Jaoko W, Shafi J, Kiarie J, McClelland SR. "Incident herpes simplex virus type 2 infection increases the risk of subsequent episodes of bacterial vaginosis." J. Infect. Dis.. 2014;209(7):1023-7. Abstract

Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infected women have a higher prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) compared to HSV-2-seronegative women. To explore the temporal association between these conditions, we evaluated the frequency of BV episodes before and after HSV-2 acquisition in a prospective study of 406 HSV-2/HIV-1-seronegative Kenyan women, of whom 164 acquired HSV-2. Incident HSV-2 was associated with increased likelihood of BV (adjusted OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.05-1.56; P = .01). Our findings strengthen the evidence for a causal link between genital HSV-2 infection and disruption of the vaginal microbiota.

Cranmer LM, Kanyugo M, Jonnalagadda SR, Lohman-Payne B, Sorensen B, Elizabeth Maleche Obimbo, Dalton Wamalwa, John-Stewart GC. "High Prevalence of Tuberculosis Infection in HIV-1 Exposed Kenyan Infants." Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.. 2014;33(4):401-6. Abstract

Infants born to HIV-1 infected mothers may have increased risk for tuberculosis (TB), but the prevalence of TB infection in this population is undefined. In contrast to tuberculin skin tests that are confounded by recent bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination, TB interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) do not cross-react with BCG and enable detection of TB infection in infancy.

Cranmer LM, Kanyugo M, Jonnalagadda SR, Lohman-Payne B, Sorensen B, Elizabeth Maleche Obimbo, Dalton Wamalwa, John-Stewart GC. "High prevalence of tuberculosis infection in HIV-1 exposed Kenyan infants." Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.. 2014;33(4):401-6. Abstract

Infants born to HIV-1 infected mothers may have increased risk for tuberculosis (TB), but the prevalence of TB infection in this population is undefined. In contrast to tuberculin skin tests that are confounded by recent bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination, TB interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) do not cross-react with BCG and enable detection of TB infection in infancy.

Soh J, Rositch AF, Koutsky L, Guthrie BL, Choi RY, Bosire RK, Gatuguta A, Smith JS, Kiarie J, Lohman-Payne B, Farquhar C. "Individual and partner risk factors associated with abnormal cervical cytology among women in HIV-discordant relationships." Int J STD AIDS. 2014;25(5):315-24. Abstract

Individual and sexual partner characteristics may increase the risk of abnormal cervical cytology among women in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-discordant relationships. Papanicolaou smears were obtained in a prospective cohort of Kenyan HIV-discordant couples. Of 441 women, 283 (64%) were HIV-infected and 158 (36%) were HIV-uninfected with HIV-infected partners. Overall, 79 (18%) had low-grade and 25 (6%) high-grade cervical abnormalities. Male herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) seropositivity and lower couple socioeconomic status were associated with cervical abnormalities (p < 0.05). HIV-uninfected women with HIV-infected male sex partners (CD4 > 350 cells/µL) had the lowest prevalence of high-grade cervical lesions. HIV-infected women (CD4 > 350 cells/µL) and HIV-uninfected women with HIV-infected partners (CD4 ≤ 350 cells/µL) were at similar intermediate risk (p > 0.05), and HIV-infected women (CD4 ≤ 350 cells/µL) had significantly higher risk of high-grade cervical abnormalities (p = 0.05). Women in HIV-discordant relationships have high rates of cervical lesions and this may be influenced by couple-level factors, including HIV status and CD4 count of the infected partner.

Slyker JA, Patterson J, Ambler G, Richardson BA, Maleche-Obimbo E, Bosire R, Mbori-Ngacha D, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G. "Correlates and outcomes of preterm birth, low birth weight, and small for gestational age in HIV-exposed uninfected infants." BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2014;14:7. Abstract

Preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA) contribute to neonatal mortality. Maternal HIV-1 infection has been associated with an increased risk of PTB, but mechanisms underlying this association are undefined. We describe correlates and outcomes of PTB, LBW, and SGA in HIV-exposed uninfected infants.

Dundon WG, Kihu SM, Settypalli BTK, Gitao GC, Bebora LC, John NM, Oyugi JO, Silber R, Loitsch A, Diallo A. "First Complete Genome Sequence of a Lineage III Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus." Genome Announc. 2014;2(5). Abstract

We report the first complete genome sequence of a lineage III peste des petits ruminants virus (KN5/2011) using RNA extracted from goat lung tissue collected in Kenya in 2011. The genome shows the highest nucleotide sequence identity with lineage II peste des petits ruminants viruses (PPRVs) (86.1 to 87.2%) and the lowest with lineage IV PPRVs (82.5 to 83.8%).

Souza JP, Widmer M, Gülmezoglu AM, Lawrie TA, Adejuyigbe EA, Carroli G, Crowther C, Currie SM, Dowswell T, Hofmeyr J, Lavender T, Lawn J, Mader S, Martinez FE, Mugerwa K, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Silvestre MA, Soltani H, Torloni MR, Tsigas EZ, Vowles Z, Ouedraogo L, Serruya S, Al-Raiby J, Awin N, Obara H, Mathai M, Bahl R, Martines J, Ganatra B, Phillips SJ, Johnson BR, Vogel JP, Oladapo OT, Temmerman M. "Maternal and perinatal health research priorities beyond 2015: an international survey and prioritization exercise." Reprod Health. 2014;11:61. Abstract

Maternal mortality has declined by nearly half since 1990, but over a quarter million women still die every year of causes related to pregnancy and childbirth. Maternal-health related targets are falling short of the 2015 Millennium Development Goals and a post-2015 Development Agenda is emerging. In connection with this, setting global research priorities for the next decade is now required.

Roxby AC, Atkinson C, Asbjörnsdóttir K, Farquhar C, Kiarie JN, Drake AL, Wald A, Boeckh M, Richardson B, Emery V, John-Stewart G, Slyker JA. "Maternal valacyclovir and infant cytomegalovirus acquisition: a randomized controlled trial among HIV-infected women." PLoS ONE. 2014;9(2):e87855. Abstract

Studies in HIV-1-infected infants and HIV-1-exposed, uninfected infants link early cytomegalovirus (CMV) acquisition with growth delay and cognitive impairment. We investigated maternal valacyclovir to delay infant acquisition of CMV.

Saidi, H, B.K. Mutiso, Ogengo. J. "Mortality after road traffic crashes in a system with limited trauma data capability." J Trauma Manag Outcomes. 2014;8(1):4. Abstract

Africa has 4% of the global vehicles but accounts for about one tenth of global vehicular deaths. Major trauma in Kenya is associated with excess mortality in comparison with series from trauma centers. The determinants of this mortality have not been completely explored.

Sherr K, Gimbel S, Rustagi A, Ruth Nduati, Cuembelo F, Farquhar C, Wasserheit J, Gloyd S. "Systems analysis and improvement to optimize pMTCT (SAIA): a cluster randomized trial." Implement Sci. 2014;9:55. Abstract

Despite significant increases in global health investment and the availability of low-cost, efficacious interventions to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (pMTCT) in low- and middle-income countries with high HIV burden, the translation of scientific advances into effective delivery strategies has been slow, uneven and incomplete. As a result, pediatric HIV infection remains largely uncontrolled. A five-step, facility-level systems analysis and improvement intervention (SAIA) was designed to maximize effectiveness of pMTCT service provision by improving understanding of inefficiencies (step one: cascade analysis), guiding identification and prioritization of low-cost workflow modifications (step two: value stream mapping), and iteratively testing and redesigning these modifications (steps three through five). This protocol describes the SAIA intervention and methods to evaluate the intervention's impact on reducing drop-offs along the pMTCT cascade.

