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2017
Mbondo NN, Ambuko J, Sila DN, Owino WO, others. "Effect of drying methods and temperature on the bioactive compounds in African eggplant.". In: The 1st All Africa Post Harvest Congress & Exhibition, Reducing food losses and waste: sustainable solutions for Africa, 28th-31st March 2017, Nairobi, Kenya. Conference Proceedings. University of Nairobi; 2017:. Abstract
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Ssekandi J, Mburu J, Oliver Wasonga, MacOpiyo L, Charles F. "Effects of Post Eviction Resettlement on Land-Use and Cover Change in Uganda.". 2017. Abstract
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Domtau DL, Simiyu J, Ayieta EO, Nyakiti LO, Muthoka B, Mwabora JM. "Effects of TiO2 Film Thickness and Electrolyte Concentration on Photovoltaic Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell." Surface Review and Letters. 2017;24:1750065. Abstract
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Xu Y, Zhang H, Shao H, Ni G, Lu H, Zhang R, Peng B, Zhu Y, Zhu H. "Electronic, transport and optical properties of monolayer $$\backslash$alpha $ and $$\backslash$beta-$ GeSe: A first-principles study." arXiv preprint arXiv:1704.03336. 2017. Abstract
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Xu Y, Zhang H, Shao H, Ni G, Li J, Lu H, Zhang R, Peng B, Zhu Y, Zhu H, others. "First-principles study on the electronic, optical, and transport properties of monolayer $\alpha$-and $\beta$-GeSe." Physical Review B. 2017;96:245421. Abstract
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Samuillah MH, Varma V, Nguhiu J, Mogoa E. "Incidence, types and outcomes of distal limb fractures of racehorses in Kenya: a retrospective study of radiographs (2005-2014)." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2017;6:81-85. Abstract
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Bourne RRA, Flaxman SR, Braithwaite T, Cicinelli MV, Das A, Jonas JB, Keeffe J, Kempen JH, Leasher J, Limburg H, Naidoo K, Pesudovs K, Resnikoff S, Silvester A, Stevens GA, Tahhan N, Wong TY, Taylor HR. "Magnitude, temporal trends, and projections of the global prevalence of blindness and distance and near vision impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis." The Lancet Global Health. 2017;5:e888-e897. AbstractWebsite

Global and regional prevalence estimates for blindness and vision impairment are important for the development of public health policies. We aimed to provide global estimates, trends, and projections of global blindness and vision impairment. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based datasets relevant to global vision impairment and blindness that were published between 1980 and 2015. We fitted hierarchical models to estimate the prevalence (by age, country, and sex), in 2015, of mild visual impairment (presenting visual acuity worse than 6/12 to 6/18 inclusive), moderate to severe visual impairment (presenting visual acuity worse than 6/18 to 3/60 inclusive), blindness (presenting visual acuity worse than 3/60), and functional presbyopia (defined as presenting near vision worse than N6 or N8 at 40 cm when best-corrected distance visual acuity was better than 6/12). Globally, of the 7·33 billion people alive in 2015, an estimated 36·0 million (80% uncertainty interval [UI] 12·9–65·4) were blind (crude prevalence 0·48%; 80% UI 0·17–0·87; 56% female), 216·6 million (80% UI 98·5–359·1) people had moderate to severe visual impairment (2·95%, 80% UI 1·34–4·89; 55% female), and 188·5 million (80% UI 64·5–350·2) had mild visual impairment (2·57%, 80% UI 0·88–4·77; 54% female). Functional presbyopia affected an estimated 1094·7 million (80% UI 581·1–1686·5) people aged 35 years and older, with 666·7 million (80% UI 364·9–997·6) being aged 50 years or older. The estimated number of blind people increased by 17·6%, from 30·6 million (80% UI 9·9–57·3) in 1990 to 36·0 million (80% UI 12·9–65·4) in 2015. This change was attributable to three factors, namely an increase because of population growth (38·4%), population ageing after accounting for population growth (34·6%), and reduction in age-specific prevalence (−36·7%). The number of people with moderate and severe visual impairment also increased, from 159·9 million (80% UI 68·3–270·0) in 1990 to 216·6 million (80% UI 98·5–359·1) in 2015. There is an ongoing reduction in the age-standardised prevalence of blindness and visual impairment, yet the growth and ageing of the world's population is causing a substantial increase in number of people affected. These observations, plus a very large contribution from uncorrected presbyopia, highlight the need to scale up vision impairment alleviation efforts at all levels. Brien Holden Vision Institute.

Peng B, Iwnicki S, Shackleton P, Zhao Y, Cui D. "A practical method for simulating the evolution of railway wheel polygonalization.". In: Proceedings of the 25th international symposium on dynamics of vehicles on roads and tracks (IAVSD 2017).; 2017:. Abstract
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Kamp M, Soligno G, Hagemans F, Peng B, Imhof A, van Roij R, van Blaaderen A. "Regiospecific nucleation and growth of silane coupling agent droplets onto colloidal particles." The Journal of Physical Chemistry C. 2017;121:19989-19998. Abstract
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Kisumbi BK, Simila HO, Osiro OA, Omondi BI. "Selection of impression materials and techniques employed by dentists in Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94:1040-1051. Abstract
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Wang Y, Shang B, Hu X, Peng B, Deng Z. "Temperature Control of Mussel-Inspired Chemistry toward Hierarchical Superhydrophobic Surfaces for Oil/Water Separation." Advanced Materials Interfaces. 2017;4:1600727. Abstract
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Peng B, Li Q, Liang X, Song P, Li J, He K, Fu D, Li Y, Shen C, Wang H, others. "Valley polarization of trions and magnetoresistance in heterostructures of MoS2 and yttrium iron garnet." ACS nano. 2017;11:12257-12265. Abstract
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2016
Sipulwa LA, Ongus JR, Coldren RL, Bulimo WD. "Molecular characterization of human coronaviruses and their circulation dynamics in Kenya, 2009–2012." Virology Journal. 2016;13. AbstractWebsite
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Gachara G, Symekher S, Otieno M, Magana J, Opot B, Bulimo W. "Whole genome characterization of human influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated from Kenya during the 2009 pandemic." Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 2016. AbstractWebsite
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Dommain R, S Riedl ALD, deMenocal PB, Olaka LA, Strecker MR, Potts R. "Lake level history of Paleolake Siriata and hydrological sub-basin connectivity in the Southern Kenya Rift during the African Humid Period (AHP).". In: American Geophysical Union, Fall General Assembly 2016. San Fransisco; 2016. Abstract

The AHP is one of the most dramatic examples of late Quaternary hydroclimatic change in the tropics. During this wet period numerous large and deep lakes existed in the eastern arm of the East African Rift System (EARS) as testified by paleo-shorelines and lacustrine sediments. The tempo of onset and termination as well as the duration of the AHP is a matter of ongoing research and are still poorly established for the Southern Kenya Rift. Here we present new paleo-shoreline and sedimentary evidence for the existence of a freshwater lake during the AHP to the east of alkaline Lake Magadi. The AHP lake - Paleolake Siriata - was a critical link in the paleodrainage network that connected the central with the southern Kenya rift lakes and northern Tanzania. To establish the timing and spatial extent of Paleolake Siriata we mapped elevations of paleo-shorelines and associated shoreline facies and diatomaceous lacustrine sediments along the former basin margins. Morphometric and topographic details were mapped using a dGPS and an UAV to create a DEM with a resolution of 5 cm to define shoreline elevations and the characteristics of the former basin outlet. Reservoir age-corrected radiocarbon dates of gastropod and bivalve shells and 40Ar/39Ar ages of pumice from the lacustrine strata provide the chronological framework of the Lake Siriata highstand. In addition, oxygen-isotope measurements of gastropod shells indicate past variations in the former lake water-balance. Paleolake Siriata formed abruptly immediately after the dry Younger Dryas interval and reached a maximum depth of 55 m and a surface area of 30 km2; during highstand conditions the lake overflowed into adjacent Lake Magadi while it received inflow from Lake Naivasha via the Kedong Valley and the Olorgesailie Basin in the north. This hydrological connectivity provides important context for the interpretation of the sediment records from the recently collected Olorgesailie-Koora and Lake Magadi drill cores.

Rustagi AS, Gimbel S, Ruth Nduati, de Cuembelo MF, Wasserheit JN, Farquhar C, Gloyd S, Sherr K. "Health facility factors and quality of services to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission in Côte d'Ivoire, Kenya, and Mozambique." Int J STD AIDS. 2016. Abstract

This study aimed to identify facility-level characteristics associated with prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission service quality. This cross-sectional study sampled 60 health facilities in Mozambique, Côte d'Ivoire, and Kenya (20 per country). Performance score - the proportion of pregnant women tested for HIV in first antenatal care visit, multiplied by the proportion of HIV-positive pregnant women who received appropriate antiretroviral medications - was calculated for each facility using routine data from 2012 to 2013. Facility characteristics were ascertained during on-site visits, including workload. Associations between facility characteristics and performance were quantified using generalized linear models with robust standard errors, adjusting for country. Over six months, facilities saw 38,611 first antenatal care visits in total. On-site CD4 testing, Pima CD4 machine, air conditioning, and low or high (but not mid-level) patient volume were each associated with higher performance scores. Each additional first antenatal care visit per nurse per month was associated with a 4% (95% confidence interval: 1%-6%) decline in the odds that an HIV-positive pregnant woman would receive both HIV testing and antiretroviral medications. Physician workload was only modestly associated with performance. Investments in infrastructure and human resources - particularly nurses - may be critical to improve prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission service delivery and protect infants from HIV.

Mamah D, Musau A, Mutiso VN, Owoso A, Abdallah AB, Cottler LB, Striley CW, Walker EF, Ndetei DM. "Characterizing psychosis risk traits in Africa: A longitudinal study of Kenyan adolescents." Schizophr. Res.. 2016;176(2-3):340-8. AbstractWebsite

The schizophrenia prodrome has not been extensively studied in Africa. Identification of prodromal behavioral symptoms holds promise for early intervention and prevention of disorder onset. Our goal was to investigate schizophrenia risk traits in Kenyan adolescents and identify predictors of psychosis progression. 135 high-risk (HR) and 142 low-risk (LR) adolescents were identified from among secondary school students in Machakos, Kenya, using the structured interview of psychosis-risk syndromes (SIPS) and the Washington early recognition center affectivity and psychosis (WERCAP) screen. Clinical characteristics were compared across groups, and participants followed longitudinally over 0-, 4-, 7-, 14- and 20-months. Potential predictors of psychosis conversion and severity change were studied using multiple regression analyses. More psychiatric comorbidities and increased psychosocial stress were observed in HR compared to LR participants. HR participants also had worse attention and better abstraction. The psychosis conversion rate was 3.8%, with only disorganized communication severity at baseline predicting conversion (p=0.007). Decreasing psychotic symptom severity over the study period was observed in both HR and LR participants. ADHD, bipolar disorder, and major depression diagnoses, as well as poor occupational functioning and avolition were factors relating to lesser improvement in psychosis severity. Our results indicate that psychopathology and disability occur at relatively high rates in Kenyan HR adolescents. Few psychosis conversions may reflect an inadequate time to conversion, warranting longer follow-up studies to clarify risk predictors. Identifying disorganized communication and other risk factors could be useful for developing preventive strategies for HR youth in Kenya.

Wilson KS, Wanje G, Yuhas K, Simoni JM, Masese L, Vander Stoep A, Jaoko W, Hughes JP, Richardson BA, Scott McClelland R. "A Prospective Study of Intimate Partner Violence as a Risk Factor for Detectable Plasma Viral Load in HIV-Positive Women Engaged in Transactional Sex in Mombasa, Kenya." AIDS Behav. 2016. Abstracta_prospective_study_of_intimate_partner_violence_as_a_risk_factor_for_detectable_plasma_viral_load_in_hiv-positive_women_engaged_in_transactional_sex_in_mombasa_kenya.pdfPUBMED

We conducted a prospective cohort study to evaluate intimate partner violence (IPV) as a risk factor for detectable plasma viral load in HIV-positive female sex workers (FSWs) on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Kenya. IPV in the past year was defined as ≥1 act of physical, sexual, or emotional violence by the index partner (i.e. boyfriend/husband). The primary outcome was detectable viral load (≥180 copies/ml). In-depth interviews and focus groups were included to contextualize results. Analyses included 195 women (570 visits). Unexpectedly, IPV was associated with significantly lower risk of detectable viral load (adjusted relative risk 0.21, 95 % CI 0.05-0.84, p-value = 0.02). Qualitative findings revealed that women valued emotional and financial support from index partners, despite IPV. IPV was not a major barrier to ART adherence. The observed association between IPV and lower risk of detectable viral load in FSWs may be due to unmeasured personal and relationship factors, warranting further research.

Richardson BA, John-Stewart G, Atkinson C, Ruth Nduati, Ásbjörnsdóttir K, Boeckh M, Overbaugh J, Emery V, Slyker JA. "Vertical Cytomegalovirus Transmission From HIV-Infected Women Randomized to Formula-Feed or Breastfeed Their Infants." J. Infect. Dis.. 2016;213(6):992-8. Abstract

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is associated with morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed infants. We assessed the effect of and relative contribution of breastfeeding to CMV acquisition among infants delivered by HIV-infected mothers.

Baden LR, Karita E, Mutua G, Bekker L-G, Glenda Gray, Hoosen M. Coovadia, Page-Shipp L, Walsh SR, Nyombayire J, Anzala O, Roux S, Laher F, Innes C, Seaman MS, Cohen YZ, Peter L, Frahm N, McElrath JM, Hayes P, Swann E, Grunenberg N, Grazia-Pau M, Weijtens M, Sadoff J, Dally L, Lombardo A, Gilmour J, Cox J, Dolin R, Fast P, Barouch DH, Laufer DS. "Assessment of the Safety and Immunogenicity of 2 Novel Vaccine Platforms for HIV-1 Prevention: A Randomized Trial." Ann. Intern. Med.. 2016;164(5):313-22. Abstract

A prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine is a global health priority.

Sun C, Dohrn J, Omoni G, Malata A, Klopper H, Larson E. "Clinical nursing and midwifery research: grey literature in African countries." Int Nurs Rev. 2016;63(1):104-10. Abstract

This study reviewed grey literature to assess clinical nursing and midwifery research conducted in southern and eastern African countries over the past decade.

