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Siameto E. N., Okoth S, Amugune N. O, Chege NC. "Antagonism of Trichoderma harzianum isolates on soil borne plant pathogenic fungi from Embu District, Kenya." Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research. 2010;1(3):47-54.
Siameto EN, Okoth S, Amugune NO, Njoroge NC. "Antagonism of Trichoderma farzianum isolates on soil borne plant pathogenic fungi from Embu District, Kenya." Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research . 2010;Vol. 1(3):47-54.
Siameto EN, Okoth S, Amugune NO, Chege NC. "Molecular characterization and identification of biocontrol isolates of Trichoderma harzianum from Embu district, Kenya." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2011;(13):81-90. Abstract

Species in the genus Trichoderma are important commercial source of several enzymes, biofungicides and growth promoters. The most common biological control agents of the genus are strains of T. harzianum, T .viride and T. viriens. In this study, sixteen selected isolates of T. harzianum from different land use types in Embu, Kenya were tested for antagonistic action against five soil borne phytopathogenic fungi (Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium sp, Fusarium graminearum, F. oxysporum f. sp phaseoli and F. oxysporum f. sp Lycopersici) using dual culture assay and through production of non-volatile inhibitors. Seven isolates were further characterized using RAPD-PCR procedure to determine genetic variability. All T. harzianum isolates had considerable antagonistic effect on mycelial growth of the pathogens in dual cultures compared to the control. Maximum inhibitions occurred in Pythium sp-055E interactions (73%).The culture filtrates obtained from Czapek‟s liquid medium reduced the dry weight (mg) of the mycelia significantly while those from the potato dextrose broth showed minimum inhibition growth. Pythium sp. was most sensitive compared to other pathogens. Genetic similarities generated using Jaccard‟s coefficient of similarity ranged from 0.231 to 0.857 for isolates 055E, 011E, 010E and 015E. Since all T. harzianum isolates evaluated were effective in controlling colony growth of the soil borne pathogens both in dual cultures and in culture filtrates they could be tried as a broad spectrum biological control agent in the green house and under field conditions.

Siameto, E. N., Okoth, S.A, Amugune, N.O., Chege NC. "Molecular characterization and identification of biocontrol isolates of Trichoderma harzianum from Embu district, Kenya." . Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2011;13: 81-90.
Siameto EN, Okoth S, Amugune NO, Chege NC. "Antagonism of Trichoderma farzianum isolates on soil borne plant pathogenic fungi from Embu District, Kenya." Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research . 2010;1(3):47-54. Abstract

Species in the genus Trichoderma are important as commercial source of several enzymes and as biofungicides/growth promoters. The most common biological control agents of the genus are strains of T. harzianum, T. viride and T. viriens. In this study, sixteen selected isolates of T. harzianum from different land use types in Embu, Kenya were tested for anatognism against five soil borne phytopathogenic fungi (Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium sp, Fusarium graminearum, F. oxysporum f. sp phaseoli and F. oxysporum f. sp Lycopersici) using dual culture assay and through production of nonvolatile inhibitors. Seven isolates were further characterized using RAPD-PCR procedure to determine genetic variability. All T. harzianum isolates had considerable antagonistic effect on mycelial growth of the pathogens in dual cultures compared to the controls. Maximum inhibitions occurred in Pythium sp- 055E interactions (73%).The culture filtrates obtained from Czapek’s liquid medium reduced the dry weight (mg) of the mycelia significantly while those from the potato dextrose broth showed minimum inhibition growth. Pythium sp was inhibited the most compared to other pathogens. Genetic similarities generated using Jacquard’s coefficient of similarity ranged from 0.231 between isolates 055E and 011E to 0.857 between isolates 010E and 015E. The technique of RAPD was efficient in demonstrating the DNA polymorphism in the isolates of T. harzianum tested showing intraspecific genetic variability. Since all T. harzianum isolates evaluated were effective in controlling colony growth of the soil borne pathogens both in dual cultures and in culture filtrates they could be tried as a broad spectrum biological control agent in the green house and under field conditions.

Siameto EN, Okoth S, Amugune NO, Njoroge NC. "Molecular characterization and identification of biocontrol isolates of trichoderma harzianum from Embu district, Kenya." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2011;13:81-90 .
SIALO MRWEEREWASHINGTONBOOKER. "Weere,WBS; Obel, J D:Integration of Technology and Business towards enhancement of Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya.". In: presented during International donor Conferen. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1970. Abstract
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SIALO MRWEEREWASHINGTONBOOKER. "Ayugi O.; Weere, W.B.S; Mwairo, J.M;Aerial Triangulation and Block Adjustment of Migori block with Independent Models.". In: published by Institute of Surveyors of Kenya. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1970. Abstract
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SIALO MRWEEREWASHINGTONBOOKER. "Obel, J D; Weere, WBS: Application of Geo-Information System for Conflict Resolution of disputed Boundary between Osilalei and Eselenkei Ranches;.". In: presented during the Kajiado District Heads. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1970. Abstract
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SIALO MRWEEREWASHINGTONBOOKER. "Weere,WBS; Obel, J D:Integration of Technology and Business towards enhancement of Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya.". In: presented during International donor Conferen. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1970. Abstract
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SIALO MRWEEREWASHINGTONBOOKER. "Weere, WBS: Draft Project Proposal on planning and Facility Management of research activities within Africa Medical Research Foundation (AMREF) setup.". In: published by Institute of Surveyors of Kenya. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1970. Abstract
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SIALO MRWEEREWASHINGTONBOOKER. "Obel, J D; Weere, WBS:Establishment of Geo- Information System to phases one and two boundary disputes; problem solving approach of Ewuaso Kedong Group Ranch Project.". In: presented during the Kajiado District Heads. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1970. Abstract
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SIALO MRWEEREWASHINGTONBOOKER. "Prof Odingo, R S & Weere, WBS; Proposal on establishment of an Integrated Geographic and Environmental Information Systems .". In: presented during International donor Conferen. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1970. Abstract
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Shrestha KB;, Jha PK;, Suman S. Commercial distribution of tree seed in small bags - results from a pilot and action research project in Nepal.; 2005. AbstractWebsite

Access to quality tree seed implies specific problems for tree planting farmers in developing countries. Since most of them are smallholders, they need only few seed. Distribution networks usually do not exist for such small quantities. In 2001 it was decided to test a new approach to distribution of tree seed on a pilot basis in Nepal: Commercial distribution of tree seed in small bags through commercial enterprises dealing with horticultural and agricultural seed. In Nepal, such enterprises are known as agro-vets. The development objectives were (a) to increase access to high quality tree seed for farmers, FUG and other small-scale tree-planters, and (b) to support the operations of two tree seed co-operatives, NAFSCOL-Kaski and NAFSCOL-Kabhre by contributing to their increased turnover. The research objectives were to assess the financial, viability and social biodiversity impact of the approach cf. the project description in annex 1. The pilot project ran from 2003-2004 and had two phases. During phase 1, the pilot project was prepared and implemented. Small bags were designed, produced and packed with tree seed from five different fodder species. Agro-vet dealers located in all the different regions of Nepal sold the bags. During phase 2, lessons learned from the pilot project were collected and analysed. Distribution channel: the pilot project confirms that agro-vets can work as channels for reaching small-scale tree planters. There is scope for developing the market further through advertisement and by targeting FUG more directly. Species: the project included five fodder tree species. The choice of these species was appropriate in the sense that the species sold well. Dealers and customers suggested more species to be included. Size of bags: two sizes of bags were produced and distributed with a view to testing which of them would be the most suitable. The smallest bags contained seed for 50 seedlings, the larger bags for 500. The smallest size appeared to be the most suitable, especially for private nurseries, farmers and other small-scale tree planters. The larger size was useful but not required for targeting large-scale tree planters. Design: dealers and customers appreciated the aluminium material and the colourful and attractive design of the bags. The design and the dealers helped convincing the customers to buy the seed. Information on the bags: the respondents found that the information printed on the bags was useful, but requested additional information on sowing season. Some dealers had ordered a second lot of small bags. These bags were not packed properly, which may have implied loss of credibility. Guidelines on germination: guidelines on how to make the seed germinate were elaborated as part of the project. Brochures containing the guidelines were added to the bags and distributed to dealers and other interested persons. Only few of the interviewed customers consulted the guidelines.

Shou TD, Liu H, Xue JT. "[{Binocular} competitive mechanisms in the visual cortex in early developing kittens of monocular deprivation and reverse suture revealed by pattern visual evoked potential]." Sheng li xue bao: [Acta physiologica Sinica]. 1994;46:281-287. Abstract

Using contrast reversing square- wave gratings as stimuli the pattern visual evoked potentials (P-VEP) and pattern electroretinograms (P-ERG) were simultaneously recorded to determine the spatial frequency tuning curves for kittens of monocular deprivation (from 8th to 12th postnatal week) and reverse suture (from 12th to 15th postnatal week), as compared with those of normal kittens of the same age and adult cats. The results showed that in the range from spatial frequency 0.12 to 1.5 c/d the amplitudes of P-VEP responses driven respectively by the left and the right eyes in normal kittens were similar but clearly smaller than those driven binocularly. For kittens with one eye deprived, the P-VEP amplitudes driven by the deprived eye decreased markedly. In contrast, the P-VEP amplitudes driven by the undeprived eye increased significantly, while the P-VEP amplitudes driven by simultaneous stimulation of both eyes were intermediate between the two monocular responses. For the reversely sutured kittens, the P-VEP amplitudes driven by the formally deprived eye recovered to some extent, while the P-VEP amplitudes driven by the reversely sutured eye decreased, and their amplitudes tended to be quite close. The P-VEP amplitude driven by both eyes was the biggest. Neither such shift of spatial frequency tuning curves of the P-VEP in adult cats, nor such functional competition between the two eye in P-ERG responses during early development of kittens of monocular deprivation and reverse suture was found.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Shiwani, D.I., Kalai, J.M., Gatumu JC, Akala WJ. "Effect of Head Teachers’ Acquisition of Teaching and Learning Resources on Implementation of Inclusive Education in Public Primary Schools in Nairobi City County. ." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice (JPAHAP). 2021;2(1):90-108.
Shivonje FM;, Okwach GM;, Kironchi G. "Soil crust formation as affected by slope gradient on clay soils of semi-arid Machakos District, Kenya."; 2003. Abstract