Njaanake KH, Simonsen PE, Vennervald BJ, Mukoko DA, Reimert CM, Gachuhi K, Jaoko WG, Estambale BB. "Urinary cytokines in Schistosoma haematobium-infected schoolchildren from Tana Delta District of Kenya." BMC Infect. Dis.. 2014;14:501. Abstract

Pathological changes due to infection with Schistosoma haematobium include cytokine-mediated urinary tract inflammation. The involved cytokines may be excreted in urine and their presence in urine may therefore reflect S. haematobium-related urinary tract pathology. The present study, for the first time, reports on the relationship between selected cytokines in urine and infection with S. haematobium in children from an area highly affected by this parasite.

Sipulwa LA, Ongus JR, Bulimo WD. Molecular characterization of human coronavirus circulating in Kenya, 2009-2012. Hilton Hotel; Nairobi, Kenya; 2014. Abstract

Background: The genome of a human coronavirus (HCoV) is composed of a linear, single-stranded, non-segmented, positive-sense RNA of 27-32 kb. The pol gene of HCoV found in ORF1ab, is a good molecular chronometer for molecular characterization of HCoV types because in a region of ~900bp towards the 5’, it contains two conserved flanks with a hypervariable middle. Thus, this region of the pol gene has been used to type all known HCoVs. Thus, molecular typing using this gene segment corresponds well to the classical typing based on serological cross-reactivity which groups CoVs into four groups. HCoVs cause a variety of mild and severe respiratory tract diseases including SARS and MERS. To date there are six known types of HCoVs. Although studies have shown evidence of global distribution of HCoVs and the diseases they cause, there is limited information on their presence, distribution and genetic characteristics in Kenya.Objective: To isolate, type and infer the genetic diversity of HCoVs that circulated in Kenya from 2009-2012 using the pol gene.Methods: Archived nasopharyngeal (NP) swab specimens from consenting outpatients aged ≥2 months were screened by real-time RT-PCR using HCoV-specific primers. Positive specimens were inoculated onto LLCMK2 monolayers to isolate the virus. RNA was extracted from virus isolates followed by PCR amplification of the HCoV pol gene using gene-specific primers. Nucleotide sequencing of amplicons was carried out using the BigDye chemistry prior to analyses using a suite of bioinformatics tools.Results and discussion: 29 of the 417 (7%) NP samples tested were positive for HCoV. The highest proportion (33%) were HCoV-NL63 followed by HCoV-HKU1 (30%), HCoV-OC43 (27%) and HCoV-229E (10%) respectively. SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV were not detected. Of the 29 positive samples, 14 (47%) yielded viral isolates for nucleotide sequencing. Sequence and Phylogenetic analyses identified 4 HCoV-HKU1, 5 HCoV-NL63, 4 HCoV-OC43 and 3 HCoV-229E. Mutation analyses revealed that 2/3 of the Kenyan HCoV-229E had Y4682L and one had F4821T amino acid substitutions relative to the prototype (GenBank Acc. No. NC_002645.1) The other human coronavirus types (HKU1, NL63 & OC43) had a few disparate silent mutations and were phenotypically identical to their respective prototypes. Conclusion: Four types of HCoVs circulated in Kenya during the study period. Genetic diversity in the hypervariable region of the pol gene was only observed in the HCoV-229E.

Gachara G, Symekher S, Otieno M, Magana J, Opot B, Bulimo W. Origins, Molecular Epidemiology and Genetic Diversity of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus in Kenya: A Bayesian Coalescent Analysis. Hilton Hotel; Nairobi, Kenya; 2014. Abstract

Background: An influenza pandemic caused by a swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1 [A(H1N1)pdm09] spread worldwide in 2009 and is estimated to have caused between 151,700 and 575,400 deaths globally. The spread of influenza is tradi¬tionally tracked by epidemiological data; however, this approach gives lit¬tle insight into the different viral circulating vari¬ants. Genome sequencing is emerging as a surveillance tool for evolutionary and phylogenetic mapping, and to explore the origins, molecular epidemiology, and genetic diversity of epidemic/pandemic viruses. Objective: To determine the origins, molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of Kenyan influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses.Methodology: A total of 40 influenza A/H1N1pdm09 viruses isolated between July 2009 and August 2010 were selected. The eight segments from each isolate were amplified and directly sequenced. The resulting gene segments were concatenated and these genomes used for subsequent analysis. A Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach implemented in the BEAST package v1.7.4 was used to reconstruct the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) sequences, time the introduction of infection in the country, rates of substitution and estimate a time-resolved phylogeny. Results: The Kenyan complete genome sequences clustered with globally distributed clade 2 and clade 7 sequences. However, local clade 2 viruses did not circulate beyond the introductory foci while clade 7 viruses disseminated country wide and were sustained by multiple introductions generating complex spatial patterns. Often, the local isolates clustered with isolates from the United Kingdom than with isolates from other countries. The time of the most recent common ancestor was estimated between April and June 2009, two months before the first laboratory confirmed case. The complete genome had an estimated rate of nucleotide substitution of 4.9 X 10-3 substitutions/site/year and fast population growths characterized the population dynamics. Conclusions: Adaptive evolution and viral migration seem to play a vital role in shaping the evolutionary dynamics of local A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses. Continuous monitoring is thus essential.

Shah PS, Irandu, Evaristus M. "The role of ecotourism in promoting women empowerment and community development: some reflections from Kenya.". In: Understanding oneself and the others: New Domestic and international Tourism Practices and the promotion of Heritage and Tourism in East Africa. French Institute of Research in Africa (IFRA); 2014.
Scott-Villier P, Ondicho T, Lubaale G, Ndungu D, Kabala N, Oosterom M. Roots and Routes of Political Violence in Kenya's Civil and political Society: A case Study of Marsabit County. London: IDS; 2014.
SK M, M W, JK S, CK G. ") Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) Breed characteristics, Farmer Objectives and Preferences in Kenya: A correspondence analysis." Discourse Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences. 2014;2(4):118-125.
S.O O, Gichuki FN, S.C O;. ". Assessment of Low-head Drip Irrigation systems’ uniformity of application." International Journal of (IJSBAR). 2014;Volume 15(Issue-2).
Yusuf A, Gitu P, Bhatt B, Njogu M, Salim A, Orata D. "1-Tetralinyl as carboxamide protecting group for asparagines and application to N-alpha-t-butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) solid-phase peptide synthesis of oxytocin." chemistry and materials research. 2014;6(2):1-11.
Yusuf A, Gitu P, Bhatt B, Njogu M, Salim A, Orata D. "1-Tetralinyl as Carboxamide-Protecting Group for Asparagine and Application to N-α-t-Butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) Solid-phase Peptide Synthesis of Oxytocin." chemistry and materials research. 2014;6(2). Abstractchemistry and materials research

Description
Oxytocin, a nonapeptide amide, was synthesized on a benzhydryl-resin using the Boc strategy. Benzyl group was used in the protection of sulfhydryl group of cysteine and tyrosine side-chain. Benzhydryl and tetralinyl groups were used in the protection of glutamine and asparagine side-chains respectively. TFMSA-TFA-thioanisole-1, 2-ethanedithiol (2: 20: 2: 1 v/v) was used on the peptide-resin under different cleavage conditions to obtain oxytocin in a one-pot reaction. The cleavage at 40 C for two hours gave oxytocin quantitatively. Oxytocin could be isolated in 56% yield.

Amir Y, Gitu P, Bhatt B, Njogu M, Salim A, Orata D. "1-Tetralinyl as carboxamine-protecting group for asparagine and application to N-a-t-Butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) solid-phase pentide synthesis of oxytocin." Journal of chemistry and materials research. 2014;6(2):1-11. Abstractscan0013.pdf

Oxytocin, a nonapeptide amide, was synthesized on a benzhydryl-resin using the Boc strategy. Benzyl group was
used in the protection of sulfhydryl group of cysteine and tyrosine side-chain. Benzhydryl and tetralinyl groups were
used in the protection of glutamine and asparagine side-chains respectively. TFMSA-TFA-thioanisole-I,2-
ethanedithiol (2:20:2:1 v/v) was used on the peptide-resin under different cleavage conditions to obtain oxytocin in a
one-pot reaction. The cleavage at 40°C for two hours gave oxytocin quantitatively. Oxytocin could be isolated in
56% yield.

