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2018
Shah P. "The urban future of food and nutrition security.". In: Food security, renewable energy and water: Insights on sustainability. Nairobi: University of Nairobi ; 2018.
Swaleh MM, Anyona AA, Onyambu CK, Muriithi IM, Mutala TM. "Utility of Sonohysterography in Evaluation of Patients with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding." Obstet Gynecol Rep. 2018;2(2):1-7.Website
Sila JM, Guto PM, Michira IN, Mwaura FB. "Voltammetric Determination of Penicillin G in sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/acetate buffer Media on Glassy Carbon Electrode." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). 2018;42(4):144-155.
Sila JM, Guto PM, Michira IN, Mwaura FB. "Voltammetric Determination of Penicillin G in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/Acetet Buffer Media on Glassy carbon Electrode." international journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). 2018;42(4):144-155.
Langer L, Erasmus Y, Tannous N, Obuku E, Ravat Z, Chisoro C, OM, Nduku P, Tripney J, van Rooyen C, Stewart R. "Women in wage labour: A systematic review of the Effectiveness and Design Features of Interventions Supporting Women’s Participation in Wage Labour in Higher-growth and/or Male …." ucl discovery. 2018. Abstracteppi.ioe.ac.uk

In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), women’s participation in wage labour is significantly lower than that of men. In addition, women’s participation is often clustered in particular sectors of the economy that are not well-remunerated and have lower prestige. Higher growth economic sectors such as ICT and finance are dominated by men, excluding women from lucrative opportunities for social and economic development. Even where women have equal access to wage labour opportunities, they often suffer from vertical occupational segregation, earning significantly less than men and being less likely to be promoted. This horizontal and vertical occupational segregation of wage labour markets in LMICs for women hinders both economic and social development. In response to this challenging gendered nature of wage labour markets in LMICs, a range of interventions and policies have been proposed to increase women’s employment. These interventions aim to overcome a range of barriers to women’s wage labour employment in highergrowth/male-dominated sectors, such as discrimination against women by markets and work institutions, or a lack of access to credit and assets and of technical and soft skills. However, these labour market programmes to increase women’s wage employment vary greatly, as do the barriers to women’s wage labour participation. Different programme designs assume different pathways to support women’s employment and it is not clear what programme approaches and design features are most effective.

