Publications

Found 1786 results

Sort by: [ Author  (Desc)] Title Type Year
Filters: First Letter Of Last Name is S  [Clear All Filters]
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R [S] T U V W X Y Z   [Show ALL]
S
Shah PS, Irandu EM. "The potential and challenges of promoting ecotourism in Kenya’s Wetlands.". In: Building communities, saving nature . Strathmore University, Centre for Tourism and Hospitality; 2014.
Shah P, Krhoda G. Innovations for a Better Tomorrow: Human-Wildlife Interface in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2018.
Shah PS. "The current scenario of Lake Naivasha." OERB Reach 16 (2013):84-88.
Shah P, Ayiemba E. "Convention on biological diversity and rural-urban connections with reference to Kenya." International Journal of Research in Environmental Studies. 2019;6:14-26.
Shah PS. "Life of Wangari Maathai." OERB Reach 16 (2013):9-11.
Shah PS, Irandu, Evaristus M. "The role of ecotourism in promoting women empowerment and community development: some reflections from Kenya.". In: Understanding oneself and the others: New Domestic and international Tourism Practices and the promotion of Heritage and Tourism in East Africa. French Institute of Research in Africa (IFRA); 2014.
Shah P, mwaura F, Moronge JM. "Gender Perspective in Water Conservation in Schools in Kenya: The case of a Junior School in Kenya." Hekima. 2014;Volume VI(Issue No. 1):pp 42-51.
Shah P, Irandu EM. "Ecotourism: The case of Karura Forest, Nairobi ." African Journal of Tourism and Hospitality. 2015; 1(2):21-40.
Shah PS, Moronge JM. "Gender Perspective in Water Conservation in Schools in Kenya: The Case of a Junior School in Nairobi, Kenya." Hekima Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Nairobi. 2014;VI(1):42-51.
Shah P. "Domestication of the Ramsar Convention in Kenya." Towards realizing of Vision 2030: Kenya Policy Briefs. Office of the DVC Research, Innovation and Extension. University of Nairobi. . 2020;1(1):13-14.
Shah P. "Facts about water in Africa." OERB Reach 16 (2013):16.
Shah PS. "Vanishing trees- The sad story of life." African Fund for Endangered Wildlife 2 (2003):11.vanishing_trees-_sad_story_of_life.pdf
Shah PS. "Why learning institutions should carry out regular environmental audits." AFEW Giraffe News 14, 2012 (2012):21-22.
Shah K;, Choge S;, Wahome R;, Muchiri MN;, Kamondo B;, Ochieng D;, Wanjiku J. "Use of prosopis pods in livestock feeds industry: challenges and way forward.".; 2009. Abstract

Prosopis ('Mathenge') is now a common tree species in northern, northeastern and coastal districts of Kenya. From experience, managing the spread of Prosopis appears to be heavily dependent on the level of human interventions at seed stage. In absence of any intervention, the seed forms the main source of spread of the species. Due to the potential of Prosopis particularly prosopis pods to be utilized as a feed resource for livestock production, ILRI, in consultation with KEFRI, Henry Doubleday Research Association (HDRA) and the Department for International Development (DFID) took the initiative to convene a national workshop in March 2007. The workshop theme was to link industry to the Prosopis resource. Its objectives were to bring together representatives of the Livestock Feeds Industry, researchers, developers, communities, local administration and other stakeholders to share local and international experience in the use of Prosopis as a feed resource and generate novel initiatives to catalyze the interest of feed companies on the use of prosopis pods as cost effective ingredient in the formulation of livestock feeds. This paper provides the results of the experiences of collecting, transporting and processing of prosopis pods in Kenya for the last one year. Recommendations towards community mobilization, pricing and promotion on the use of prosopis pods in Kenya's livestock feeds industry are highlighted.

Shah PS, Irandu. EM. Ecotourism as a strategy for promoting conservation of biodiversity in Tana River County. Mombasa, Kenya: National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA), Wetlands International, University of Nairobi; 2014.
Shah KS, Butt FMA, Dimba EAO. "Case Report: Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor)." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2013;2:135-136. Abstract
n/a
Shah P. "The urban future of food and nutrition security.". In: Food security, renewable energy and water: Insights on sustainability. Nairobi: University of Nairobi ; 2018.
Shah P. "The role of Oshwal Community in Environmental Management." OERB Reach 16 (2013):76-77.
Shah PS. "Human dimensions of Biodiversity." OERB Reach No 16 (2013):14-18.
Shah PS. "The Mahogany Tree." African Fund for Endangered Wildlife 2 (2003):12.the_mahogany_tree.pdf
Shagwira H, Mwema FM, MBUYA TO, Adediran A. "Dataset on impact strength, flammability test and water absorption test for innovative polymer-quarry dust composite." Data in Brief. 2020;29( April):105384. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.105384

In this article data on impact strength, flammability and water absorption tests for innovative plastic-quarry dust composite is presented. The composites were prepared through moulding with virgin HDPE and PP plastics and quarry dust. The quarry dust was used at 0%, 5%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% weight percentages. The prepared samples were characterised for strength, fire resistance and hydrophobic properties using Charpy impact, flammability and water absorption tests respectively. For impact strength test was conducted according to ISO 179–1:2010 (E). The flammability test was conducted according to ASTMD 2863 while the water absorption test was carried out in accordance to ASTM D 570–98. These data illustrate the potential of the plastic quarry dust composite application in construction industry and model for regeneration of waste plastics for green building technologies.

Shagwira H, Mwema FM, MBUYA TO. "Lightweight Polymer–Nanoparticle-Based Composites.". In: Nanomaterials and Nanocomposites. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2021. Abstract

The increasing demand for eco-friendly materials in various fields including the construction industry has led to increased efforts toward the development of more materials to suit such fields. In this work, a specific review of polymer–nanoparticle-based composites is presented with an emphasis on the nano-silica reinforcements. A background on applications, processing methods, and state-of-the-art review of the subject is presented. It is noted that there is limited literature focusing on the recycling of polymers using silica nanoparticle-based reinforcements for the construction industry. Gaps in the literature are identified, and the direction for future research focus is presented.

Shagwira H, Mwema FM, Obiko JO, MBUYA TO, Akinlabi ET. "The Optimization of the Surface Roughness of Milled Polypropylene + 60wt.% Quarry Dust Composite Using the Taguchi Technique." Advances in Material Science and Engineering. 2021;Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering:169-174. Abstracthttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-981-16-3641-7_20

This study is based on the optimization of the parameters that influence the computer numerical control (CNC) milling operation during the machining of polypropylene+60wt.% quarry dust composite. The input parameters studied are the cutting speed, the feed rate and the depth of cut. These input parameters were optimized using the Taguchi optimization technique with the output response taken into consideration was the surface roughness. An L9 orthogonal array (OA) was selected and formulated in a commercial software Minitab 19 based on three factors and three levels combination. The signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio was analysed to give a combination of values of the input parameters that produced optimum results for surface roughness. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was then conducted to determine the significance and percentage contribution of each parameter. From the results, the optimum values obtained were cutting speed of 1000 rpm, feeding rate of 120 mm/min and depth of cut of either 0.5 mm or 0.8 mm. The cutting speed had the highest contribution towards the surface roughness at 81.98%, followed by the depth of cut at 7.43% and the feed rate having the least contribution at 3.69%.

Shagwira H, Mwema FM, MBUYA TO. "Advances in animal/plant–plastic composites: preparation, characterization and applications.". In: Plant and Animal Based Composites. Berlin: De Gruyter; 2021. Abstract

This book chapter aims at exploring the preparation, characterization and applications of plant/animal fiber-reinforced polymer composites. The book addresses several key research work that have been happening as well as some of the drawbacks that affect the application of these composites in real-life applications. Each chapter begins with an overview of the various forms of plant/animal fiber-reinforced polymer composites, followed by examples of composites made up of plant/animal fibers and their promising future in terms of research and development and application in domestic and engineering products. Today, man has realized that if the environment is not preserved, the over-consumption of naturally existing resources and a drastic reduction in the amount of fresh air generated in the world would endanger him. Forest conservation and the efficient use of agricultural as well as other renewable resources such as solar, wind and tidal energy have already become critical issues globally.With this kind of concern, the utilization of renewable materials such as plant/animal fiber-reinforced polymeric composites is slowly becoming a key design requirement for the design and development of parts for a wide range of industrial products. An extensive research into such composites can, to an extent, lead to an even greener and healthier environment

Shagwira H, MBUYA TO, Akinlabi ET, Mwema FM, Tanya B. "Optimization of material removal rate in the CNC milling of polypropylene + 60 wt% quarry dust composites using the Taguchi technique." Materials Today: Proceedings. 2021;44(1):1130-1132. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.11.229

This research paper focuses on the optimization of the input parameters used in the computer numerical controlled (CNC) milling of polypropylene + 60 wt% quarry dust composite. The efficiency and profitability of the cutting operation was assessed using the material removal rate (MRR). Finding the optimal and suitable parameters to use in the cutting of polypropylene + 60 wt% quarry dust composite is crucial when it comes to increasing productivity without increasing the cost of production and machining time. Therefore, the Taguchi technique was utilized to optimize the cutting speed, the feed rate and the depth of cut used while focusing on their effects on the material removal rate. The analysis of the input parameters was carried out using the L9 Taguchi orthogonal array, the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The finding showed that the optimal milling parameters for efficient productivity were; the cutting speed of 600 rpm, a feed rate of 200 mm/min and depth of cut of 0.8 mm. Additionally, the feed rate is the most contributing factor in affecting the material removal rate, followed by the depth of cut and lastly the cutting speed at 53%, 17 and 10% respectively.