Amir Y, Gitu P, Bhatt B, Njogu M, Salim A, Orata D. "1-Tetralinyl as carboxamine-protecting group for asparagine and application to N-a-t-Butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) solid-phase pentide synthesis of oxytocin." Chemistry and Materials Research. 2014. Abstract

Oxytocin, a nonapeptide amide, was synthesized on a benzhydryl-resin using the Boc strategy. Benzyl group was
used in the protection of sulfhydryl group of cysteine and tyrosine side-chain. Benzhydryl and tetralinyl groups were
used in the protection of glutamine and asparagine side-chains respectively. TFMSA-TFA-thioanisole-I,2-
ethanedithiol (2:20:2:1 v/v) was used on the peptide-resin under different cleavage conditions to obtain oxytocin in a
one-pot reaction. The cleavage at 40°C for two hours gave oxytocin quantitatively. Oxytocin could be isolated in
56% yield.

Yenesew A, N A, Heydenreich M, Midiwo JO, Ndakala A, Majer Z, Neumann B, Stammler H-G, Sewald N. "8-Hydroxy-6-methylxanthone-1-carboxylic acid and 6',8-O-dimethylknipholone from the roots of Bulbine frutescens." Phytochemistry Letters . 2014;9:67-73. Abstractpaper_70_abdissa_et_al_phyto_2014.pdf

Phytochemical investigation of the dichloromethane/methanol (1:1) extract of the roots of Bulbine frutescens led to the isolation of a new xanthone, 8-hydroxy-6-methylxanthone-1-carboxylic acid (1) and a new phenylanthraquinone, 6′,8-O-dimethylknipholone (2) along with six known compounds. The structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR and MS spectral data analyses. The structure of compound 1 was confirmed through X-ray crystallography which was then used as a reference to propose the revision of the structures of six seco-anthraquinones into xanthones. The isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against human cervix carcinoma KB-3-1 cells with the phenylanthraquinone knipholone being the most active (IC50 = 0.43 μM). Two semi-synthetic knipholone derivatives, knipholone Mannich base and knipholone-1,3-oxazine, were prepared and tested for cytotoxic activity; both showed moderate activities (IC50 value of 1.89 and 2.50 μM, respectively).

Macheyeki AS, Chapola LS, Manhiça V, Chisambi J, Feitio P, Ayele A, Barongo J, Ferdinand RW, Ghebrebrhan O, Goitom B, Hlatywayo JD, Kianji GK, Marohbe I, Mulowezi A, Mutamina D, Mwano JM, Shumba B, andTumwikiri. "Active Fault Mapping in Karonga-Malawi after the December 19, 2009 Ms 6.2 Seismic Event.". 2014.
Njenga M, Karanja N, Karlsson H, Jamnadass R, Iiyama M, Kithinji J, Sundberg C. "Additional cooking fuel supply and reduced global warming potential from recycling charcoal dust into charcoal briquette in Kenya." Journal of cleaner production. 2014;81:81-88. AbstractWebsite

Abstract

Rising demand for energy is one of the major challenges facing the world today and charcoal is a principal fuel in Kenya. Faced with energy poverty many poor households turn to briquette making. This study assessed the additional cooking fuel obtained from recycling charcoal dust into charcoal briquettes. It applied Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to assess the global warming potential (GWP) from use of charcoal and production of briquettes from charcoal dust and cooking a traditional meal for a standard household of five people. Native vegetation of Acacia drepanolobium and a low efficiency kiln were considered the common practice, while an Acacia mearnsii plantation and a high efficiency kiln was used as an alternative scenario. Charcoal and kerosene were considered as reference fuels. Recovering charcoal dust for charcoal briquettes supplied an additional 16% cooking fuel. Wood carbonization and cooking caused the highest GWP, so there is a need for technologies to improve the efficiency at these two stages of charcoal briquettes and charcoal supply chain. Supplying energy and cooking a traditional meal in a combined system using charcoal and recovering charcoal dust for charcoal briquettes and charcoal alone accounted for 5.3–4.12 and 6.4–4.94 kg CO2 eq. per meal, respectively, assuming trees were not replanted. These amounts declined three times when the carbon dioxide from the carbonization and cooking stages was assumed to be taken up by growing biomass. This requires replanting of trees cut down for charcoal if the neutral impact of biomass energy on GWP is to be maintained.

S G, M. NL, Motuka JM, M. MK. "Analysis of Gender Equity in Secondary Schools in Mandera East District, Mandera County, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research & Studies . 2014;3(3):480-492.
Sitati FC, Mogire TS. "Ankle Arthrodesis Using a Vertical Steinman’s Pin in a Severely Osteopenic Bone." East Central Africa Journal of Surgery. 2014;19(1):125-128.
Zheng Y, Mulinge M, Counson M, Yang X, Steinmetz A, Schmit J-C, Devaux C. "Anti-HIV activities in an African plant extract." Planta Medica. 2014;80(10).
Judith O, Saffudin D, Catherine L, Abiy Y. "Antifungal activity, brine shrimp cytotoxicity and phytochemical screening of Gladiolus watsonoides Baker (Iridaceae)." Journal of Pharmacy Research Vol. 2014;8(9):1218-1222.
Judith O, Saffudin D, Catherine L, Abiy Y. "Antifungal activity, brine shrimp cytotoxicity and phytochemical screening of Gladiolus watsonoides Baker (Iridaceae)." Journal of Pharmacy Research Vol. 2014;8(9):1218-1222.
Silvestrov K, Ogutu C, Silvestrov S, Weke P. "Asian Options, Jump-Diffusion Processes on a Lattice and Vandermonde Matrices.". In: Modern Problems in Insurance Mathematics. London: Springer; 2014. Abstract

Modern Problems in Insurance Mathematics. Springer, London, Chapter 20, pages 337 – 366, XIX, 387 pages.
Summary:
Risk is the uncertainty of an outcome and it can bring unexpected gains but can also cause unforeseen losses, even catastrophes. They are common and inherent in financial and commodity markets; for example; asset risk, interest rate risk, foreign exchange risk, credit risk, commodity risk. Investors have various attitudes towards risk, that is, risk aversion, risk seeking and risk neutral. Over the past few years financial derivatives have become increasingly important in the world of finance since they are kind of a risk management tool. A financial derivative is a financial instrument whose value depends on other fundamental financial assets, called underlying assets, such as stocks, indexes, currencies, commodities, bonds, mortgages and other derivatives (since we can have a derivative of a derivative). As an underlying asset one can also use a non-financial random phenomenon like for instance, weather conditions e.g. temperatures. Pricing derivatives accurately and quickly is important for risk management. This is important for both those who trade in derivatives and those who are willing to insure them. In this paper some lattice methods for pricing Asian options modeled using a jump diffusion process will be described. These methods can often be adapted to pricing of other derivatives or solving other types of problems in financial mathematics, for instance a jump diffusion process can be used to describe incoming claims to an insurance company, see [20].

Silvanus SK, Veronica N, Hudson N, Isaac J, Fredrick O. "Assessment of mineral deficiencies among grazing areas in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya." Int. J. Nutr. Food Sci. 2014;3:44-48. AbstractInt. J. Nutr. Food Sci

Description
A study conducted in the major grazing areas of Uasin Gishu involved twenty-eight (28) soils, twenty-eight (28) forage and forty-two (42) serum samples collected in six divisions at different sites. The purpose of the study was to determine the macro-and trace elements in soils, forages and animal serum, and compare to the recommended standards so as to identify those that could be presenting deficiencies in the area. Soils were extracted for available macro-minerals; Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca) magnesium (Mg) and trace elements; Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn; the forage samples were assayed for the same elements plus phosphorus as total concentration on dry matter (DM) basis while blood serum was analyzed for the same forage elements plus molybdenum (Mo). Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) and UV/visible spectrophotometer were used to analyze the metal elements and molybdenum respectively. Soil and Forage analysis of samples from southern region including Kesses and Ainabkoi revealed lower levels in both macro and trace elements analyzed. Serum samples from grazing areas situated in southern region revealed similar deficiencies in most minerals. The factors responsible for the variations as soil pH, forage species and cattle breed were investigated using correlation analysis.