Mungania BG. Word order in the Kiswahili clause: a Minimalist approach. Schroeder H, Okombo O, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2018.
SWALEH AMIRI. "“Kosa la Nani?”.". In: “Kosa la Nani?” Na Hadithi Nyingine . Nairobi: Vide-Muwa; 2018.
Kang’ethe EK, H Korhonen, KA Marimba, G Nduhiu, JK Mungatu, Okoth SA, V Joutsjoki, LW Wamae, Shalo P. "肯尼亚地区对玉米中霉菌毒素引起的健康风险的管理和降低." Food Quality and Safety. 2018;1(4):268-274.
Bichang’a G, Lage J-LD, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Zivy M, Balliau T, Sambai K, Ru BL, Kaiser L, Juma G, Maina ENM, others. "$\alpha$-Amylase mediates host acceptance in the braconid parasitoid Cotesia flavipes." Journal of chemical ecology. 2018;44:1030-1039. Abstract
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Peng B, Xu K, Zhang H, Ning Z, Shao H, Ni G, Li J, Zhu Y, Zhu H, Soukoulis CM. "1D Nanostructures: 1D SbSeI, SbSI, and SbSBr With High Stability and Novel Properties for Microelectronic, Optoelectronic, and Thermoelectric Applications (Adv. Theory Simul. 1/2018)." Advanced Theory and Simulations. 2018;1:1870001. Abstract
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Peng B, Xu K, Zhang H, Ning Z, Shao H, Ni G, Li J, Zhu Y, Zhu H, Soukoulis CM. "1D SbSeI, SbSI, and SbSBr with high stability and novel properties for microelectronic, optoelectronic, and thermoelectric applications." Advanced Theory and Simulations. 2018;1:1700005. Abstract
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Wang N, Wang Y, Shang B, Wen P, Peng B, Deng Z. "Bioinspired one-step construction of hierarchical superhydrophobic surfaces for oil/water separation." Journal of colloid and interface science. 2018;531:300-310. Abstract
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Peng B, Zhang H, Shao H, Xu K, Ni G, Li J, Zhu H, Soukoulis CM. "Chemical intuition for high thermoelectric performance in monolayer black phosphorus, $\alpha$-arsenene and aW-antimonene." Journal of Materials Chemistry A. 2018;6. Abstract
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Soukoulis CM, Zhu H, Li J, Ni G, Xu K, Shao H, Zhang H, Peng B, others. "Chemical intuition for high thermoelectric performance in monolayer black phosphorus, alpha-arsenene and aW-antimonene.". 2018. Abstract
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Mukherjee N, Zabala A, Huge J, Nyumba TO, Esmail BA, Sutherland WJ. "Comparison of techniques for eliciting views and judgements in decision-making." Methods in Ecology and Evolution. 2018;9:54-63. Abstract
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Wang Y, Shang B, Lin F, Chen Y, Ma R, Peng B, Deng Z. "Controllable synthesis of hierarchical nickel hydroxide nanotubes for high performance supercapacitors." Chemical Communications. 2018;54:559-562. Abstract
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Rice T, Stuart-Shor E. "Development and Implementation of an Evidence Based Protocol Using Fractional Bipolar Radiofrequency to Improve the Appearance of Acne Scars.". In: NURSING RESEARCH. Vol. 67. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS TWO COMMERCE SQ, 2001 MARKET ST, PHILADELPHIA …; 2018:. Abstract
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NALYANYA KM, Ronald ROPK, ONYUKA A, Birech Z, SASIA A. "Effect of crusting operations on the mechanical properties of leather." Revista de Pielarie Incaltaminte. 2018;18:283. Abstract
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Mbondo NN, Owino WO, Ambuko J, Sila DN. "Effect of drying methods on the retention of bioactive compounds in African eggplant." Food science & nutrition. 2018;6:814-823. Abstract
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Hutchinson MJ, Ouko JR, Ambuko J, Owino WO, Subramanian J. "Effects of hexanal dip on the post-harvest shelf life and quality of papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit." Tropical Agriculture. 2018;95. Abstract
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Yumbya PM, Hutchinson MJ, Ambuko J, Owino WO, Sullivan A, Paliyath G, Subramanian J. "Efficacy of hexanal application on the post-harvest shelf life and quality of banana fruits (Musa acuminata) in Kenya." Tropical Agriculture. 2018;95. Abstract
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Xu K, Xu Y, Zhang H, Peng B, Shao H, Ni G, Li J, Yao M, Lu H, Zhu H, others. "Electronic, optical and transport properties of van der Waals Transition-metal Dichalcogenides Heterostructures: A First-principle Study." arXiv preprint arXiv:1804.02518. 2018. Abstract
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Shao H, Jin M, Peng B, Zhang H, Tan X, Liu G-Q, Jiang H, Jiang J. "First-principles study of manipulating the phonon transport of molybdenum disulfide by sodium intercalating." The Journal of Physical Chemistry C. 2018;122:2632-2640. Abstract
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Zhao L, Shang Q, Gao Y, Shi J, Liu Z, Chen J, Mi Y, Yang P, Zhang Z, Du W, others. "High-temperature continuous-wave pumped lasing from large-area monolayer semiconductors grown by chemical vapor deposition." ACS nano. 2018;12:9390-9396. Abstract
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Wang Y, Shang B, Liu M, Shi F, Peng B, Deng Z. "Hollow polydopamine colloidal composite particles: Structure tuning, functionalization and applications." Journal of colloid and interface science. 2018;513:43-52. Abstract
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Maier Y, Schneider L, Thomson ES,... "Ice nucleating particles at the Mt. Kenya GAW Station." EGU General …. 2018. AbstractWebsite

The number concentration and composition of ice nucleating particles (INP) at Mt. Kenya Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Station (0 9'S, 37 19'O, 3678 m asl) were measured during August and September 2015. With the ITCZ being located some 1900 km north of the station …