Shagwira H, Mwema FM, MBUYA TO. Polymer-Silica Based Composites in Sustainable Construction: Theory, Preparation and Characterizations. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2021. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.1201/9781003231936

This book presents the application of Polymer-Silica Based Composites in the Construction Industry providing the fundamental framework and knowledge needed for the sustainable and efficient use of these composites as building and structural materials. It also includes characterization of prepared materials to ascertain mechanical, chemical, and physical properties and analyses results obtained using similar methods. Topics such as life cycle analysis of plastics, application of plastics in construction and elimination of plastic wastes are also discussed. The book also provides information on the outlook and competitiveness of emerging composites materials.

Covers theory, preparation and characterizations of polymer-silica based composites for green construction.

Discusses technology, reliability, manufacturing cost and environmental impact.

Reviews the classification, application, and processing of polymer-silica composites.

Gives a deeper analysis of the various tests carried out on polymer-silica composites.

Highlights role of such composites in the Industry 4.0 and emerging technologies

The book is aimed at graduate students and researchers in civil engineering, built environment, construction materials, and materials science.

Shadrack WM, Joseph OO. "Top Management Team Characteristics, Strategy Implementation and Performance of Tea Factory Companies in Kenya." International Journal of Research in Business & Technology. 2016;7(3):948-958.wasike_and_owino_2016_441948-957.doc
Shabiby M, Karanja JG, Odawa F, Kosgei R, Kibore MW, Kiarie JN, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie. "Factors influencing uptake of Contraceptive implants in the immediate postpartum period among HIV infected and uninfected women in two Kenyan District Hospitals BMC Women’s Health." Factors influencing uptake of Contraceptive implants in the immediate postpartum period among HIV infected and uninfected women in two Kenyan District Hospitals BMC Women’s Health. 2015; 2015, 15: 62 .
SG D. "Text Book of Paediatric Dentistry4th Edition, New Dehli, 2012, (Contribution to of chapter 28).". In: Text Book of Paediatric Dentistry. New Dehli: Arya (Med) Publishing House,; 2012.
Sewe S, Ngare P, Weke P. "Credit Scoring with Ego-Network Data." Journal of Mathematical Finance. 2019;9(3):522-534. AbstractWebsite

This article investigates a stochastic filtering problem whereby the bor-rower’s hidden credit quality is estimated using ego-network signals. The hidden credit quality process is modeled as a mean reverting Ornstein-Ulehnbeck process. The lender observes the borrower’s behavior modeled as a continuous time diffusion process. The drift of the diffusion process is driven by the hidden credit quality. At discrete fixed times, the lender gets ego-network signals from the borrower and the borrower’s direct friends. The observation filtration thus contains continuous time borrower data augmented with discrete time ego-network signals. Combining the continuous time observation data and ego-network information, we derive filter equations for the hidden process and the properties of the conditional variance. Further, we study the asymptotic properties of the conditional variance when the frequency of arrival of ego-network signals is increased.

Sewe SO, Mung'atu JK. "Modelling Time Varying Dependence of Financial Time Series: A Copula Approach." International Journal of Statistics and Economics. 2015;16(1):1-15. Abstract

Dependence between financial markets is a key concern for investors who seek to diversify their portfolios as they manage risks arising as a result of their investment decisions. In this paper we apply the copula theory to model dependence between the equity and the exchange rate markets of Kenya. We use the Semi Parametric Copula Based Multivariate Dynamical (SCOMDY) model proposed by (Chen and Fan, 2006) to estimate the dependence between these two markets. Using the moving window maximum likelihood estimation technique, we extend the SCOMDY estimator to capture time variation in the dependence. Our findings point to symmetric dependence in the markets. Amongst the parametric copula models fitted into the data, the t copula with 10 degrees of freedom is found to be the most appropriate for capturing the static dependence over the entire study period. Extreme value dependence is also present in the bivariate series whereby both markets rise and fall during periods of boom and bust. The hypothesis of homogeneity in dependence is rejected in all but three trading periods, pointing to the insufficiency of static parametric copula models to capture the dependence.

A
Agweyu A, Gathara D, Oliwa J, Muinga N, Edwards T, Allen E, Maleche-Obimbo E, English M. "Oral amoxicillin versus benzyl penicillin for severe pneumonia among kenyan children: a pragmatic randomized controlled noninferiority trial." Clin. Infect. Dis.. 2015;60(8):1216-24. Abstract

There are concerns that the evidence from studies showing noninferiority of oral amoxicillin to benzyl penicillin for severe pneumonia may not be generalizable to high-mortality settings.

Agweyu A, Gathara D, Oliwa J, Muinga N, Edwards T, Allen E, Maleche-Obimbo E, English M. "Oral amoxicillin versus benzyl penicillin for severe pneumonia among kenyan children: a pragmatic randomized controlled noninferiority trial." Clin. Infect. Dis.. 2015;60(8):1216-24. Abstract

There are concerns that the evidence from studies showing noninferiority of oral amoxicillin to benzyl penicillin for severe pneumonia may not be generalizable to high-mortality settings.

S
Setty SNRS, Katikireddi RS. "Morphometric {Study} of {Human} {Cadaveric} {Caecum} and {Vermiform} {Appendix}." International Journal of Health Sciences and Research (IJHSR). 2013;3:48-55. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Setty SNRS, Katikireddi RS. "Cadaveric study of arterial pattern of caecum and vermiform appendix - research article." International Journal of Current Research and Review. 2013;5:73-75. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Seth D. Goldstein, MD1; Dominic Papandria MD2; ALMDMPH3;, ani Georges Azzies, MD4; Eric Borgstein FRCS5; CMD6; SFMDMPH7; PJMBCB;RG, Mary Klingensmith, MD9; Mohamed Labib10 FLMD; MMMD11; EO’F12; RRMDMPH7;A, Fizan Abdullah, MD PD1. “Innovative approaches to educating the global surgical worldforce: A pilot camparison of online curricula for use in low and middle income countries”.; Submitted.
Serra AJ, McNicholas KW, Olivier HF, Boe SL, Lemole GM. "The choice of anticoagulation in pediatric patients with the St. Jude Medical valve prostheses." J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino). 1987;28(5):588-91. Abstract

Between February 1982 and January 1984 27 St. Jude Medical cardiac valve prostheses were implanted in 24 children ranging in age from 5 to 20 years (mean 12.38 years). There were 10 isolated aortic valve replacements, 14 isolated mitral valve replacements and one triple valve replacement (aortic, mitral and tricuspid). There was one operative and four late deaths. All patients were maintained on Aspirin and Dipyridamole from the early postoperative period. There were six documented thromboembolic events occurring in five patients. There were 0.68 thromboembolic events per patient year in the aortic valve group and 0.19 events in the mitral valve group. Because of the significant incidence of thromboembolic events in our patients, we now recommend universal anticoagulation with Coumadin in all pediatric age patients in whom the St. Jude Medical prosthesis is implanted.

Sernagor E, Grzywacz NM. "Influence of spontaneous activity and visual experience on developing retinal receptive fields." Current Biology. 1996;6:1503-1508. AbstractWebsite

Background The role played by early neural activity in shaping retinal functions has not yet been established. In the developing vertebrate retina, ganglion cells fire spontaneous bursts of action potentials before the onset of visual experience. This spontaneous bursting disappears shortly after birth or eye opening. In the present study, we have investigated whether the outgrowth of receptive fields in turtle retinal ganglion cells is affected by early spontaneous bursting or by early visual experience. Results Ganglion cells normally stop bursting spontaneously 2–4 weeks posthatching, the time when receptive-field areas reach adult size. When turtles are reared in the dark, the spontaneous bursting persists. Concomitantly, receptive-field areas expand to more than twice those observed in normal adults. To test whether chronic blockade of spontaneous bursting inhibits the expansion of developing receptive-field areas, we have exposed the retina to curare, a nicotinic cholinergic antagonist, because spontaneous bursting by ganglion cells requires acetylcholine. Curare was released from Elvax, a slow-release polymer that was implanted in the eye. When spontaneous bursting was chronically blocked with curare in hatchlings, dark-induced expansion of receptive fields was abolished. Moreover, receptive fields of ganglion cells exposed to curare in hatchlings reared in normal light and dark cycles were smaller than normal. Conclusions These results strongly suggest that early, acetylcholine-dependent spontaneous bursts of activity control the outgrowth of receptive-field areas in retinal ganglion cells. The onset of visual experience induces the disappearance of the immature spontaneous bursts, resulting in the stabilization of receptive-field areas to their mature size.