Gron KL, Ornbjerg LM, Hetland ML, Aslam F, Khan NA, Jacobs JW, Oyoo O, Stropuviene S, et al. "The association of fatigue, comorbidity burden, disease activity, disability and gross domestic product in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Results from 34 countries participating in the Quest-RA program." Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology. 2014. Abstract

Abstract
OBJECTIVES:

The aim is to assess the prevalence of comorbidities and to further analyse to which degree fatigue can be explained by comorbidity burden, disease activity, disability and gross domestic product (GDP) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
METHODS:

Nine thousands eight hundred seventy-four patients from 34 countries, 16 with high GDP (>24.000 US dollars [USD] per capita) and 18 low-GDP countries (<24.000 USD) participated in the Quantitative Standard monitoring of Patients with RA (QUEST-RA) study. The prevalence of 31 comorbid conditions, fatigue (0-10 cm visual analogue scale [VAS] [10=worst]), disease activity in 28 joints (DAS28), and physical disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire score [HAQ]) were assessed. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to assess the association between fatigue and comorbidities, disease activity, disability and GDP.
RESULTS:

Overall, patients reported a median of 2 comorbid conditions of which hypertension (31.5%), osteoporosis (17.6%), osteoarthritis (15.5%) and hyperlipidaemia (14.2%) were the most prevalent. The majority of comorbidities were more common in high-GDP countries. The median fatigue score was 4.4 (4.8 in low-GDP countries and 3.8 in high-GDP countries, p<0.001). In low-GDP countries 25.4% of the patients had a high level of fatigue (>6.6) compared with 23.0% in high-GDP countries (p<0.001). In univariate analysis, fatigue increased with increasing number of comorbidities, disease activity and disability in both high- and low-GDP countries. In multivariate analysis of all countries, these 3 variables explained 29.4% of the variability, whereas GDP was not significant.
CONCLUSIONS:

Fatigue is a widespread problem associated with high comorbidity burden, disease activity and disability regardless of GDP.

Simila HO, Karpukhina N, Hill RG, Andy B. "Bioglass Incorporation into Biodentine: Impact on Biological and Physical Properties." Journal of Dental Research. 2014;93(Special Issure B):315.iadr_poster_-_colour_copy.ppt
Mugendi GA, Strippoli GFM, Mutua F, Esterhuizen TM. "Calcium channel blockers for people with chronic kidney disease requiring dialysis." Cochrane Database of Sytematic Reviews. 2014;(4).
Mwabu G, Bold T, Kimenyi M, Sandefur J. "Can Free Provision Reduce Demand for Public Services?". In: World Bank Economic Review, doi:10.1093/wber/lht038.; 2014.
Olabu B, Gichangi P, Saidi H, Ogeng'o J. "Castration causes progressive reduction of length of the Rabbit penis." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2014;3(3):412-416.olabu_and_gichangi.pdf
L Z, ME E, G K, S R, P M, B C, K M, S I, A J, R D, V F, S O, B G, C M, E O, P L, MM A-K, C H-H, SS S, A H, W D, DY G, SG A, AG D, BA S, DM B, A ES, AS I, J M, F B-T, BN O, O I, C S, R M, A AF, N K, A D, M S, OS O, T O, HH E, AO M, AM A, P M, D O, J M, S Y, BM M. "Characteristics, complications, and gaps in evidence-based interventions in rheumatic heart disease: the Global Rheumatic Heart Disease Registry (the REMEDY study)." Eur Heart J. . 2014.
Ongeti K, Saidi H, Ogeng’o J. "COMMON CAROTID INTIMAL MEDIAL THICKNESS IN A KENYAN POPULATION." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2014;3(3): 393-­399. AbstractCOMMON CAROTID INTIMAL MEDIAL THICKNESS IN A KENYAN POPULATION

Carotid intimal medial thickness, a marker for early atherosclerosis, has high clinical utility. It
shows gender, regional, age and ethnic differences but data from black African populations
are scarce. This study describes the carotid intimal medial thickness in a black Kenyan
population. One hundred and fifty histological samples from 25 males and 25 female left
common carotid arteries were routinely processed for light microscopy and stained using
Mason’s Trichrome stain. The intimal medial thickness was measured on the
photomicrographs using the Scion Multiscan software. The mean age of the cases was
28+19yrs. Mean carotid intimal medial thickness is higher in males (0.97+0.22) than
females (0.77+0.06), p=0.05 and increases distally. Carotid intimal medial thickness
increased with age being 0.5+0.16mm, 0.87+0.24mm and 1.21+0.36 mm for the age
groups 0-20yrs, 21-40yrs and 41-60yrs respectively (p=0.035). Carotid intimal medial
thickness in black Africans is similar to that reported for Caucasian populations. It is higher
in males, increases distally and with age.

Andreeva-Grigorovich AS, Suprun IS, Waga DD. A comparison analysis of the Paleogene calcareous nannofossils from the Ukrainian Carpathians and Zeravshan region of Tajikistan.. Lviv, Ukraine: Institute of Geological Sciences of the NAS of Ukraine (IGS NAS of Ukraine); 2014.
Gakuya EM, Kamau DM, Gakuu LN, Sang EK. "COMPARISON OF CLOSED FEMUR FRACTURE: SKELETAL TRACTION AND INTRAMEDULLARY NAILING COST-EFFECTIVENESS." East African Orthopaedic Journal. 2014;8:4-9. Abstract

Background: Fractures of the femur are common injuries affecting the productive age group. Skeletal
traction is the mainstay of treatment in Kenya, hence comparison with operative management, to determine which is more cost-effective. To our knowledge no similar study has been done in Africa.Objective: To determine the cost-effectiveness of skeletal traction compared to intramedullary nailing. Design: Prospective conventional sampling analytical study. Setting: Hospital based study in a referral and teaching institution - Kenyatta National Hospital, orthopaedic wards. Study population: Patients admitted at Kenyatta National Hospital with diaphyseal femur fracture aged between 18 – 50 years. The study was done from October 2012 to May 2013. Materials and methods: A structured data collection sheet was used. It included the patient particulars, hospital stay and per diem cost, the type of injury, type of management and comparing the cost of
each, X-ray findings during treatment and at 3 months to assess for union. Data was represented in
form of tables, and figures. Results: Males were more affected than females, with a mean age of 31.5 years. The mean length of hospital stay was 11.48 days for the operative group and 66.7 days for the skeletal traction group. The average total hospital cost for the operative group was Kshs 54, 380.44 (US$640) compared to Kshs 67,792 (US$798) for the traction group. In the operative group 24 patients had union with one delayed union while in the traction group 12 patients had union, 9 with mal union and 4 delayed union.
Conclusion: Intramedullary nailing is more cost-effective than skeletal traction. It met the dominant
strategy, because it was significantly less costly than skeletal traction, with a better outcome

Oluko PS, Norton J, Okalebo JR, Omondi E, N'getich W, Shikuku DS, Okeyo JM, Odhiambo JA, Norton U, Ashilenje D, Wangoli JW. "Conservation agriculture effects on earthworm populations in Western Kenya and Eastern Uganda soils." RUFORUM Fourth Biennial Conference, Maputo, Mozambique, 19-25 July 2014. 2014:547-548.
Oluko PS, Norton J, Okalebo JR, Omondi E, N'getich W, Shikuku DS, Okeyo JM, Odhiambo JA, Norton U, Ashilenje D, Wangoli JW. "Conservation agriculture effects on earthworm populations in Western Kenya and Eastern Uganda soils." RUFORUM Fourth Biennial Conference, Maputo, Mozambique, 19-25 July 2014. 2014:547-548.
Kimani S, Moterroso V, Morales P, Wagner J, Sinei K, Bukachi F, Maitai C, Tshala-Katumbay D. "Cross-species and tissue variations in cyanide detoxification rates in rodents and non human primates on protein-restricted diet." Food and Chemical Toxicology . 2014;66:203-209. Abstract