Surface crusts formed by impact of raindrop restrict water infiltration into soil. The decrease in infiltration not only leads to an mcrease in surface flow and accelerated erosion, but also to reduced available water to plants. Upon drying the surface crust may impede plant emergence and growth, thereby reducing yield. This study was carried out with the aim of assessing the effect of slope gradient on crust properties with a view of developing elationships between crust formation and slope gradient when soil is subjected to natural rainfall. A surface of the top horizon (Ap) of a chromic Luvisol was exposed to rainfall at four slope gradients (1 %, 10%,20% and 30%) for two rain seasons. Crust thickness, crust strength and crust conductance were measured under various cumulative rainfall amounts. Thick and strong crusts were observed at the soil surface after the first rainfall event. Crust thickness and strength were significantly different (PO .05) between slope gradients, with crust formation being more pronounced at lower slop gradients (1% and 10 %) compared to higheI slope gradients (20% and 30%). Both crust thickness and strength followed a similar trend; as cumulative rainfall increased, they showed a slight increase after 2-3 storms, followed by a gradual decline as rainfall increased. Crust conductance was reduced by between 60% and 80% after the first ramfall event, and increased thereafter as the surface crust continued to decay with rainfall increase. Crust conductance was more strongly correlated to crust thickness (r

Shivonga WA, Muchiri M, Kibichi S, Odanga J, Miller SN, Baldyga TJ, Gichaba CM. "Impact of land use on water quality in River Njoro Watershed, Kenya.". In: XX International Grassland Congress: Offered Papers. Wageningen- Netherlands: Wageningen Academic Publishers; 2005. Abstract

Keywords: upland land use, subwatershed, downstream water quality, riparian zone

INTRODUCTION

Water resources Within the River Njoro watershed have become degraded due to high population growth rate and change in land use upsetting environmental stability. Land cover classification using Landsat images (Baldyga et al., 2004) shows loss of about 20% of forested areas between 1986 and 2003 in the Watershed. The forested and large-scale farm areas have been converted mainly into srnall-scale mixed agriculture and human settlements. These changes have impacted negatively on the ecological integrity and hydrologic processes in the watershed (Shivoga. 2001) but little is known about the influence of specific land uses on water quality of the river.

Shivoga WA, Muchiri M, Kibichi S, Odanga J, Miller SN, Baldyga TJ, Enanga EM, Gichaba MC. "Influences of Land Use/ Cover on Water Quality in the Upper and Middle Reaches of River Njoro, Kenya .". In: Lakes & Reservoirs: Research and Management . Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty LTD; 2007. Abstract

Data from 10 sampling sites along the River Njoro are used to examine the contribution of nutrients from upstream land uses draining each of the sampling sites. The data also are used to assess whether both the proportion of land uses and the size of the subwatersheds account for the variability in water quality in the River Njoro watershed. Geographical Information System analysis was used to determine the spatial distribution of land-cover types and subwatersheds contributing run-off to the sampling sites in the River Njoro. Standard Digital Elevation Model-based routines were used to establish the watershed area contributing run-off to each sampling site. Water and sediment samples were collected for chemical analysis, and the nutrient levels were related to the upstream land-use types and the size of the subwatersheds. The mid-stream portion of the River Njoro (near Egerton University) accounts for the highest nutrient contributions. The percentage contribution is magnified by additions from industrial, human settlements and agricultural land uses around the University. There is a significant decrease in nutrient levels downstream, however, indicating natural purification as the river flows through an area of large-scale farming with intense, well-preserved riparian and in-stream vegetation. Steep slopes of the land upstream of Egerton University enhance erosion and nutrient losses from those subwatersheds. Mixed small-scale agricultural and bare lands contribute over 55% of the phosphorus load to the upper and mid-reaches of the River Njoro. The size of the subwatershed accounts for about 53% of the variability in the soluble phosphorus in the river. The land~use subwatershed proportions are important for characterizing and modelling water quality in the River Njoro watershed. Upland land uses are as important as near-stream land uses. We suggest that conservation of intact riparian corridor along the river and its tributaries contributes significantly to natural purification processes and recovery of the ecological integrity of the River Njoro ecosystem.
Key words: Ecological integrity, ‘natural purification, nutrient levels, riparian zone, subwatersheds, upland land use, water quality.

Shiundu PM, Munguti SM, Williams KRS. "Practical implications of ionic strength effects on particle retention in thermal field-flow fractionation.". Submitted. AbstractPractical implications of ionic strength effects on particle retention in thermal field-flow fractionation

Modification of ionic strength of an aqueous or non-aqueous carrier solution can have profound effects on the particle retention behavior in thermal field-flow fractionation (ThFFF). These effects can be considered as either advantageous or not depending on the performance criteria under consideration. Aside from the general increase in retention time of particulate material (latexes and silica particles), our experiments indicate improvement in resolution with increases in electrolyte concentration. Absence of an electrolyte in the carrier solution causes deviations from the theoretically expected linear behavior between the retention parameter l (a measure of the extent of interaction between the applied field and the particle) and the reciprocal temperature drop across the channel walls. A negative interaction parameter d of about 20.170 was determined for 0.105- and 0.220-mm polystyrene (PS) latex particles suspended in either a 0.25 or a 1.0 mM TBAPcontaining acetonitrile carrier and for 0.220 mm PS in 0.50 and 1.0 mM NaCl-containing aqueous medium. This work also demonstrates that optimum electrolyte concentrations can be chosen to achieve reasonable experimental run-times, good resolution separations, and shifts in the steric inversion points at lower field strengths, and that too high electrolyte concentrations can have deleterious effects such as band broadening and sample loss through adsorption to the channel accumulation surface. The advantages of using ionic strength rather than field strength to effect desired changes are lowered power consumption and possible application of ThFFF to high temperature-labile samples.

Shisia* KS, Nyambaka H, Jumba IO, Oduor FDO, Ngure V. "Minerals deficiency diagnosis in grazing cattle of Uasin Gishu District, Kenya." Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology . 2012;Vol. 4(13)(ISSN-2141-226X ©2012 Academic Journals):pp. 229-233. Abstract

Grazing cattle in the tropics and especially in Uasin Gishu district depend on a variety of plant species for their mineral supply. One area of concern is that the grazing cattle may be experiencing mineral imbalances due to lack of proper mineral mapping of the region to ascertain the levels of imbalance. A study conducted in the Uasin Gishu region revealed severe deficiencies of mainly Cu (3.30 ± 0.90) and Zn (6.70 ± 0.40) in soils, the elements Na (1.00 ± 0.39), K (11.80 ± 5.00), Ca (0.57 ± 0.19), Mg (1.35 ± 0.72), P (6.34 ± 3.22), Fe (56.00 ± 0.53), Cu (5.32 ± 2.84), Zn (19.50 ± 8.20) in pasture species and the elements Fe (2.43 ± 1.53), Mn (0.26 ± 0.14 ), Cu (0.60 ± 0.17), Mg (0.02 ± 0.01) in animal blood. The study recommends immediate mineral supplementation schemes to grazing cattle in the region and encouragement of certain pasture species in the region.

Shisia K. S1*, Ngure V 4, Oduor F. D. 0.3, Jumba I.O.3, Nyambaka H.2, Murungi J.2. "Soil-plant composition in relation to mineral requirements for grazing cattle in Uasin Gishu district." Journal of Technology & Socio - Economic Development. 2011;Volume 1 No.1(September 2011 Issue ):126. Abstract

Livestock industry is one of the major contributors to the country's GDP and provides one third of the total available food in the country. Mineral deficiencies and imbalances in soils and forages can be a challenge in relation to production in grazing cattle in developing countries. A number of factors influence the availability of such minerals in terms of proper growth and development of cattle. The study was done in selected parts of Uasin Gishu and revealed severe nutritional deficiencies in soils and forages. The study also revealed a number of factors that influenced mineral concentration in the region. The study has suggested recommendations to help identify and alleviate any constraints on animal health and production.
Key words Livestock industry, mineral deficiencies, soils, animal health and production

Shisia KS, Murungi J, Nyambaka H, Jumba IO, Oduor FDO, Ngure V. "Soil-Plant composition in relation to mineral requirements for grazing cattle in Uasin Gishu District." Journal of Technology & Socio-Econmic Development. 2011;1(1).
Shisia KS, Nyambaka H, Oduor FDO, Ngure V. "Mineral deficiency diagnosis in grazing cattle of Usin Gishu District, Kenya." Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology. 2012;4(13):229-233.
Shisia KS, Ngure V, Nyambaka H, Oduor FDO. "Effect of pH and forage species on mineral concentrations in cattle breeds in major grazing areas of Uasin Gishu County, Kenya." Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci. 2013;2(12):247-254. AbstractInt J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci

Description
The nutrition of grazing animals is a complicated interaction of soils, plants, and animals (Rocky, 2013). The performance and health of grazing livestock is dependent on the adequacy and availability of essential mineral elements from pastures. Grazing livestock requires an understanding of the dynamics of a broad range of forage nutrients (Provenza, 2003). This means that adequate intake of forages by grazing animals is essential in meeting mineral requirements. The ability of forage minerals to meet grazing livestock mineral requirements depends upon quantity (the concentration of minerals in the plant) and the bioavailability of those minerals (amount livestock can absorb from the digestive tract). Although mineral concentrations in the forage might be adequate, the percent that is available to the livestock might be much lower (Khan et al., 2006).

Shiroya-Wandabwa M, Yuko-Jowi C, Nduati R, Obimbo E, D. W. "Risk factors for cardiac dysfunction in children on treatment for cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. ." East Afr Med J. 2009 Dec;86(12 Suppl):S52-7.. 2009. Abstract

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:

To determine the point prevalence of abnormal cardiac function and to assess the risk factors for cardiac dysfunction in paediatric oncology patients on treatment at Kenyatta National Hospital.
DESIGN:

Descriptive cross-sectional study with a nested case control.
SETTING:

Kenyatta National Hospital between February and April 2006.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Left ventricular dysfunction if ejection fraction (EF) <55% or fractional shortening (FS) <29% defined cases. Controls had EF >55% or FS >29%.
RESULTS:

One hundred and eleven patients were enrolled of whom 32 had abnormal cardiac function and were classified as cases while 79 had normal cardiac function. About a third, point prevalence 29% (95% CI 21.2-37.9), had cardiac dysfunction. Cumulative anthracycline dose was a risk factor for cardiac dysfunction in this population. Above 200 mg/m2 the attributable risk percentage of cardiac dysfunction was 77%.
CONCLUSIONS:

Serial echocardiography should be performed to identify patients at risk. Alternative treatment protocols should be used when the cumulative anthracycline dose exceeds 200 mg/m2 due to the high attributable risk. Studies to further assess the other associated risk factors and long term effects of anthracycline are recommended.