Simonich CA, Williams KL, Verkerke HP, Williams JA, Ruth Nduati, Lee KK, Overbaugh J. "HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies with Limited Hypermutation from an Infant." Cell. 2016. Abstract

HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) develop in a subset of infected adults and exhibit high levels of somatic hypermutation (SHM) due to years of affinity maturation. There is no precedent for eliciting highly mutated antibodies by vaccination, nor is it practical to wait years for a desired response. Infants develop broad responses early, which may suggest a more direct path to generating bnAbs. Here, we isolated ten neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) contributing to plasma breadth of an infant at ∼1 year post-infection, including one with cross-clade breadth. The nAbs bind to envelope trimer from the transmitted virus, suggesting that this interaction may have initiated development of the infant nAbs. The infant cross-clade bnAb targets the N332 supersite on envelope but, unlike adult bnAbs targeting this site, lacks indels and has low SHM. The identification of this infant bnAb illustrates that HIV-1-specific neutralization breadth can develop without prolonged affinity maturation and extensive SHM.

Balkus JE, Manhart LE, Lee J, Anzala O, Kimani J, Schwebke J, Shafi J, Rivers C, Kabare E, Scott McClelland R. "Periodic Presumptive Treatment for Vaginal Infections May Reduce the Incidence of Sexually Transmitted Bacterial Infections." J. Infect. Dis.. 2016;213(12):1932-7. Abstract

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) may increase women's susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In a randomized trial of periodic presumptive treatment (PPT) to reduce vaginal infections, we observed a significant reduction in BV. We further assessed the intervention effect on incident Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Mycoplasma genitalium infection.

Ndhine EO, Slotved H-C, Osoro EM, Olsen KN, Rugutt M, Wanjohi CW, Mwanda W, Kinyagia BM, Steenhard NR, Hansen J-ES. "A Biosecurity Survey in Kenya, November 2014 to February 2015." Health Secur. 2016;14(4):205-13. Abstract

A biosecurity survey was performed to gather information on the biosecurity level and laboratory capacity in Kenya for the purpose of providing information outlining relevant components for biosecurity legislation, biosecurity implementation, and enforcement of biosecurity measures in Kenya. This survey is, to the authors' knowledge, the first to be published from an African country. A total of 86 facilities with laboratories covering relevant categories, such as training laboratories, human diagnostic laboratories, veterinary diagnostic laboratories, and research laboratories, were selected to participate in the survey. Each facility was visited by a survey team and staff were asked to answer 29 groups of questions from a questionnaire. The survey showed that Kenyan laboratory facilities contain biological agents of biosecurity concern. The restrictions for these agents were found to be limited for several of the facilities, in that many laboratory facilities and storage units were open for access by either students or staff who had no need of access to the laboratory. The survey showed a great deal of confusion in the terms biosecurity and biosafety and a generally limited biosecurity awareness among laboratory personnel. The survey showed that the security of biological agents of biosecurity concern in many facilities does not meet the international requirements. The authors recommend developing a legal framework in Kenya for effective controls, including national biosecurity regulations, guidelines, and procedures, thereby reducing the risk that a Kenyan laboratory would be the source of a future biological attack.

Mendenhall E, Isaiah G, Nelson B, Musau A, Koon AD, Smith L, Mutiso V, Ndetei D. "Nurses' perceptions of mental healthcare in primary-care settings in Kenya." Glob Public Health. 2016:1-14. AbstractWebsite

Kenya maintains an extraordinary treatment gap for mental health services because the need for and availability of mental health services are extraordinarily misaligned. One way to narrow the treatment gap is task-sharing, where specialists rationally distribute tasks across the health system, with many responsibilities falling upon frontline health workers, including nurses. Yet, little is known about how nurses perceive task-sharing mental health services. This article investigates nurses' perceptions of mental healthcare delivery within primary-care settings in Kenya. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 60 nurses from a public urban (n = 20), private urban (n = 20), and public rural (n = 20) hospitals. Nurses participated in a one-hour interview about their perceptions of mental healthcare delivery. Nurses viewed mental health services as a priority and believed integrating it into a basic package of primary care would protect it from competing health priorities, financial barriers, stigma, and social problems. Many nurses believed that integrating mental healthcare into primary care was acceptable and feasible, but low levels of knowledge of healthcare providers, especially in rural areas, and few specialists, would be barriers. These data underscore the need for task-sharing mental health services into existing primary healthcare in Kenya.

Rustagi AS, Gimbel S, Ruth Nduati, de Cuembelo MF, Wasserheit JN, Farquhar C, Gloyd S, Sherr K. "Implementation and Operational Research: Impact of a Systems Engineering Intervention on PMTCT Service Delivery in Côte d'Ivoire, Kenya, Mozambique: A Cluster Randomized Trial." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2016;72(3):e68-76. Abstract

Efficacious interventions to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) have not translated well into effective programs. Previous studies of systems engineering applications to PMTCT lacked comparison groups or randomization.

Landais E, Huang X, Havenar-Daughton C, Murrell B, Price MA, Wickramasinghe L, Ramos A, Bian CB, Simek M, Allen S, Karita E, Kilembe W, Lakhi S, Inambao M, Kamali A, Sanders EJ, Anzala O, Edward V, Bekker L-G, Tang J, Gilmour J, Kosakovsky-Pond SL, Phung P, Wrin T, Crotty S, Godzik A, Poignard P. "Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Responses in a Large Longitudinal Sub-Saharan HIV Primary Infection Cohort." PLoS Pathog.. 2016;12(1):e1005369. Abstract

Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) are thought to be a critical component of a protective HIV vaccine. However, designing vaccines immunogens able to elicit bnAbs has proven unsuccessful to date. Understanding the correlates and immunological mechanisms leading to the development of bnAb responses during natural HIV infection is thus critical to the design of a protective vaccine. The IAVI Protocol C program investigates a large longitudinal cohort of primary HIV-1 infection in Eastern and South Africa. Development of neutralization was evaluated in 439 donors using a 6 cross-clade pseudo-virus panel predictive of neutralization breadth on larger panels. About 15% of individuals developed bnAb responses, essentially between year 2 and year 4 of infection. Statistical analyses revealed no influence of gender, age or geographical origin on the development of neutralization breadth. However, cross-clade neutralization strongly correlated with high viral load as well as with low CD4 T cell counts, subtype-C infection and HLA-A*03(-) genotype. A correlation with high overall plasma IgG levels and anti-Env IgG binding titers was also found. The latter appeared not associated with higher affinity, suggesting a greater diversity of the anti-Env responses in broad neutralizers. Broadly neutralizing activity targeting glycan-dependent epitopes, largely the N332-glycan epitope region, was detected in nearly half of the broad neutralizers while CD4bs and gp41-MPER bnAb responses were only detected in very few individuals. Together the findings suggest that both viral and host factors are critical for the development of bnAbs and that the HIV Env N332-glycan supersite may be a favorable target for vaccine design.

Gichuhi S, Macharia E, Kabiru J, Zindamoyen AM'bongo, Rono H, Ollando E, Wachira J, Munene R, Onyuma T, Jaoko WG, Sagoo MS, Weiss HA, Burton MJ. "Risk factors for ocular surface squamous neoplasia in Kenya: a case-control study." Trop. Med. Int. Health. 2016;21(12):1522-1530. AbstractWebsite

OBJECTIVE:
To determine modifiable risk factors of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) in Kenya using disease-free controls.

METHODS:
Adults with conjunctival lesions were recruited at four eye care centres in Kenya and underwent excision biopsy. An equal number of controls having surgery for conditions not affecting the conjunctiva and unrelated to ultraviolet light were group-matched to cases by age group, sex and eye care centre. Associations of risk factors with OSSN were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Continuous variables were compared using the t-test or the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney U-test depending on their distribution.

RESULTS:
A total of 131 cases and 131 controls were recruited. About two-thirds of participants were female, and the mean age of cases and controls was 42.1 years and 43.3 years, respectively. Risk factors for OSSN were HIV infection without antiretroviral therapy (ART) use (OR = 48.42; 95% CI: 7.73-303.31) and with ART use (OR = 19.16; 95% CI: 6.60-55.57), longer duration of exposure to the sun in the main occupation (6.9 h/day vs. 4.6 h/day, OR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.10-1.40) and a history of allergic conjunctivitis (OR = 74.61; 95% CI: 8.08-688.91). Wearing hats was protective (OR = 0.22; 95% CI: 0.07-0.63).

CONCLUSION:
Measures to prevent and control HIV, reduce sun exposure such as wearing hats and control allergic conjunctivitis are recommended.

Aggarwal NK, Lam P, Castillo EG, Weiss MG, Diaz E, Alarcón RD, van Dijk R, Rohlof H, Ndetei DM, Scalco M, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Bassiri K, Deshpande S, Groen S, Jadhav S, Kirmayer LJ, Paralikar V, Westermeyer J, Santos F, Vega-Dienstmaier J, Anez L, Boiler M, Nicasio AV, Lewis-Fernández R. "How Do Clinicians Prefer Cultural Competence Training? Findings from the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview Field Trial." Acad Psychiatry. 2016;40(4):584-91. Abstract

This study's objective is to analyze training methods clinicians reported as most and least helpful during the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview field trial, reasons why, and associations between demographic characteristics and method preferences.

Wilson KS, Deya R, Yuhas K, Simoni J, Vander Stoep A, Shafi J, Jaoko W, Hughes JP, Richardson BA, McClelland SR. "A Prospective Cohort Study of Intimate Partner Violence and Unprotected Sex in HIV-Positive Female Sex Workers in Mombasa, Kenya." AIDS Behav. 2016. Abstracta_prospective_cohort_study_of_intimate_partner_violence_and_unprotected_sex_in_hiv-positive_female_sex_workers_in_mombasa_kenya.pdfPUBMED

We conducted a prospective cohort study to test the hypothesis that intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with unprotected sex in HIV-positive female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya. Women completed monthly visits and quarterly examinations. Any IPV in the past year was defined as ≥1 act of physical, sexual, or emotional violence by the current or most recent emotional partner ('index partner'). Unprotected sex with any partner was measured by self-report and prostate specific antigen (PSA) test. Recent IPV was associated with significantly higher risk of unprotected sex (adjusted relative risk [aRR] 1.91, 95 % CI 1.32, 2.78, p = 0.001) and PSA (aRR 1.54, 95 % CI 1.17, 2.04, p = 0.002) after adjusting for age, alcohol use, and sexual violence by someone besides the index partner. Addressing IPV in comprehensive HIV programs for HIV-positive women in this key population is important to improve wellbeing and reduce risk of sexual transmission of HIV.

Olds CL, Mwaura S, Odongo DO, Scoles GA, Bishop R, Daubenberger C. "Induction of humoral immune response to multiple recombinant Rhipicephalus appendiculatus antigens and their effect on tick feeding success and pathogen transmission." Parasit Vectors. 2016;9(1):484. Abstract

Rhipicephalus appendiculatus is the primary vector of Theileria parva, the etiological agent of East Coast fever (ECF), a devastating disease of cattle in sub-Saharan Africa. We hypothesized that a vaccine targeting tick proteins that are involved in attachment and feeding might affect feeding success and possibly reduce tick-borne transmission of T. parva. Here we report the evaluation of a multivalent vaccine cocktail of tick antigens for their ability to reduce R. appendiculatus feeding success and possibly reduce tick-transmission of T. parva in a natural host-tick-parasite challenge model.

Makanya AN, Dimova I, Koller T, Styp-Rekowska B, Djonov V. "Dynamics of the Developing Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane Assessed by Stereology, Allometry, Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Analysis." PLoS ONE. 2016;11(4):e0152821. Abstract

The chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a widely used model for the study of angiogenesis, tumour growth, as well as drug efficacy. In spite of this, little is known about the developmental alteration from its appearance to the time of hatching. In the current study the CAM has been studied by classical stereology and allometry. Expression levels of selected angiogenesis-related molecules were estimated by RT-PCR and cell dynamics assessed by proliferation and apoptosis assays. Absolute CAM volume increased from a low of 0.47 ± 0.11 cm3 at embryonic day 8 (E8) to a high of 2.05 ± 0.27 cm3 at E18, and then decreased to 1.6 ± 0.47 cm3 at E20. On allometric analysis, three growth phases were identifiable. Between E8-13 (phase I), the CAM grew fastest; moderately in phase II (E13-18) but was regressing in phase III (E18-20). The chorion, the mesenchyme and the allantoic layers grew fastest in phase I, but moderately in phase II. The mesenchyme grew slowly in phase III while the chorion and allantois were regressing. Chorionic cell volume increased fastest in phase I and was regressing in phase III. Chorionic capillaries grew steadily in phase I and II but regressed in phase III. Both the chorion and the allantois grew by intrinsic cell proliferation as well as recruitment of cells from the mesenchyme. Cell proliferation was prominent in the allantois and chorion early during development, declined after E17 and apoptosis started mainly in the chorion from E14. VEGFR2 expression peaked at E11 and declined steadily towards E20, VEGF peaked at E13 and E20 while HIF 1α had a peak at E11 and E20. Studies targeting CAM growth and angiogenesis need to take these growth phases into consideration.

Santos da Silva E, Mulinge M, Lemaire M, Masquelier C, Beraud C, Rybicki A, Servais J-Y, Iserentant G, Schmit J-C, Seguin-Devaux C, Perez Bercoff D. "The Envelope Cytoplasmic Tail of HIV-1 Subtype C Contributes to Poor Replication Capacity through Low Viral Infectivity and Cell-to-Cell Transmission." PLoS ONE. 2016;11(9):e0161596. Abstract

The cytoplasmic tail (gp41CT) of the HIV-1 envelope (Env) mediates Env incorporation into virions and regulates Env intracellular trafficking. Little is known about the functional impact of variability in this domain. To address this issue, we compared the replication of recombinant virus pairs carrying the full Env (Env viruses) or the Env ectodomain fused to the gp41CT of NL4.3 (EnvEC viruses) (12 subtype C and 10 subtype B pairs) in primary CD4+ T-cells and monocyte-derived-macrophages (MDMs). In CD4+ T-cells, replication was as follows: B-EnvEC = B-Env>C-EnvEC>C-Env, indicating that the gp41CT of subtype C contributes to the low replicative capacity of this subtype. In MDMs, in contrast, replication capacity was comparable for all viruses regardless of subtype and of gp41CT. In CD4+ T-cells, viral entry, viral release and viral gene expression were similar. However, infectivity of free virions and cell-to-cell transmission of C-Env viruses released by CD4+ T-cells was lower, suggestive of lower Env incorporation into virions. Subtype C matrix only minimally rescued viral replication and failed to restore infectivity of free viruses and cell-to-cell transmission. Taken together, these results show that polymorphisms in the gp41CT contribute to viral replication capacity and suggest that the number of Env spikes per virion may vary across subtypes. These findings should be taken into consideration in the design of vaccines.