Sereti DK. "Time Management." KASNEB Newsline. 2011;(Issue No. 3, July-September):32-35.
Sereti DK. "Creating a Sustainable Competitive Advantage." KASNEB Newsline. 2010;(Issue No. 4, October- December):3-11.
Sereti DK. "Benchmarking." KASNEB Newsline. 2012;(Issue No. 1, January-March):3-7.
Serem Jared K., John M. Kimani, Raphael G. Wahome, Daniel W. Gakuya, G.Kiama S, Onyango DW, Mbuthia PG. "Histopathological Evaluation of Spleen, Liver and Kidneys from Pigs Fed on Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal Diets Global Veterinaria 19 (1): 478-486, .". 2017.
Serem, J.K., Wahome, R.G., Gakuya, F., Kiama, S.G. Potentials of Moringa oleifera as a Pig Feed Ingredient in Kenya. The Imperial Royale Hotel, Kampala Uganda: RISE AFNETT; 2015.
Serem JK, G WR, DW G, SG K, G GC, DW O. "Growth performance, feed conversion efficiency and blood characteristics of growing pigs fed on different levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health. 2017;9(11):327-333.serem_et_al_2017.pdf
Serem JK, Wanyoike MM, Gachuiri CK, Mailu SK, Gathumbi PK, Mwanza RN, Kiarie N, Borter DK. "Characterization of Rabbit Production Systems in Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Science and Applications. 2013;2(3):155-159.
Serem EK, Abuom TO, Peter SG, Gakuya DW, Kirui GK, Mbuthia PG. "Microcardia Associated with Traumatic Reticulo Pericarditis (TRP) In an Adult Female Ayrshire Cow A Case Report." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2019;8(2):73-78.
Serem 1 JK, Wanyoike MM, Gachuiri CK, Mailu SK, Gathumbi PK, Mwanza RN, Kiarie N, Borter DK. Challenges facing small holder rabbit production in Kenya. Entebbe Uganda: ACSS; 2013.
Serem JK, John M. Kimani, Raphael G. Wahome, Kiama, S.G., Onyango DW, Mbuthia PG. "Histopathological evaluation of spleen, liver and kidneys from pigs fed on Moringa oleifera leaf meal diets. Global Veterinaria,.". 2017;19(1):478-486.
Serem JK, Wahome RG, D.W. Gakuya, S.G.Kiama, G.C.Gitao, D, W O. "Growth performance, feed conversion efficiency and blood characteristics of growing pigs fed on different levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal health . 2017;9(11):327-333.serem_et_al_2017.pdf
Serem JK, Muturi JK, Wahome RG, Gakuya DW, Kiama SG, Onyango DW, Mbuthia PG. "Histopathological Evaluation of Spleen, Liver and Kidneys from Pigs Fed on Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal Diets." Global Veterinaria . 2017;19(1):478-486.
Serem, J.K., Wahome, R.G., Gakuya, F., Kiama, S.G. Growth Performance and Feed Conversion Efficiency of Pigs Supplemented with Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal (MOLM). Bibliotheca, Alexandria, Egypt: TWAS; 2016.
Serem JK, John M. Kimani, Raphael G. Wahome, Daniel W. Gakuya, G.Kiama S, Onyango DW, Mbuthia PG. "Growth performance, feed conversion efficiency and 3 blood characteristics of growing pigs fed on different levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal diets. J. Vet. Med. Anim. Health, .". 2017;19(1):478-486,.
Serem 1 JK, Wanyoike MM, Gachuiri CK, Mailu SK, Gathumbi PK, Mwanza RN, Kiarie N, Borter DK. Characterization of Rabbit Production Systems in Kenya. Nyeri, Kenya: APSK; 2012.
Sequeira RF;, Ojiambo HP. "The heart in pregnancy.". 1969.
Sengpiel F, Kind PC. "The {Role} of {Activity} in {Development} of the {Visual} {System}." Current Biology. 2002;12:R818-R826. AbstractWebsite

Neuronal activity is important for both the initial formation and the subsequent refinement of anatomical and physiological features of the mammalian visual system. Here we examine recent evidence concerning the role that spontaneous activity plays in axonal segregation, both of retinogeniculate afferents into eye-specific layers and of geniculocortical afferents into ocular dominance bands. We also assess the role of activity in the generation and plasticity of orientation selectivity in the primary visual cortex. Finally, we review recent challenges to textbook views on how inputs representing the two eyes interact during the critical period of visual cortical plasticity.

Sengpiel F, Kind PC. "The role of activity in development of the visual system." Current biology: CB. 2002;12:R818-826. Abstract

Neuronal activity is important for both the initial formation and the subsequent refinement of anatomical and physiological features of the mammalian visual system. Here we examine recent evidence concerning the role that spontaneous activity plays in axonal segregation, both of retinogeniculate afferents into eye-specific layers and of geniculocortical afferents into ocular dominance bands. We also assess the role of activity in the generation and plasticity of orientation selectivity in the primary visual cortex. Finally, we review recent challenges to textbook views on how inputs representing the two eyes interact during the critical period of visual cortical plasticity.

Senga J, Ndiritu M, Osundwa J, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, English M. "Computer aided learning to link evidence to paediatric learning and practice: a pilot in a medical school in a low income setting.". 2010. AbstractWebsite

Bridging the gap between research evidence and practice is problematic in low income settings. Wereport medical students' experience with a pilot computer aided learning (CAL) program developed to enable students to explore research evidence supporting national guidelines. We asked 50 students to enter data from pre-set clinical scenarios, diagnose the severity of pneumonia/asthma and suggest treatment and then compare their diagnosis and treatment with that suggested by a computer algorithm based on the guidelines. Links to evidence supporting the guideline-suggested diagnosis and treatment were provided. Brief evidence summaries and video clips were accessed by 92% of students and full text articles by 86%. The majority of the students showed an interest in the CAL approach and suggested the scope of the approach be expanded to other illnesses. Such a system might provide one means to help students understand the link between research and policy and ultimately influence practice.

Seneveratne A, Absaloms H, Ginige T, Fry M. Effect of Timer Management on Protocol Execution Performance. Wollongong, Australia; 1993.
Senerwa DM, Sirma AJ, Lindahl JF, D G, EK K’ethe, Mtimet N. "Prevalence of aflatoxin in feeds and cow milk from five counties in Kenya (2016). ." African Journal of Food Nutrition and Development. 2016;16::1104-1121.
Senerwa DM;, Mutanda LN;, Olsvik O;, Gathuma JM. "An outbreak of diarrhea due to enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in a nursery ward."; 1989.
Senerwa D;, Diamiano AW;, M K;, Kayihura M. "Aeromonas species from fish from Kenyan waters. .".; 1989.
Senerwa DM;, Mutanda LN;, Olsvik O;, Gathuma JM. "An outbreak of diarrhea due to enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in a nursery ward."; 1989.
Senerwa D;, Diamiano AW;, M K;, Kayihura M. "Aeromonas species from fish from Kenyan waters. .".; 1989.
Senerwa D, Mutanda LN, Gathuma JM;, Olsvik O. "Antimicrobial resistance of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains from a nosocomial outbreak in Kenya.". 1991. Abstract

The majority of the 78 enteropathogenic (EPEC) and the 151 non-EPEC Escherichia coli strains isolated from preterm neonates during an outbreak of gastroenteritis in a hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxaxole, chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and ampicillin, but only a few strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefamandole, cefotaxime, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Fourteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed in the 229 strains of E. coli analysed. Eighty-two percent of the EPEC strains belonged to two resistance patterns compared with 79% of non-EPEC strains which exhibited three resistance patterns. There was no consistent relationship between plasmid profile group and antimicrobial resistance pattern, although one resistance pattern was more frequently observed in EAF-positive strains belonging to the dominant plasmid profile group. Nine percent of the EPEC strains were resistant to gentamicin compared to 37% in the non-EPEC group. No correlation was observed between administration of gentamicin and percentage of resistant strains isolated. None of the nine neonates receiving gentamicin died during the outbreak. Gentamicin resistance was observed in E. coli strains from six out of these nine neonates. Five out of fourteen neonates who received other antimicrobials, or no antibiotic treatment at all, died.

Semanyenzi SE, Karimurio J, Nzayirambaho M. "Prevalence and pattern of refractive errors in high schools of Nyarugenge District." Rwanda Med J. 2015;72(3):8-13.
Seki M, Nawa H, Fukuchi T, Abe H, Takei N. "{BDNF} is upregulated by postnatal development and visual experience: quantitative and immunohistochemical analyses of {BDNF} in the rat retina." Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2003:3211-3218. Abstract

PURPOSE. This study sought to elucidate changes in the levels and distribution of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the retina throughout aging and depending on visual experience. METHODS. Protein and mRNA levels of BDNF were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and semiquantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. Levels were assayed in the retinas of rats on postnatal day (P)2, P7, and P14 (approximate time of eye opening) and at 1 month (M), 3M, 8M, and 18M of age. Changes in BDNF expression and localization in the retina were assessed by immunohistochemistry. The effect of monocular deprivation during infancy on retinal BDNF expression was also examined, by ELISA and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS. Both protein and mRNA levels of BDNF in the rat retina increased after P14. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed

Seki M, Nawa H, Fukuchi T, Abe H, Takei N. "{BDNF} is upregulated by postnatal development and visual experience: quantitative and immunohistochemical analyses of {BDNF} in the rat retina." Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2003:3211-3218. Abstract

PURPOSE. This study sought to elucidate changes in the levels and distribution of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the retina throughout aging and depending on visual experience. METHODS. Protein and mRNA levels of BDNF were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and semiquantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. Levels were assayed in the retinas of rats on postnatal day (P)2, P7, and P14 (approximate time of eye opening) and at 1 month (M), 3M, 8M, and 18M of age. Changes in BDNF expression and localization in the retina were assessed by immunohistochemistry. The effect of monocular deprivation during infancy on retinal BDNF expression was also examined, by ELISA and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS. Both protein and mRNA levels of BDNF in the rat retina increased after P14. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed

Seki M, Nawa H, Fukuchi T, Abe H, Takei N. "{BDNF} is upregulated by postnatal development and visual experience: quantitative and immunohistochemical analyses of {BDNF} in the rat retina." Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2003:3211-3218. Abstract

PURPOSE. This study sought to elucidate changes in the levels and distribution of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the retina throughout aging and depending on visual experience. METHODS. Protein and mRNA levels of BDNF were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and semiquantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. Levels were assayed in the retinas of rats on postnatal day (P)2, P7, and P14 (approximate time of eye opening) and at 1 month (M), 3M, 8M, and 18M of age. Changes in BDNF expression and localization in the retina were assessed by immunohistochemistry. The effect of monocular deprivation during infancy on retinal BDNF expression was also examined, by ELISA and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS. Both protein and mRNA levels of BDNF in the rat retina increased after P14. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed

Sekadde-Kigondu C, Ndavi PM, Nyagero JM, Nichols DJ, Jensencky K, Ojwang SB, Gachara M. "A survey of knowledge of family planning (FP) methods among Kenyan medical doctors: secondary data analysis.". 1995. Abstract