We sought to elucidate the impact of diet, cyanide or cyanate exposure on mammalian cyanide detoxification capabilities (CDC). Male rats (∼8weeks old) (N=52) on 75% sulfur amino acid (SAA)-deficient diet were treated with NaCN (2.5mg/kg bw) or NaOCN (50mg/kg bw) for 6weeks. Macaca fascicularis monkeys (∼12years old) (N=12) were exclusively fed cassava for 5weeks. CDC was assessed in plasma, or spinal cord, or brain. In rats, NaCN induced seizures under SAA-restricted diet whereas NaOCN induced motor deficits. No deficits were observed in non-human primates. Under normal diet, the CDC were up to ∼80× faster in the nervous system (14ms to produce one μmol of thiocyanate from the detoxification of cyanide) relative to plasma. Spinal cord CDC was impaired by NaCN, NaOCN, or SAA deficiency. In M. fascicularis, plasma CDC changed proportionally to total proteins (r=0.43; p<0.001). The plasma CDC was ∼2× relative to that of rodents. The nervous system susceptibility to cyanide may result from a “multiple hit” by the toxicity of cyanide or its cyanate metabolite, the influences of dietary deficiencies, and the tissue variations in CDC. Chronic dietary reliance on cassava may cause metabolic derangement including poor CDC

Kimani S, Moterroso V, Morales P, Wagner J, Sinei K, Bukachi F, Maitai CK, Tshala-Katumbay D. "Cross-species and tissue variations in cyanide detoxification rates in rodents and non-human primates on protein-restricted diet." Food Chem Toxicol.. 2014;66:203-209.
Yenesew A, Gumula I, Erdélyi M, Patrick. A, J Isaiah Omolo Ndiege PS, Omolo, N, Sunnerhagen P. "Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Flemingins G-P from the Leaves of Flemingia grahamiana." Journal of Natural Products . 2014. Abstractpaper_76_ivan_et_al_jnp_2014_77_2060_2067.pdf

The known flemingins A-C (1-3) and nine new chalcones, named flemingins G-O (4-12), along with deoxyhomoflemingin (13) and emodin (14) were isolated from a leaf extract of Flemingia grahamiana. The isolated chalcones were found to have a geranyl substituent modified into a chromene ring possessing a residual chain, as shown by spectroscopic methods. The leaf extract showed an IC50 value of 5.9 μg/mL in a DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay. The chalcones flemingins A, B, C, G, and H were active in the DPPH radical scavenging assay (ED50 4.4-8.9 μM), while flemingins A and C showed cytotoxicity against MCF-7 human breast cancer cells (IC50 8.9 and 7.6 μM, respectively).

Yenesew A, Sunnerhagen, P., Erdelyi M, Abdissa N, Induli, M., Fitzpatrick P, Alao JP, Landberg G. "Cytotoxic Quinones from the Roots of Aloe dawei." Molecules. 2014;19,:3264-3273. Abstractpaper_69_abdissa_et_al_molecules_2014.pdf

Seven naphthoquinones and nine anthraquinones were isolated from the roots of Aloe dawei by chromatographic separation. The purified metabolites were identified by NMR and MS analyses. Out of the sixteen quinones, 6-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone is a new compound. Two of the isolates, 5,8-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-2-methylnaphthalene-1,4-dione and 1-hydroxy-8-methoxy-3-methylanthraquinone showed high cytotoxic activity (IC₅₀ 1.15 and 4.85 µM) on MCF-7 breast cancer cells, whereas the others showed moderate to low cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 (ER Negative) and MCF-7 (ER Positive) cancer cells.

Loiselle S, zar A´s C´, Adgo E, Ballatore T, Chavula G, Descy JP, Harper DM, Kansiime F, Kimirei I, Langenberg V, Ma R, Sarmento12 H, Odada E. "Decadal Trends and Common Dynamics of the Bio- Optical and Thermal Characteristics of the African Great Lakes." PLOS ONE. 2014;9(4):1-6. Abstract

The Great Lakes of East Africa are among the world’s most important freshwater ecosystems. Despite their importance in providing vital resources and ecosystem services, the impact of regional and global environmental drivers on this lacustrine system remains only partially understood. We make a systematic comparison of the dynamics of the bio-optical and thermal properties of thirteen of the largest African lakes between 2002 and 2011. Lake surface temperatures had a positive trend in all Great Lakes outside the latitude of 0u to 8u south, while the dynamics of those lakes within this latitude range were highly sensitive to global inter-annual climate drivers (i.e. El Nin˜o Southern Oscillation). Lake surface temperature dynamics in nearly all lakes were found to be sensitive to the latitudinal position of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone. Phytoplankton dynamics varied considerably between lakes, with increasing and decreasing trends. Intra-lake differences in both surface temperature and phytoplankton dynamics occurred for many of the larger lakes. This inter-comparison of bio-optical and thermal dynamics provides new insights into the response of these ecosystems to global and regional drivers.

Onyango MA, FA O, Nyamu DG, Osanjo GO, Sinei K. "Determinants of antibiotic dose adjustment in patients with chronic kidney disease at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." The African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics . 2014;3(1):19-28. Abstract

Background: Reduced renal function in chronic kidney disease (CKD) necessitates appropriate dose alterations to avoid drug accumulation.

Objectives: The main objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of inappropriate antibiotic dosing in patients with CKD in the largest referral hospital in eastern Africa. Variables associated with inappropriate dosing were identified.

Methods: The design was a retrospective review of patients’ records. The study population was adult patients, with CKD admitted between January, 2006 and December, 2010. Data was abstracted from patient files. Logistic regression was used to determine variables associated with appropriate antibiotic dosing.

Results: Ceftriaxone and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid were the most frequently prescribed antibiotics. Dose adjustment was required for 379 (59.9%) antibiotic prescriptions. Of these, 105 doses (27.7% [95% CI: 23.2 – 32.2%]) were appropriate and 274 (72.3% [95% CI 67.8 – 76.8%]) were inappropriate. The resultant dosing errors were: 271 (98.9%) and 3 (1.1%) cases of over and under dosing respectively. Key explanatory variables for appropriate dosing were: stage of renal disease (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.159 [95% CI: 0.082, 0.309]); administration; (adjusted OR 1.724 [95% CI:1.185, 2.508]); and treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (adjusted OR 0.101 [95% CI 0.024, 0.420].

Conclusion: Antibiotic doses in patients with CKD were often inappropriate.
Keywords: Antibiotic, dose adjustment, chronic kidney disease