Ochwoto M, Kimotho JH, Julius Oyugi, Okoth F, Kioko H, Mining S, Budambula NLM, Giles E, Andonov A, Songok E, Osiowy C. "Hepatitis B infection is highly prevalent among patients presenting with jaundice in Kenya." BMC Infect. Dis.. 2016;16:101. Abstract

Viral hepatitis is a major concern worldwide, with hepatitis A (HAV) and E (HEV) viruses showing sporadic outbreaks while hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses are associated with chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The present study determined the proportion, geographic distribution and molecular characterization of hepatitis viruses among patients seeking medical services at hospitals throughout Kenya.

Sipulwa LA, Ongus JR, Coldren RL, Bulimo WD. "Molecular characterization of human coronaviruses and their circulation dynamics in Kenya, 2009-2012." Virol. J.. 2016;13(1):18. Abstractsipulwa_et_al_2016.pdf

Human Coronaviruses (HCoV) are a common cause of respiratory illnesses and are responsible for considerable morbidity and hospitalization across all age groups especially in individuals with compromised immunity. There are six known species of HCoV: HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-HKU1, HCoV-OC43, MERS-CoV and SARS-HCoV. Although studies have shown evidence of global distribution of HCoVs, there is limited information on their presence and distribution in Kenya.

Russ CM, Ganapathi L, Marangu D, Silverman M, Kija E, Bakeera-Kitaka S, Laving A. "Perspectives of host faculty and trainees on international visiting faculty to paediatric academic departments in East Africa." BMJ Glob Health. 2016;1(3):e000097. Abstract

Investments in faculty exchanges to build physician workforce capacity are increasing. Little attention has been paid to the expectations of host institution faculty and trainees. This prospective qualitative research study explored faculty and resident perspectives about guest faculty in paediatric departments in East Africa, asking (1) What are the benefits and challenges of hosting guest faculty, (2) What factors influence the effectiveness of faculty visits and (3) How do host institutions prepare for faculty visits?

Mwachaka PM, Mandela P, Saidi H. "Repeated Exposure to Dissection Does Not Influence Students' Attitudes towards Human Body Donation for Anatomy Teaching." Anat Res Int. 2016;2016:9251049. AbstractWebsite

The use of unclaimed bodies for anatomical dissection has been the main method of instruction at our institution. There is however a shortage of cadavers for dissection given the increase in the number of medical schools as well as in the number of students enrolling in these schools. This shortage could be mitigated by having voluntary human body donation programs. This study aimed at assessing the attitudes of medical students and surgical residents towards body donation for anatomy learning. We conducted an online survey involving 72 first-year medical students and 41 surgical residents at University of Nairobi who had completed one year of anatomy dissection. For the medical students, this was their first dissection experience while it was the second exposure for the surgery trainees. Most of the surgical trainees (70.7%) and medical students (68.1%) were opposed to self-body donation. This was mainly due to cultural (37%) and religious (20%) barriers. Surprisingly, of those not willing to donate themselves, 67.9% (82.8% surgical trainees, 59.2% medical students) would recommend the practice to other people. Exposure to repeated dissection does not change the perceptions towards body donation. It is noteworthy that culture and religion rank high as clear barriers amongst this "highly informed" group of potential donors.

Njaanake KH, Vennervald BJ, Simonsen PE, Madsen H, Mukoko DA, Kimani G, Jaoko WG, Estambale BB. "Schistosoma haematobium and soil-transmitted Helminths in Tana Delta District of Kenya: infection and morbidity patterns in primary schoolchildren from two isolated villages." BMC Infect. Dis.. 2016;16:57. Abstract

Schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths (STH) (hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides) are widely distributed in developing countries where they infect over 230 million and 1.5 billion people, respectively. The parasites are frequently co-endemic and many individuals are co-infected with two or more of the species, but information on how the parasites interact in co-infected individuals is scarce. The present study assessed Schistosoma haematobium and STH infection and morbidity patterns among school children in a hyper-endemic focus in the Tana River delta of coastal Kenya.

Njaanake KH, Vennervald BJ, Simonsen PE, Madsen H, Mukoko DA, Kimani G, Jaoko WG, Estambale BB. "Schistosoma haematobium and soil-transmitted Helminths in Tana Delta District of Kenya: infection and morbidity patterns in primary schoolchildren from two isolated villages." BMC Infect. Dis.. 2016;16:57. Abstract

Schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths (STH) (hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides) are widely distributed in developing countries where they infect over 230 million and 1.5 billion people, respectively. The parasites are frequently co-endemic and many individuals are co-infected with two or more of the species, but information on how the parasites interact in co-infected individuals is scarce. The present study assessed Schistosoma haematobium and STH infection and morbidity patterns among school children in a hyper-endemic focus in the Tana River delta of coastal Kenya.

Gichuhi S, Sagoo MS. "Squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva." Community Eye Health. 2016;29(95):52-53.Website
Olago D, Joordens J, Beck C, Sier M, der Lubbe JV, et al. "Climate-driven lacustrine dynamics from the Early Pleistocene Lorenyang Lake, Turkana Basin, Kenya.". In: EGU General Assembly 2016. Vienna Austria; 2016. Abstract

Two stratigraphic records from Kaitio in West Turkana, Kenya, span 1.87 - 1.34 Ma, and document environmental character and variability through a critical interval for human evolution and cultural development. The WTK13 core collected by the Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) recovered 216 m of sediment at 95% recovery. A parallel outcrop record of 180 m was investigated in exposures along the Kaitio laga close to the drill site. Six tephrostratigraphic markers, the Chari, Lokapetamoi, 22Q-3, Etirr, Ebei and KBS Tuffs are present in the outcrop and/or core. These were characterized by single-shard geochemical analysis, and provide links to the well-established tephrochronology of the Turkana Basin. Magnetic polarity stratigraphy of the two records documents the top of the Olduvai Subchron (C2N) at 1.78 Ma. The lithostratigraphic record, bolstered by magnetic susceptibility and sedimentary facies characterization, demonstrates a first-order transition from a deeper lacustrine system to a dynamic lake margin setting, followed by delta progradation. Facies analysis reveals repeated fluctuations of lake level at Milankovitch and sub-Milankovitch scales. Core-outcrop correlation allows detailed comparisons between diagenetically-prone outcrop samples and more pristine samples from the deep core. The excellent preservation of the core sediments makes it possible to obtain critical climate records of organic biomarkers, pollen, phytoliths and other proxies. This detailed archive of environmental variability is closely linked to the rich paleontological and archaeological discoveries from nearby sites and around the Turkana Basin.

Mulei I, Nyaga P, Mbuthia P, Waruiru R, Evensen, S. M. "Molecular characterization of Aquabirnaviruses isolated from farmed rainbow trout in Kenya.". In: AquaEpi 1 2016 . Oslo; 2016.
Mayora C, Nangami M, Ayah R, SImba D, Mafuta E, Wondafresh B, Rugema R, Tetui M, Paina L, Jessani N, Bennett SC, Bazeyo WI. "Institutional collaboration is critical in building capacity for health systems research in low income countries: Experience from the Africa Hub program.". In: Fourth Global Symposium on Health Systems Research. Vancouver ; 2016.
Mutuma M, Muthomi JW, Stasiewicz M. "Low-cost Optical Sorting to Remove Mycotoxins from Maize in Local Kenyan Mills.". In: Nairobi Innovation Week 2016. University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2016.
Akinkunle O, Stefan J, Ndetei D, Musau A, Mutiso V, Mudenge C, Ngirababyeyi A, Gasovia A, Mamah D. " A comparative study of psychotic and effective symptoms in Rwandan and Kenyan students.". 2016.
Mitchel O. Okumu, James M. Mbaria, Laetitia W. Kanja DGW, Stephen G. Kiama FOO, Okumu PO. "Acute toxicity of the aqueous-methanolic Moringa oleifera (Lam) leaf extract on female Wistar albino rats." international journal of Basic and Clinical pharmacology. 2016;5(5):1856-1861.
P G, J M, Steyn P, Njau I, Cordero J. "Adolescents’ knowledge, attitudes and practices towards family planning and contraceptive use: a qualitative study from Kilifi County, Kenya." The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care. 2016;21(Supplement 1):83.
Kebenei P. J, Khatete I. W, M C, S C, Khatete D. L. "Advisory Role of Education Standards and Quality Assurance Council on Provision of Quality Education at Primary Schools in Kenya, A Case Of Bomet County." The Cradle of Knowledge African Journal of Educational and Social Science Research. 2016;4(1):21-26.abstract_7.doc
Sirma AJ, Senerwa DM, Lindahl. JF, D G, K M, Mtimet N, EK K’ethe. "Aflatoxin B1 occurrence in Millet, Sorghum, and maize from four agro-ecological zones in Kenya. ." African Journal of Food Nutrition and Development. 2016;16:10991-11003:10991-11003.
Odada E, Waters CN, Zalasiewicz J, Summerhayes C, Barnosky AD, et al. "The Anthropocene is functionally and stratigraphically distinct from the Holocene." Science. 2016;351(6269):aad2622. AbstractFull Text

BACKGROUND

Humans are altering the planet, including long-term global geologic processes, at an increasing rate. Any formal recognition of an Anthropocene epoch in the geological time scale hinges on whether humans have changed the Earth system sufficiently to produce a stratigraphic signature in sediments and ice that is distinct from that of the Holocene epoch. Proposals for marking the start of the Anthropocene include an “early Anthropocene” beginning with the spread of agriculture and deforestation; the Columbian Exchange of Old World and New World species; the Industrial Revolution at ~1800 CE; and the mid-20th century “Great Acceleration” of population growth and industrialization.
ADVANCES

Recent anthropogenic deposits contain new minerals and rock types, reflecting rapid global dissemination of novel materials including elemental aluminum, concrete, and plastics that form abundant, rapidly evolving “technofossils.” Fossil fuel combustion has disseminated black carbon, inorganic ash spheres, and spherical carbonaceous particles worldwide, with a near-synchronous global increase around 1950. Anthropogenic sedimentary fluxes have intensified, including enhanced erosion caused by deforestation and road construction. Widespread sediment retention behind dams has amplified delta subsidence.

Geochemical signatures include elevated levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and pesticide residues, as well as increased 207/206Pb ratios from leaded gasoline, starting between ~1945 and 1950. Soil nitrogen and phosphorus inventories have doubled in the past century because of increased fertilizer use, generating widespread signatures in lake strata and nitrate levels in Greenland ice that are higher than at any time during the previous 100,000 years.

Detonation of the Trinity atomic device at Alamogordo, New Mexico, on 16 July 1945 initiated local nuclear fallout from 1945 to 1951, whereas thermonuclear weapons tests generated a clear global signal from 1952 to 1980, the so-called “bomb spike” of excess 14C, 239Pu, and other artificial radionuclides that peaks in 1964.

Atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations depart from Holocene and even Quaternary patterns starting at ~1850, and more markedly at ~1950, with an associated steep fall in δ13C that is captured by tree rings and calcareous fossils. An average global temperature increase of 0.6o to 0.9oC from 1900 to the present, occurring predominantly in the past 50 years, is now rising beyond the Holocene variation of the past 1400 years, accompanied by a modest enrichment of δ18O in Greenland ice starting at ~1900. Global sea levels increased at 3.2 ± 0.4 mm/year from 1993 to 2010 and are now rising above Late Holocene rates. Depending on the trajectory of future anthropogenic forcing, these trends may reach or exceed the envelope of Quaternary interglacial conditions.

Biologic changes also have been pronounced. Extinction rates have been far above background rates since 1500 and increased further in the 19th century and later; in addition, species assemblages have been altered worldwide by geologically unprecedented transglobal species invasions and changes associated with farming and fishing, permanently reconfiguring Earth’s biological trajectory.
OUTLOOK

These novel stratigraphic signatures support the formalization of the Anthropocene at the epoch level, with a lower boundary (still to be formally identified) suitably placed in the mid-20th century. Formalization is a complex question because, unlike with prior subdivisions of geological time, the potential utility of a formal Anthropocene reaches well beyond the geological community. It also expresses the extent to which humanity is driving rapid and widespread changes to the Earth system that will variously persist and potentially intensify into the future.

Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Mbaveng AT, Tankeo SB, Seukep JA, Voukeng IK, Dzotam JK, Isemeki J, Derese S, Omolle RA, Efferth T, Kuete V. "Antibacterial activities and structure–activity relationships of a panel of 48 compounds from Kenyan plants against multidrug resistant phenotypes." SpringerPlus. 2016;5(1):1-15.
Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Mbaveng AT, Tankeo SB, Seukep JA, Voukeng IK, Dzotam JK, Isemeki J, Derese S, Omolle RA, Efferth T, Kuete V. "Antibacterial activities and structure–activity relationships of a panel of 48 compounds from Kenyan plants against multidrug resistant phenotypes." SpringerPlus. 2016;5(1):1-15. AbstractFull text link

In the current study forty eight compounds belonging to anthraquinones, naphthoquinones, benzoquinones, flavonoids (chalcones and polymethoxylated flavones) and diterpenoids (clerodanes and kauranes) were explored for their antimicrobial potential against a panel of sensitive and multi-drug resistant Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determinations on the tested bacteria were conducted using modified rapid INT colorimetric assay. To evaluate the role of efflux pumps in the susceptibility of Gram-negative bacteria to the most active compounds, they were tested in the presence of phenylalanine arginine β-naphthylamide (PAβN) (at 30 µg/mL) against selected multidrug resistance (MDR) bacteria. The anthraquinone, emodin, naphthaquinone, plumbagin and the benzoquinone, rapanone were active against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains of bacteria with MIC values ranging from 2 to 128 μg/mL. The structure activity relationships of benzoquinones against the MDR Gram-negative phenotype showed antibacterial activities increasing with increase in side chain length. In the chalcone series the presence of a hydroxyl group at C3′ together with a methoxy group and a second hydroxyl group in meta orientation in ring B of the chalcone skeleton appeared to be necessary for minimal activities against MRSA. In most cases, the optimal potential of the active compounds were not attained as they were extruded by bacterial efflux pumps. However, the presence of the PAβN significantly increased the antibacterial activities of emodin against Gram-negative MDR E. coli AG102, 100ATet; K. pneumoniae KP55 and KP63 by >4–64 g/mL. The antibacterial activities were substantially enhanced and were higher than those of the standard drug, chloramphenicol. These data clearly demonstrate that the active compounds, having the necessary pharmacophores for antibacterial activities, including some quinones and chalcones are substrates of bacterial efflux pumps and therefore should be combined to efflux pump inhibitors in the fight against MDR bacterial infections.