This survey, conducted between October 1989 and March 1990, to determine the knowledge, attitude, practice, and provision of family planning of a sample of 376 Kenyan medical doctors, reports on the aspects of knowledge of family planning (FP) methods. Kenyan medical doctors had low-to-average knowledge of the association between oral contraceptives (OCs) and the risk of various medical conditions and the mechanism of action of steroidal contraceptives. Their knowledge of the effectiveness of various program methods was average to high. There was a linear relationship between monthly income and knowledge of effectiveness of OCs, according to which physicians earning more had less knowledge than their colleagues who earned less (Z = 2.318, p = 0.02). A stepwise unconditional logistic regression model showed that two variables, department where most work is performed and sex, are significantly associated with better knowledge. Use of these operational variables for assessing medical doctors' knowledge of FP methods gave a better resolution of the extent and perhaps the quality of counseling and advice they provided to their FP clients. At the same time, the need for update courses in FP for medical doctors is unquestionable and long overdue. author's modified author's modified

Sekadde-Kigondu C;, Ojwang SB;, Nyunya BO;, Kamau RK;, Thagana NG;, Nyagero JM. Sexuality and the use of condom among male university students.; 1994.
Sekadde-Kigondu C, Mwathe EG, Ruminjo JK, Nichols D, Katz K, Jessencky K, Liku J. "Acceptability and discontinuation of Depo-Provera, IUCD and combined pill in Kenya.". 1996. AbstractWebsite

This paper reports on a prospective study conducted between June 1990 and June 1992 to determine method acceptability, user satisfaction and continuation rates for three highly effective and reversible contraceptive methods currently available in Kenya: the CuT 380A (IUCD), the injectable, Depo-Provera and the low-dose oral contraceptive pill, Microgynon. A non-randomised sample of volunteer participants was used. One thousand and seventy-six users were followed up for a period of one year or up to the time of discontinuation of the method, whichever came earlier. Analysis revealed method specific differences in users' characteristics. The OC users were younger and had fewer children than the IUCD or Depo-Provera users. The Depo-Provera users were older, and had the largest family sizes. Many OC users (almost 40%) were single, while almost three-quarters of IUCD and Depo-Provera users were married. IUCD users were also more educated compared to OC and Depo-Provera users. Survival analysis was used to calculate cumulative life table discontinuation rates by method for the 12 month period. Discontinuation rates were highest for OC users (80%) and lowest for IUCD users (20%) and intermediate for Depo-Provera users (39%). Ninety percent of OC and Depo-Provera users and 86% of IUCD users said they were satisfied with their respective methods. While OCs are among the most popular family planning methods in Kenya, they are also one of the most problematic, while IUCD has the fewest compliance problems. Service providers need to address the issue of high discontinuation rates among the young OC users.
PIP:
This paper reports on a prospective study conducted between June 1990 and June 1992 to determine method acceptability, user satisfaction, and continuation rates for three highly effective and reversible contraceptive methods currently available in Kenya: the CuT 380A IUD; the injectable Depo-Provera; and the low-dose oral contraceptive Microgynon. A nonrandomized sample of volunteer participants was used. 1076 users were followed up for a period of 1 year or up to the time of discontinuation of the method, whichever came earlier. Analysis revealed method-specific differences in users' characteristics. The OC users were younger and had fewer children than the IUD or Depo-Provera users. The Depo-Provera users were older and had the largest family sizes. Many OC users (almost 40%) were single, while almost three-quarters of the IUD and Depo-Provera users were married. IUD users were also more educated compared to OC and Depo-Provera users. Survival analysis was used to calculate cumulative life table discontinuation rates by method for the 12-month period. Discontinuation rates were highest for OC users (80%), lowest for IUD users (20%), and intermediate for Depo-Provera users (39%). 90% of OC and Depo-Provera users and 86% of IUD users said they were satisfied with their respective methods. While OCs are among the most popular family planning methods in Kenya, they are also one of the most problematic, while IUDs have shown the fewest compliance problems. Service providers need to address the issue of high discontinuation rates among young OC users

Sekadde-Kigondu C, Ndavi PM, Nyagero JM, Nichols DJ, Jensencky K, Ojwang SB, Gachara M. "A survey of knowledge of family planning (FP) methods among Kenyan medical doctors: secondary data analysis.". 1995. Abstract

This survey, conducted between October 1989 and March 1990, to determine the knowledge, attitude, practice, and provision of family planning of a sample of 376 Kenyan medical doctors, reports on the aspects of knowledge of family planning (FP) methods. Kenyan medical doctors had low-to-average knowledge of the association between oral contraceptives (OCs) and the risk of various medical conditions and the mechanism of action of steroidal contraceptives. Their knowledge of the effectiveness of various program methods was average to high. There was a linear relationship between monthly income and knowledge of effectiveness of OCs, according to which physicians earning more had less knowledge than their colleagues who earned less (Z = 2.318, p = 0.02). A stepwise unconditional logistic regression model showed that two variables, department where most work is performed and sex, are significantly associated with better knowledge. Use of these operational variables for assessing medical doctors' knowledge of FP methods gave a better resolution of the extent and perhaps the quality of counseling and advice they provided to their FP clients. At the same time, the need for update courses in FP for medical doctors is unquestionable and long overdue. author's modified author's modified

Seifert AW, Kiama SG, Seifert MG, Goheen JR, Palmer TM, Maden M. "Skin shedding and tissue regeneration in African spiny mice (Acomys).". 2012. Abstract2012.skin_hedding_and_tissue_regeneration_in_african_spiny_mice_acomys..pdf

Abstract
Evolutionary modification has produced a spectrum of animal defence traits to escape predation, including the ability to autotomize body parts to elude capture. After autotomy, the missing part is either replaced through regeneration (for example, in urodeles, lizards, arthropods and crustaceans) or permanently lost (such as in mammals). Although most autotomy involves the loss of appendages (legs, chelipeds, antennae or tails, for example), skin autotomy can occur in certain taxa of scincid and gekkonid lizards. Here we report the first demonstration of skin autotomy in Mammalia (African spiny mice, Acomys). Mechanical testing showed a propensity for skin to tear under very low tension and the absence of a fracture plane. After skin loss, rapid wound contraction was followed by hair follicle regeneration in dorsal skin wounds. Notably, we found that regenerative capacity in Acomys was extended to ear holes, where the mice exhibited complete regeneration of hair follicles, sebaceous glands, dermis and cartilage. Salamanders capable of limb regeneration form a blastema (a mass of lineage-restricted progenitor cells) after limb loss, and our findings suggest that ear tissue regeneration in Acomys may proceed through the assembly of a similar structure. This study underscores the importance of investigating regenerative phenomena outside of conventional model organisms, and suggests that mammals may retain a higher capacity for regeneration than was previously believed. As re-emergent interest in regenerative medicine seeks to isolate molecular pathways controlling tissue regeneration in mammals, Acomys may prove useful in identifying mechanisms to promote regeneration in lieu of fibrosis and scarring.

Segera D, Mbuthia M, Nyete A. "Particle Swarm Optimized Hybrid Kernel-Based Multiclass Support Vector Machine for Microarray Cancer Data Analysis.". In: Prime Archives in Medicine. Hyderabad (India): Vide Leaf; 2020.
Seelig JM, Marshall LF, Toutant SM, Toole BM, Klauber MR, Bowers SA, Varnell JA. "Traumatic acute epidural hematoma: unrecognized high lethality in comatose patients." Neurosurgery. 1984;15:617-620. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Secretary - Kachero F. Maintenance Policy. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2010.maintenance_policy.pdf
SEBITOSI, E. N., KAAYA, G.P., MWOOTHE, T., WORZAMA S., AGBEDE, R. I. S. "Factors influencing vector/parasite transmission of Theileriosis in Africa.". In: Intern. Conf. Assoc. Institutions of Trop. Vet. Med. Harare, Zimbabwe ; 1998.
SEBITOSI EK, KAAYA GP. "Effect of bovine blood fractions on the infectivity of Theileria parva to bovine blood lymphocytes." Biosciences Biotechnology Research Asia. 2006;3( 2):287-295.
SEBITOSI E, KAAYA GP. "Factors influencing transmission of Theileriosi in Africa.". In: The first Acarology Symposium. Pretoria, South Africa; 1998.
SEBITOSI, E. N., KAAYA, G.P., Young AS, AGBEDE RIS. "Lectins in brown ear tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus: Detection and partial characterization." International journal of Acarology. 1998;24:159-164.
Sebastian W, Justus S, Robinson M, Alex O. Promoting photovoltaic energy in Kenya through training.; 2013.
SD G, D P, Linden A AG, E B, J.F C, SR F, P J, M K, M L, F L, MA M, E O'F, S O, R R, F A. "A pilot comparison of standardized online surgical curricula for use in low- and middle-income countries." JAMA Surg. 2014;149(4):341-316.
Scriven YA, Mulinge MM, Saleri N, Luvai EA, Nyachieo A, Maina EN, Mwau M. "Prevalence and factors associated with HIV-1 drug resistance mutations in treatment-experienced patients in Nairobi, Kenya: A cross-sectional study." Medicine (Baltimore). 2021;100(40):e27460. Abstract

An estimated 1.5 million Kenyans are HIV-seropositive, with 1.1 million on antiretroviral therapy (ART), with the majority of them unaware of their drug resistance status. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of drug resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and protease inhibitors, and the variables associated with drug resistance in patients failing treatment in Nairobi, Kenya.This cross-sectional study utilized 128 HIV-positive plasma samples obtained from patients enrolled for routine viral monitoring in Nairobi clinics between 2015 and 2017. The primary outcome was human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance mutation counts determined by Sanger sequencing of the polymerase (pol) gene followed by interpretation using Stanford's HIV Drug Resistance Database. Poisson regression was used to determine the effects of sex, viral load, age, HIV-subtype, treatment duration, and ART-regimen on the primary outcome.HIV-1 drug resistance mutations were found in 82.3% of the subjects, with 15.3% of subjects having triple-class ART resistance and 45.2% having dual-class resistance. NRTI primary mutations M184 V/I and K65R/E/N were found in 28.8% and 8.9% of subjects respectively, while NNRTI primary mutations K103N/S, G190A, and Y181C were found in 21.0%, 14.6%, and 10.9% of subjects. We found statistically significant evidence (P = .013) that the association between treatment duration and drug resistance mutations differed by sex. An increase of one natural-log transformed viral load unit was associated with 11% increase in drug resistance mutation counts (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.11; 95% CI 1.06-1.16; P < .001) after adjusting for age, HIV-1 subtype, and the sex-treatment duration interaction. Subjects who had been on treatment for 31 to 60 months had 63% higher resistance mutation counts (IRR 1.63; 95% CI 1.12-2.43; P = .013) compared to the reference group (<30 months). Similarly, patients on ART for 61 to 90 months were associated with 133% higher mutation counts than the reference group (IRR 2.33; 95% CI 1.59-3.49; P < .001). HIV-1 subtype, age, or ART-regimen were not associated with resistance mutation counts.Drug resistance mutations were found in alarmingly high numbers, and they were associated with viral load and treatment time. This finding emphasizes the importance of targeted resistance monitoring as a tool for addressing the problem.