Onyango MA, Okalebo FA, Nyamu DG, Osanjo GO, Sinei KS. "Determinants of Appropriate Antibiotic Dosing in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease in a Kenyan Referral Hospital." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther.. 2014;3(1):19-28.
Ong’ayo E.O., S.K. M, S.O A. "Determination of basic mean hourly wind speeds for structural design in Nairobi County." International Journal of Engineering Sciences & Emerging Technologies . 2014;Vol 7 (Issue 2 ).
Ghimire C, Park S, Iida K, Yangyuoru P, Otomo H, Yu Z, Nagasawa K, Sugiyama H, Mao H. "Direct quantification of loop interaction and π–π stacking for G-quadruplex stability at the submolecular level." Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2014;136(44):15537-15544.
Ghimire C, Park S, Iida K, Yangyuoru P, Otomo H, Yu Z, Nagasawa K, Sugiyama H, Mao H. "Direct quantification of loop interaction and π–π stacking for G-quadruplex stability at the submolecular level." Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2014;136(44):15537-15544.
Rees H, Baeten J, Baron D, Cates W, Celum C, Chipato T, S C, Donnell D, Gichangi P, Hofmeyr J, Morrison C, Mugo N, Nanda K, Palanee T, Steyn P, Taylor D, Temmerman M. "DMPA and HIV: why we need a trial." Contraception . 2014;90:354-356.
Rees H, Baeten BCCCCJDW, Baeten, J, Baron, D, Cates, W, Celum, C, Chipato T, Chombes, S, Donnell, D, Gichangi, Hofmeyr, J, Morrison, C, Mugo, N, Nanda, K, Palanee, T, Steyn, P, Taylor, D, Temmerman M. "DMPA and HIV: why we need a trial." Contraception . 2014;90(2014):354-356.
Ngaina JN, Mutua FM, Muthama NJ, Kirui JWJ, Sabiiti G, Mukhala E, Maingi NW, Mutai BK. "Drought monitoring in Kenya: A case of Tana River County." International Journal of Agricultural Science Research . 2014;3(7):126-135 .
Ngaina JN, Mutua FM, Muthama NJ, Kirui JW, Sabiiti G, Mukhala E, NW Maingi BKM. "Drought monitoring in Kenya: A case of Tana River County." International Journal of Agricultural Science Research. 2014;3(7):126-135. AbstractAcademe Research Journals

Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) is used to assess past, present and projected drought conditions
while Mann Kendall trend test and coefficient of variability is used for trend analysis. Observed data
from National Meteorological and Hydrological Centre in Kenya and simulated data based on Special
Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) A1B and A2 from Providing Region Climate for Impact Studies
(PRECIS) Model and Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) RCP 4.5 Wm-2
and RCP 6.0 Wm-2
from Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) were used. Observed
datasets (rainfall and temperature), projected temperature (A1B and A2, RCP 4.5 Wm-2
and RCP 6.0 Wm2
) and rainfall (A2 and RCP 6.0 Wm-2
) all showed monotonic trend. A1B scenario had no significant
trend. Decreasing patterns observed from SPI values based on observations showed increase in dry
conditions. Although projected rainfall showed a decreasing trend, the frequency and magnitude of
drought events increased under all future scenarios. Risk analysis based on observed data showed that
north and central region of Tana River county were susceptible to intense droughts conditions and
projected shift northwards under all scenarios. The susceptibility of the region to drought conditions is
thus expected to increase conflicts due to limited water resources, pasture and food insecurity in the
region and thus limit achievement of Kenya’s long term development envisioned in the Vision 2030.
Key words: Climate change, drought, livestock production, scenarios, semi arid.

Shah PS, Irandu. EM. Ecotourism as a strategy for promoting conservation of biodiversity in Tana River County. Mombasa, Kenya: National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA), Wetlands International, University of Nairobi; 2014.
OK K, RN K, SM M, GN K, K WR. "Effect of Different Soil Water Content and Seed Storage on Quality of Six Range Grasses in the Semi-Arid Ecosystems of Kenya." Environment and Ecology Research . 2014;2(2):261-271.
D.W G, P.N M, S.M M, S.G K, G.M M, A N. "Effect of Supplementation of Moringa Oleifera (LAM) leaf meal in layer chicken feed. International Journal of poultry science 13(7): 379-384." International Journal of Poultry Science. 2014;13(7):379-384.fin2600.pdf
D.W. Gakuya, P.N.Mbugua, S.M.Mwaniki, S.G.Kiama, G.M.Muchemi, A.Njuguna. "Effect of supplementation of Moringa oleifera(LAM) leaf meal in layer chicken feed." International Journal of Poultry Science. 2014;13(7):379-383.effect_of_supplementation_of_moringa_oleiferalam_leaf_meal_in_layer_chicken_feed.pdf
Sivapalasingam S, McClelland RS RACCMGMMJAP, Shafi J, Masese L FAMEJKAEMW &. "An Effective Intervention to reduce intravaginal practices among HIV-1 uninfected Kenyan women." AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses . 2014;30(11)::1046-57.
Higashi T, Kambayashi Y, Ohkura N, Fujimura M, Nakai S, Honda Y, Saijoh K, Hayakawa K, Kobayashi F, Michigami Y, EO A. "Effects of Asian dust on daily cough occurrence in patients with chronic cough: A panel study." Atmospheric Environment. 2014;92:506-513.
Mwachaka P, Saidi H, Odula P, Mandela P. "Effects of monocular deprivation on dendritic features of retinal ganglion cells." Int. J. Morphol. 2014;32(4):1144-1151.mwachaka_retina_dendritic.pdf
Basweti NO, Shroeder H, Hamu HJ, Omwenga LM. "The Ekegusii Determiner Phrase Analysis in the Minimalist Program." International Journal of Linguistics & Communication . 2014. Abstractthe_ekegusii_dp.pdf

Among some of the recent syntactic developments, the noun phrase has been re-analyzed as a determiner phrase (DP). This study analyses the Ekegusii determiner phrase (DP) with an inquiry into the relationship between agreement of the INFL (sentence) and concord in the noun phrase (determiner phrase). It hypothesizes that the Ekegusii sentential Agreement has a symmetrical relationship with the Ekegusii Determiner Phrase internal concord and feature checking theory and full interpretation (FI) in the Minimalist Program is adequate in the analysis of the internal structure of the Ekegusii DP. In employing the Minimalist Program (MP), the study shall first seek to establish the domain of the NP in the Ekegusii DP and go ahead to do an investigation into the adequacy of the Minimalist Program in analyzing the Ekegusii DP. This study is also geared towards establishing the order of determiners in the DP between the D-head and the NP complement. The study concludes that the principles of feature checking and full interpretation in the minimalist program are mutually crucial in ensuring that Ekegusii constructions (DP and even the sentence) are grammatical (converge). This emphasizes the fact that the MP is adequate in Ekegusii DP analysis.
Key Words: Determiner Phrase, DP Hypothesis, Minimalist Program, Feature checking, Full interpretation

Clet Wandui Masiga, Abdalla Mohamed, Sarah Osama, Abigail Ngugi, Dan Kiambi, Santie de Villiers, Ngugi K, Mugoya C, Rasha Ali. "Enhanced Utilization of Biotechnology Research and Development Innovations in Eastern and Central Africa for Agro-ecological Intensification.". In: Enhanced Utilization of BiotechnologyResearch and Development Innovationsin Eastern and Central Africafor Agro-ecological Intensification. Entebe: Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa (ASARECA); 2014.masiga_et_al_2014_enhanced_use_of_biotechnology_in_eca.pdf
Kibore. B, Gitao. CG, Sangula A, Kitala. P. "The Epizootiology of Foot and Mouth Disease in high risk zones in Kenya." American Journal of Research Communication. 2014;2(9):129-154.kibore_vol29.pdf
J N, SG K, Gathumbi P K, AN M, J K. "Erythrina abyssinica prevents meningoencephalitis in chronic Trypanosoma brucei brucei mouse model." Metabolic Brain Disease. 2014.Website
Mwonjoria JJ, Ngereanwa JJ, Kariuki HN, Githinji CG, Sigina MN, Wambugu SN. "Ethno medicinal, phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of solanum incanum (lin.)." International Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology (IJPT). 2014;2(2):17-20.abstract-mwonjoria_et_al_2014.docx
CK K, J M, JA O, SG K. "Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants traditionally used in Tana River County for management of illnesses." Asian Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2014;2(2):1-5.Website
R.O.Onzago, S.G.Kiama, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, J.G.Nduhiu. "Evaluation of antimicrobial activity and toxicity of Vernonia hymenolepis(A.Rich) traditionally used for toothache in Kenya." The Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2014;3(1):22-28.the_journal_of_phytopharmacology.pdf
Magomere TO, Ngugi K, Mutitu E, Shibairo S, Obukosia SD. "Evaluation of Multiplex PCR in Detection of Crop Alleles and Differential Hybridisation Among Weedy Sorghum Populations d ." Journa of Biological Sciences. 2014;14(7):460-471.
Sakaja Y.M, Nyonje R. "Evaluation of public university expansion strategy on service delivery: a case of university of Nairobi, Extra Mural Department." International Journal Of Humanities and Social Science. 2014;5(8).
Ben A Lukuyu, Kinyua J, S Agili, Gachuiri CK, J Low. "Evaluation of sweetpotato varieties for the potential of dual-purpose in different agroecological zones of Kenya." Springer, Cham. 2014:217-231.
Dundon W, Kihu S, Settypalli BK, Gitao CG, Bebora LC, Munene JN, J.O.Oyugi, Silber R, L.Angelica, Diallo A. "First Complete Genome Sequence of a lineage III peste des petits ruminants virus." Genome Announcement . 2014;2(5).
W.G.Dundon, S. M Kihu, T.B. Settypalli, G.C.Gitao, L.C. Bebora, N.M. John, J.O.Oyugi, R.Silber, A. Loitsch,. DA. "First Complete Genome Sequence of a Lineage III Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus." Genome Announc.. 2014;61(14):25,33.aphs_iaea_newsletter-61_1.pdf
Kariuki J, Shuaibu RA, Nyomboi T, Mumenya SW. "Flexural Strength Technology, of Laminated Bamboo Beams." International Journal of Engineering Sciences & Emerging Technologies. 2014;7(5):1531-1538.
Wairimu J, Sallet G, Ogana W. "Formulation of a vector SIS malaria model in a patchy environment with two age classes." Scientific Research Publishing. 2014;5(10):1535-1545. AbstractWebsite