Keywords:

Anthraquinones Benzoquinones Chalcones Antibacterial activities Multidrug resistance Efflux pump inhibitor

Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Mbaveng AT, Tankeo SB, Seukep JA, Voukeng IK, Dzotam JK, Isemeki J, Omolle RA, Efferth T, Kuete V. "Antibacterial Activity and Structure-Activity Relationships of a Panel of 48 Compounds from Kenyan Plants against Multidrug Resistant Phenotypes." SpringerPlus. 2016;5:901.omosa_et_al._springerplus_paper.pdf
Simwa, R.O.;Kithinji MM, Ottieno JAM. "Application of Burr XII Mixture Distributions to model unemployment duration in Pricing Unemployment Insurance Assuming USA Data." International Journal of Statistical Distributions and Applications,. 2016;2(3):27-34. AbstractFull text link

The objective of this research is to consider varying unemployment duration in the pricing of unemployment insurance with application to USA data. The study assumes that unemployment duration follows Burr XII mixture distribution while the discount rate to use in the pricing of the scheme will bedetermined by fitting market data into the capital asset pricing model. The Burr XII mixture distribution has been used to model unemployment duration in order to allow for heterogeniety in the unemployment duration of the insured employees. The results yield a mean unemployment duration of approximately 16 weeks and premium contribution rate of 5.10% of the taxable wage base per month for a benefit of 45% of the taxable wage base per month payable on weekly basis during spells of unemployment.

Keywords
Burr XII Mixture Distribution, Unemployment Insurace, Capital Asset Pricing Model, Taxable Wage Base, Discounted Cash Flow, Mean Present Value, Premium Rate

SM Mwagha MM. "APPLICATION OF COMPUTER VISION IN DETECTING SKY OBJECTS AS WEATHER LORE CONCEPTS ." Interim: Interdisciplinary Journal. 2016;15(1):1-17. AbstractFull text link

Weather lore is a body of informal folklore associated with weather prediction. Different types of weather lore exist and utilize almost all available human senses (feel, smell, sight and hear). Out of all the types of weather lore in existence, it is the visual or observed weather lore that is mostly used by indigenous communities to come up with weather predictions. Modern scientists also observe the sky to enhance their numerical weather prediction models. The visualization and representation of knowledge from sky objects (such as moon, clouds, stars and rainbow) in forecasting weather is a significant area of research. In order to realize the integration of visual weather lore knowledge in modern weather forecasting systems, there is a need to characterize and represent weather lore knowledge on visual sky objects. This paper reports on a method of approximating the presence of astronomical and meteorological objects in the sky. To achieve this objective, we designed detectors for the sky objects and score their presence and quantity in the sky panorama. The method of recognizing objects in images using image feature extraction techniques together with benchmark of similarity of extracted object against ideal objects (ground truths) was used. The results of this study reveal that our method is ideal in unlocking the extraction and computation of similarity of visual sky objects. The recommendation of this study is to use our method as a preprocessing task (using represented weather lore concepts) in the process of predicting weather outcomes and verifying visual based weather lore. Keywords: Representation; object similarity; object recognition; weather lore; bag of words; image features; classifiers

Busolo DN, Samuel Ngigi. "Assessing Sustainability of Rural Community Radio in Kenya: A Case of Radio Mangelete." New Media and Mass Communication. 2016;53:23-32.
Jomo SM, Amugune B, Sinei KA, Oluka M. "Assessing the Prevalence and Severity of Potential Drug-drug Interactions among Mentally Ill Inpatients." Indian Research Journal of Pharmacy and Science. 2016;8:331-343. Abstractjomo_et_al_2016.pdf

Mental health refers to a wider range of activities directly or indirectly related to the mental well-being. Mentally ill patients in Kenya are increasingly becoming prone to a high risk of polypharmacy, complex therapeutic regimen and frequent modification of therapy. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and severity of potential drug-drug interactions among mentally ill patients admitted at Mathari Mental Hospital in Nairobi County, Kenya. The study was designed in a retrospective descriptive cross-sectional study of medical records data of patients who had undergone mental treatment and were admitted at Mathari Mental Hospital between July and December 2013. This study focused on a population comprising of all mentally ill patients who were admitted and put on medication during the study period of either gender and ageing between 13 to 75 years. One hundred and seventy five patient files were sampled, married and unemployed patients had a statistically significant (p<0.05) association with a prevalence and severity of potentially serious drug interactions. Participants with bipolar mood disorder had a statistically significant association with potentially serious drug interactions [OR 4.39 CI (1.09, 17.46) p = 0.04].
There was a statistically significant association of potentially serious drug interactions with fluphenazine [OR 10.38 CI (4.66, 23.10) p<0.01) haloperidol [OR 4.39 CI (2.29, 8.41) p<0.01] and amitriptyline [OR 3.39 CI (1.36, 8.41) p=0.01]. Married, unemployed and patients on fluphenazine, haloperidol, amitriptyline and chlorpromazine were at a higher risk of having potentially serious drug-drug interactions. These drugs exhibited both pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic drug interaction mechanisms. We recommend continuous electrocardiogram for patients on specific antipsychotics like haloperidol.

KEY WORDS : Mental Health, Drug Interaction, Prescriptions

Jomo SM, Amugune BK, Sinei KA, Oluka MN. "Assessing the prevalence and severity of potential drug-drug Interactions among mentally ill inpatients." Ind Res J Pharm & Sci. . 2016;3(1):331-343.
Calatayud P-A, Njuguna E, Mwalusepo S, Gathara M, Okuku G, Kibe A, B M, Williamson D, Ong’amo G, Juma G, Johansson T, Subramanian S, Gatebe E, BP LR. "Can climate-driven change influence silicon assimilation by cereals and hence the distribution of lepidopteran stem borers in East Africa? ." AGRICULTURE, ECOSYSTEMS AND ENVIRONMENT. 2016;224:95-103.
Mwirigi M, Nkando I, Olum M, Attah-Poku S, Ochanda H, Berberov E, Potter A, Gerdts V, Perez-Casal J, Wesonga H, Soi R, Naessens J. "Capsular polysaccharide from Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides shows potential for protection against contagious bovine pleuropneumonia." Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2016;178:64-69. Abstract

Abstract Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a severe respiratory disease
caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) which is widespread in Africa.
The capsule polysaccharide (CPS) of Mmm is one of the few identified virulence
determinants. In a previous study, immunization of mice against CPS generated antibodies,
but they were not able to prevent multiplication of Mmm in this model animal. However, mice
cannot be considered as a suitable animal model, as Mmm does not induce pathology in ...

Nyangweso DO, Tabitha M. Njoroge, Siriba DN. "Cartographic Generalization in Multi-scale Environment: Case study of Lamu County, Kenya." International Journal of Science and Research. 2016;5(9):804-811.
S.S. S, KAYIMA JK, Oyoo GO, LULE GN. "Chronic kidney disease in rheumatoid arthritis at Kenyatta National hospital." African Journal of Rheumatology. 2016;3(1):14-18. Abstract

Objective: To determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease among patients with rheumatoid arthritis on follow up at the rheumatology outpatient clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital.
Design: Descriptive, cross-sectional study.
Setting: Rheumatology outpatient clinic at the Kenyatta National Hospital, a public national and referral hospital.
Subjects: Patients diagnosed to have rheumatoid arthritis who met the 2010 ACR-EULAR criteria.
Results: Out of 104 patients recruited, 93 (89.4%) were female with a female to male ratio of 8.5:1. Mean age of patients was 48.7(±15.6) years. Majority of the patients (90%) were on at least one Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drug (DMARD) with methotrexate being the commonest used. Other DMARDs were leflunomide, sulfasalazine and hydroxychloroquine. None of our patients was on a biologic agent. Use of NSAIDs and/or prednisone was very frequent (88.5%). Median duration of disease since time of diagnosis was 4 years. Majority of patients (60%) had active disease. We found the prevalence of chronic kidney disease to be 28.7% (95% CI 19.1- 37.2%) based on estimated glomerular filtration rate using the Cockroft-Gault formula. Majority (50%) of which was stage 3a disease and none with end stage renal disease. We found no patients with proteinuria using urinary dipstick.
Conclusion: Although we did not find any proteinuria in our study population, prevalence of chronic kidney disease based on estimated glomerular filtration rate was high with the majority having early stages of kidney disease. Use of urine strips alone is not an adequate screening tool.

Sojitra NA, Sojitra NA, Patel RK, Dixit BC. "Classical and microwave assisted synthesis of new 4-(3,5-dimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-ylazo)-N-(2-substituted-4-oxo-4H-quinazolin-3-yl)benzenesulfonamide derivatives and their antimicrobial activities." Journal of Saudi Chemical Society. 2016;20(1). Abstract

A simple and efficient methodology was developed for the synthesis of new 4-(3,5-dimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-ylazo)-N-(2-substituted-4-oxo-4H-quinazolin-3-yl)benzenesulfonamide derivatives 10a–10j in good amount of yields. They have been prepared using 2-acetamidobenzoic acid derivatives 2a–2j via intermediates benzenesulfonamide substituted quinazolinone derivatives 8a–8j, and its corresponding hydrazono derivatives 9a–9j. Entitled compounds (10a–10j) were also obtained using microwave heating in good amount of yields. The structures of all the new compounds have been evaluated on the basis of elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectral studies. Entitle compounds have been screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activities and all these compounds displayed excellent to moderate activities, which were found to be significantly potent against bacteria compared to fungal.

E Genga OG, Otieno F, Shiruli B, Odhiambo J, Omondi E. "CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PATIENTS WITH SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHROMATOSUS IN NAIROBI, KENYA.". 2016;34(4):S118.
Gawriluk TR, Simkin1 J, L K, K S, Thompson, K.L., Biswas1, Clare-Salzler Z, Kimani JM, Kiama SG, J. J. "Comparative analysis of ear-hole closure identifies epimorphic regeneration as a discrete trait in mammals.". 2016.
Gawriluk, T. R., Simkin, J., Thompson, K.L., Biswas, S., Clare-Salzler, Z., Kimani, J.M., Kiama, S.G., Ezenwa V.O., Smith, M. "Comparative analysis of ear-hole closure identifies epimorphic regeneration as a discrete trait in mammals. Nat. Commun. 7:11164 doi: 10.1038/ncomms11164.". 2016.
Schrader KK, Cantrell CL, Midiwo JO, Muhammad I. "Compounds from Terminalli brownii Extracts with Toxicity against the Fish Pathogenic Bacterium Flavobacterium columnare." Natural Product Communications . 2016;11(11):1679-1682. AbstractFull text link

Interpretive Summary:

A rapid bioassay was used to evaluate extracts from the stem bark of plant found in Kenya for antibacterial activities against fish pathogenic bacteria. Two natural compounds were isolated from the extracts and discovered to possess antibacterial activities against a species of fish pathogenic bacteria which causes a common disease in pond-raised catfish and several other species of freshwater fish.

Technical Abstract:

The pond-raised channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) industry in the United States of America can incur losses of over a $100 million annually due to bacterial diseases including columnaris disease caused by Flavobacterium columnare. One management approach available to catfish producers is the use of medicated-feed containing antibiotics. However, the negative attributes of antibiotic use in agriculture include public concerns and the potential development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, the discovery of environmentally-safe natural compounds for use as therapeutants would greatly benefit the catfish industry. In this study, a rapid bioassay was used to evaluate crude plant extracts as the first step in the discovery of natural therapeutants. Plant extracts from Terminalia brownii were found to be inhibitory towards F. columnare. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the 5% water-methanol extract of T. brownii (stem bark) was 10 µg/mL and the 24-h 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) was 40 µg/mL. Subsequent bioassay-guided fractionation of the T. brownii ethanol extract using reverse phase C-4 chromatography revealed the highest level of activity in the aqueous:methanol (50:50) fraction. HPLC analysis and subsequent purification of this fraction provided two compounds identified as ellagic acid (1) and 4-O-(3'',4''-di-O-galloyl-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl)ellagic acid (2). Compound 2 was the most active isolated compound, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 10±0 µg/mL and 24-h 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of 31±1 µg/mL. Although 1 was more active according to a MIC of 6±5 µg/mL, its 24-h IC50 was >100 µg/mL, and, therefore, it was less active overall between the two most active isolated compounds.

Sihanya B. "Constitutional change of Government in Kenya: Constraints and Opportunities." Advocate magazine, the Law Society of Kenya. 2016:52-53.
CK M, PN K, K M, DG N, GA M, SA O. "Correlates and management of anaemia of chronic kidney disease in a Kenyan tertiary hospital. ." East African Medical Journal. 2016.
Kuete V, Omosa LK, Tala VSR, Midiwo JO, Mbaveng AT, Swaleh S, Karaosmanoğlu O, Sivas H. "Cytotoxicity of plumbagin, rapanone and 12 other naturally occurring quinones from Kenyan flora towards human carcinoma cells." BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2016;17(1):60. AbstractFull text link

Background
Cancer is a major public health concern globally and chemotherapy remains the principal mode of the treatment of various malignant diseases.

Methods
This study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity of 14 naturally occurring quinones including; 3 anthraquinones, 1 naphthoquinone and 10 benzoquinones against 6 human carcinoma cell lines and normal CRL2120 fibroblasts. The neutral red uptake (NR) assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the compounds, whilst caspase-Glo assay was used to detect caspases activation. Cell cycle and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were all analyzed via flow cytometry meanwhile levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by spectrophotometry.

Results
Anthraquinone: emodin (2), naphthoquinone: plumbagin (4), and benzoquinones: rapanone (9), 2,5-dihydroxy-3-pentadecyl-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione (10), 5-O-methylembelin (11), 1,2,4,5-tetraacetate-3-methyl-6-(14-nonadecenyl)-cyclohexadi-2,5-diene (13), as well as doxorubicin displayed interesting activities with IC50 values below 100 μM in the six tested cancer cell lines. The IC50 values ranged from 37.57 μM (towards breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells) to 99.31 μM (towards small cell lung cancer A549 cells) for 2, from 0.06 μM (MCF-7 cells) to 1.14 μM (A549 cells) for 4, from 2.27 μM (mesothelioma SPC212 cells) to 46.62 μM (colorectal adenocarcinoma DLD-1 cells) for 9, from 8.39 μM (SPC212 cells) to 48.35 μM (hepatocarinoma HepG2 cells) for 10, from 22.57 μM (MCF-7 cells) to 61.28 μM (HepG2 cells) for 11, from 9.25 μM (MCF-7 cells) to 47.53 μM (A549 cells) for 13, and from 0.07 μM (SPC212 cells) to 1.01 μM (A549 cells) for doxorubicin. Compounds 4 and 9 induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells mediated by increased ROS production and MMP loss, respectively.

Conclusion
The tested natural products and mostly 2, 4, 9, 10, 11 and 13 are potential cytotoxic compounds that deserve more investigations towards developing novel antiproliferative drugs against human carcinoma.