PMID:
21591510
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Shiroya-Wandabwa M, Yuko-Jowi C, R W Nduati, Githanga J, Wamalwa D. "Risk factors for cardiac dysfunction in children on treatment for cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.". 2009. Abstract

To determine the point prevalence of abnormal cardiac function and to assess the risk factors for cardiac dysfunction in paediatric oncology patients on treatment at Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study with a nested case control. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital between February and April 2006. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Left ventricular dysfunction if ejection fraction (EF) <55% or fractional shortening (FS) <29% defined cases. Controls had EF >55% or FS >29%. RESULTS: One hundred and eleven patients were enrolled of whom 32 had abnormal cardiac function and were classified as cases while 79 had normal cardiac function. About a third, point prevalence 29% (95% CI 21.2-37.9), had cardiac dysfunction. Cumulative anthracycline dose was a risk factor for cardiac dysfunction in this population. Above 200 mg/m2 the attributable risk percentage of cardiac dysfunction was 77%. CONCLUSIONS: Serial echocardiography should be performed to identify patients at risk. Alternative treatment protocols should be used when the cumulative anthracycline dose exceeds 200 mg/m2 due to the high attributable risk. Studies to further assess the other associated risk factors and long term effects of anthracycline are recommended.

Shiroya-Wandabwa M, Yuko-Jowi C, R W Nduati, Githanga J, Wamalwa D. "Risk factors for cardiac dysfunction in children on treatment for cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.". 2012. Abstract

To determine the point prevalence of abnormal cardiac function and to assess the risk factors for cardiac dysfunction in paediatric oncology patients on treatment at Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study with a nested case control. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital between February and April 2006. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Left ventricular dysfunction if ejection fraction (EF) <55% or fractional shortening (FS) <29% defined cases. Controls had EF >55% or FS >29%. RESULTS: One hundred and eleven patients were enrolled of whom 32 had abnormal cardiac function and were classified as cases while 79 had normal cardiac function. About a third, point prevalence 29% (95% CI 21.2-37.9), had cardiac dysfunction. Cumulative anthracycline dose was a risk factor for cardiac dysfunction in this population. Above 200 mg/m2 the attributable risk percentage of cardiac dysfunction was 77%. CONCLUSIONS: Serial echocardiography should be performed to identify patients at risk. Alternative treatment protocols should be used when the cumulative anthracycline dose exceeds 200 mg/m2 due to the high attributable risk. Studies to further assess the other associated risk factors and long term effects of anthracycline are recommended.

Shiroya-Wandabwa M, Yuko-Jowi C, R W Nduati, Githanga J, Wamalwa D. "Risk factors for cardiac dysfunction in children on treatment for cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.". 2012. Abstract

To determine the point prevalence of abnormal cardiac function and to assess the risk factors for cardiac dysfunction in paediatric oncology patients on treatment at Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study with a nested case control. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital between February and April 2006. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Left ventricular dysfunction if ejection fraction (EF) <55% or fractional shortening (FS) <29% defined cases. Controls had EF >55% or FS >29%. RESULTS: One hundred and eleven patients were enrolled of whom 32 had abnormal cardiac function and were classified as cases while 79 had normal cardiac function. About a third, point prevalence 29% (95% CI 21.2-37.9), had cardiac dysfunction. Cumulative anthracycline dose was a risk factor for cardiac dysfunction in this population. Above 200 mg/m2 the attributable risk percentage of cardiac dysfunction was 77%. CONCLUSIONS: Serial echocardiography should be performed to identify patients at risk. Alternative treatment protocols should be used when the cumulative anthracycline dose exceeds 200 mg/m2 due to the high attributable risk. Studies to further assess the other associated risk factors and long term effects of anthracycline are recommended.

Shinuo Cao, Gabriel Oluga Aboge MATMZYLLYYLYGKK. "Cloning, characterization and validation of inosine 5’-monophosphate dehydrogenase of Babesia gibsoni as molecular drug target." Parasitology International. 2013;62(2013):87-94.dr._aboge_1.pdf
Shiningavamwe AN, Obiero, G.O, Albetyn, K, Nicaud J-M, Smit MS. "Heterologous expression of the benzoate para-hydroxylase encoding gene (CYP53B1) from Rhodotorula minuta by Yarrowia lipolytic." Journal of Applied Biotechnology and Biotechnology. 2006;72:323-329.
Shimizu M, Matsumoto T, Hirokawa M, Monobe Y, Iwamoto S, Tsunoda T, Manabe T. "Solid-pseudopapillary carcinoma of the pancreas." Pathology international. 1999;49:231-234. AbstractWebsite
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Shilo S, Werner D, Hershko C. "Acute hemolytic anemia caused by severe hypophosphatemia in diabetic ketoacidosis." Acta Haematologica. 1985;73:55-57. Abstract

Hypophosphatemia in diabetic ketoacidosis is well recognized, but is believed to be usually of moderate severity. We describe 2 patients in whom acute hemolytic anemia secondary to severe (0.19-0.35 mmol/l) hypophosphatemia has developed 1-2 days following treatment for diabetic ketoacidosis. Our experience indicates that severe hypophosphatemia requiring phosphate supplementation does occur in diabetic patients, and calls for increased awareness for the clinical and laboratory manifestations of this complication of diabetic ketoacidosis.

Shillington K. ""Urbanization, Housing and Environment".". In: (ed) Encyclopedia of African History. London: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers; 2007.
SHILANGALE RP, DI GIANNATALE E, CHIMWAMUROMBE PM, KAAYA GP. "Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern of Salmonella in Animal feed produced in Namibia. ." Veterinaria Italiana. 2012; 48 (2):125-132.
Shilabukha K. "Indigenous knowledge, bio-diversity, technology and economic values: Rethinking the link.". In: The role of research and studies in the development of Africa and the African Diaspora. Lagos: CBAAC; 2007.indigenous_knowledge.pdf
Shilabukha K. "The Persistence of Female Genital Cutting Among the Abagusii and Maasai Communities of Kenya .". In: A Tapestry of Human Sexuality in Africa. Action Health Inc; 2010.
Shilabukha K. "Circumcision mask: Ingolole.". In: Hazina: Transittions, trade and tradtions in Eastern Africa. Nairobi and London: National Museums of Kenya and the British Museum; 2006.
Shikokoti H, Okoth UA, Chepkonga S. "Influence of Teacher delocalization policy on teacher job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Kakamega County, Kenya ." Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2021;26(5):38-46.
Shikokoti H, Okoth UA, Chepkonga S. "Principals promoting professional development on Teacher's Job Satisfaction in Public Secondary Schools in Kakamega County, Kenya." Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2021;26(5):30-37.
Shihembetsa DLU. "Provision of Low-Income Housing through National Cooperative Housing Union (NACHU) in Kenya: An appraisal of the Project Delivery Structures." International Journal of Creative Research and Studies (IJCRS). . 2018;Volume-2, (, Issue-8, August 2018):(66-80).
Shihembetsa LU. Factors in the provision of low income housing a case study of kariobangi .; 1985. Abstract

Housing for the low-income group has been and is still a major problem in the developing countries. More attention has been put on this problem by the world in.the recent years. Kenya being one of the developing countries faces this problem like any other developing country. The population growth rates In third world countries' cities is too high as compared to developed countries. This study looked at the factors in the provision of low-income housing and how these factors hinder the process of provision of shelter. The factors included inter alia, National Housing Policy, Land, Financial Resources, Construction costs and Building standards. These factors were analysed independently in the various chapters of this study and then findings we r e drawn. The findings were used as guidelines for the recommendations made. The study was organised in six chapters. Chapter one was an introduction, giving what the study was all about. Chapter two looked at the National Housing Policy of Kenya pointing out the weaknesses of the policy. The study found that the policy has vague, unrealistic and too ambitious

Shihembetsa DLU. "Examining Contemporary Housing for the Urban Poor: The case of Pumwani Housing. ." International Journal of Creative Research and Studies (IJCRS).. 2018;Volume-2,(Issue-9, September):201 (1-23). ISSN 0249-4655.
Shihembetsa L. "A study on Revitalisation of Municipal Council of Nakuru Rental housing." Housing and Building Research Institute. 1997; Jan 1997.
Shihembetsa DLU, Ketter GK. "MANAGING FLOODING IN RESIDENTIAL AREAS OF NAIROBI: A CASE STUDY OF SOUTH C." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge (IJIRK). . 2018;Vol-3, (Issue-9, September-2018 ):(27-43). ISSN-2213-1356.
Shihembetsa L, Agevi E, Tuts R. "Neighbourhood Units in Nairobi: A Survey of Bahati and Ofafa." HRDU. 1989.
Shihembetsa L. "Land Utilisation in Inner City Areas: The case of Nairobi Kenya in Forum." CARDO Research Group. 1992;(University of Newcastle Upon Tyne).
Shihembesha L. "Burnt Clay Waste as a Pozzolanic Material in Kenya." Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT. 2002;2002.
Shideler SE, Munro CJ, Tell L, Owiti G, Laughlin L, Chatterton R, Lasley BL. "The relationship of serum estradiol and progesterone concentrations to the enzyme immunoassay measurements of urinary estrone conjugates and immunoreactive pregnanediol-3-glucuronide in Macaca mulatta.". 1990. Abstract

Paired urine and serum samples from four conceptive and six nonconceptive ovarian cycles of seven adult Macaca mullatta were analyzed by radioimmunoassay (RIA) for circulating estradiol (E2) and progesterone (Po), and urinary estrone conjugates (E1C) and immunoreactive preganediol-3-glucuronide (iPDG) using enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Nonconceptive cycles exhibited a fivefold increase in urinary E1C and serum E2 levels from follicular phase levels to the preovulatory peak. Linear correlation between urinary E1C and serum E2 nonconceptive cycle hormone levels was significant (P <0.01, r = 0.69). Luteal phase levels of iPDG and serum Po levels were approximately parallel in nonconceptive cycles. Similarly, conceptive cycle urinary E1C levels and serum E2 measurements had a correlation coefficient that was significant (P<0.01, r = 0.45). Nonconceptive and conceptive cycle iPDG and Po levels were significantly correlated (P = 0.05, r = 0.63, and P<0.01, r = 0.66, respectively). These data demonstrate that EIA measurements of ovarian hormones in daily urine samples can be used to accurately monitor ovarian function and early pregnancy in Macaca mulatta.