We formulate an SIS model describing transmission of highland malaria in Western Kenya. The host population is classified as children, age 1-5 years and adults, above 5 years. The susceptibili-ty and infectivity of an individual depend on age class and residence. The large scale system with 6n equations is reduced into a compact form of 3n equations by a change of variables. Then 3n equations are vectorialized using the matrix theory to get a one dimension, compact form of the system, equation in n 3  . Using Vidyasagar theorem [1], the graph of the reduced system is shown to be strongly connected and the system is a monotone dynamical system. This means that circula-tion of malaria parasites among the species and among the patches is strongly connected, hence transmission is sustained. We show that for the n-dimensional age structured system the positive orthant is positively invariant for all positive values of the variables.

Shah P, mwaura F, Moronge JM. "Gender Perspective in Water Conservation in Schools in Kenya: The case of a Junior School in Kenya." Hekima. 2014;Volume VI(Issue No. 1):pp 42-51.
Shah PS, Moronge JM. "Gender Perspective in Water Conservation in Schools in Kenya: The Case of a Junior School in Nairobi, Kenya." Hekima Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Nairobi. 2014;VI(1):42-51.
S.S.Lekerpes, J.O.Junga, M.S.Badamana, D.I.Rubenstein. "Genetic polymorphism of beta-lactoglobulin in Kenyan Small East African goat breed using PCR-RFLP and sequencing." Scientific Journal of Animal Science. 2014:233-239.
S.S.Lekerpes, J.O.Jung'a, Badamana MS, D.I.Rubenstein. "Genetics polymorphism of beta-lactoglobulin in Kenyan small East Africa goat breed using PCR-RFLP and sequencing. ." Scientific Journal of Animal Science . 2014;3 (8):233-239.
Saidi, H OP. "Glandular Digestive System.". In: KIMANI’S HISTOLOGY Text and Manual . Nairobi: Department of Human Anatomy, UON; 2014.
Tovide O, Jaheed N, Mohamed N, Nxusani E, Sunday CE, Tsegaye A, Ajayi RF, Njomo N, Makelane H, Bilibana M, Baker PG, Williams A, Vilakazi S, Tshikhudo R, Iwuoha EI. "Graphenated polyaniline-doped tungsten oxide nanocomposite sensor for real time determination of phenanthrene." Electrochimica Acta. 2014;128:138-148. AbstractElectrochimica Acta

Description
A graphenated polyaniline/tungsten oxide (PANI/WO3/GR) nanocomposite sensor was prepared by electropolymerisation of a mixture of aniline monomer and tungsten oxide on a graphene-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The PANI/WO3/GR/GCE nanocomposite electrode was tested as a sensor for the determination of phenanthrene. The direct electro-oxidation behaviour of phenanthrene on the PANI/WO3/GR modified GCE was carefully investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The results indicated that the PANI/WO3/GR/GCE sensor was more sensitive to phenanthrene (with a dynamic linear range of 1.0 - 6.0 pM and a detection limit of 0.123 pM.) than GCE, PANI/GCE or PANI/WO3/GCE. The sensor exhibited excellent reproducibility and long-term stability. The sensor exhibits lower detection sensitivity than the WHO permissible level of 1.12 nM phenanthrene in wastewater.

Njomo N, Waryo T, Masikini M, Ikpo CO, Mailu S, Tovide O, Ross N, Williams A, Matinise N, Sunday CE, Mayedwa N, Baker PGL, Ozoemena KI, Iwuoha EI. "Graphenated tantalum (IV) oxide and poly (4-styrene sulphonic acid)-doped polyaniline nanocomposite as cathode material in an electrochemical capacitor." Electrochimica Acta. 2014;128:226-237. AbstractElectrochimica Acta

Description
Nanostructured poly(4-styrene sulphonic acid) and tantalum (IV) oxide-doped polyaniline nanocomposite were synthesised and their electro-conductive properties were determined. The oxide was synthesized using a modified sol-gel method and then dispersed in acidic media through sonication and entrapped in-situ into the polymeric matrix during the oxidative chemical polymerization of aniline doped with poly(4-styrene sulphonic acid). The oxides and novel polymeric nanocomposite were characterised with TEM, SEM, EDX, XRD, FTIR, UV-visible to ascertain elemental and phase composition, successful polymerization, doping, morphology and entrapment of the metal oxide nanoparticles. The electro-conductivity of the nanomaterial was interrogated using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The material was then anchored on activated graphitic carbon and used in the …

Opijah FJ, Akenga P, Salim A, Onditi A, Amir Y, Waudo W. Green Energy Potential in East Africa.; 2014. Abstract

Background Analgesics in clinical used have many side effects and are not always effective. Hence need for safer and more effective agents. Hydrazinocurcumin is an azole derivative of the natural product curcumin.

Sila JM, Kiio I, Mwaura FB, Michira I, Abong'o D, Iwuoha E, Kamau GN. "Green Syntheis of Silver nanoparticles Using Eucalyptus Corymbia Leave Extract and Antimicrobial Applications." Journal of BioChemPhysics. 2014;22.
Samuel KL, John KW, Dora KC, Cecilia OM. "Growth and yield response of selected species of African leafy vegetables infested with root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita)." Global Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Health Sciences . 2014;3(4):1-6.
Smit M, Obiero G, Andreas Shiningavamwe, Albertyn J, Jean-Marc. "Heterologous expression of the benzoate para-hydroxylase encoding gene (CYP53B1) from Rhodotorula minuta by Yarrowia lipolytica." Applied Microibiology and Biotechnology. 2014;72(2):323-329.
Saidi H, Gichangi P MAPK. Histology Module I: Basic Histology. Nairobi: Department of Human Anatomy, UON; 2014.
Campisano CJ, Cohen A, Asrat A, Feibel C, Kingston J, Lamb H, Olago D, Owen R, Renaut R, Schabitz F. "The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) drilling campaigns: the trials and triumphs of trying the unique and new." 2014 GSA Annual Meeting in Vancouver, British Columbia. 2014. AbstractFull Text Link