Keywords

Carcinoma cytotoxicity Mode of action Plumbagin Quinones Rapanone

Victor, L.K O, V.R.S T, J.O M, A.T M, O K, H S, S S. "Cytotoxicity of Plumbagin, Rapanone and 12 other Naturally occurring Quinones towards Human Carcinoma Cells." BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2016;17:60.kuete_and_omosa_et_al._2016.pdf
Mariabeth Silkey, Tobias Homan, Nicolas Maire, Alexandra Hiscox, Mukabana R, Takken W, Smith TA. "Design of trials for interrupting the transmission of endemic pathogens." Trials. 2016;17(1):278.
Nyamwaya D, Wang'ondu V, Amimo J, Michuki G, Ogugo M, Ontiri E, Sang R, Lindahl J, Grace D, Bett B. "Detection of West Nile virus in wild birds in Tana River and Garissa Counties, Kenya." BMC Infectious Diseases. 2016;16:696.
Nyamwaya D, Wang’ondu V, Amimo J, Michuki G, Ogugo M, Ontiri E, Sang R, Johanna Lindahl, Grace D, Bett B. "Detection of West Nile virus in wild birds in Tana River and Garissa Counties, Kenya.". 2016.
LC Ng éno, VK Mukthar, SJ Kulei, Chege M. "Determinants of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine uptake among children attending immunisation services at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2016. Abstract

East African Medical Journal 2016

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Determinants of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine uptake among children attending immunisation services at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya
LC Ng éno, VK Mukthar, SJ Kulei, M Chege

Abstract

Objective: To establish the determinants of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine uptake among children brought to Kenyatta National Hospital.
Design: A cross-sectional hospital-based quantitative and qualitative study
Setting: Kenyatta National hospital which is the largest teaching and referral hospital in East and Central Africa situated in Nairobi, Kenya.

Subjects: The respondents were the parents/guardians of children less than two years of age attending immunisation services at KNH and those admitted in the peadiatric wards with pneumonia.
Results: The study established that the determinants of uptake of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine are age(OR 5.8, CI 1.4-23.4, p=0.014), level of education (OR 5.8, CI 1.5-22.4, p=0.01), parity (OR 0.2, CI 0.1-0.7, p=0.017), occupation (OR 6.5, CI 1.5-27.6, p=0.011), family income (OR 8.8, CI 1.4-55.6, p=0.001), knowledge (OR 6.5, CI 1.1-15.2, p=0.011) and attitude (OR 6.3, CI 1.9-26.8, p=0.001).
Conclusion: The study concluded that factors of the caregivers/parents that are statistically significant to the uptake of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine uptake are Income, parity, education leve, age and occupation. Also a friendly attitude from health personnel was shown to motivate parents/guardians’ adherence to vaccination schedules

Archary D, Seaton KE, Passmore JAS, L Werner, A Deal, Dunphy LJ, Arnold KB, NL Yates, Lauffenburger DA, P Bergin, Liebenberg LJ, Samsunder N, Mureithi MW, M Altfeld, Garrett N, Karim AQ, S Abdool Karim, L Morris, Tomaras GD. "Distinct genital tract HIV-specific antibody profiles associated with tenofovir gel." Mucosal immunology. 2016.
T E, M B, N.W P, S A, J A, G E, S H, C H, R H, O K, J N, D O, E O, N O, M.E.M S, M S, E.-J S, C.-F W, G Y, M Z, Q Z, M.S A-D, K A, G A, D B, D B-G, V B, L.K O,, J.N Kiiru, et al. "Drug discovery and biopiracy of natural products" ." Phytomedicine. 2016;Elsevier(23(2)):166-173.efferth_et_al._2016.pdf
Owiti PO, Kosgei RJ, Kihara BA, Ogutu O, Kizito W, Edwards JK, Tweya H, Takarinda KC, Sitienei JK, Kamau EM. "Editorial: Structured operational research and training in the public health Sector: the Kenyan experience." East African Medical Journal. 2016;93(10).
SJ S. "Effect of homemade dental powder on population of streptococcus mutans." journal of dentistry and oral care. 2016;2(4):1-7.
Tobias Homan, Alexandra Hiscox, Collins K Mweresa, Masiga D, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Prisca Oria, Nicolas Maire, Pasquale AD, Mariabeth Silkey, Jane Alaii, Teun Bousema, Cees Leeuwis, Smith TA, Takken W. "The effect of mass mosquito trapping on malaria transmission and disease burden (SolarMal): a stepped-wedge cluster-randomised trial." The Lancet. 2016;388(10050):1193-1201.
Zhang J, Pazoki M, Simiyu J, Johansson MB, Cheung O, Häggman L, Johansson EMJ, Vlachopoulos N, Hagfeldt A, Boschloo G. "The effect of mesoporous TiO2 pore size on the performance of solid-state dye sensitized solar cells based on photoelectrochemically polymerized Poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) hole conductor." Electrochimica Acta. 2016;210:23-31.
Domtau DL, Simiyu J, Ayieta EO, Muthoka B, Nyakiti LO, Mwabora JM. "Effects of Film Thickness and Electrolyte Concentration on the Photovoltaic Performance of TiO2 Thin Films." Surface Reviews and Letters. 2016;24. Abstract

Effects of film thickness and electrolyte concentration on the photovoltaic performance of TiO2 based dye-sensitized solar cell were studied. Nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 thin films with varying thicknesses (3.2-18.9 µm) have been deposited on FTO/glass substrates by screen printing method as work electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The prepared samples were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy/scanning tunneling microscopy (AFM/STM) and x-ray diffraction. The optimal thickness of the TiO2 photoanode is 13.5 µm. Short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) increases with film thickness due to enlargement of surface area whereas open-circuit voltage decreases with increase in thickness due to increase in electron diffusion length to the electrode. However, the Jsc and Voc of DSSC with a film thickness of 18.9 µm (7.5 mA/cm2 and 0.687 V) are smaller than those of DSSC with a TiO2 film thickness of 13.5 µm (8.2 mA/cm2 and 0.711 V). This is because the increased thickness of TiO2 thin film resulted in the decrease in the transmittance of TiO2 thin films hence reducing the incident light intensity on the N719 dye. Photovoltaic performance also depends greatly on the redox couple concentration in iodide\triiodide. Jsc decreases as the redox concentration increases as a result of increased viscosity of the solution which lowers ion mobility.
Similarly, Voc decreases as the electrolyte concentration increases due to enhanced back electron transfer reaction. An optimum power conversion efficiency of 3.5 % was obtained in a DSSC with the TiO2 film thickness of 13.5 µm and redox concentrarion of 0.03 mol dm-3 under AM 1.5G illumination at 100 mW/cm2

Mwabora JM, Domtau DL, Simiyu J, Muthoka B, Nyakiti LO. "Effects of TiO2 Film Thickness and Electrolyte Concentration on Photo-voltaic Performance of dye Sensitized Solar Cell." Surface Review and Letters. 2016.
Mwirigi M, Nkando I, Olum M, Attah-Poku S, Ochanda H, Berberov E, Gerdts V, Perez-Casal J, Wesonga H, Soi R, Naessens J. "Efficacy of a capsular polysaccharide conjugated vaccine against Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia.". In: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology.; 2016.
Sabiiti G, et al. "Empirical Relationships between Banana Yields and Climate Variability over Uganda." J. Environ. Agric. Sci. 2016;7:3-13. AbstractResearchgate

Variations in weather and climate have a significant impact on rain-fed banana yields in East Africa. This study examined empirical linkages between banana yields and variations in rainfall and temperature over Uganda for the historical period (1971-2009) using time series moments, correlation and regression analysis. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Crop Water Assessment Tool (CROPWAT) was used to estimate banana crop water requirements, soil moisture deficits and their effects on banana yield levels under rain-fed conditions for different regions. The study observed high comparability in moment indices with some significant differences reflected in the values of the banana yields and rainfall and temperature moment indices. The cumulative effect of rainfall and temperature variations on banana yields was discernible from strong correlation coefficients of up to 78%. The CROPWAT simulations indicated up to 46% reductions in optimal banana yields due to soil moisture deficits within banana plantations. In conclusion, the study observed stronger linkages between banana yields and temperature variations than rainfall. In addition, temperature manifests both direct and indirect effects on banana growth while rainfall exhibits comparatively high intra-seasonal and intra-annual variability with lag effects on banana yields. The study provides a strong scientific basis for the development of coping, adaptation and mitigation strategies in the banana farming subsector in the region due to the anticipated shifts in rainfall and temperature extremes and changes across Uganda and neighbouring regions.

Stokx J, Dochez C, Ochieng P, Bahl J, Were F. "Evaluation of a Training DVD on Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine for Kenyan EPI Healthcare Workers." Education for Health. 2016;29(1). Abstractevaluation_of_a_training_dvd_on_pneumococcal_conjugate_vaccine_for_kenyan_epi_healthcare_workers.pdf

Background: The Kenyan Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation was the first in Africa to introduce the new 10‑valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine, PCV‑10, in 2011. For successful implementation and to avoid adverse events following immunisation, specific training on handling and storage of the PCV‑10 vaccine was required. Therefore, a training DVD was recorded in English and partly in Kiswahili to be used in combination with in‑classroom training. Since the Kenyan Immunisation Programme was the first to use a DVD for training healthcare workers, an evaluation was done to obtain feedback on content, format and use, and propose suggestions to improve quality and uptake of the DVD. Methods: Feedback was obtained from nurses and vaccinology course participants through the completion of a questionnaire. Nurses also participated in focus group discussions and trainers in key informant interviews. Results: Twelve trainers, 72 nurses and 26 international vaccinology course participants provided feedback, with so e notable differences between the three study groups. The survey results confirmed the acceptability of the content and format, and the feasibility of using the DVD in combination with in‑classroom teaching. To improve the quality and adoption of the DVD, key suggestions were: Inclusion of all EPI vaccines and other important health issues; broad geographic distribution of the DVD; and bilingual English/Kiswahili use of languages or subtitles. Discussion: The Kenyan DVD is appreciated by a heterogeneous and international audience rendering the DVD suitable for other Anglophone African countries. Differences between feedback from nurses and vaccinology course participants can be explained by the practical approach of the DVD and the higher education and service level of the latter. A drawback is the use of DVD players and televisions due to lack of electricity, but it is a matter of time before all rural health facilities in Africa will have access to electricity and modern technology.

J.D M, S.A K, H. L, M. S, B.D F, G. K, E.W D, S. S. "Evolution of upper crustal faulting assisted by magmatic volatile release during early-stage continental rift development in the East African Rift." Geosphere. 2016;12(6):1670-1700. Abstract1670.pdfWebsite

During the development of continental rifts, strain accommodation shifts from border faults to intra-rift faults. This transition represents a critical process in the evolution of rift basins in the East African Rift, resulting in the focusing of strain and, ultimately, continental breakup. An analysis of fault and fluid systems in the younger than 7 Ma Natron and Magadi basins (Kenya-Tanzania border) reveals the transition as a complex interaction between plate flexure, magma emplacement, and magmatic volatile release. Rift basin development was investigated by analyzing fault systems, lava chronology, and geochemistry of spring systems. Results show that extensional strain in the 3 Ma Natron basin is primarily accommodated along the border fault, whereas results from the 7 Ma Magadi basin reveal a transition to intra-rift fault-dominated strain accommodation. The focusing of strain into a system of intra-rift faults in Magadi also occurred without oblique-style rifting, as is observed in Ethiopia, and border fault hanging-wall flexure can account for only a minor portion of faulting along the central rift axis (~12% or less). Instead, areas of high upper crustal strain coincide with the presence of hydrothermal springs that exhibit carbon isotopes and N2-He-Ar abundances indicating mixing between mantle-derived (magmatic) fluids and air saturated water. By comparing the distribution of fault-related strain and zones of magmatic fluid release in the 3 Ma Natron and 7 Ma Magadi basins, we present a conceptual model for the evolution of early-stage rifting. In the first 3 m.y., border faults accommodate the majority of regional extension (1.24-1.78 mm yr⁻¹ in Natron at a slip rate ranging 1.93-3.56 mm yr⁻¹), with a significant portion of intra-rift faulting (38%-96%) driven by flexure of the border fault hanging wall. Fluids released from magma bodies ascend along the border fault and then outward into nearby faults forming in the flexing hanging wall. By 7 m.y., there is a reduction in the amount of extension accommodated along the border fault (0.40-0.66 mm yr⁻¹ in Magadi at a slip rate ranging from 0.62 to 1.32 mm yr⁻¹), and regional extension is primarily accommodated in the intra-rift fault population (1.34-1.60 mm yr⁻¹), with an accompanying transition of magmatic volatile release into the rift center. The focusing of magma toward the rift center and concomitant release of magmatic fluids into the flexing hanging wall provides a previously unrecognized mechanism that may help to weaken crust and assist the transition to intra-rift dominated strain accommodation. We conclude that the flow of magmatic fluids within fault systems plays an important role in weakening lithosphere and focusing upper crustal strain in early-stage continental rift basins prior to the establishment of magmatic segments.