Shibata S. "Unique vasocontraction of okadaic acid isolated from black sponge, independent of extracellular Ca2+." Blood Vessels. 1987;24(3):104-7. Abstract

Okadaic acid (OA) isolated from black sponge (Halichondria) caused tonic contractions of human umbilical arteries and rabbit aorta both in the presence and absence of Ca2+. This tonic contraction was not affected by Ca2+ chelator, Ca2+ entry blockers and La3+. In addition, the antagonists of alpha-adrenoceptors, histamine, serotonin and ACh receptors had no effect on the OA-induced contraction. High K, ouabain and indomethacin failed to inhibit the response to OA. However, the combination of anaerobic conditions and absence of glucose abolished the response to OA. OA had no effect on the myosin B ATPase and saponin-treated skinned fibers of rabbit aorta. The contractile action of OA may not also be related to calmodulin-related PDE and mitochondrial respiration. In conclusion, although the precise mode of action is not evident at the present time, OA, in its unique pharmacological action--that of producing sustained contraction independent of extracellular Ca2+--may alter the handling of Ca2+ to intracellular store sites.

Shibairo SI, Upadhyaya MK;, Toivonen PMA. "Potassium Nutrition and Shelf Life of Carrots (Daucus carota L.).". 1996. Abstract

The effect of potassium (K) nutrition on the shelf life of carrots was studied using a hydroponics system involving rockwool slabs as support. Carrots were grown for 192 days under greenhouse conditions and supplied with 0, 0.1, 1.0, 10, and 15 mm of K. Increase in K concentration in the nutrient medium decreased postharvest weight loss. Carrot weight and tissue K content increased and water potential, osmotic potential, and relative solute leakage decreased with increasing K concentration in the nutrient feed. Differences in postharvest weight loss were mainly associated to root weight and relative solute leakage. Root weight correlated negatively and relative solute leakage correlated positively to water loss. Water and osmotic potential also correlated to water loss, but not as strongly as root weight and relative solute leakage. These results suggest that K nutrition influences postharvest weight loss by influencing carrot size and membrane integrity. Effects on cell water and osmotic potential are also important in this regard but to a lesser extent.

Shibairo SI, Nyabundi JO, Otieno W. "Effects of Temperature on Germination of Seeds of Three Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajant Genotypes.". 1993. Abstract

Two sets of incubator experiments to determine the effects of temperature on germination of three pigeonpea genotype seeds were carried out in the Crop Science Laboratory of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nairobi. The pigeonpea genotypes were NPP 670, Katheka and Kioko. In the first set of experiments, the pigeonpea seeds were germinated at 15, 20,25,30,35 and 40°C in darkness. In the second set of experiments the seeds were germinated at different 12 hour day and 12 hour night temperature combinations of 15/15, 20/15, 25/15, 30/15, 20/20°C, 25/20, 30/20 and 35/20°C for day and night, respectively. A broad temperature range (20-35°C and 20/15°C to 30/20°C day/night) maximum 13-day germination was obtained for all genotypes. Overall genotype NPP 670 had the highest per cent germination while Kioko had the lowest. However, Kioko had the highest per cent germination at 15°e. Initial germination was delayed at 15°C and 40°C for all genotypes. Time to 50 per cent germination was only Significantly (P = 0.05) increased at 15°C. Maximum per cent germination was observed at 25°C. At 40°C, genotypes Kioko and Katheka seeds imbibed water at a faster rate and exuded brownish substances that started smelling after 36 hours. A bacterial ooze from the seeds was observed for genotype Ka theka at 30°C, 20/15 and 25/ 20°e. NPP 670 showed low amounts of the bacterial ooze at all temperatures. The bacteria fluoresced under ultraviolet light suggesting that they belonged to the Pseudomonadaceae family. The results showed that per cent germination of pigeonpea seeds is decreased by both low and high temperatures. Other factors which include presence of seed borne micro-organisms may also affect the germination of seeds

Shibairo SI;, Omuollo FM. "Postharvest handling of indigenous vegetable leaves.".; 2001.
Shibairo SI, Upadhyaya MK, Toivonen PMA. "Effects of Moisture Loss on Water Potential Components and Tissue Deterioration in Carrots during Short-term Storage.". 1995. Abstract

Studies were carried out to understand the effects of moisture loss on water potential and root deterioration in carrot (Daucus carota L. `Eagle') roots during short-term storage. The roots were stored at various temperatures and relative humidities (RH) to provide 0.7 (low), 3 (medium), and 9 mbars (high) of water vapor pressure deficit (WVPD). Carrots at high WVPD lost the most weight, followed by those at medium and lowest WVPD. Water potential and osmotic potential of the carrot tissue at high WVPD did not change significantly up to 6 days, but decreased thereafter. There was no change in water potential and osmotic potential for carrots at medium and low WVPD. A significant quadratic relationship (P = 0.05, r = –0.764) between water potential and carrot root weight loss was observed. Relative electrolyte leakage increased over time in carrots at the high WVPD. At medium WVPD, relative electrolyte leakage did not change up to 6 days, but increased significantly thereafter. Carrots at the low WVPD did not change in relative electrolyte leakage. Relative electrolyte leakage and weight loss correlated positively (P = 0.05, r = 0.789). The results suggest that water stress during short-term storage causes tissue deterioration that may further increase rate of moisture loss and hence reduce the shelf life of carrots.

Shi Z, Muhammad S, Deng L, Liu Z, Bi L, Zhang L, Zhang L, Zhou P, Chen H, Lu H, others. "Magnetic-brightening and control of dark exciton in CsPbBr3 perovskite." Science China Materials. 2020;63:1503-1509. Abstract
n/a
Sherrif SS, Madadi V. "Adsorption of Lambda Cyhalothrin onto Athi River Sediments: Apparent Thermodynamic Properties." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2017;3(3):568-574.
Sherr K, Gimbel S, Rustagi A, Ruth Nduati, Cuembelo F, Farquhar C, Wasserheit J, Gloyd S. "Systems analysis and improvement to optimize pMTCT (SAIA): a cluster randomized trial." Implement Sci. 2014;9:55. Abstract

Despite significant increases in global health investment and the availability of low-cost, efficacious interventions to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (pMTCT) in low- and middle-income countries with high HIV burden, the translation of scientific advances into effective delivery strategies has been slow, uneven and incomplete. As a result, pediatric HIV infection remains largely uncontrolled. A five-step, facility-level systems analysis and improvement intervention (SAIA) was designed to maximize effectiveness of pMTCT service provision by improving understanding of inefficiencies (step one: cascade analysis), guiding identification and prioritization of low-cost workflow modifications (step two: value stream mapping), and iteratively testing and redesigning these modifications (steps three through five). This protocol describes the SAIA intervention and methods to evaluate the intervention's impact on reducing drop-offs along the pMTCT cascade.

Sherida WP, Vincent MO, O WS, Duke Gekonge Omayio, Okumu MO. "Estimation and human health risk assessment of organochlorine and organophosphate pesticide residues in raw milk collected in Kenya." Research. https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.74748.1 . 2022.
Shepherd M, Kasem S, Ablett G, Ochieng J, Crawford A. Developing a genetic classification for gene pool management of spotted gums.; 2013. Abstract

Spotted gums (Genus Corymbia Section Politaria) occur as a species replacement series along the eastern seaboard of Australia, their distributions marked by regions of disjunction and sympatry. Their taxonomy remains controversial, with species assignment often challenging and reliant upon knowledge of geographic origin as well as subtle morphological or leaf oil variation. In this paper we explore a classification for spotted gums without assuming predefined geographic or taxonomic groups, instead using genetic structure at microsatellite marker loci (n=9) and a Bayesian model-based clustering approach implemented in STRUCTURE software. The C. torelliana outgroup (n=21; Section Cadagaria) formed a well resolved cluster (min. pairwise Fst = 0.19). Four populations were evident within the spotted gums (n=93) but structure was weak (pairwise Fst range 0.13 -0.05). Geography, both distance and topography were major determinants of structure, with migration among populations approximating a linear stepping-stone model. Corymbia maculata was resolved as a taxon and had the greatest genetic distance to any other population (min pairwise Fst 0.08). Three clusters were evident within the northern taxa but alignment with taxonomic groupings was poor. Corymbia citriodora material from north of a major disjunction in Central Queensland formed a Northern population. Corymbia citriodora, C. variegata and C. henryi material from below this disjunction but north of the Border Ranges, formed a Central population, whereas a Southern population was comprised of C. variegata and C. henryi from predominately south of the Border Ranges. Fewer ambiguous assignments occurred using genetic rather than taxonomic groups for self classification of the spotted gum reference population.

Shepherd M, Kasem S, Ablett G, Ochieng JW, Crawford A. "Genetic structuring in the spotted gum complex (genus Corymbia, section Politaria)." Australian Systematic Botany . 2008;21:1-11.2008_shepherd_et_al_asb.pdf
Shepherd M, Lee DJ, Baker N, Kasem S, Ochieng JW, Bihua C;, Henry RJ. Corymbia genetics at Southern Cross University (Presentation Corymbia Research Meeting).; 2005.
Shepelo GP, Maingi N. "Major causes of poultry mortality in Nairobi and its environs established from autopsie." A Journal of The Kenya Veterinary Association. 2014;38(1):32-42.
Shepelo PG, Kariuki HW, Aboge G, Gakuya DW, Maingi N, Mulei CM. "Prevalence of Ticks Infesting Dairy Cattle and the Pathogens They Harbour in Smallholder Farms in Peri-Urban Areas of Nairobi, Kenya." Hindawi, Veterinary Medicine International. 2021;2021.
Shenoy S, Baliga S, Saldanha DR, Prashanth HV, others. "Antibiotic sensitivity patterns of {Pseudomonas} aeruginosa strains isolated from various clinical specimens." Indian journal of medical sciences. 2002;56:427. AbstractWebsite
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Shem Otoi Sam, Pokhariyal GP, Manene MM, Kipchumba IC. "Reparameterization of vector error correction model from auto-regressive distributed lag to analyze the effects of macroeconomic shocks on youth employment in Kenya." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2019;4(1):: 05-17. AbstractWebsite