Scott-Villier P, Ondicho T, Lubaale G, Ndungu D, Kabala N, Oosterom M. Roots and Routes of Political Violence in Kenya's Civil and political Society: A case Study of Marsabit County. London: IDS; 2014.
Scott AA, Misiani H, Okoth J, Jordan A, Gohlke J, Ouma G, Arrighi J, Zaitchik BF, Jjemba E, Verjee S, Waugh DW. "Temperature and Heat in Informal Settlements in Nairobi." PloS one. 2017;12(11). AbstractPLOS One

Nairobi, Kenya exhibits a wide variety of micro-climates and heterogeneous surfaces. Paved roads and high-rise buildings interspersed with low vegetation typify the central business district, while large neighborhoods of informal settlements or “slums” are characterized by dense, tin housing, little vegetation, and limited access to public utilities and services. To investigate how heat varies within Nairobi, we deployed a high density observation network in 2015/2016 to examine summertime temperature and humidity. We show how temperature, humidity and heat index differ in several informal settlements, including in Kibera, the largest slum neighborhood in Africa, and find that temperature and a thermal comfort index known colloquially as the heat index regularly exceed measurements at the Dagoretti observation station by several degrees Celsius. These temperatures are within the range of temperatures previously associated with mortality increases of several percent in youth and elderly populations in informal settlements. We relate these changes to surface properties
such as satellite-derived albedo, vegetation indices, and elevation.

Scott, M.E., Maingi N, Prichard RK. "An interesting picture of anthelmintic resistance and fitness in Haemonchus contortus.". In: Meeting of the Canadian Society of Zoologists. North York, Ontario, Canada; 1989.
Scott, M.E., Maingi N, Prichard RK. "Moderate anthelmintic resistance reduces general fitness, but further anthelmintic selection improves fitness in Haemonchus contortus. .". In: Meeting of the American Association of Veterinary Parasitology, . Orlando, Florida, USA; 1989.
Scott A, Misiani HO, Zaitchik BF, Ouma GO, Anyah RO, Jordan A. "Inter-annual Variability of Temperature and Extreme Heat Events during the Nairobi Warm Season." AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts. 2016. AbstractSAO/NASA ADS Physics Abstract Service

Extreme heat events significantly stress all organisms in the ecosystem, and are likely to be amplified in peri-urban and urban areas. Understanding the variability and drivers behind these events is key to generating early warnings, yet in Equatorial East Africa, this information is currently unavailable. This study uses daily maximum and minimum temperature records from weather stations within Nairobi and its surroundings to characterize variability in daily minimum temperatures and the number of extreme heat events. ERA-Interim reanalysis is applied to assess the drivers of these events at event and seasonal time scales. At seasonal time scales, high temperatures in Nairobi are a function of large scale climate variability associated with the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO) and Global Mean Sea Surface Temperature (GMSST). Extreme heat events, however, are more strongly associated with the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). For instance, the persistence of AMO and ENSO, in particular, provide a basis for seasonal prediction of extreme heat events/days in Nairobi. It is also apparent that the temporal signal from extreme heat events in tropics differs from classic heat wave definitions developed in the mid-latitudes, which suggests that a new approach for defining these events is necessary for tropical regions.

SCOLASTICA MANYIM, Ndakala AJ, Derese S. "Modeling and synthesis of antiplasmodial chromones, chromanones and chalcones based on natural products of Kenya." Biofarmasi Journal of Natural Product Biochemistry. 2018;16(1):8-21. AbstractBiofarmasi Journal of Natural Product Biochemistry

Description
Scolastica M, Ndakala AJ, Derese S. 2018. Modeling and synthesis of antiplasmodial chromones, chromanones and chalcones based on natural products of Kenya. Biofarmasi J Nat Prod Biochem 16: 8-21. Despite numerous research that has been done on plants of Kenya resulting in the isolation of thousands of natural products, data on these natural products are not systematically organized in a readily accessible form. This has urged the construction of a web-based database of natural products of Kenya. The database is named Mitishamba and is hosted at http://mitishamba. uonbi. ac. ke. The Mitishamba database was queried for chromones, chromanones, and chalcones that were subjected to structure-based drug design using Fred (OpenEye) docking utility program with 1TV5 PDB structure of the PfDHODH receptor to identify complex of ligands that bind with the active site. Ligand-based drug design (Shape and electrostatics comparison) was also done on the ligands against query A77 1726 (38)(the ligand that co-crystallized with PfDHODH receptor) using ROCS and EON programs, respectively, of OpenEye suite. There was a substantial similarity among the top performing ligands in the docking studies with shape and electrostatic comparison that led to the identification of compounds of interest which were targeted for synthesis and antiplasmodial assay. In this study, a chromanone (7-hydroxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl) chroman-4-one (48)) and two intermediate chalcones (2', 4'-dihydroxy-4-methoxychalcone (45) and 2’, 4’-dihydroxy-4-chlorochalcone (47)), were synthesized and subjected to antiplasmodial assay. Among these …

P
Pope WH, Bowman CA, Russell DA, Jacobs-Sera D, Asai DJ, Cresawn SG, Jacobs WR, Hendrix RW, Lawrence JG, Hatfull GF. "Whole genome comparison of a large collection of mycobacteriophages reveals a continuum of phage genetic diversity." Elife. 2015;4:e06416. Abstract

The bacteriophage population is large, dynamic, ancient, and genetically diverse. Limited genomic information shows that phage genomes are mosaic, and the genetic architecture of phage populations remains ill-defined. To understand the population structure of phages infecting a single host strain, we isolated, sequenced, and compared 627 phages of Mycobacterium smegmatis. Their genetic diversity is considerable, and there are 28 distinct genomic types (clusters) with related nucleotide sequences. However, amino acid sequence comparisons show pervasive genomic mosaicism, and quantification of inter-cluster and intra-cluster relatedness reveals a continuum of genetic diversity, albeit with uneven representation of different phages. Furthermore, rarefaction analysis shows that the mycobacteriophage population is not closed, and there is a constant influx of genes from other sources. Phage isolation and analysis was performed by a large consortium of academic institutions, illustrating the substantial benefits of a disseminated, structured program involving large numbers of freshman undergraduates in scientific discovery.

S
Schwemer J. "Renewal of visual pigment in photoreceptors of the blowfly." Journal of Comparative Physiology A. 1984;154:535-547. AbstractWebsite

Spectrophotometric measurements of photoreceptors 1–6 in the blowfly demonstrate that rhodopsin undergoes a continuous renewal. This involves, in the dark, the slow degradation of rhodopsin whereas metarhodopsin is degraded at a much faster rate. The effect of light is to reduce the rate at which metarhodopsin is degraded, i.e. the rate is inversely related to the intensity of the light. Rhodopsin synthesis is dependent on the presence of 11-cis retinal which is formed via a photoreaction from all-trans retinal resulting from the breakdown of rhodopsin and/or metarhodopsin: the biosynthesis of rhodopsin is therefore a light dependent process. Light of the blue/violet spectral range was found to mediate the isomerization of all-trans retinal into the 11-cis form. It is proposed that this stereospecificity is the result of all-trans retinal being bound to a protein. On the basis of the results a visual pigment cycle is proposed.

Schwartz A, Pertsemlidis D, Inabnet III WB, Gagner M. Endocrine surgery. Taylor & Francis US; 2010. Abstract
n/a
Schwabbauer ML. "Use of the latent image technique to develop and evaluate problem-solving skills." Am J Med Technol. 1975;41(12):457-62. Abstract

This project involved designing, developing and evaluating a simulation module, utilizing the latent image technique. The general topic chosen for this simulation was the laboratory characterization of anemias. Target learner populations included medical technology students, physician assistant students, and pathology residents. Members of all three groups participated in the evaluation of the module and responded to its use in varied settings.

Schwabbauer ML. "Use of the latent image technique to develop and evaluate problem-solving skills." Am J Med Technol. 1975;41(12):457-62. Abstract

This project involved designing, developing and evaluating a simulation module, utilizing the latent image technique. The general topic chosen for this simulation was the laboratory characterization of anemias. Target learner populations included medical technology students, physician assistant students, and pathology residents. Members of all three groups participated in the evaluation of the module and responded to its use in varied settings.