Mwirigi M, Nkando I, Aye R, Soi R, Ochanda H, Berberov E, Potter A, Gerdts V, Perez-Casal J, Naessens J, Wesonga H. "Experimental evaluation of inactivated and live attenuated vaccines against Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides." Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2016;169:63-67.
W 8. KI, J KP, M C, S C, L KD. "Factors Influencing Pupils’ Mobility in Public Primary Schools in Sotik Division, Bomet County Kenya. ." The Cradle of Knowledge African Journal of Educational and Social Science Research. 2016;4(1):45-50.abstract_8.doc
Kiama TN, Lindahl JF, Sirma AJ, Senerwa DM, Waithanji EM, Ochungo PA, Poole EJ, EK K'ethe, Grace D. "Farmer Perception of Moulds and Mycotoxins within the Kenya Dairy Value Chain: a gendered analysis.". 2016.
Kamau J, Melis R, Laing M, Shanahan P, Derera J, Ngugi K, Migwa Y. "Farmers’ Perceptions of Production Constraints and Preferences in Cassava Grown in Semi-Arid Areas of Kenya." International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2016;5(3):844-859.farmers_perceptions_of_production_constraints_and_preferences.pdf
Sifuna DN, Abagi O, Wasike NM. "Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting among the Wardei of Kenya: Practice, Effects, and Prospects for Alternative Rites of Passage." Journal of Anthropological Research (Fall 2016), the University of New Mexico . 2016;(Summer).
Koech OK, RN K, GN K, SM M, R W. "Field curing methods and storage duration affect the quality of hay from six rangeland grass species in Kenya." Ecological processes. 2016; 5(3):1-6.
O. K. Koech, R. N. Kinuthia, G. N. Karuku, S. M. Mureithi, Wanjogu R. "Field curing methods and storage duration affect the quality of hay from six rangeland grass species in Kenya." Ecological Process. 2016;5(1):3.
Olago D, Ferrer N, Folch A, Lane M, Thomas M, Sasaka W, et al. "First step to understand the importance of new deep aquifer pumping regime in groundwater system in a developing country, Kwale, Kenya." EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts. 2016;18:16969. AbstractFull Text Link

The population growth in the world carries on the one hand, an increased demand of fresh water and on the other hand, a decrease of quality and quantity of this resource. To avoid this deterioration it is essential doing a good management of surface water and groundwater, specially the second one, which has become the major source of water supply for domestic, industrial and agricultural sectors of many countries (UNEP 1999). This groundwater management starts with an accurate hydrogeological characterization of aquifer systems, mainly in that aquifer systems in which is changing the abstraction regime. In this context of population growth and new abstraction regimes on aquifer system is where the project "Gro for Good: Groundwater Risk for Growth and Development" is founded by UPGro. This interdisciplinary project has the main goal to design, test and transfer to the society an innovative Groundwater Risk Management Tool to improve and get by new governance transformations the balance between economic growth, groundwater sustainability (in terms of quality and quantity) and human development (http://upgro.org/consortium/gro-for-good/). The study area is located on the south eastern coast of Kenya, in Kwale County. The Kwale coastal groundwater system formed by a shallow and deep aquifer systems has long served urban water demands and an established tourism industry but now faces unprecedented ground and surface water resource demands especially from KISCOL's (5,500 hectares of irrigated sugarcane) and the country's largest mining operation (Base Titanium Ltd.). Despite both companies have drilled deep boreholes around the study area (416 km2) to extract groundwater from deep aquifer; no major pumping activity has started yet, allowing baseline evaluation. Scattered around the study are 440 handpumps providing drinking water to over 90,000 people. The relationship between the shallow and deep aquifers remains uncertain and so, the future influence on groundwater level and its quality either. So, in order to define the system and start to understand the different complex interactions, we present the initial results of the first complete water sampling field campaign (September 2015). Water isotope data and major ions were analyzed from 78 shallow and deep wells and surface water spread around study area. This field survey has been useful to understand the recharge, discharge areas and groundwater quality of deep aquifer system and which will have an important role for sustainable water management in the of Kwale area. Acknowledgements The research is primarily supported under the NERC/ESRC/DFID Unlocking the Potential of Groundwater for the Poor (UPGro) as a Catalyst Grant (NE/L001950/1) with work extending until 2019 as a Consortium Grant (NE/M008894/1), see http://www.upgro.org. Data for the paper will be publicly posted on the National Geoscience Data Centre and the UK Data Archive under the terms of the UPGro data management agreement.

Sitonik N. "Functionality of the Dispute Settlement System: A world Trade Organization's (WTO) Approach." Global Journal of Politics and Law Research. 2016;4(2):19-28.
Stephen F Omondi, George O Ongamo, James I Kanya DKP. "Genetic consequences of anthropogenic disturbances and population fragmentation in Acacia senegal." Conservation genetics. 2016;17(6):1235-1244.
Serem, J.K., Wahome, R.G., Gakuya, F., Kiama, S.G. Growth Performance and Feed Conversion Efficiency of Pigs Supplemented with Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal (MOLM). Bibliotheca, Alexandria, Egypt: TWAS; 2016.
Lafort Y, Greener R, Roy A, Greener L, Ombidi W, Lessitala F, Haghparast-Bidgoli H, Beksinska M, P G, Reza-Paul S, Smit JA, Chersich M, W D. "HIV prevention and care seeking behaviour among female sex workers in four cities in India, Kenya, Mozambique and South Africa." Trop Med Int Health. . 2016:doi: 10.1111/tmi.12761.
Bhui KS, Fiorillo A, Stein D, Okasha T, Ndetei D, Lam L, Chaturvedi S, Maj M. "Improving education, policy and research in mental health worldwide: the role of the WPA Collaborating Centres." World Psychiatry. 2016.Website
Gathumbi JK, Samson C, Wanjiru, Wanyoike, Christine B, Dorington O. "Incidence of Aflatoxigenic Fungi and Aflatoxins in Maize Cultivated Under Rain-Fed and Irrigation Farming Systems in Kenya." British Microbiology Research Journal. 2016;11(6):1-11.
Mwabora JM, Domtau DL, Simiyu J, Ayieta EO, Asiimwe GM. "Influence of Pore Size on the Optical and Electrical Properties of Screen Printed Thin Films." Advances in Materials Science and Engineering. 2016;2016. Abstract

Influence of pore size on the optical and electrical properties of TiO2 thin films was studied. TiO2 thin films with different weight percentages (wt%) of carbon black were deposited by screen printing method on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated on glass substrate. Carbon black decomposed on annealing and artificial pores were created in the films. All the films were 3.2 µm thick as measured by a surface profiler. UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer was used to study transmittance and reflectance spectra of the films in the photon wavelength of 300–900 nm while absorbance was studied in the range of 350–900 nm. Band gaps and refractive index of the films were studied using the spectra. Reflectance, absorbance, and refractive index were found to increase with concentrations of carbon black. There was no significant variation in band gaps of films with change in carbon black concentrations. Transmittance reduced as the concentration of carbon black in TiO2 increased (i.e., increase in pore size). Currents and voltages () characteristics of the films were measured by a 4-point probe. Resistivity () and conductivity () of the films were computed from the values. It was observed that resistivity increased with carbon black concentrations while conductivity decreased as the pore size of the films increased.

Domtau DL, Simiyu J, Ayieta EO, Asiimwe GM, Mwabora JM. "Influence of Pore Size on the Optical and Electrical Properties of Screen Printed Thin Films." Advances in Materials Science and Engineering. 2016. Abstract

Influence of pore size on the optical and electrical properties of TiO2 thin films was studied.
TiO2 thin films with different weight percentages (wt%) of carbon black were deposited by
screen printing method on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated on glass substrate. Carbon
black decomposed on annealing and artificial pores were created in the films. All the films
were 3.2 µm thick as measured by a surface profiler. UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer was
used to study transmittance and reflectance spectra of the films in the photon wavelength …

Simiyu J, Domtau DL, Ayieta EO, Asiimwe GM, Mwabora JM. "Influence of Pore Size on the Optical and Electrical Properties of Screen Printed TiO2 Thin Films." Advances in Materials Science and Engineering. 2016;2016. Abstract

Influence of pore size on the optical and electrical properties of TiO2 thin films were studied. TiO2 thin films with different weight percentages (wt %) of carbon black were deposited by screen method on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated on glass substrate. Carbon black decomposed on annealing and artificial pores were created in the films. All the films were 3.2 µm thick as measured by a surface profiler. UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer was used to study transmittance and reflectance spectra of the films in the photon wavelength of 300-1500 nm while absorbance was studied in the range of 350-900 nm. Band gaps and refractive index of the films were studied using the spectra. Reflectance, absorbance and refractive index were found to increase with concentrations of carbon black. There was no significant variation in band gaps of films with change in carbon black concentrations. Transmittance reduced as the concentration of carbon black in TiO2 increased. Currents and voltages (I-V) characteristics of the films were measured by a 4 point-probe. Resistivity (

Akaranga SI, Simiyu PC. "Influence of selected learners' characteristics on their academic achievement in public day secondary schools in Trans Nzoia and West Pokot counties, Kenya." Journal of Educational Policy and Entrepreneurial Research. 2016;3(2):67-78.
Scott A, Misiani HO, Zaitchik BF, Ouma GO, Anyah RO, Jordan A. "Inter-annual Variability of Temperature and Extreme Heat Events during the Nairobi Warm Season." AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts. 2016. AbstractSAO/NASA ADS Physics Abstract Service

Extreme heat events significantly stress all organisms in the ecosystem, and are likely to be amplified in peri-urban and urban areas. Understanding the variability and drivers behind these events is key to generating early warnings, yet in Equatorial East Africa, this information is currently unavailable. This study uses daily maximum and minimum temperature records from weather stations within Nairobi and its surroundings to characterize variability in daily minimum temperatures and the number of extreme heat events. ERA-Interim reanalysis is applied to assess the drivers of these events at event and seasonal time scales. At seasonal time scales, high temperatures in Nairobi are a function of large scale climate variability associated with the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO) and Global Mean Sea Surface Temperature (GMSST). Extreme heat events, however, are more strongly associated with the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). For instance, the persistence of AMO and ENSO, in particular, provide a basis for seasonal prediction of extreme heat events/days in Nairobi. It is also apparent that the temporal signal from extreme heat events in tropics differs from classic heat wave definitions developed in the mid-latitudes, which suggests that a new approach for defining these events is necessary for tropical regions.

Ousman K, Seloilwe E, Polomano RC, Odero T. "Interprofessional Fellowship Training for Emerging Global Health Leaders in Africa to Improve HIV Prevention and Care: The Afya Bora Consortium." Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. 2016;27(3):331-343. Abstract

HIV continues to challenge health systems, especially in low- and middle-income countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. A qualified workforce of transformational leaders is required to strengthen health systems and introduce policy reforms to address the barriers to HIV testing, treatment, and other HIV services. The 1-year Afya Bora Consortium Fellowship in Global Health capitalizes on academic partnerships between African and U.S. universities to provide interprofessional leadership training through classroom, online, and service-oriented learning in 5 countries in Africa. This fellowship program prepares health professionals to design, implement, scale-up, evaluate, and lead health programs that are population-based and focused on prevention and control of HIV and other public health issues of greatest importance to African communities and health service settings. Afya Bora nurse fellows acquire leadership attributes and competencies that are continuously and systematically tested during the entire program. This multinational training platform promotes interprofessional networks and career opportunities for nurses.

Mwachaka P, Saidi H, Mandela P. "Is cadaveric dissection vital in anatomy education? Perceptions of 1st and 2nd year medical students." Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy. 2016;15(1):14-18. AbstractJECA

Introduction: The use of innovative ways of teaching anatomy as well as shortage of cadavers for dissection
have raised questions as to whether dissection should continue to be used in teaching anatomy. This study
aimed to assess the views of medical and dental students on the importance of dissection in learning gross
anatomy, and whether they would prefer other ways of learning anatomy instead of cadaveric dissection.
Materials and Methods: First‑ and second‑year students enrolled at the University of Nairobi (Kenya) were
asked to fill an online questionnaire. Data gathered were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences.
Results: Ninety‑eight (83 medical and 15 dental) students participated in the study. All students agreed dissection was useful in learning anatomy. Up to 95.2% of medical and 86.7% of dental students favored dissection. Most students strongly agreed or agreed that dissection helped them to develop three‑dimensional (3D) awareness of the human body (94.9%), work as a team (89.8%), learn medical terminology (85.7%), and learn how to use basic surgical instruments (80.6%). Dissection was preferred to use of 3D models, prosected specimens, computer‑aided learning techniques, or modern imaging techniques by 63.3%, 60.3%, 37.7%, and 34.4% of the students, respectively.
Conclusion: Dissection is an important resource for learning anatomy. Other teaching techniques should be
used to supplement dissection rather than replace it.

Key words: Anatomy, cadaveric dissection, medical students

Kiama TN, Grace D, EK K’ethe, Lindahl JF, Sirma AJ, Senerwa DM, Waithanji EM, Ochungo PA, Poole EJ. "Kenya dairy farmers perception of moulds and mycotoxins and implications to exposure to aflatoxins: a gendered analysis. t." African Journal of Food Nutrition and Development. 2016;16:11106-11125(16):11106-11125.
Sakaja Y. "Management Information System Study Module.". In: Study Modules. University of Nairobi Press, Nairobi; 2016.
Ochungo P, Lindahl JF, T K, Sirma AJ, Senerwa DM, Kiama TN, Grace D. "Mapping aflatoxin risk from milk consumption using biophysical and socio-economic data:A case study in Kenya. ." African Journal of Food Nutrition and Development. 2016;16:11066-11085(16):11066-11085.
Ochungo P, Sirma AJ, Senerwa DM, Lindahl J, Kiama TN, and Grace. D. "Mapping Aflatoxin Risk Using Biophysical and Socio-economic data: A case study of Kenya.". 2016.
Situma J, Attoh F, Ndohvu J. "Mapping Out the Identity of African Arts and Aesthetics." Thought and Practice. 2016;7(1):77-102.
Chelelgo G, Siriba D, Biamah E. "Micro Hydro Potential Modelling: Integrating GIS into Energy Alternatives for Climate Change Mitigation." Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection. 2016;4:47-59.
Gacheru PK, Abong GO, Okoth MW, Lamuka PO, Shibairo SA, Katama CKM. "MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY AND QUALITY OF DRIED CASSAVA CHIPS AND FLOUR SOLD IN THE NAIROBI AND COASTAL REGIONS OF KENYA." African Crop Science Journal,. 2016;24(1):137-143.
Lundengård K, Ogutu C, Silvestrov S, Weke P. "Moment Matching Multinomial Lattices using Vandermonde Matrices for Option Pricing." Stochastic and Data Analysis Methods and Applications in Statistics and Demography, ISAST. 2016:15-29.
Carolyne Musyoki Minoo, Ngugi CC, Oyoo-Okoth E, Muthumbi A, Sigana D, Mulwa R, Chemoiwa EJ. "Monitoring the effects of aquaculture effluents on benthic macroinvertebrate populations and functional feeding responses in a tropical highland headwater stream (Kenya)." Aquatic ecosystem health & management. 2016;19(4):431-440.
Njenga LW, Macharia JW, Shem O. Wandiga*, Madadi VO. "Moringa Oleifera and Ceramic Filters for Escherichia Coli and Turbidity Removal From Drinking Water." IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry (IOSR-JAC). 2016;9(5):2278-5736.final_paper_jane.pdf
S.A.M.Johnson, D.W. Gakuya, P.G. Mbuthia, J.D. Mande, K.Afakye, N. Maingi. "Myiasis in Dogs in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana." Vector-borne and Zoonotic diseases. 2016;16(1):54-57.myiasis_in_dogs_in_the_greater_accra_region_of_ghana.pdf
B N, M.K L, D.A M, H E, M.R J, S.I K, I M, L.K O, J.O M. "New ent-clerodane and abietane diterpenoids from the roots of Kenyan Croton megalocarpoides Friis & M.G. Gilbert." Planta Medica. 2016;doi, http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0042-108857.ndunda_et_al._planta_medica_2.pdf
Sitati IN, Nzimbi BM, Luketero SW, Khalagai JM. "On A-Self-Adjoint, A-Unitary Operators and Quasiaffinities." SciencePG journals. 2016;Vol. 1(3 ):56-60. Abstract

In this paper, we investigate properties of A-self-adjoint operators and other relations on Hilbert spaces. In this
context, A is a self-adjoint and an invertible operator. More results on operator equivalences including similarity, unitary and metric equivalences are discussed. We also investigate conditions under which these classes of operators are self- adjoint and unitary. We finally locate their spectra.