This study analyzes the effects of reparameterization of autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) to vector error correction model (VECM) through cointegration of time series. It further verifies the effects of macroeconomic shocks on youth unemployment in Kenya using VECM. First, the unit root test has been done on youth unemployment (YUN), gross domestic product (GDP), external debt (ED), foreign direct investment (FDI), private investment (PI), youth literacy level (LR), and youth population (POP) to verify stationarity. The Johansen Cointegration Test has been employed and revealed three long run relationships which can be interpreted as a GDP effect, External Debt effect and Foreign Direct Investment effect relations. A structural VECM has been described through restrictions derived from the Cointegration Analysis. Based on the results of the Impulse-Response Function analysis and variance decomposition analysis of the Structural VECM, it is concluded that GDP, literacy level, population, Private Investment, External and FDI shocks have significant effects on Kenyan youth unemployment in the long run. Based on the results of the Impulse-Response Function and variance decomposition analyses of the Structural VECM, it is concluded that GDP, literacy level, population, and FDI shocks have significant effects on Kenyan youth unemployment in the long run. Whereas population, external debt, private investment, and GDP have positive effects, foreign direct investment and literacy rate have negative effects on youth unemployment in the long run. The results provide a statistical basis for assessing and prioritising investment policies and …

Shem Otoi Sam, Pokhariyal GP, hir Moses M Manene, Kipchirc IC. "Autoregressive distributed lag cointegration analysis of youth unemployment in Kenya." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2019;4(1):29-41. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we consider cointegration analysis in an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) structure. First, logarithmic transformation is performed on the series to reduce outlier effects and have elasticity interpreted in terms of percentage. Second, the variables are tested for stationarity using Augmented Dickey-Fuller test. Third, the Johansen Cointegration test is carried out to examine cointegration of the series. Fourth, cointegrated dynamic ARDL model is estimated using ordinary least squares (OLS) and effects of variables and their lags interpreted. The results indicate that Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and its two-year lag are the only ones having negative effect on youth unemployment, that is, one unit increase in GDP and GDP two-year lag reduce youth unemployment by 0.207922% and 0.2052705% respectively. Also, one unit increase in External Debt (ED) and ED two-year lag reduce youth unemployment by 0.07303% and 0.009116% respectively. Furthermore, unit increase in one-year lag of youth literacy rate is the only one which reduces youth unemployment by 0.0892691%; one-year and three-year lag of population (POP) reduce youth unemployment by 0.2590455% and 4.3093119% respectively. The Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and Private Investment (PI) do not have significant effects on youth unemployment. In the long run, increase in GDP causes increase in youth unemployment by 0.09148447%. The long run result explains that GDP growth in the country is “jobless growth” mainly in less labour intensive sectors

Shem Otoi Sam, Manene MM, Isaac C Kipchirchir, Pokhariyal GP. "Cointegration analysis of youth unemployment in Kenya." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2020;5(3): 129-133. AbstractWebsite

In this paper analysis of contribution of macroeconomic variables gross domestic product
(GDP), external debt (ED), foreign direct investment (FDI), private investment (PI), youth
population (POP), and youth literacy rate (LR) to youth unemployment (YUN) in Kenya over
time is done. The analysis is done under framework of cointegration of time series data. First,
logarithmic transformation of the series is carried out followed by stationarity test to determine
the order of stationarity. The Philip-Ouliaris cointegration test is carried out to determine
whether the series are individually cointegrated in a pair-wise manner. Then the Johansen
cointegration test is conducted to determine the rank of cointegration. The paper does not
proceed to identify cointegration relations as that is superfluous as far as estimation of linear
cointegration model is concerned. Finally the linear cointegration equation of the
macroeconomic variables is estimated and interpreted. Philip-Ouliaris test reveals that six pairs
are I(0) while 15 pairs are I(1). The Augmented Dickey-Fuller test finds that GDP, FDI, and
ED are stationary at level, i.e. without differencing whereas PI, LR, YUN, and POP are
stationary of first difference. According to Johansen cointegration test, the rank of
cointegration is 3, revealing three cointegration relations among the variables used. The results
indicate that 1% increase in GDP, ED, FDI, and LR increases YUN by 0.356204%, 0.269%,
0.002441%, and 0.154216 respectively. Contrarily, 1% increase in population reduces youth
unemployment by 0.350833%.The model is subjected to F-test and p-value test and found to
be statistically significant.

Shem Otoi Sam, Pokhariyal GP, Manene MM, Isaac C Kipchirchir. "Autoregressive distributed lag cointegration analysis of youth unemployment in Kenya." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2019;4(1): 29-41. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we consider cointegration analysis in an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) structure. First, logarithmic transformation is performed on the series to reduce outlier effects and have elasticity interpreted in terms of percentage. Second, the variables are tested for stationarity using Augmented Dickey-Fuller test. Third, the Johansen Cointegration test is carried out to examine cointegration of the series. Fourth, cointegrated dynamic ARDL model is estimated using ordinary least squares (OLS) and effects of variables and their lags interpreted. The results indicate that Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and its two-year lag are the only ones having negative effect on youth unemployment, that is, one unit increase in GDP and GDP two-year lag reduce youth unemployment by 0.207922% and 0.2052705% respectively. Also, one unit increase in External Debt (ED) and ED two-year lag reduce youth unemployment by 0.07303% and 0.009116% respectively. Furthermore, unit increase in one-year lag of youth literacy rate is the only one which reduces youth unemployment by 0.0892691%; one-year and three-year lag of population (POP) reduce youth unemployment by 0.2590455% and 4.3093119% respectively. The Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and Private Investment (PI) do not have significant effects on youth unemployment. In the long run, increase in GDP causes increase in youth unemployment by 0.09148447%. The long run result explains that GDP growth in the country is “jobless growth” mainly in less labour intensive sectors.

Shem Otoi Sam, Manene MM, Isaac C Kipchirchir, Pokhariyal GP. "Cointegration analysis of youth unemployment in Kenya." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2020;5(3):129-133. AbstractWebsite

In this paper analysis of contribution of macroeconomic variables gross domestic product (GDP), external debt (ED), foreign direct investment (FDI), private investment (PI), youth population (POP), and youth literacy rate (LR) to youth unemployment(YUN) in Kenya over time is done. The analysis is done under framework of cointegration of time series data. First, logarithmic transformation of the series is carried out followed by stationarity test to determine the order of stationarity. The Philip-Ouliaris cointegration test is carried out to determine whether the series are individually cointegrated in a pair-wise manner. Then the Johansen cointegration test is conducted to determine the rank of cointegration. The paper does not proceed to identify cointegration relations as that is superfluous as far as estimation of linear cointegration model is concerned. Finally the linear cointegration equation of the macroeconomic variables is estimated and interpreted. Philip-Ouliaris test reveals that six pairs are I(0) while 15 pairs are I(1). The Augmented Dickey-Fuller test finds that GDP, FDI, and ED are stationary at level, i.e. without differencing whereas PI, LR, YUN, and POP are stationary of first difference. According to Johansen cointegration test, the rank of cointegration is 3, revealing three cointegration relations among the variables used. The results indicate that 1% increase in GDP, ED, FDI, and LR increases YUN by 0.356204%, 0.269%, 0.002441%, and 0.154216 respectively. Contrarily, 1% increasein population reduces youth unemployment by 0.350833%.The model is subjected to F-test and p-value test and found to be statistically significant

SHEM MRON&#39;GONDO. "LL.M Thesis, 1987, Towards Sustainable Development: Environmental Degradating and the rural Poor of Kenya.". In: International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Vol. 6 & 7, (Nos. 1 & 2) : 45 . Jane A. Otadoh,, Sheila A. Okoth, James Ochanda, James P. Khaindi; 1987. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
SHEM MRON&#39;GONDO. "Work Essay 1994 LL.M (1994), International Law Protection for Refugees and Stateless Persons.". In: International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Vol. 6 & 7, (Nos. 1 & 2) : 45 . Jane A. Otadoh,, Sheila A. Okoth, James Ochanda, James P. Khaindi; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
SHEM MRON&#39;GONDO. "LL.M Course Work Essay (1994), Humanitarian law and the International Protection of victims of Armed Conflicts.". In: International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Vol. 6 & 7, (Nos. 1 & 2) : 45 . Jane A. Otadoh,, Sheila A. Okoth, James Ochanda, James P. Khaindi; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
SHEM MRON&#39;GONDO. "LL.M Course Work Essay (1993), University of Nairobi. The individual as a Subject or Object of International Law.". In: International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Vol. 6 & 7, (Nos. 1 & 2) : 45 . Jane A. Otadoh,, Sheila A. Okoth, James Ochanda, James P. Khaindi; 1993. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
SHEM MRON&#39;GONDO. "Thesis LLM (1998) University of Nairobi: The International Seabedd Authority. A Regine Beyond the Reach of Developing States.". In: International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Vol. 6 & 7, (Nos. 1 & 2) : 45 . Jane A. Otadoh,, Sheila A. Okoth, James Ochanda, James P. Khaindi; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
Sheikh MA, Kemoli AM, Owino RO. "Prevalence of Dental caries and Gingivitis among children with type 1 diabetes mellitus a ending an outpatient clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital in Kenya." East Afr Med J. 2017;2017;93(1); 82-88(2017;93(1); 82-88):2017;93(1); 82-88.
SHEIKH ABDULATIFAHMED. Arabic Morphology.; 2012.
Sheikh MA. Colostomy closure as seen at kenyatta national hospital both retrospective and prospective study.; 2003. Abstract

This is both a prospective study of thirty patients from March 2002 to February 2003 and a
retrospective study of eighty-five patients from January 1999 to February 2002 who underwent colostomy closure at the Kenyatta National Hospital. There was no significant difference in the
results of the two groups.
The main objective of the study was to analyse variables that determine outcome of colostomy
closure. All patients who met the inclusion criteria were recruited into the study.
The average age of patients in the prospective group was 34 (range, 15-85) years and 35 (range
16-87) years in the retrospective group. There were more males than females in the study with a
male to female ratio of 5:1 and 4.3:1 in the prospective and retrospective groups respectively.
The common indications for colostomy were colon injury and colon obstruction accounting for
more than eighty five percent (85%) of the patients.
Hartman's colostomy was the commonest type of colostomy fashioned accounting for fifty
percent (50%) and 44.7% of the colostomies in the prospective and retrospective studies
'respectively. Seventy percent (70%) of the colostomies in the prospective group and 58.8% of
those in the retrospective group were sited at the sigmoid colon. Mean time until colostomy
closure was 7.6 (range, 0.82 to 91) months in the prospective group and 5.3 (range, 0.79 to 29) ,
months in the retrospective group.
All the patients had mechanical bowel preparation. Seventy three percent (73%) in the
prospective group and 63.3% in the retrospective group had prophylactic systemic antibiotics.
All the patients had intraperitoneal closure of the colostomy. About ninety percent (90%) of the
patients in the study had two-layer anastomosis of the colon. About sixty percent (60%) of the
patients in the study had their colostomies closed in less than two hours. The average hospital
stay for patients in the prospective group was 7.1 (range, 2 to 18) days and 9.8 (range, 4 to 61)
days in the retrospective group.
The rate of developing early complications was 16.7% in the prospective group of which 13.4%
had wound infection and 15.3% in the retrospective group of which 11.8% had wound infection.
There was no death. There was a trend of increasing morbidity in patients who had colon
obstruction, colostomies sited at the sigmoid colon, Hartman's colostomy, operations lasting
more than two hours and those operated by Registrars.