Schumer M, Birger R, Tantipathananandh C, Aurisano J, Maggioni M, Mwangi P. "Infestation by a Common Parasite is Correlated with Ant Symbiont Identity in a Plant-Ant Mutualism." Biotropica. 2013;45(3):276-279. Abstract

In East Africa, up to four symbiotic ant species associate with the obligate myrmecophyte Acacia drepanolobium. These ant species differ in the extent to which they defend their host trees from both vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores, but other potential roles of ants in tree defense have not been studied. We investigate the distribution of a new species of parasitic midge targeting A. drepanolobium in a region where A. drepanolobium is inhabited almost exclusively by two ant species—Crematogaster nigriceps and C. mimosae. We find that the frequency of infestation correlates strongly with the identity of the ant occupant: trees inhabited by C. nigriceps are significantly less likely to be infested with parasitic midges. Although the two ant species responded similarly to simulated large herbivore disturbances, trees inhabited by C. nigriceps also had a lower invertebrate load than trees inhabited by C. mimosae. We suggest that differences in defensive behavior towards invertebrates could be one explanation of the observed differences in infestation of A. drepanolobium by parasitic midges.

Keywords:

Acacia ;
Crematogaster ;
gall midge;
herbivory;
Laikipia, Kenya;
myrmecophyte;
parasitism;
plant-ant interactions

Schroeder H. "Clause chaining in Toposa, a pragmatic approach ." Lodz Papers in Pragmatics. Submitted;VOL. 9,2 .
Schroeder H. "The procedures of clause-chaining.". In: IfRC. Interpreting for relevance: Discourse and Translation. Warsaw, Poland; 2012.
Schroeder H. "Reference assignment in pronominal argument languages – a relevance-theoretical perspective .". In: Epics V. Intercultural, cogntive and social pragmatics. Seville, Spain; 2012.
Schroeder H. "S/A pivot in Toposa clause chaining.". In: Nilo-Saharan-Colloqium 2013. Cologne, Germany ; 2013.
Schroeder H. "The passive-enigma in Nilotic.". In: Passive in Southern and (other Nilotic languages). University of Nairobi, Kenya ; 2012.
Schroeder H. "Clause chaining in Nilotic languages.". Forthcoming.
Schroeder H. "Toposa a clause chaining language.". In: Challenges in Nilotic languages. Kyoto, Japan; 2011.
Schröder H. "Do high-context cultures prefer implicatures?". In: Relevance Studies in Poland. Exploring translation and communication problems. Warsaw : Warsaw University Press.; 2010.
Schröder H, Schröder M. "The Toposa Verb." OPSL (Occasional Papers in Sudanese Languages.. 1986;5::1-47. AbstractWebsite

JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa

Schröder H. "Inflection in Toposa: A VSO language in morpho-syntactic theory.". In: 1st Linguistics Symposium on Linguistics in Africa. University of Nairobi, Kenya, 27 August ; 2003.
Schröder H. "Integration or disintegration of global information for innovation.". In: Innovations and Reproductions in Cultures and Societies (IRICS). Vienna, Austria, 9-11 December; 2005.
Schröder H. Word Order in Toposa: An Aspect of Multiple Feature-Checking. Arlington, US : SIL International and the University of Texas at Arlington Publications in Linguistics 142; 2008.
Schröder H. Do we speak the same language? . Nairobi, 17-18 March; 2005.
Schröder H. "Antipassive and ergativity in Western Nilotic and Surmic." Annual Publications in African Linguistics . 2006;4::91-110.
Schröder H. "The pragmatics of clause-chaining. The case of Toposa, an Eastenn Nilotic language.". In: New developments in linguistic pragmatics. Lodz, Poland; 2012.
Schröder H. "A Relevance-theoretic analysis of intercultural misunderstandigs." Journal of Language and Linguistics . 2012;Vol 2, Department of Linguistics and Languages, University of Nairobi:42-62.
Schröder H. "Syntactic and discourse features in Eastern Nilotic.". In: Workshop on Nilotic Languages. Leipzig, Germany, 25-27 July; 2002.
Schröder H. "Antipassive and ergative origins in Southern and Eastern Nilotic.". In: 10th Nilo-Saharan Colloquium. Paris, France, 22-24 August; 2007.
Schröder H, Schröder M. "Vowel harmony in Toposa." Afrikanische Arbeitspapiere. Schriftenreihe des Kölner Instituts für Afrikanistik.. 1987;12::27-35.
Schröder H. "Inflection in Toposa: A VSO language in morpho-syntactic theory." Occasional Papers in Language and Linguistics, Department of Linguistics and African Languages, University of Nairobi. 2004;Vol. 2::1-16.
Schröder H. "The passive-antipassive enigma in Nilotic.". In: WOCAL 7. Language description, education, and the perservation of cultural heritage in Africa. Buea, Cameroon, 20-24 August; 2012.
Schröder H. "Incorporated subject pronouns in word order typology.". In: Proceedings of the 6th World Congress of African Linguistics. Cologne : Rüdiger Köppe; 2012.
Schröder H. "Ergativity in Toposa .". In: WOCAL 2, World Congress of African Linguistics. Leipzig, Germany, 27 Jul-3 Aug; 1997.
Schröder H. "The role of language for building assumptions in the human mind.". In: 2nd Linguistics Symposium. University of Nairobi, Kenya, 21-22 September ; 2005.
Schröder H. "The relevance of verbal morphology in Toposa discourse.". In: Proceedings of 4th World Congress of African Linguistics (WOCAL. Cologne : Rüdiger Köppe; 2004.
Schrader KK, Cantrell CL, Midiwo JO, Muhammad I. "Compounds from Terminalli brownii Extracts with Toxicity against the Fish Pathogenic Bacterium Flavobacterium columnare." Natural Product Communications . 2016;11(11):1679-1682. AbstractFull text link

Interpretive Summary:

A rapid bioassay was used to evaluate extracts from the stem bark of plant found in Kenya for antibacterial activities against fish pathogenic bacteria. Two natural compounds were isolated from the extracts and discovered to possess antibacterial activities against a species of fish pathogenic bacteria which causes a common disease in pond-raised catfish and several other species of freshwater fish.

Technical Abstract:

The pond-raised channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) industry in the United States of America can incur losses of over a $100 million annually due to bacterial diseases including columnaris disease caused by Flavobacterium columnare. One management approach available to catfish producers is the use of medicated-feed containing antibiotics. However, the negative attributes of antibiotic use in agriculture include public concerns and the potential development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, the discovery of environmentally-safe natural compounds for use as therapeutants would greatly benefit the catfish industry. In this study, a rapid bioassay was used to evaluate crude plant extracts as the first step in the discovery of natural therapeutants. Plant extracts from Terminalia brownii were found to be inhibitory towards F. columnare. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the 5% water-methanol extract of T. brownii (stem bark) was 10 µg/mL and the 24-h 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) was 40 µg/mL. Subsequent bioassay-guided fractionation of the T. brownii ethanol extract using reverse phase C-4 chromatography revealed the highest level of activity in the aqueous:methanol (50:50) fraction. HPLC analysis and subsequent purification of this fraction provided two compounds identified as ellagic acid (1) and 4-O-(3'',4''-di-O-galloyl-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl)ellagic acid (2). Compound 2 was the most active isolated compound, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 10±0 µg/mL and 24-h 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of 31±1 µg/mL. Although 1 was more active according to a MIC of 6±5 µg/mL, its 24-h IC50 was >100 µg/mL, and, therefore, it was less active overall between the two most active isolated compounds.

Scholtz MM, McManus C, Okeyo AM. "Opportunities for beef production in developing countries of the southern hemisphere.". 2011. Abstract

Developing countries from the southern hemisphere have similarities in terms of climatic and agricultural conditions and cattle are the most important livestock species in these countries — which leads to many areas of similar interest and opportunities regarding beef cattle production. The increase in demand for meat in developing countries offers large market opportunities for livestock producers. If the productivity of beef farmers can be improved to commercial levels, it may have the potential to address poverty in these agriculturally based economies. Climate change is predicted to be highly dynamic and can have adverse effects on crop and livestock productivity. The cattle breed to be used and the production strategy to be followed in developing countries of the southern hemisphere will depend primarily on the environment and level of management. The availability of diverse cattle breed resources with adaptive and productive differences will allow breed types to be matched to different environments, management capabilities and markets. In the harsh and undeveloped areas or pastoralist systems, pure breeding with e.g. Sanga, Zebu or naturalized breeds may be the only production strategy that can be followed. In the more developed areas, crossbreeding with small indigenous cows may succeed in improving the output of beef cattle farming. It is believed that crossbreeding will gain importance in many developing counties in the southern hemisphere. It is therefore essential that crossbreeding studies be conducted where necessary, to supply information regarding heterosis and for the development of multi-breed genetic evaluations, breeding objectives and decision making. By describing production environments it may be possible to identify genotypes that are adapted to a specific environment. However, tools are needed to overlay geo-referenced data sets onto the different environments. Statistical science continues to support animal breeding and improvement, especially with respect to production traits. Traits linked to fertility and/or survival are still problematic and the appropriate quantitative breeding technology to properly handle these traits still needs to be developed. Gene or marker assisted selection may play an important role in selection for disease and parasite resistance or tolerance, since it is generally difficult to measure these traits directly. Strategies that utilize EBVs derived from genomic analyses (genomic EBVs), together with conventional mixed model methodology, may speed up the process of breeding animals with subsequent higher and more efficient production. The application of a landscape genetics approach offers the potential to greatly enhance the knowledge of how landscape heterogeneity influences the genetic population structure, gene flow, and adaptation. Results from these studies can be used to address questions related to species management and conservation.