Sitati IN, Nzimbi BM, Luketero SW, Khalagai JM. "On A-Self-Adjoint, A-Unitary Operators and Quasiaffinities." SciencePG journals. 2016;Vol. 1(3 ):56-60. Abstract

In this paper, we investigate properties of A-self-adjoint operators and other relations on Hilbert spaces. In this
context, A is a self-adjoint and an invertible operator. More results on operator equivalences including similarity, unitary and metric equivalences are discussed. We also investigate conditions under which these classes of operators are self- adjoint and unitary. We finally locate their spectra.

Muthoka B, Mwabora JM, Domtau DL, Simiyu J, Ayieta EO. "Optical and Electrical Properties Dependence on Thickness of Screen-Printed TiO2 Thin Films." Journal of Materials Physics and Chemistry. 2016. Abstract

Effect of film thickness on the optical and electrical properties of TiO 2 thin films were
studied. Thin films of different thicknesses were deposited by screen printing method on
fluorine doped tin oxide coated on glass substrate. The film thickness was determined by
surface profile measurement. The thicknesses were 3.2, 8.2, 13.5 and 18.9 µm.
Transmittance, reflectance and absorbance spectra were studied using UV-VIS-NIR
spectrophotometer in the photon wavelength range of 300-1500 nm for transmittance and …

Domtau DL, Simiyu J, Muthoka B, Mwabora J. "Optical and Electrical Properties Dependence on Thickness of Screen-Printed TiO2 Thin Films. ." Journal of Materials Physics and Chemistry. . 2016;4(1):1-3.
Domtau DL, Simiyu J, Ayieta EO, Muthoka B, Mwabora JM. "Optical and Electrical Properties Dependence on Thickness of Screen-Printed TiO2 Thin Films." Journal of Materials Physics and Chemistry.. 2016;4(1):1. Abstract

Effect of film thickness on the optical and electrical properties of TiO2 thin films was studied. Thin films of different thicknesses were deposited by screen printing method on fluorine doped tin oxide coated on glass substrate. The film thickness was determined by surface profile measurement. The thicknesses were 3.2, 8.2, 13.5 and 18.9 µm. Transmittance, reflectance and absorbance spectra were studied using UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer in the photon wavelength range of 200-2500 nm for transmittance and reflectance and 200-1200 nm for absorbance. Band gap and refractive index of the films were determined using these spectra. It was found that reflectance, absorbance, band gap and refractive index increase with film thickness while transmittance decreases with increase in thickness. I-V characteristics of the films were also measured by a 4- point probe. Electrical resistivity (

Muiva CM, Sathiaraj TS, King JG. "Optical properties of amorphous Se90-XIn10SbX thin film alloys." Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 2016;689:432-438. Abstract

Ternary thin film alloys of Se90-XIn10SbX (x = 1, 4, 10, 15 and 20) were synthesised by flash evaporation of the pre-melt quenched bulk samples under a vacuum of 10−5 Torr. Optical absorption analysis pointed to indirect allowed transitions as the mechanism of excitation across the energy gap. The optical band gap (Eg) was evaluated on the basis of Wemple-Didomenico single oscillator model and Tauc's extrapolation method in the spectral region where the absorption coefficient, α ≥ 104 cm−1. The refractive index (n), complex dielectric constant (ε), band tailing parameter (B), plasma frequency (ωp), single oscillator parameters (Eo and Ed) and lattice dielectric constant (εL) were deduced for each alloy. The compositional dependence of optical and dielectric parameters was explained on the basis of chemical bond approach. The observed shift in the trends of Eg, Ed, εL and ωp values at the composition where Sb = 4 at% was correlated to the usual chemical threshold at this composition.

Fukuda H, Saito T, Kihara E, Ogada C, Wagaiyu EG, Hayashi Y. "Oral Hygiene Status of Chewing Stick Users in a Rural Kenyan Community." Oral Health and Dental Management. 2016;15(1):27-30.
Fukuda H, Saito T, Kihara E, Ogada C, Wagaiyu EG, Hayashi Y. "Oral Hygiene Status of Chewing Stick Users in a Rural Kenyan Community." OHDM. 2016;15(2).
Bebora L.C, Olwande P.O, S.O O, W.O O. "Participatory epidemiological assessment of factors that limit indigenous chicken productivity under free-range system in South Western Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2016;28(10).
Steyn P, Cordero J, P G, Smit J, Nkole T, Kiarie J, Temmerman M. "Participatory interventions involving both community and health care providers for family planning and contraceptive services: a scoping." The European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care . 2016;21(Supplement 1):97.
G N, Gachago MM, MW N, S J. Pattern of Posterior Segment Manifestations After Ocular And Orbital Trauma In Kikuyu Eye Unit.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2016.
Isingoma BE, Samuel MK, Edward KG, Maina GW. "Performance of Nutritionally Optimized Millet Porridges in the Rehabilitation of Severely Malnourished Children at Mulago National Referral Hospital, Uganda ." British Journal of Medicine & Medical Research . 2016;18(2):1-12.
ABONG’ GEORGEOOKO, Shibairo S, WANJEKECHE ELIZABETH, OGENDO JOSHUA, WAMBUA TOM, Lamuka P, ARAMA PETER, Okoth M. "Post-Harvest Practices, Constraints and Opportunities Along Cassava Value Chain in Kenya." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science. 2016;4(2):114-126.
O. A’G, S. S, E. WANJEKECHE, J. OGENDO, P. ARAMA, M. O, R. M, M. KAMIDI. "Post-harvest practices, constraints and opportunities along cassava value chain in Kenya." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science . 2016;4(2):114-126.
Sang J, Moturi CA. "Predicting E-Procurement Utilization in Independent Commissions in Kenya." International Journal of Applied Information Systems,. 2016;10(5):12-17. AbstractWebsite

E-procurement has recently been introduced in the Kenyan public sector due to the many practical advantages it brings. Usage of the system is still at a very nascent stage. This paper sought to predict e-procurement utilization by analyzing the constructs of the Extended Technology Acceptance Model. The study administered a questionnaire to 229 employees of the 11independent commissions in the country. Regression analysis was done to describe the significance and the strength of relationships between variables. The analysis yielded important findings that partially support research hypotheses. The results indicated that subjective norm and reliability of the system influence utilization of the system while compatibility was insignificant. All the identified elements have correlations with the model elements and in turn impact on the behavioral intention to use the system. This study would influence government technology plans through implementation of policies that enhance adoption of emerging technologies in the public sector.

Santana DS, Cecatti JG, Surita FG, Silveira C, Costa ML, Souza JP, Mazhar SB, Jayaratne K, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Sousa MH, Vogel JP. "Pregnancy and Severe Maternal Outcomes: The World Health Organization Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health." Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2016;127(4):631-641. Abstractpregnancy_and_severe_maternal_outcomes.pdf

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate maternal complications (potentially life-threatening conditions, maternal near miss, and maternal death) that are mutually exclusive and severe maternal outcomes (maternal near miss or maternal death) associated with twin pregnancies.
METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional World Health Organization Multicountry Survey, which was implemented in 29 countries. Data from 4,756 twin deliveries were compared with 308,111 singleton deliveries. Factors associated with maternal morbidity and twin pregnancies were reported with adjusted prevalence ratio (95% confidence interval).
RESULTS: Potentially life-threatening conditions, maternal near miss, severe maternal outcomes, and maternal deaths were 2.14 (1.99–2.30), 3.03 (2.39–3.85), 3.19 (2.58–3.94), and 3.97 (2.47–6.38) times higher, respectively, among twin pregnancies. Maternal age older than 20 years, having a partner, multiparity, and elective cesarean delivery were associated with twin pregnancies. Postpartum hemorrhage and chronic hypertension were more frequently associated with severe maternal outcomes among twin pregnancies. Conditions indicating organ dysfunction (maternal near miss) were twofold to fivefold higher for twins. Poisson multiple regression analysis identified several factors independently associated with a severe maternal outcome, but not twin pregnancies.
CONCLUSION: Twin pregnancy is associated with greater severe maternal morbidity and a higher rate of maternal death than singleton pregnancy.

Masinde A, Simiyu C, Murunga I, Muia G, Waswa A, Barongo J. "A Preliminary Assessment of the Hydrocarbon Potential of Kerio Valley Basin: Gravity and Magnetic Interpretation." IOSR Journal of Applied Geology and Geophysics . 2016;4(3):50-56.g0403015056.pdf
Barongo J, Masinde A, Simiyu C, Murunga I, Muia G, Waswa A. "A Preliminary Assessment of the Hydrocarbon Potential of Kerio Valley Basin: Gravity and Magnetic Interpretation." Africa Energy and Technology Conference, 2016. 2016. AbstractWebsite

The aim of the study was to assess the hydrocarbon prospectivity of the Kerio Basin in the
Kenya Rift. An Isostatically corrected anomaly map produced from a Bouguer anomaly grid
was filtered using a Hanning low pass filter of order 2 to remove low wavelengths. Four
profiles were extracted from the grid to give 1D interpretation along straight lines. Magnetic
grid was corrected for IGRF, diurnal, filtered using a 1 Hz low pass 10km Hanning filter to
reduce noise, later, reduced to equator to place all anomalies directly over underlying
sources and make anomalies less complicated. Tilt derivative of the magnetic grid was used
to estimate depth to basement. The residual analytic signal anomaly map derived from the
magnetic grid was used to capture the response of existing near surface magnetic
signatures even the reversely magnetized ones.

Kianji G, Roberts R, Lund B, Shomali H, Barongo J, Mathu E. "Preliminary seismic catalogue for Kenya and adjoining areas, 1900-2014; Challenges and constraints."; 2016.
Barongo J, Mathu E, Kianji G, Roberts R, Lund B, Shomali H. "Preliminary seismic catalogue for Kenya and adjoining areas, 1900-2014; Challenges and constraints.". 2016.
Senerwa DM, Sirma AJ, Lindahl JF, D G, EK K’ethe, Mtimet N. "Prevalence of aflatoxin in feeds and cow milk from five counties in Kenya (2016). ." African Journal of Food Nutrition and Development. 2016;16::1104-1121.
Recorla LA, Achenbach TM, Ivanova MY, Turner LV, Althoff RR, Arnadottir HA, Au A, Belina M, Caldas J, Chen Y-C, Csemy L, da Rocha MM, Decoster J, Fontaine JR, Funabiki Y, Guomundsson HS, Harder VS, Sebre S, Silvares E, Simulioniene R, Sokoli E, Vazquez N, Kim YA, Leung P, Ndetei DM, Maras JS, Marcovic J, Oh KJ, Samaniego VC, Zasepa E. "Problems and adaptive functioning reported by adults in 17 societies ." International perspectives in physiology research practice. 2016;5(2):91-109.
Abong’ GO, Shibairo SI, Okoth MW, Lamuka PO, KATAMA CK, Ouma J. "QUALITY AND SAFETY CHARACTERISTICS OF CASSAVA CRISPS SOLD IN URBAN KENYA." African Crop Science Journal. 2016;24(sl):89-94.
Abong’ GO, Shibairo SI, Lamuka PO, KATAMA CK, Ouma J. "QUALITY AND SAFETY CHARACTERISTICS OF CASSAVA CRISPS SOLD IN URBAN KENYA." African Crop Science Journal. 2016;24(S1):89-94.abong__2016aquality_and_safety_cassava_crisps.pdf
Kuria A, Ombui J, Onyuka A, Sasia A, Kipyegon C, Kaimenyi P, A N. "Quality evaluation of leathers produced by selected vegetable tanning materials from Laikipia County, Kenya." IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science. 2016;9:13-17 .
B R, I B, S D, B S, Gladys M, M R, L L, YC Z, W D. "Radiology Education in Africa: Analysis of results from 13 countries." Journal of the American College of Radiology. 2016.
Richards S, VanLeeuwen JA, Shepelo G, Gitau GK, Wichtel J, Kamunde C, Uehlinger F. "Randomized controlled trial on impacts of dairy meal feedinginterventions on early lactation milk production in smallholder dairyfarms of Central Kenya." Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2016;125:46-53.
Wakana, S., Siraishi, S., Ondicho, TG, eds. Re-finding African assets and City Environments: Governance, Research and Reflexivity. Tokyo: ILCAA & JSPS; 2016.
Paul BK, Pulleman MM, Ayuke FO, Six J, Vanlauwe B. "Response to G.W Sileshi letter to the editor on AGEE13857 (2015): Exclusion of soil macrofauna did not affect soil quality. Statistical artefact or true lack of effect." Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 2016;221:282-284.
ABONG’ GEORGEOOKO, NDANYI VICTORIACLAIREMAKUNGU, KAAYA ARCHILEO, Shibairo S, Okoth MW, OBIMBO PETER. "A Review of Production, Post-harvest Handling and Marketing of Sweetpotatoes in Kenya and Uganda." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science. 2016;4(3):162-181.abong_2016b_a_review_sweetpotatoes_kenya__uganda.pdf
S. G. Peter, Gitau GK, S. Richards, Vanleeuwen A, F. Uehlinger, Mulei CM, Kibet RR. "Risk factors associated with Cryptosporidia, Eimeria, and diarrhea in smallholder dairy farms in Mukurwe-ini Sub-County, Nyeri County, Kenya." Vet World. 2016;9(8)(9):811-819.
Sihanya B. "The role of Intellectual Property in Collaborative Research." Utafiti News, magazine of the office of Deputy Vice Chancellor (DVC), Research Production and Extension (RPE) University of Nairobi. 2016.
M W, H A-A, G C, YS C, A C, B F, S G, GJ H, P L, K M, TM N, Z Q, JP S, AM G. "Room temperature stable carbetocin for the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage during the third stage of labour in women delivering vaginally." Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. 2016;17(1). Abstract

Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal mortality in low-income countries and contributes to nearly a quarter of maternal deaths globally. The current available interventions for prevention of postpartum haemorrhage, oxytocin and carbetocin, are limited by their need for refrigeration to maintain potency, as the ability to maintain a cold chain across the drug distribution and storage network is inconsistent, thus restricting their use in countries with the highest burden of maternal mortality. We describe a randomized, double-blind noninferiority trial comparing a newly developed room temperature stable formulation of carbetocin to the standard intervention (oxytocin) for the prevention of PPH after vaginal birth.
METHODS/DESIGN:
Approximately 30,000 women delivering vaginally will be recruited across 22 centres in 10 countries. The primary objectives are to evaluate the non-inferiority of room temperature stable carbetocin (100 μg intramuscular) versus oxytocin (10 IU intramuscular) in the prevention of PPH and severe PPH after vaginal birth. The primary endpoints are blood loss ≥500 mL or the use of additional uterotonics (composite endpoint required by drug regulatory authorities) and blood loss ≥1,000 mL (WHO requirement). Non-inferiority will be assessed using a two-sided 95 % confidence interval for the relative risk of the above endpoints for room temperature stable carbetocin versus oxytocin. The upper limit of the two-sided 95 % confidence interval for the relative risk for the composite endpoint of blood loss ≥500 mL or the use of additional uterotonics, and for the endpoint of blood loss ≥1,000 mL, will be compared to a non-inferiority margin of 1.16 and 1.23, respectively. If the upper limit is below the corresponding mar in, non-inferiority will have been demonstrated. The safety analysis will include all wom n receiving treatment. Safety and tolerability will be assessed by a review of adverse events, by conducting inferential testing with significance levels for between-group comparisons.
DISCUSSION:
If the results of the study show that room temperature stable carbetocin is a safe and effective alternative to oxytocin, this could have a substantial impact on the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage and maternal survival worldwide.
TRIAL REGISTRATION:
ACTRN12614000870651 (14 August 2014).