SHEIKH ABDULATIFAHMED. Al-Bustan.; 2008.
SHEIKH ABDULATIFAHMED. Fundamentals of Arabic Grammar.; 2009.
SHEIKH ABDULATIFAHMED. How to nature our children properly.; 1996.
SHEIKH ABDULATIFAHMED. Arabic Stracture.; 2010.
Shee Ali, Onyari JM WJNMD. "Methylene Blue Adsorption onto Coconut husks/Polylactide Blended Films: Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies." Chemistry and Materials Research. 2014;Vol.6(No.11):28-37.
Shay TZ;, Haidar J;, Kogi-Makau W. "Magnitude of and driving factors for female genital cutting in schoolgirls in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a crosssectional study."; 2010. Abstract

Background. Female genital cutting (FGC) is practised throughout the world, and is common in many Asian and African countries. Although FGC in Ethiopia has decreased, the practice is still very widespread. Methods. A cross-sectional study design with an analytical component was used to study girls attending randomly sampled primary schools in Addis Ababa between August and June 2008. A total of 407 girls, selected from four primary schools, and their respective families were recruited. Data were collected through self-administered and open-ended questionnaires and analysed using bivariate and multivariate models. Results. In this group of schoolgirls, 26.0% had undergone FGC at a median age of 4 years. FGC had most commonly been performed at age 1 - 5 years, when 50.9% of the total group had been circumcised. Of the girls attending government schools, 36.6% had undergone FGC. The majority of the procedures had been performed by traditional circumcisers (62.3%), followed by health workers (22.6%). The decision to subject the girl to FGC was most frequently made by mothers (38.7% of the FGC group), the remainder of the decisions being made by fathers (24.5%), both parents (22.6%) and relatives (14.2%). There was a significantly higher prevalence of FGC among girls attending government schools, girls of Guraghe ethnicity, and girls whose mothers had no knowledge about the harm of FGC. A smaller proportion of girls living with both parents than of those living with relatives had undergone FGC. Conclusions. FGC is prevalent in primary schoolgirls in the capital city of Ethiopia, despite improved availability of health information. This situation underscores the need to reinforce the national law against FGC. Creation of awareness should be focused on parents of Guraghe ethnicity and on government schools. Parental education should be promoted, and empowerment of women is required to fight FGC.

SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1986: Trends in Developments of Surveying Instruments and Methodologies. Lecture delivered at the University of Zambia, Lusaka, 1986.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1989.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF, SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1972: The use of Proper Weight Numbers in the Analytical determination of the Elements of Relative Orientation, Scientific Bulletin No. 36, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1972.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1994: Analytical Photogrammetry finds its way and applications in Kenya. An area report, GIM, Aug. 1994, pp. 29-32.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1995.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1997: Variations of Mount Kenya.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 2005: Changing systems and changing landscapes: Measuring and interpreting land use transformation in African drylands. Geografisk Tidsskrift, Danish Journal of Geography 2005, Vol. 105(1), pp. 101-118.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1991.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF, SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1977: Teaching of Surveying at the University of Nairobi, presented paper at the inaugural meeting of the Geodetic Commission for Africa, Lagos, April 1977.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1977.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 2001: A Manual GIS for Machakos District, Kenya. Proceedings of The International Conference on Spatial Information for Sustainable Development, Oct. 2001, Nairobi, Kenya, paper TS 5.5.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 2004: Geospatial Monitoring of the Glaciers on Mount Kenya. Presented Paper to the Fifth Conference of the African Association of Remote Sensing of the Environment (AARSE), 17-22 October, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: African Jour. Sci &Tech, vol. 4, No.1, pp104-109, with R.O.Simwa. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2005.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1992: Spatially Oriented Reference Systems in Kenya: The State and Needs: A paper presented at the Spatially-Oriented Referencing Systems Association Workshops and Symposium, (SORSA - 92), Ottawa, July 1992.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1992.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF, SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1980: Concept and accuracy of relative orientation, presented paper to the 14th International Congress of the International Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Hamburg, July, 1980.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1980.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1991: Environmental Changes And Dryland Management in Machakos District, Kenya, 1930-1990: Land Use Profile.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1990.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1994: Variations of Mount Kenya.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1994.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1982: Education in Geodesy at the University of Nairobi. Presented paper at the First International Symposium on Education in Geodesy, Gratz, Austria, September 1982.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1982.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1992: Education and Training in Developing Countries: Problems and Solutions. Presented Paper to the United Nations Inter-regional Seminar for Developing Countries on Educational Aspects: XVII ISPRS Congress, Washington D. C., Aug. 1992.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1992.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1994: Analytical Photogrammetry finds its way and applications in Kenya. An area report, GIM, Aug. 1994, pp. 29-32.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1995.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1986: Surveying in developing Kenya: the role and the prospects. Inaugural Lecture, University of Nairobi, January 1986.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1986.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1992: Patterns of Aerial Triangulation by Independent Models", Int. Arch. of Photogrammetry. & Remote. Sensing., XVII ISPRS Congress, Washington D. C., Aug. 1992, Vol. XXIX, part B3, Commission III, pp 241-249.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1993.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1989: Variations of Mt. Kenya s Glaciers 1963 - 87, 1989, Erdkunde, 43, pp 202-210.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1987.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF, SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1969: The Use of Groups of Points Instead of Single Point for Analytical Relative orientation, Scientific Bulletin No. 27, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1969.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1995: Variations of the Lewis and Gregory Glaciers, Mt. Kenya, 1990 -1993, Erdkunde, 49, pp. 60-62, 1995.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1995.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 2001: A Manual GIS for Machakos District, Kenya. Proceedings of The International Conference on Spatial Information for Sustainable Development, Oct. 2001, Nairobi, Kenya, paper TS 5.5.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1991: Environmental Changes And Dryland Management in Machakos District, Kenya, 1930-1990: Land Use Profile.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1990.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF, SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1976: Elements of Surveying for Civil Engineers, A textbook for Civil Engineering students, (in Arabic).". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1976.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 2001: Enhancing Socio-Economic Development with Geoinformation Knowledge: The Challenges and Responsibilities. A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nov. 2001, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 2001: Remote Sensing and GIS: Powerful Tools for Decision Makers. Opening Remarks, GIS Workshop for Decision Makers, RELMA & ICRAF, Nairobi, Dec. 2001.". In: African Jour. Sci &Tech, vol. 4, No.1, pp104-109, with R.O.Simwa. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1992: Education and Training in Developing Countries: Problems and Solutions. Presented Paper to the United Nations Inter-regional Seminar for Developing Countries on Educational Aspects: XVII ISPRS Congress, Washington D. C., Aug. 1992.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1992.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF, SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1981: Stability of relative orientation. Photogrammetric Record, 10(57): 343-357, April 1981.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1980.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Enhancing Socio-Economic Development with Geoinformation Knowledge: The Challenges and Responsibilities.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1990 : Variations of the Lewis and Gregory Glaciers, Mt. Kenya, 1978-86-90, , Erdkunde, 44, pp 313-317.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1990.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1992: Patterns of Aerial Triangulation by Independent Models", Int. Arch. of Photogrammetry. & Remote. Sensing., XVII ISPRS Congress, Washington D. C., Aug. 1992, Vol. XXIX, part B3, Commission III, pp 241-249.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1993.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1982: State of Geodetic education in African countries. Presented paper at the First International Symposium on Education in Geodesy, Gratz, Austria, September 1982.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1982.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1990: Geodetic education in Africa: Facing the Challenge in the Nineties, presented paper to the 4th Symposium on Geodesy in Africa, Tunisia, May 1990.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1991.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1995: Variations of the Lewis and Gregory Glaciers, Mt. Kenya, 1990 -1993, Erdkunde, 49, pp. 60-62, 1995.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1995.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1981: Activities of the Education and Publications Committee for Geodesy in Africa: 1977 - 1981". A report presented to the Second International Symposium on Geodesy in Africa, Nairobi, November, 1981.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1982.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1991: Monitoring Recent Crustal Movements in the Kenya Rift Valley by Global Positioning System (GPS) - A Proposal. J. Geodynamics Vol. 14, Nos. 1-4, pp 65-72, 1991.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1992.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1986: Surveying Education in Africa: State and Prospects. Presented paper to the International Colloquium in Surveying and Mapping Education, Fredericton, Canada, June 1985, and (with some modification) to the Third Symposium on Geodesy in Af.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1986.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF, SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1968: On the Effect of Differences in heights between Ground Points on the Accuracy of Analytical Relative Orientation, Scientific Bulletin No. 23, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1968.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, l993: Monitoring of Mountainous Resources by Remote Sensing, A Study of the variations of Mount Kenya s Glaciers, a paper presented at the African Mountain Association, Second Workshop, Nairobi March l993.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1994.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 2001: Enhancing Socio-Economic Development with Geoinformation Knowledge: The Challenges and Responsibilities. A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nov. 2001, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1990 : Variations of the Lewis and Gregory Glaciers, Mt. Kenya, 1978-86-90, , Erdkunde, 44, pp 313-317.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1990.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF, SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1976: The use of Photogrammetry for Geographical Development, invited paper at the Second Arabic Geographic Conference, Baghdad, March 1976.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1976.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1995: Mapping the Glaciers of Mt. Kenya in 1947, Erdkunde, 49, pp. 244-250.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1997.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Enhancing Socio-Economic Development with Geoinformation Knowledge: The Challenges and Responsibilities.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1990: Geodetic education in Africa: Facing the Challenge in the Nineties, presented paper to the 4th Symposium on Geodesy in Africa, Tunisia, May 1990.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1991.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF, SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1978: Remote Sensing for Development, an invited paper at the Seminar of Surveyors in Kenya, Nairobi.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1978.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1997: Variations of Mount Kenya.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1986: Trends in Developments of Surveying Instruments and Methodologies. Lecture delivered at the University of Zambia, Lusaka, 1986.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1989.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1991: Monitoring Recent Crustal Movements in the Kenya Rift Valley by Global Positioning System (GPS) - A Proposal. J. Geodynamics Vol. 14, Nos. 1-4, pp 65-72, 1991.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1992.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1981: Education in Geodesy in Africa - State and Prospect, an invited paper to the Second International Symposium on Geodesy in Africa, Nairobi, November 1981.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1981.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 2005: Changing systems and changing landscapes: Measuring and interpreting land use transformation in African drylands. Geografisk Tidsskrift, Danish Journal of Geography 2005, Vol. 105(1), pp. 101-118.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1991.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, l993: Monitoring of Mountainous Resources by Remote Sensing, A Study of the variations of Mount Kenya s Glaciers, a paper presented at the African Mountain Association, Second Workshop, Nairobi March l993.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1994.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1982: Electronics cut errors and legworks. Kenya Engineers, January/February, 1982.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1982.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1992: Spatially Oriented Reference Systems in Kenya: The State and Needs: A paper presented at the Spatially-Oriented Referencing Systems Association Workshops and Symposium, (SORSA - 92), Ottawa, July 1992.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1992.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1985: Surveying Education at the University of Nairobi with Emphasis on the Foundation Courses. Presented paper to the Colloquium on Surveying and Mapping Education, Fredericton, Canada, June 1985.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1986.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF, SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1964: Analysis of some analytical methods of Determination of the Elements of Relative Orientation for Nearly Vertical Photographs: Ph.D. Thesis, Moscow.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1964.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1994: Variations of Mount Kenya.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1994.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1995: Mapping the Glaciers of Mt. Kenya in 1947, Erdkunde, 49, pp. 244-250.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1997.
Shawa K, Mwega F, DK M. "The Feldstein-Horioka Puzzle and Capital Mobility." African Journal of Social Science. 2012;2(3).the_feldstein-horioka_puzzle_and_capital_mobility.pdf
Shawa K, Mwega F, DK M. "Private Investment in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Dynamic Panel Approach." Journal of Economic Research. 2012;17(3).
Shawa K, Mwega F, Manda D. "The Feldstein-Horioka Puzzle and Capital Mobility: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa' ." African Journal of Social Sciences. 2012;2(13):43-52.
Shawa K, Mwega F, Manda D. "'Private Investment in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Dynamic Panel Approach' ." Journal of Economic Research. 2013.
Shaw BI, Wangara AA, Wambua GM, Kiruja J, Dicker RA, Mweu JM, Juillard C. "Geospatial relationship of road traffic crashes and healthcare facilities with trauma surgical capabilities in Nairobi, Kenya: defining gaps in coverage." Trauma surgery & acute care open. 2017;2:e000130. Abstract
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Shartry AM, Wilson AJ, Varma S. "Sequential Study of Lymph Node and Splenic Aspirates during Theileria Parva Infection in calves." Research in Veterinary Science. 1981;30:1980-1984.
Shartry AM, Wilson AJ, Varma S. "Sequential Study of Lymph Node and Splenic Aspirates during Theileria Parva Infection in calves." Research in Veterinary Science. 1981;30:1980-1984. Abstract
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Sharma BD, Jalota SK, Kar S, Singh CB. "Effect of nitrogen and water uptake on yield of wheat.". 1992.Website
Sharma SB, Gupta V. "Acute appendicitis presenting as acute hemiscrotum in a boy." Indian journal of gastroenterology: official journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology. 2004;23:150. Abstract