Scholtz MM;, McManus C;, Mwai O;A, Seixas L;, Louvandini H. "Challenges and opportunities for beef production in developing countries of the southern hemisphere.".; 2010. Abstract

Livestock production faces specific challenges due to a rise in population numbers, urbanization and economic development in the developing world. A substantial increase in demand for meat in these countries will offer larger market opportunities for livestock producers. Developing countries from the southern hemisphere are characterized by a highly dualistic beef cattle sector with communal, subsistence or small scale farmers and large commercial farmers co-existing. Whereas the off-take from the commercial sector is high, the off-take from the other sectors is still low in certain regions. Global warming is expected to have a negative effect on the beef production environments of these countries. By describing production environments it will be possible to identify genotypes that are adapted to the environment. Tools are needed to overlay geo-referenced data sets onto the different environments in order to quantify them. Gene or marker assisted selection may play an important role in selection for disease and parasite resistance or tolerance, since it is difficult to measure these traits directly. Strategies that utilize EBVs derived from genomic analyses (genomic EBVs), together with conventional mixed model methodology, may speed up the process of breeding animals with higher and more efficient production. Research into methane production will also have to be stimulated. Up to 27 more results found for "MWAI O"

Schnabel. DC, Dimbuson. WB, Bedno. SA, Martin. SK. An Assessment of the Implementation of the First Comprehensive Influenza Surveillance Activity in Kenya. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: MediTech Media Conferencing, Inc. Atlanta, GA 30328; 2007. Abstract
n/a
Schmoldt A, Benthe HF, Haberland G. "Digitoxin metabolism by rat liver microsomes." Biochem. Pharmacol.. 1975;24(17):1639-41.
Schmoldt A, Benthe HF, Haberland G. "Digitoxin metabolism by rat liver microsomes." Biochem. Pharmacol.. 1975;24(17):1639-41.
Schmidt C, Jaoko W O-MKMNKBBLGGPJA, Chomba E, Kilembe W NNSCLCADSFPEMJGP. "Long-term follow-up of study participants from prophylactic HIV vaccine clinical trials in Africa." Human Vaccines & Immunotherapy. 2014;10(3):714-23.
Schmidt, C. JO-MKMNKBWGPJ, L. G. Bekker, E. Chomba KNNSCLWMJG, and J. Cox, S. Allen DSFLCPE. "Long-Term Follow-up of Study Participants from Prophylactic Hiv Vaccine Clinical Trials in Africa." Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2014;10, no. 3:714-23.
Schmeltz LR. "Safe insulin use in the hospital setting." Hosp Pract. 2009;37:2009-2051. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Schmeltz LR. "Management of inpatient hyperglycemia." Lab Medicine. 2011;42:427-434. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Schindelin J, Arganda-Carreras I, Frise E, Kaynig V, Longair M, Pietzsch T, Preibisch S, Rueden C, Saalfeld S, Schmid B, Tinevez J-Y, White DJ, Hartenstein V, Eliceiri K, Tomancak P, Cardona A. "Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis." Nature Methods. 2012;9:676-682. AbstractWebsite

Fiji is a distribution of the popular open-source software ImageJ focused on biological-image analysis. Fiji uses modern software engineering practices to combine powerful software libraries with a broad range of scripting languages to enable rapid prototyping of image-processing algorithms. Fiji facilitates the transformation of new algorithms into ImageJ plugins that can be shared with end users through an integrated update system. We propose Fiji as a platform for productive collaboration between computer science and biology research communities.

Schimel DS, Grubb M, Joos F, Kaufmann RK, Moss R, Ogana W, Richels R, Wigley TML. Stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gases: Physical, biological and socio-economic implications. Geneva: J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, D. J. Griggs and K. Maskell (eds); 1997.
Scherberger RR, Kaess H, Brückner S. "[Studies on the action of an anticholinergic agent in combination with a tranquilizer on gastric juice secretion in man]." Arzneimittelforschung. 1975;25(9):1460-3. Abstract

A double-blind study with intra-individual comparisons was carried out to investigate the effects of 15 mg of (8r)-3alpha-hydroxy-8-isopropyl-1alphaH-tropanium bromide(+/-)-tropate (Sch 1000), 15 mg Sch 1000 + 10 mg oxazepam, 10 mg oxazepam and placebo with oral administration in randomized sequence on gastric juice volume, amount of acid, concentration and pH values in 12 healthy volunteers. The secretion parameters were measured during a 1-h basal period and a 2-h stimulation period. The gastric juice was obtained in 15 min portions via stomach tube. Stimulation was effected by 1 mug/kg/h pentagastrin via drip infusion. The Friedman test was used for the comparative statistical evaluation, and individual comparisons were carried out by means of the Wilcoxon test (pair-differences rank). The results show that Sch 1000 and Sch 1000 + oxazepam were equal in effect on basal and stimulated secretion volume. As compared with placebo, it was not possible to establish an effect on secretion volume for oxazepam alone. Sch 1000 and Sch 1000 + oxazepam were found to be equipotent in reducing the amount of basal acid, while oxazepam reduced this quantity only during the first 30 min of basal secretion. None of the three active preparations was capable of inhibiting the stimulated acid, although both Sch 1000 preparations produced a clear trend towards lowered mean values. During the basal secretion period, all three test preparations had an inhibiting action on acid concentration, but none of them had a significant effect during the stimulation period. The pH value was savely increased only by Sch 1000 and Sch 1000 + oxazepam, and this even only during the basal period. The results are discussed.

Scheller F, Jänchen M, Lampe J, Prümke HJ, Blanck J, Palecek E. "Studies on electron transfer between mercury electrode and hemoprotein." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;412(1):157-67. Abstract

The electrochemical behaviour of ferricytochrome c, metmyoglobin and methemoglobin was studied using d.c., a.c. and differential pulse polarography, and controlled potential electrolysis. 1. The three hemoproteins yield d.c. polarographic steps, and peaks in differential pulse polarograms, the height of which is proportional to concentration. The charge transfer is influenced by strong adsorption. 2. The concentration dependence of the a.c. polarograms indicates structural changes in the adsorbed molecules. 3. The reduction products of controlled potential electrolysis of metmyoglobin and methemoglobin have absorption spectra identical with the native control samples. The affinity for oxygen and the cooperativity in hemoglobin are not affected by the reaction at the electrode. 4. The charge transfer proceeds via adsorbed, already reduced, molecules to freely diffusible proteins.

Schellenberg JJ, Dumonceaux TJ, Hill JE, Kimani J, Jaoko W, Wachihi C, Mungai JN, Lane M, Fowke KR, Ball BT. "Selection, phenotyping and identification of acid and hydrogen peroxide producing bacteria from vaginal samples of canadian and East African women.". 2012.
Schellenberg JJ, Dumonceaux TJ, Hill JE, Kimani J, Jaoko W, Wachihi C, Mungai JN, Lane M, Fowke KR, Ball BT. "Selection, phenotyping and identification of acid and hydrogen peroxide producing bacteria from vaginal samples of canadian and East African women.". 2012.
Scheinfeldt LB, Tishkoff SA. "Living the high life: high-altitude adaptation." Genome Biology. 2010;11:133. AbstractWebsite

Genome-wide scans demonstrate that genetic variants associated with high-altitude adaptation in Tibetans and Andeans arose independently as a result of convergent adaptation. PMID: 20979669

Scheinfeldt LB, Tishkoff SA. "Living the high life: high-altitude adaptation." Genome Biology. 2010;11:133. AbstractWebsite

Genome-wide scans demonstrate that genetic variants associated with high-altitude adaptation in Tibetans and Andeans arose independently as a result of convergent adaptation. PMID: 20979669

Sayi JG, Patel, NB, et al. "Apolipoprotein E polymorphism in elderly East Africans." East African Medical Journal. 1997;74:65-67.
Savage MW, Dhatariya KK, Kilvert A, Rayman G, a. Rees JE, Courtney CH, Hilton L, Dyer PH, Hamersley MS, Joint British Diabetes Societies. "Joint {British} {Diabetes} {Societies} guideline for the management of diabetic ketoacidosis." Diabetic Medicine: A Journal of the British Diabetic Association. 2011;28:508-515. Abstract

The Joint British Diabetes Societies guidelines for the management of diabetic ketoacidosis (these do not cover Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic Syndrome) are available in full at: (i) http://www.diabetes.org.uk/About\_us/Our\_Views/Care\_recommendations/The-Management-of-Diabetic-Ketoacidosis-in-Adults; (ii)  http://www.diabetes.nhs.uk/publications\_and\_resources/reports\_andġuidance; (iii) http://www.diabetologists-abcd.org.uk/JBDS\_DKA\_Management.pdf. This article summarizes the main changes from previous guidelines and discusses the rationale for the new recommendations. The key points are: Monitoring of the response to treatment (i) The method of choice for monitoring the response to treatment is bedside measurement of capillary blood ketones using a ketone meter. (ii) If blood ketone measurement is not available, venous pH and bicarbonate should be used in conjunction with bedside blood glucose monitoring to assess treatment response. (iii) Venous blood should be used rather than arterial (unless respiratory problems dictate otherwise) in blood gas analysers. (iv) Intermittent laboratory confirmation of pH, bicarbonate and electrolytes only. Insulin administration (i) Insulin should be infused intravenously at a weight-based fixed rate until the ketosis has resolved. (ii) When the blood glucose falls below 14 mmol/l, 10% glucose should be added to allow the fixed-rate insulin to be continued. (iii) If already taking, long-acting insulin analogues such as insulin glargine (Lantus(®), Sanofi Aventis, Guildford, Surry, UK) or insulin detemir (Levemir(®), Novo Nordisk, Crawley, West Sussex, UK.) should be continued in usual doses. Delivery of care (i) The diabetes specialist team should be involved as soon as possible. (ii) Patients should be nursed in areas where staff are experienced in the management of ketoacidosis.

Sartorius BKD, Chersich MF, Mwaura M, Meda N, Temmerman M, Newell ML, Farley TMM, Luchters S. "Maternal anaemia and duration of zidovudine in antiretroviral regimens for preventing mother-to-child transmission: a randomized trial in three African countries." BMC Infect. Dis.. 2013;13:522. Abstract

Although substantiated by little evidence, concerns about zidovudine-related anaemia in pregnancy have influenced antiretroviral (ARV) regimen choice for preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1, especially in settings where anaemia is common.