Between the summers of 2013 and 2014, the HSPDP successfully completed 4 of its 5 drilling campaigns. To date, >1,200m of core has been collected with the final site at Chew Bahir, Ethiopia scheduled for the end of 2014. The initial core description and sampling have been completed on all but the Magadi cores. Despite the challenges associated with a large-scale multinational project, we have accomplished our goal of collecting lacustrine dominated cores proximate to key paleoanthropological sites. Challenges included the availability/import of suitable drill rigs and equipment in country, long supply lines in remote areas, challenging lithologies for coring and recovery, and interpretation of geophysical data. At our oldest site, 600m of Pliocene-age core was collected from 3 boreholes at 2 sites in the northern Awash, Ethiopia. This resulted in a composite depth of ~285m with significant overlap between cores and >96% core recovery. Several unexpectedly thick basalts not originally identified in seismic surveys were interbedded with lake sediments. Drilling ceased prior to reaching our original target of 500m when rehydrated clays made advancing impractical and work in progress will determine how much of the 2.9-3.8Ma target interval was recovered. A single 228m borehole with ~95% core recovery was drilled at the Plio-Pleistocene Tugen Hills, Kenya location. Just shy of our 250m target depth, preliminary comparisons with outcrop records suggest that this core may cover a time interval of ~2.5-3.45Ma, longer than our original target of 2.5-3.1Ma. A single 216m borehole with ~93% core recovery was drilled at the early Pleistocene West Turkana, Kenya location. Drilling ceased prior to reaching our original target depth of 350m due to complications likely associated with penetrating a hydrothermal fracture system. Nonetheless, tephrostratigraphic data indicates that the core covers our original target interval of ~1.45-2.0Ma. Recently, 202m of modern to Middle Pleistocene core was collected from 4 boreholes at 2 sites at Lake Magadi, Kenya. Challenging lithologies to core/collect (e.g., trona, chert) resulted in core recovery of 55-60%. Contact with the basement trachyte (~800 ka) at each site occurred at 137m and 197m, respectively, shallower than original estimates from low-resolution geophysical surveys.

Chen AA, Heideman DA, Boon D, Gheit T, Snijders PJ, Tommasino M, Franceschi S, Clifford GM. "Human papillomavirus 45 genetic variation and cervical cancer risk worldwide." J Virol. . 2014;88(8):4514-21.
Bandika VL, Were FN, Simiyu ED, Oyatsi DP. "Hypoglycaemia and hypocalcaemia as determinants of admission birth weight criteria for term stable low risk macrosomic neonates." African Health Sciences. 2014;14(3). Abstracthypoglycaemia_and_hypocalcaemia_as_determinants_of_admission_birth_weight_criteria_for_term_stable_low_risk_macrosomic_neonates.pdf

Background: Large for gestational age (LGA) accounts for about 6.3% of admissions in kenyatta national hospital, newborn unit. As a policy all IGA’s, defined by birth weight of 4000g and above are admitted for 24hours to monitor blood glucose levels. The rational for this policy is questionable and contributes to unnecessary burden on resources needed for new born care.
Objective: To study birth weight related incidence of hypoglycemia and hypocalcaemia in stable low risk lgas in knh and use it to establish a new admission weight based criteria.
Patients and methods: prospective cohort study done in new born-unit, post natal and labour wards of knh. Term lga neonates (birth weight = 4000g) were recruited as subjects and controlled against term appropriate weight (aga) neonates.
Results: the incidence of hypoglycemia and hypocalcaemia in lgas was 21% and 9% respectively. Hypoglycemia was rarely encountered after 12 hours of life in lgas. Hypoglycemia and hypocalcaemia showed a direct upward relationship with weight beyond 4250g. No significant difference in incidence of hypoglycemia and hypocalcaemia between controls and 4000-4249g category to justify their routine admission to newborn unit.
Conclusion: the study identified 4275g as new admission birth weight criteria for stable term low risk IGA‘s admission.

Jumba IO, S.O. W, V. M, H. K. "Impacts of Pesticides on human health and the environment in the River Nyando catchment, Kenya." International Journal of Humanities, Arts, Medicine and Sciences. 2014;2(3):1-14.
S. M. Githigia, C. Odhong, R.G. Wahome, Kiggundu. M, Helberg. N. "In Vitro Anthelminthic Effects of Crude Aqueous Extracts of Tephrosia Vogelii, Tephrosia Villosa and Carica Papaya Leaves and Seeds." African Journal of Biotechnology. 2014;13(52).
Punnoose JA, Yunxi Cui DK, Yangyuoru PM, Ghimire C, Shrestha P, Mao H. "Interaction of G-quadruplexes in the full-length 3′ human telomeric overhang." Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2014;136(52):18062-18069.
Sihanya B. "Introduction to Copyright." Utafiti News a publication of the Office of the Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Research Production and Extension), University of Nairobi.. 2014.
Odhiambo T, Siundu G. "Journeying into Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies." Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies. 2014;1(1):1-5.
Murunga GR, Okelo D, Sjögren A. Kenya: The Struggle for a New Constitutional Order. London: Zed Books; 2014.
Saidi H, ONGETI K, Mandela P, Mwachaka P, Olabu B. Kiman's Histology Text and Manual. Nairobi: Department of Human Anatomy, UON; 2014.
Faridah H Were, M Charles Moturi, P Gottesfeld, Wafula GA, Kamau GN, Shiundu PM. "Lead exposure and blood pressure among workers in diverse industrial plants in Kenya." Journal of occupational and environmental hygiene. 2014;11(11):706-715. AbstractWebsite

The study evaluated airborne exposures and blood lead (BPb) levels in 233 production workers at six diverse industrial plants in Kenya. Blood and personal breathing zone air samples were collected and analyzed for lead (Pb) using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Blood pressure (BP) levels were measured using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer. The results indicated mean airborne Pb levels ± standard deviation (SD) as follows: 183.2 ± 53.6 μg/m3 in battery recycling, 133.5 ± 39.6 μg/m3 in battery manufacturing, 126.2 ± 39.9 μg/m3 in scrap metal welding, 76.3 ± 33.2 μg/m3 in paint manufacturing, 27.3 ± 12.1 μg/m3 in a leather manufacturing, and 5.5 ± 3.6 μg/m3 in a pharmaceutical plant. The mean airborne Pb levels exceeded the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) for Pb of 50 μg/m3 in the battery manufacturing, battery recycling, welding, and paint manufacturing plants. Similarly, mean BPb concentrations exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH®) biological exposure index (BEI) for Pb of 30 μg/dl. A significant positive association was observed between BPb and breathing zone air Pb (R2 = 0.73, P < 0.001). Approximately 30% of the production workers (N = 233) were in the hypertensive range with an average systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) of 134.7 ± 12.7 mmHg and 86.4 ± 8.9 mmHg, respectively. In the multivariate regression analysis, age, duration of work, airborne Pb and BPb levels were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with a change in BP. We recommend improved engineering controls, work practices, and personal hygiene to reduce Pb exposures. In addition, workers should undergo comprehensive medical surveillance to include BPb and BP testing, and airborne Pb assessments in all industries with significant lead exposures.

A.A O-O, Fadairo O, Ameyaw J, Yiran G, Mutisya E, Mfune O, Fuh D, Nyerere J, Sulemana N. "Learning to Solve Africa's Problems by Africans: Innovations for Addressing the Canker of Corruption." African journal of Sustainable Development. 2014;Vol 4(3)(Special Issue, ISSN 2315-6317.).
Schmidt C, Jaoko W O-MKMNKBBLGGPJA, Chomba E, Kilembe W NNSCLCADSFPEMJGP. "Long-term follow-up of study participants from prophylactic HIV vaccine clinical trials in Africa." Human Vaccines & Immunotherapy. 2014;10(3):714-23.
Schmidt, C. JO-MKMNKBWGPJ, L. G. Bekker, E. Chomba KNNSCLWMJG, and J. Cox, S. Allen DSFLCPE. "Long-Term Follow-up of Study Participants from Prophylactic Hiv Vaccine Clinical Trials in Africa." Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2014;10, no. 3:714-23.
Shepelo GP, Maingi N. "Major causes of poultry mortality in Nairobi and its environs established from autopsie." A Journal of The Kenya Veterinary Association. 2014;38(1):32-42.

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