A 6-year-old boy presented with diffuse abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting followed by features of acute scrotum. Laboratory and radiological evaluation suggested presence of infective pathology in the inguinoscrotal region. Surgical exploration revealed patent right processus vaginalis with purulent collection resulting from the presence of perforated tip of appendix in the hernial sac. Appendectomy with drainage of scrotal collection and ligation of hernial sac resulted in satisfactory recovery.

Sharma S, Ogot MM. "An inverse dynamic model of a spherical electrohydraulic actuator for use in a dexterous mechanical hand." The International Journal of Robotics Research. 1997;16:557-566. Abstract

The purpose of this article is to develop an inverse dynamic model of a two-degree-of-freedom electrohydraulic actuator. The actuator is to be incorporated at the base of each of three fingers of a nine-degree-of-freedom mechanical hand, currently under development. Motion in the proposed actuator is fa cilitated about intersecting pitch and yaw axes, thus creating spherical actuation. The dynamic model incorporates frictional and hydraulic losses, which are commonly overlooked sources of energy dissipation. The model is to be used in the control scheme of the mechanical hand and in the optimal synthesis procedure of the actuator. The latter application, briefly de scribed here, takes into account specified motion and torque requirements, pressure, peak-input force, and size constraints. Particular attention is paid to traditional performance indices, such as mechanical advantage.

Sharma TC, Gichuki FN, Mungai DN, Gachene CKK. "A Markov model for critical dry and wet days in Kibwezi, Kenya.". 2000. Abstract

The role of probability theory in providing information on the critical dry and wet periods using daily rainfall data was studied. The methodology was illustrated using the daily rainfall data from Kibwezi rainfall station, Kenya, with 55 years of records. The theory of runs, conditional probability, Poisson probability density and Chi-square statistics were used in the analysis. The model performed well and simulated the critical dry and wet periods (days) adequately. Results showed that one may expect the critical dry period to be about 24 and 12 days during the long and short rainy seasons, resp. Similarly, the critical wet spell is expected to last for 5 and 6 days, resp. It is suggested that drought analysis in the Kibwezi region should be based on the dry periods of the long rainy season, and runoff, soil erosion and rain harvesting analysis on the wet periods of the short rainy season.

Sharma VK, Jain A, Mbuya OS. "Removal of arsenite by Fe(VI), Fe(VI)/Fe(III), and Fe(VI)/Al(III) salts: effect of pH and anions.". 2009. Abstract

The removal of arsenate and arsenite from drinking water poses challenges, especially when arsenite is present in a significant amount. The removal of arsenite by K(2)FeO(4), K(2)FeO(4)/FeCl(3), and K(2)FeO(4)/AlCl(3) salts was studied at pH 6.5 and at an initial As concentration of 500 microg As(III)L(-1). The arsenite removal in Fe(VI)/Fe(III) and Fe(VI)/Al(III) systems was also examined as a function of pH (6.0-8.0). Arsenite was first oxidized by Fe(VI) to arsenate, which was subsequently removed through adsorption by Fe(III) or mixed Fe(III)-Al(III) oxy/hydroxide phases. Fe(VI)/Al(III) salts had higher removal efficiency of arsenite than Fe(VI) and Fe(VI)/Fe(III) salts. A molar ratio of 6(3/3):1 for Fe(VI)/Al(III) to As(III) decreased arsenite concentration from 500 to 1.4 microg L(-1) at pH 6.5. Arsenite removal increased with a decrease in pH from 8.0 to 6.0 and exhibited less pH dependence in the Fe(VI)/Al(III) system than in the Fe(VI)/Fe(III) system. Aluminum chloride salts performed better than FeCl(3) and FeCl(3)/AlCl(3) salts (Fe:Al=1:1) in removing As(V) from water. Effect of anions (phosphate, silicate, bicarbonate, nitrate, and sulfate) on the arsenite removal by Fe(VI)/Al(III) salts at pH 6.5 was examined. Phosphate, silicate, and bicarbonate ions interfered with the removal of arsenite in water. Nitrate and sulfate had none to minimal effect on arsenite removal. Fe(VI)/Al(III) salts showed a potential for removing arsenite below the current drinking water standard (10 microg L(-1)).

Sharma RK, O’Leary TE, Fields CM, Johnson DA. "Development of the outer retina in the mouse." Developmental Brain Research. 2003;145:93-105. AbstractWebsite

Mice represent a valuable species for studies of development and disease. With the availability of transgenic models for retinal degeneration in this species, information regarding development and structure of mouse retina has become increasingly important. Of special interest is the differentiation and synaptogenesis of photoreceptors since these cells are predominantly involved in hereditary retinal degenerations. Thus, some of the keys to future clinical management of these retinal diseases may lie in understanding the molecular mechanisms of outer retinal development. In this study, we describe the expression of markers for photoreceptors (recoverin), horizontal cells (calbindin), bipolar cells (protein kinase C; PKC) and cytoskeletal elements pivotal to axonogenesis (beta-tubulin and actin) during perinatal development of mouse retina. Immunocytochemical localization of recoverin, calbindin, PKC and beta-tubulin was monitored in developing mouse retina (embryonic day (E) 18.5 to postnatal day (PN) 14), whereas f-actin was localized by Phalloidin binding. Recoverin immunoreactive cells, presumably the photoreceptors, were observed embryonically (E 18.5) and their number increased until PN 14. Neurite projections from the immunoreactive cells towards the outer plexiform layer (OPL) were noted at PN 0 and these processes reached the OPL at PN 7 coincident with histological evidence for the differentiation of the OPL. Outer segments, all the cell bodies in the ONL, as well as the OPL were immunoreactive to recoverin at PN 14. Calbindin immunoreactive horizontal cells were also present in E 18.5 retinas. These cells became progressively displaced proximally as the ONL developed. A calbindin immunoreactive plexus was seen in the OPL at PN 7. PKC immunoreactive bipolar cells developed postnatally, becoming distinguished at PN 7. Both beta-tubulin and actin immunoreactive cells were present in the IPL as early as E 18.5; however, appearance of processes labeled with these markers in the OPL was delayed until PN 7, concurrent with the first appearance of photoreceptor neurites, development of the horizontal cell plexus, and development of synaptophysin immunoreactivity at this location. These results provide a developmental timeframe for the expression of recoverin, calbindin, synaptophysin, beta-tubulin and actin. Our findings suggest that the time between PN 3 and PN 7 represents a critical period during which elements of the OPL are assembled.