Sarkar S, Kiriti-Nganga TW. Gender Inequality in Developing Countries. New Delhi: Arise Publications and Distributors .; 2008.
Sarguta R, Ottieno JAM. "Mixed Poisson Distributions in terms of Special Functions." Mathematical Theory and Modeling. 2015;5(6):245-274.
Sarguta R. Four Routes to Mixed Poisson Distributions. Ottieno JAM, Mwaniki JI, Kipchirchir IC, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2017.
and Sarguta OJAMRJ. "Mixed Poisson Distributions in terms of special functions." Mathematical Theory and Modeling. 2015;5(6):243-274. AbstractFull text link

Mixed Poisson distributions can be expressed in explicit, recursive and expectation forms. It can also be expressed in terms of special functions. This paper expresses mixed Poisson distributions and their proba- bility generating functions in terms of Con uent Hypergeometric func- tions and modi ed Bessel function of the third kind. Keywords: Mixed Poisson; Con uent Hypergeometric; Bessel fun- tion; Probability generating function

Sarguta R. On the Construction of Mixed Poisson Distributions. Ottieno JAM, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012.
Sarguta R, Ottieno JAM. "Recursive Route to Mixed Poisson distributions using Integration by Parts." Mathematical Theory and Modeling. 2014;4(14):144-152.
Santos da Silva E, Mulinge M, Lemaire M, Masquelier C, Beraud C, Rybicki A, Servais J-Y, Iserentant G, Schmit J-C, Seguin-Devaux C, Perez Bercoff D. "The Envelope Cytoplasmic Tail of HIV-1 Subtype C Contributes to Poor Replication Capacity through Low Viral Infectivity and Cell-to-Cell Transmission." PLoS ONE. 2016;11(9):e0161596. Abstract

The cytoplasmic tail (gp41CT) of the HIV-1 envelope (Env) mediates Env incorporation into virions and regulates Env intracellular trafficking. Little is known about the functional impact of variability in this domain. To address this issue, we compared the replication of recombinant virus pairs carrying the full Env (Env viruses) or the Env ectodomain fused to the gp41CT of NL4.3 (EnvEC viruses) (12 subtype C and 10 subtype B pairs) in primary CD4+ T-cells and monocyte-derived-macrophages (MDMs). In CD4+ T-cells, replication was as follows: B-EnvEC = B-Env>C-EnvEC>C-Env, indicating that the gp41CT of subtype C contributes to the low replicative capacity of this subtype. In MDMs, in contrast, replication capacity was comparable for all viruses regardless of subtype and of gp41CT. In CD4+ T-cells, viral entry, viral release and viral gene expression were similar. However, infectivity of free virions and cell-to-cell transmission of C-Env viruses released by CD4+ T-cells was lower, suggestive of lower Env incorporation into virions. Subtype C matrix only minimally rescued viral replication and failed to restore infectivity of free viruses and cell-to-cell transmission. Taken together, these results show that polymorphisms in the gp41CT contribute to viral replication capacity and suggest that the number of Env spikes per virion may vary across subtypes. These findings should be taken into consideration in the design of vaccines.

Santos da Silva E, Mulinge M, Perez Bercoff D. "The frantic play of the concealed HIV envelope cytoplasmic tail." Retrovirology. 2013;10:54. Abstract

Lentiviruses have unusually long envelope (Env) cytoplasmic tails, longer than those of other retroviruses. Whereas the Env ectodomain has received much attention, the gp41 cytoplasmic tail (gp41-CT) is one of the least studied parts of the virus. It displays relatively high conservation compared to the rest of Env. It has been long established that the gp41-CT interacts with the Gag precursor protein to ensure Env incorporation into the virion. The gp41-CT contains distinct motifs and domains that mediate both intensive Env intracellular trafficking and interactions with numerous cellular and viral proteins, optimizing viral infectivity. Although they are not fully understood, a multiplicity of interactions between the gp41-CT and cellular factors have been described over the last decade; these interactions illustrate how Env expression and incorporation into virions is a finely tuned process that has evolved to best exploit the host system with minimized genetic information. This review addresses the structure and topology of the gp41-CT of lentiviruses (mainly HIV and SIV), their domains and believed functions. It also considers the cellular and viral proteins that have been described to interact with the gp41-CT, with a particular focus on subtype-related polymorphisms.

Santis VD, Mwinami T, Chesire D, Musina J, Zaccara S, Kioko E, Owino JJ, Oduma JA, Ayiemba W, Harper DM, Crosa G. "Molecular pilot study on peripheral populations of Kenyan greenbul in an afromontane fragmented forest." African Journal of Ecology. 2018;56(3):610-619.
Santana DS, Silveira C, Costa ML, Souza RT, Surita FG, Souza JP, Mazhar SB, Jayaratne K, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Sousa MH, Vogel JP, Cecatti JG. "Perinatal outcomes in twin pregnancies complicated by maternal morbidity:evidence from the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health." BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth . 2018;18(449). AbstractWebsite

Background: Twin pregnancy was associated with significantly higher rates of adverse neonatal and perinatal outcomes, especially for the second twin. In addition, the maternal complications (potentially life-threatening conditions-PLTC, maternal near miss-MNM, and maternal mortality-MM) are directly related to twin pregnancy and independently associated with adverse perinatal outcome. The objective of the preset study is to evaluate perinatal outcomes associated with twin pregnancies, stratified by severe maternal morbidity and order of birth.

Methods: Secondary analysis of the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health (WHOMCS), a cross-sectional study implemented in 29 countries. Data from 8568 twin deliveries were compared with 308,127 singleton deliveries. The occurrence of adverse perinatal outcomes and maternal complications were assessed. Factors independently associated with adverse perinatal outcomes were reported with adjusted PR (Prevalence Ratio) and 95%CI.

Results: The occurrence of severe maternal morbidity and maternal death was significantly higher among twin compared to singleton pregnancies in all regions. Twin deliveries were associated with higher rates of preterm delivery (37.1%), Apgar scores less than 7 at 5th minute (7.8 and 10.1% respectively for first and second twins), low birth weight (53.2% for the first and 61.1% for the second twin), stillbirth (3.6% for the first and 5.7% for the second twin), early neonatal death (3.5% for the first and 5.2% for the second twin), admission to NICU (23.6% for the first and 29.3% for the second twin) and any adverse perinatal outcomes (67% for the first twin and 72.3% for the second). Outcomes were consistently worse for the second twin across all outcomes. Poisson multiple regression analysis identified several factors independently associated with an adverse perinatal outcome, including both maternal complications and twin pregnancy.

Conclusion: Twin pregnancy is significantly associated with severe maternal morbidity and with worse perinatal outcomes, especially for the second twin.

Keywords: Maternal morbidity; Perinatal outcome; Twin pregnancy.

Santana DS, Cecatti JG, Surita FG, Silveira C, Costa ML, Souza JP, Mazhar SB, Jayaratne K, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Sousa MH, Vogel JP. "Pregnancy and Severe Maternal Outcomes: The World Health Organization Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health." Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2016;127(4):631-641. Abstractpregnancy_and_severe_maternal_outcomes.pdf

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate maternal complications (potentially life-threatening conditions, maternal near miss, and maternal death) that are mutually exclusive and severe maternal outcomes (maternal near miss or maternal death) associated with twin pregnancies.
METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional World Health Organization Multicountry Survey, which was implemented in 29 countries. Data from 4,756 twin deliveries were compared with 308,111 singleton deliveries. Factors associated with maternal morbidity and twin pregnancies were reported with adjusted prevalence ratio (95% confidence interval).
RESULTS: Potentially life-threatening conditions, maternal near miss, severe maternal outcomes, and maternal deaths were 2.14 (1.99–2.30), 3.03 (2.39–3.85), 3.19 (2.58–3.94), and 3.97 (2.47–6.38) times higher, respectively, among twin pregnancies. Maternal age older than 20 years, having a partner, multiparity, and elective cesarean delivery were associated with twin pregnancies. Postpartum hemorrhage and chronic hypertension were more frequently associated with severe maternal outcomes among twin pregnancies. Conditions indicating organ dysfunction (maternal near miss) were twofold to fivefold higher for twins. Poisson multiple regression analysis identified several factors independently associated with a severe maternal outcome, but not twin pregnancies.
CONCLUSION: Twin pregnancy is associated with greater severe maternal morbidity and a higher rate of maternal death than singleton pregnancy.

Sanja M. "Re-thinking the institution of marriage in the 21st century and beyond:New Historicism Approach to the Swahili Novel. ." Journal of Sociology and Social Work, New York, . 2015;3 (1):83-89.
Sanii R, Younes M. "Steady-state response of normal subjects to an inspiratory sinusoidal pressure load." J. Appl. Physiol.. 1988;64(2):511-20. Abstract

Inspiratory duration (TI) increases during inspiratory resistive loading in conscious humans. To ascertain whether this response is related to the temporal pattern of pressure perturbation (reaching a peak in early or midinspiration and declining subsequently) we compared the response of nine normal subjects to a usual resistor (narrow tube, RES) with their response when mouth pressure was reduced in a sinusoidal fashion during inspiration (SIN). Whereas the negative pressure pattern was similar with both loads (peak negative pressure near midinspiration), there was no relation between pressure and flow in the case of sinusoidal loading. Each experiment consisted of two loading periods, 4 min each, and three unloaded periods, also 4 min each, bracketing the periods of loading. The order of RES and SIN was randomized. TI during loading was compared with the average TI of the preceding and following unloaded periods. TI increased 0.74 +/- 0.12 and 0.27 +/- 0.05 (SE) s during RES and SIN, respectively (P less than 0.01). We conclude that the temporal pattern of pressure change during resistance breathing plays a small role in mediating the TI prolongation. Coupling between flow and the pressure perturbation appears to be an important determinant of TI prolongation.

UoN Websites Search