Kama-Kama F, Midiwo J, Nganga J, Maina N, Schiek E, Omosa LK, Osanjo G, Naessens J. "Selected ethno-medicinal plants from Kenya with in vitro activity against major African livestock pathogens belonging to the “Mycoplasma mycoides cluster”." Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2016;192:524-534. AbstractFull text link

Members of ‘Mycoplasma mycoides cluster’ are important ruminant pathogens in Africa. Diseases caused by these Mycoplasma negatively affect the agricultural sector especially in developing countries through losses in livestock productivity, mortality and international trade restrictions. There is therefore urgent need to develop antimicrobials from alternative sources such as medicinal plants to curb these diseases. In Kenya, smallholder farmers belonging to the Maasai, Kuria and Luo rely on traditional Kenyan herbals to treat respiratory symptoms in ruminants. In the current study extracts from some of these plants were tested against the growth of members of Mycoplasma mycoides cluster.
Aim

This study aimed at identifying plants that exhibit antimycoplasmal activities using an ethnobotanical approach.

Materials and methods

Kenyan farmers of Maasai, Luo and Kuria ethnic groups were interviewed for plant remedies given to livestock with respiratory syndromes. The plant materials were thereafter collected and crude extracts prepared using a mixture of 50% of methanol (MeOH) in dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), neat methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH) and water to yield four crude extracts per plant part. The extracts were tested in vitro against five strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri, five strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides and one strain of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp capricolum using broth micro-dilution assays with an initial concentration of 1 mg/ml. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the most active extracts were determined by serial dilution.
Results

Extracts from five plants namely: Solanum aculeastrum, Albizia coriaria, Ekebergia capensis, Piliostigma thonningii and Euclea divinorum exhibited the highest activities against the Mycoplasma strains tested. Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides were more susceptible to these extracts than Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri and Mycoplasma capricolum susp. capricolum. The activities of the crude extracts varied with the solvent used for extraction. The MICs mean values of the active extracts varied from 0.02 to 0.6 mg/ml.
Conclusions

The results suggested that these plants could potentially contain antimicrobial compounds that might be useful for the treatment of respiratory diseases in ruminants. Future work should focus on the isolation and identification of the active compounds from the plant extracts that showed interesting activities and evaluation of their antimicrobial and cytotoxic potential.
Mycoplasma mycoidesEthnobotanyAntimicrobial activityLivestockEthno-medicinal from plants from Kenya

Bwihangane, A, Misinzo, G, Sviteck, N, Bebora, L.C., Gitao, C.G. "Sero-epidemiology of Peste des petits ruminants infection and the associated risk factors in South Kivu, DR. Congo." RUFORUM Working Document Series (ISSN 1607- 9345). 2016;14(2):737-746.bwihangane_b.pdf
Bwihangane, A, Bisimwa P, Misinzo, G, Sviteck, N, Bebora, L.C., Gitao, C.G. Sero-epidemiology of.Pesfe des pefifs ruminants infection and the associated risk factors in South Kivu, DRGongo. Cape Town, South Africa: 19-22 Sep 2016; 2016.sero_icgeb.pdf
Gitao G, Kibore B, Sangula A. Seroprevalence of foot and mouth disease in Kenya. Saarbrucken: Lap Lambert Academic Publishing; 2016.978-3-330-01103-8.pdf
Hampson L, Maranga IO, Masinde MS, Oliver AW, Batman G, He X, Desai M, Okemwa PM, Stringfellow H, Martin-Hirsch P, AM M, P G, IN H. "A Single-Arm, Proof-Of-Concept Trial of Lopimune (Lopinavir/Ritonavir) as a Treatment for HPV-Related Pre-Invasive Cervical Disease." PLoS One. 2016;11(1):e0147917.
Tobias Homan, Nicolas Maire, Alexandra Hiscox, Pasquale A, Ibrahim Kiche, Onoka K, Collins Mweresa, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Ross A, Smith TA, Takken W. "Spatially variable risk factors for malaria in a geographically heterogeneous landscape, western Kenya: an explorative study." Malaria journal. 2016;15(1):1.
Songa CMM, Ndeda JHO, Ouma G. "Statistical Study of Solar Forcing of Total Column Ozone Variation Over Three Cities in Kenya." Applied Physics Research. 2016;8(3):77-89. Abstractstatistical_study_of_solar_forcing_of_total_column_ozone_variation_over_three_cities_in_kenya.pdfApplied Physics Research

In this study, a statistical analysis between three solar activity indices (SAI) namely; sunspot number (ssn), F10.7
index (sf) and Mg II index (mg) and total column ozone (TCO) time series over three cities in Kenya namely;
Nairobi (1.17º S; 36.46º E), Kisumu (0.03º S; 34.45º E) and Mombasa (4.02º S; 39.43º E) for the period 1985 -
2011 are considered. Pearson and cross correlations, linear and multiple regression analyses are performed. All
the statistical analyses are based on 95% confidence level. SAI show decreasing trend at significant levels with
highest decrease in international sunspot number and least in Mg II index. TCO are highly correlated with each
other at (0.936< r < 0.955, p < 0.001). SAI are also highly correlated with each other at (0.941< r < 0.976, p <
0.001) and are significantly positively correlated with TCO over the study period except Mg II index at Kisumu.
TCO and SAI have correlations at both long and short lags. At all the cities, F10.7 index has an immediate
impact and Mg II index has a delayed impact on TCO. A linear relationship exists between the two variables in
all the cities. An increase in TCO of about 2 – 3 % (Nairobi), 1 – 2% (Kisumu) and 3 – 4 % (Mombasa) is
attributed to solar activity indices. The multiple correlation coefficients and significant levels obtained show that 3
– 5% of the TCO at Nairobi, Kisumu and Mombasa can be predicted by the SAI.

Keywords: correlation, F10.7 index, Mg II index, regression, solar activity indices, sunspot number, time series,
total column ozone

Tobias Homan, Alexandra Hiscox, Collins K Mweresa, Masiga D, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Prisca Oria, Nicolas Maire, Pasquale AD, Jane Alaii, Cees Leeuwis, Smith TA, Takken W. "Stepped wedge cluster-randomised trial of the impact of mass mosquito trapping on malaria (SolarMal)." Impact of odour-baited mosquito traps for malaria control. 2016:125.
Sihanya B. "Stopping reversal of Constitutional and Corporate Governance." Advocate magazine, the Law Society of Kenya. 2016.
Sihanya B. "Stopping reversal of Constitutional and Corporate Governance." Advocate magazine, the Law Society of Kenya. 2016:52-53.
Odada E, Steffen W, Leinfelder R, Zalasiewicz J, Waters CN, Williams M, et al. "Stratigraphic and Earth System approaches to defining the Anthropocene." Earth's Future. 2016;4(8):324-345. AbstractFull Text

Stratigraphy provides insights into the evolution and dynamics of the Earth System over its long history. With recent developments in Earth System science, changes in Earth System dynamics can now be observed directly and projected into the near future. An integration of the two approaches provides powerful insights into the nature and significance of contemporary changes to Earth. From both perspectives, the Earth has been pushed out of the Holocene Epoch by human activities, with the mid‐20th century a strong candidate for the start date of the Anthropocene, the proposed new epoch in Earth history. Here we explore two contrasting scenarios for the future of the Anthropocene, recognizing that the Earth System has already undergone a substantial transition away from the Holocene state. A rapid shift of societies toward the UN Sustainable Development Goals could stabilize the Earth System in a state with more intense interglacial conditions than in the late Quaternary climate regime and with little further biospheric change. In contrast, a continuation of the present Anthropocene trajectory of growing human pressures will likely lead to biotic impoverishment and a much warmer climate with a significant loss of polar ice.

Wafula H, Juma A, Sakwa T, Robinson Musembi, Simiyu J. "A Surface Photovoltage Study of Surface Defects on Co-Doped TiO2 Thin Films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis, Coatings.". 2016. Abstract

Surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying electronic defects on semiconductor surfaces, at interfaces, and in bulk for a wide range of materials. Undoped and Cobalt-doped TiO2 (CTO) thin films were deposited on Crystalline Silicon (c-Si) and Flourine doped Tin oxide (SnO2:F) substrates by chemical spray pyrolysis at a substrate temperature of 400◦C. The concentration of the Co dopant in the films was determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and ranged between 0 and 4.51 at %. The amplitude of the SPV signals increased proportionately with the amount of Co in the films, which was a result of the enhancement of the slow processes of charge separation and recombination. Photogenerated holes were trapped at the surface, slowing down the time response and relaxation of the samples. The surface states were effectively passivated by a thin In2S3 over-layer sprayed on top of the TiO2 and CTO films.

Shadrack WM, Joseph OO. "Top Management Team Characteristics, Strategy Implementation and Performance of Tea Factory Companies in Kenya." International Journal of Research in Business & Technology. 2016;7(3):948-958.wasike_and_owino_2016_441948-957.doc
Gichuhi S, Macharia E, Kabiru J, Zindamoyen AM, Rono H, Ollando E, Wachira J, Munene R, Maina J, Onyuma T, Sagoo MS, Weiss HA, Burton MJ. "Topical fluorouracil after surgery for ocular surface squamous neoplasia in Kenya: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial." Lancet Glob Health. . 2016;4(6):e378-85. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND:

Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) is an aggressive eye tumour particularly affecting people with HIV in Africa. Primary treatment is surgical excision; however, tumour recurrence is common. We assessed the effect of fluorouracil 1% eye drops after surgery on recurrence.
METHODS:

We did this multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled trial in four centres in Kenya. We enrolled patients with histologically proven OSSN aged at least 18 years. After standard surgical excision, participants were randomly allocated to receive either topical fluorouracil 1% or placebo four times a day for 4 weeks. Randomisation was stratified by surgeon, and participants and trial personnel were masked to assignment. Patients were followed up at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. The primary outcome was clinical recurrence (supported by histological assessment where available) by 1 year, and analysed by intention to treat. The sample size was recalculated because events were more common than anticipated, and trial enrolment was stopped early. The trial was registered with Pan-African Clinical Trials Registry (PACTR201207000396219).
FINDINGS:

Between August, 2012, and July, 2014, we assigned 49 participants to fluorouracil and 49 to placebo. Four participants were lost to follow-up. Recurrences occurred in five (11%) of 47 patients in the fluorouracil group and 17 (36%) of 47 in the placebo group (odds ratio 0·21, 95% CI 0·07-0·63; p=0·01). Adjusting for passive smoking and antiretroviral therapy had little effect (odds ratio 0·23; 95% CI 0·07-0·75; p=0·02). Adverse effects occurred more commonly in the fluorouracil group, although they were transient and mild. Ocular discomfort occurred in 43 of 49 patients in the fluorouracil group versus 36 of 49 in the placebo group, epiphora occurred in 24 versus five, and eyelid skin inflammation occurred in seven versus none.
INTERPRETATION:

Topical fluorouracil after surgery substantially reduced recurrence of OSSN, was well-tolerated, and its use recommended.
FUNDING:

British Council for Prevention of Blindness and the Wellcome Trust.

Sihanya B. "Traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions in Kenya." Law Society of Kenya Journal . 2016;12(2):1-38.
Raphael K, Sylvester M, Mohammed S, Jennifer M. "Urban Housing Affordability in Kenya: A Case Study of the Mortgage Housing Sector in Nairobi”." Africa Habitat Review 10 (2016). Journal of School of the Built Environment, University of Nairobi, Nairobi. 2016.
Siriba DN. "Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) for Land Administration: Is it Feasible?" Kenya Surveyors' Journal. 2016;8(1):10-13.
Lafort Y, Greener R, Roy A, Greener L, Ombidi W, Lessitala F, Haghparast-Bidgoli H, Beksinska M, P G, Reza-Paul S, Smit JA, Chersich M, W D. "Where Do Female Sex Workers Seek HIV and Reproductive Health Care and What Motivates These Choices? A Survey in 4 Cities in India, Kenya, Mozambique and South Africa. ." PLoS One. . 2016;11(8):e0160730. doi: 10.1371.peter_gichangi_differ_paper_2.pdf.pdf
Gachara G, Symekher S, Otieno M, Magana J, Opot B, Bulimo W. "Whole genome characterization of human influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated from Kenya during the 2009 pandemic." Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 2016:-. Abstractwhole_genome_of_pandemic_h1n1_paper.pdfWebsite

Abstract An influenza pandemic caused by a novel influenza virus A(H1N1)pdm09 spread worldwide in 2009 and is estimated to have caused between 151,700 and 575,400 deaths globally. While whole genome data on new virus enables a deeper insight in the pathogenesis, epidemiology, and drug sensitivities of the circulating viruses, there are relatively limited complete genetic sequences available for this virus from African countries. We describe herein the full genome analysis of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated in Kenya between June 2009 and August 2010. A total of 40 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated during the pandemic were selected. The segments from each isolate were amplified and directly sequenced. The resulting sequences of individual gene segments were concatenated and used for subsequent analysis. These were used to infer phylogenetic relationships and also to reconstruct the time of most recent ancestor, time of introduction into the country, rates of substitution and to estimate a time-resolved phylogeny. The Kenyan complete genome sequences clustered with globally distributed clade 2 and clade 7 sequences but local clade 2 viruses did not circulate beyond the introductory foci while clade 7 viruses disseminated country wide. The time of the most recent common ancestor was estimated between April and June 2009, and distinct clusters circulated during the pandemic. The complete genome had an estimated rate of nucleotide substitution of 4.9 × 10− 3 substitutions/site/year and greater diversity in surface expressed proteins was observed. We show that two clades of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus were introduced into Kenya from the \{UK\} and the pandemic was sustained as a result of importations. Several closely related but distinct clusters co-circulated locally during the peak pandemic phase but only one cluster dominated in the late phase of the pandemic suggesting that it possessed greater adaptability.

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