Sharif SK. Autoimmune Profile In Insulin' Dependent Diabetes Mellitus At Kenyatta National Hospital.; 1985. Abstract

131 patients with IDDM attending K.N.H. were studied.
The mean age of onset of IDDM was 20.1 years. There
was a male predominance with M:F ratio of 1.4:1 There
was a low prevalence of IDDM among first degree
relatives of diabetic probands. Definitive history of
viral infection preceding the onset of IDDM was found in
one patient. None of the patients had thryroglobulin
antibodies; thyroid microsomal antibodies were found in
0.7% of the patients. Parietal cell antibodies were
found in 4.6% of the patients. Islet cell antibodies
were found in 3.7% of patients with IDDM.· The prevalence
of autoantibodies in Kenyan Africans with IDDM is much
lower when compared with Caucasians and Black Americans
with IDDM. In view of the low prevalence of autoantibodies
in Kenyan Africans with IDDM, primary autoimmune diabetes
mellitus is considered rare in Kenyan Africans with IDDM.

Share JB. "Review of drug treatment for Down's syndrome persons." Am J Ment Defic. 1976;80(4):388-93. Abstract

A review of drug treatment for Down's syndrome individuals was presented. Drugs used to modify behavior, as well as drugs used with the goal of affecting cognitive processes, were discussed. Some observations were offered as to the effectiveness of past and current drugs on Down's syndrome and some methodological problems relating to drug studies presented. There have not been any drugs that have demonstrated remarkable improvement in the status of Down's syndrome individuals that have been widely accepted as effective.

Share JB. "Review of drug treatment for Down's syndrome persons." Am J Ment Defic. 1976;80(4):388-93. Abstract

A review of drug treatment for Down's syndrome individuals was presented. Drugs used to modify behavior, as well as drugs used with the goal of affecting cognitive processes, were discussed. Some observations were offered as to the effectiveness of past and current drugs on Down's syndrome and some methodological problems relating to drug studies presented. There have not been any drugs that have demonstrated remarkable improvement in the status of Down's syndrome individuals that have been widely accepted as effective.

Shao H, Zhang H, Peng B, Tan X, Liu G-Q, Jiang J, Jiang H. "A first-principles study on the intrinsic phonon transport of Cu2GeSe3." EPL (Europhysics Letters). 2016;115:26002. Abstract
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Shao H, Jin M, Peng B, Zhang H, Tan X, Liu G-Q, Jiang H, Jiang J. "First-principles study of manipulating the phonon transport of molybdenum disulfide by sodium intercalating." The Journal of Physical Chemistry C. 2018;122:2632-2640. Abstract
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Shanower TG,; Ongaro JM;;, Nderitu JH, Songa J. "Natural enemies associated with arthropod pests of pigeon pea in Easter Africa. International Chickpea and Pigeon pea .". In: Workshop on Sustainable Horticultural Production in the Tropics . JKUAT; 2001.
Shanmugam KT, Chan I, Morandi C. "Regulation of nitrogen fixation. Nitrogenase-derepressed mutants of Klebsiella pneumoniae." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;408(2):101-11. Abstract

1. A new procedure is described for selecting nitrogenase-derepressed mutants based on the method of Brenchley et al. (Brenchley, J.E., Prival, M.J. and Magasanik, B. (1973) J. Biol. Chem. 248, 6122-6128) for isolating histidase-constitutive mutants of a non-N2-fixing bacterium. 2. Nitrogenase levels of the new mutants in the presence of NH4+ were as high as 100% of the nitrogenase activity detected in the absence of NH4+. 3. Biochemical characterization of these nitrogen fixation (nif) derepressed mutants reveals that they fall into three classes. Three mutants (strains SK-24, 28 and 29), requiring glutamate for growth, synthesize nitrogenase and glutamine synthetase constitutively (in the presence of NH4+). A second class of mutants (strains SK-27 and 37) requiring glutamine for growth produces derepressed levels of nitrogenase activity and synthesized catalytically inactive glutamine synthetase protein, as determined immunologically. A third class of glutamine-requiring, nitrogenase-derepressed mutants (strain SK-25 and 26) synthesizes neither a catalytically active glutamine synthetase enzyme nor an immunologically cross-reactive glutamine synthetase protein. 4. F-prime complementation analysis reveals that the mutant strains SK-25, 26, 27, 37 map in a segment of the Klebsiella chromosome corresponding to the region coding for glutamine synthetase. Since the mutant strains SK-27 and SK-37 produce inactive glutamine synthetase protein, it is concluded that these mutations map within the glutamine synthetase structural gene.

Shang B, Zhang X, Ji R, Wang Y, Hu H, Peng B, Deng Z. "Preparation of colloidal polydopamine/Au hollow spheres for enhanced ultrasound contrast imaging and photothermal therapy." Materials Science and Engineering: C. 2020;106:110174. Abstract
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Shang B, Xu M, Zhi Z, Xi Y, Wang Y, Peng B, Li P, Deng Z. "Synthesis of sandwich-structured silver@ polydopamine@ silver shells with enhanced antibacterial activities." Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. 2020;558:47-54. Abstract
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Shakur H, Roberts I, Fawole B, Chaudhri R, El-Sheikh M, desina Akintan, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Kidanto H, Vwalika B, Abdulkadir A, Etuk S, Noor S, Asonganyi E, Alfirevic Z, Beaumont D, Ronsmans C, Arulkumaran S. "Effect of early tranexamic acid administration on mortality, hysterectomy, and other morbidities in women with post-partum haemorrhage (WOMAN): an international, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial." Lancet. 2017. AbstractWebsite

Summary
Background
Post-partum haemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death worldwide. Early administration of
tranexamic acid reduces deaths due to bleeding in trauma patients. We aimed to assess the effects of early administration
of tranexamic acid on death, hysterectomy, and other relevant outcomes in women with post-partum haemorrhage.
Methods
In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we recruited women aged 16 years and older with a
clinical diagnosis of post-partum haemorrhage after a vaginal birth or caesarean section from 193 hospitals in 21 countries.
We randomly assigned women to receive either 1 g intravenous tranexamic acid or matching placebo in addition to usual
care. If bleeding continued after 30 min, or stopped and restarted within 24 h of the first dose, a second dose of 1 g of
tranexamic acid or placebo could be given. Patients were assigned by selection of a numbered treatment pack from a box
containing eight numbered packs that were identical apart from the pack number. Participants, care givers, and those
assessing outcomes were masked to allocation. We originally planned to enrol 15
000 women with a composite primary
endpoint of death from all-causes or hysterectomy within 42 days of giving birth. However, during the trial it became
apparent that the decision to conduct a hysterectomy was often made at the same time as randomisation. Although
tranexamic acid could influence the risk of death in these cases, it could not affect the risk of hysterectomy. We therefore
increased the sample size from 15
000 to 20
000 women in order to estimate the effect of tranexamic acid on the risk of
death from post-partum haemorrhage. All analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. This trial is registered with
ISRCTN76912190 (Dec 8, 2008); ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00872469; and PACTR201007000192283.
Findings
Between March, 2010, and April, 2016, 20
060
women were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive
tranexamic acid (n=10
051) or placebo (n=10
009), of whom 10
036 and 9985, respectively, were included in the analysis.
Death due to bleeding was significantly reduced in women given tranexamic acid (155 [1·5%] of 10
036 patients
vs
191
[1·9%] of 9985 in the placebo group, risk ratio [RR] 0·81, 95% CI 0·65–1·00; p=0·045), especially in women given
treatment within 3 h of giving birth (89 [1·2%] in the tranexamic acid group
vs
127 [1·7%] in the placebo group,
RR 0·69, 95% CI 0·52–0·91; p=0·008). All other causes of death did not differ significantly by group. Hysterectomy
was not reduced with tranexamic acid (358 [3·6%] patients in the tranexamic acid group
vs
351 [3·5%] in the placebo
group, RR 1·02, 95% CI 0·88–1·07; p=0·84). The composite primary endpoint of death from all causes or hysterectomy
was not reduced with tranexamic acid (534 [5·3%] deaths or hysterectomies in the tranexamic acid group
vs
546 [5·5%]
in the placebo group, RR 0·97, 95% CI 0·87-1·09; p=0·65). Adverse events (including thromboembolic events) did
not differ significantly in the tranexamic acid versus placebo group.
Interpretation
Tranexamic acid reduces death due to bleeding in women with post-partum haemorrhage with no
adverse effects. When used as a treatment for postpartum haemorrhage, tranexamic acid should be given as soon as
possible after bleeding onset.
Funding
London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Pfizer, UK Department of Health, Wellcome Trust, and
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Shaka M, Dulo SO, wycliffe S, Joseph K, Timothy I, James K, Paul K, Patrick O, simon G, Victor K, Roseln O, Deksios T. "Flood And Drought Forecasting And Early Warning Program (For The Nile Basin).".; 2005.
Shaka, Roushdy, Dulo. Flood and Drought Forecasting and Early Warning Program (For the Nile Basin). Nile Basin Capacity Building Network for River Engineering; 2010.
Shahmanesh M, Wayal S, Cowan F, Mabey D, Copas A, Patel V, Ngugi EN. "Suicidal behavior among female sex workers in Goa, India: the silent epidemic.". 2007. Abstract

Given that sex work is stigmatized In more countries Ihan not, it is likely to cause stress and increase sUicidal behaviour. This is significant and Iherefore the interventions should also include psychosocial counselling in order to support the sex workers' coping mechanisms. The findings of this study show that sooro-eccoormc empowerment reduces HIV risks in female sex workers who are from a low socio-economic class. My experience too has shown thai an empathetic attitude from care providers increases the sex-workers' self-worth and therefore the ability to cope. Studies have shown that female sex work in Africa, part of ASia and some inner cities of developed countries is poverty-driven. The majority of women are really practising survival as they also have children to feed, clothe and send to school. My experience in Kenya is that the interaction between poverty and stigma increases stress and therefore SUicidal tendency. The added problem is when the female sex worker would also turn out to be HIV-infected. Holistic and responsive interventions are recommended for quality mental health in female sex workers A major question that still remains IS how can poverty-driven sex work be effectively reduced. A limitation of the study is that the study population size was not sufficiently large to allow generalization. For further reading please see ret (1}. on which I am an author. whose results give female sex workers power to reduce dependency on sex income or exit.

Shah. P. and Irandu. E. "Ecotourism: The case of Karura Forest, Nairobi." African Journal of Tourism and Hospitality. 2015;Volume 2(2):21-40.
Shah K, Butt FMA DIEA. "Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic tumour: Pindborg Tumour." Anat Journal of Africa. 2013;2:135-136.pindborg_2013.pdf
Shah PS, Irandu EM. "The potential and challenges of promoting ecotourism in Kenya’s Wetlands.". In: Building communities, saving nature . Strathmore University, Centre for Tourism and Hospitality; 2014.

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