Akali T, Sakaja Y. "Influence of Contractors’ Financial Capacity on Performance of Road Construction in Kakamega County." American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS). 2018;46(1):34-50. Abstract
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Peng B, Iwnicki S, Shackleton P, Crosbee D, Zhao Y. "The influence of wheelset flexibility on the development of railway wheel polygonalization.". In: 11th International Conference on Contact Mechanics and Wear of Rail/Wheel Systems.; 2018:. Abstract
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Liang X, Shi G, Deng L, Huang F, Qin J, Tang T, Wang C, Peng B, Song C, Bi L. "Magnetic Proximity Effect and Anomalous Hall Effect in Pt/Y 3 Fe 5- x Al x O 12 Heterostructures." Physical Review Applied. 2018;10:024051. Abstract
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Rose DC, Sutherland WJ, Amano T, González-Varo JP, Robertson RJ, Simmons BI, Wauchope HS, Kovacs E, Durán AP, Vadrot ABM, others. "The major barriers to evidence-informed conservation policy and possible solutions." Conservation letters. 2018;11:e12564. Abstract
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Deng Z, Shang B, Peng B. "Polydopamine based colloidal materials: synthesis and applications." The Chemical Record. 2018;18:410-432. Abstract
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Xu K, Xu Y, Zhang H, Peng B, Shao H, Ni G, Li J, Yao M, Lu H, Zhu H, others. "The role of Anderson’s rule in determining electronic, optical and transport properties of transition metal dichalcogenide heterostructures." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. 2018;20:30351-30364. Abstract
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Chen J, Zhang Q, Du W, Mi Y, Shang Q, Shi J, Liu P, Sui X, Wu X, Wang R, others. "Room Temperature Continuous-wave Excited Biexciton Emission in CsPbBr3 Nanocrystals." arXiv preprint arXiv:1804.09782. 2018. Abstract
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Peng B, Zhang H, Shao H, Xu K, Ni G, Wu L, Li J, Lu H, Jin Q, Zhu H. "Room-temperature bound exciton with long lifetime in monolayer gan." ACS Photonics. 2018;5:4081-4088. Abstract
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{Bichang'a GB, Lage J-LD, Sambai K, Mule S, Ru BL, Kaiser L, Juma G, Maina EN, Calatayud P-A. "Salivary $\alpha$-Amylase of Stem Borer Hosts Determines Host Recognition and Acceptance for Oviposition by Cotesia spp.(Hymenoptera, Braconidae)." Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. 2018;6:228. Abstract
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Wang Y, Lin F, Shang B, Peng B, Deng Z. "Self-template synthesis of nickel silicate and nickel silicate/nickel composite nanotubes and their applications in wastewater treatment." Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. 2018;522:191-199. Abstract
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Muthui ZW, Musembi RJ, Mwabora JM, Skomski R, Kashyap A. "Structural, Electronic and Magnetic Properties of the Heusler Alloy Mn 2 VIn: A Combined DFT and Experimental Study." IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 2018;54:1-5. Abstract
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Muthui ZW, Musembi RJ, Mwabora JM, Skomski R, Kashyap A. "Structural, Electronic and Magnetic Properties of the Heusler Alloy Mn 2 VIn: A Combined DFT and Experimental Study." IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 2018;54:1-5. Abstract
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Muthui ZW, Musembi RJ, Mwabora JM, Skomski R, Kashyap A. "Structural, Electronic and Magnetic Properties of the Heusler Alloy Mn 2 VIn: A Combined DFT and Experimental Study." IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 2018;54:1-5. Abstract
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Kariuki J, Stuart-Shor E, Leveille S, Gona P, Cromwell J, Hayman L. "Tapping Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Dataset to Assess Transportability of the Non-Laboratory Based Framingham Cardiovascular Risk Assessment Tool.". In: NURSING RESEARCH. Vol. 67. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS TWO COMMERCE SQ, 2001 MARKET ST, PHILADELPHIA …; 2018:. Abstract
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Peng B, Xu K, Zhang H, Shao H, Ni G, Li J, Wu L, Lu H, Jin Q, Zhu H. "Theoretical investigation of novel electronic, optical, mechanical and thermal properties of metallic hydrogen at 495 GPa." arXiv preprint arXiv:1805.10920. 2018. Abstract
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Tonui T, Corredor-Moreno P, Kanduma E, Joyce Njuguna, Njahira MN, Nyanjom SG, Silva JC, Djikeng A, Pelle R. "Transcriptomics reveal potential vaccine antigens and a drastic increase of upregulated genes during Theileria parva development from arthropod to bovine infective stages." PLoS One. 2018;13:e0204047. Abstract
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Peng B, Mortazavi B, Zhang H, Shao H, Xu K, Li J, Ni G, Rabczuk T, Zhu H. "Tuning thermal transport in C 3 N monolayers by adding and removing carbon atoms." Physical Review Applied. 2018;10:034046. Abstract
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Wu C, Deng Z, Shang B, Ikkala O, Peng B, others. "A versatile colloidal Janus platform.". 2018. Abstract
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Wu C, Deng Z, Shang B, Ikkala O, Peng B. "A versatile colloidal Janus platform: surface asymmetry control, functionalization, and applications." Chemical Communications. 2018;54:12726-12729. Abstract
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2017
Vlasova AN, Amimo JO, Saif LJ. "Porcine Rotaviruses: Epidemiology, Immune Responses and Control Strategies." Viruses. 2017;9(3). Abstract

Rotaviruses (RVs) are a major cause of acute viral gastroenteritis in young animals and children worldwide. Immunocompetent adults of different species become resistant to clinical disease due to post-infection immunity, immune system maturation and gut physiological changes. Of the 9 RV genogroups (A-I), RV A, B, and C (RVA, RVB, and RVC, respectively) are associated with diarrhea in piglets. Although discovered decades ago, porcine genogroup E RVs (RVE) are uncommon and their pathogenesis is not studied well. The presence of porcine RV H (RVH), a newly defined distinct genogroup, was recently confirmed in diarrheic pigs in Japan, Brazil, and the US. The complex epidemiology, pathogenicity and high genetic diversity of porcine RVAs are widely recognized and well-studied. More recent data show a significant genetic diversity based on the VP7 gene analysis of RVB and C strains in pigs. In this review, we will summarize previous and recent research to provide insights on historic and current prevalence and genetic diversity of porcine RVs in different geographic regions and production systems. We will also provide a brief overview of immune responses to porcine RVs, available control strategies and zoonotic potential of different RV genotypes. An improved understanding of the above parameters may lead to the development of more optimal strategies to manage RV diarrheal disease in swine and humans.

Balkus JE, Srinivasan S, Anzala O, Kimani J, Andac C, Schwebke J, Fredricks DN, McClelland SR. "Impact of Periodic Presumptive Treatment for Bacterial Vaginosis on the Vaginal Microbiome among Women Participating in the Preventing Vaginal Infections Trial." J. Infect. Dis.. 2017;215(5):723-731. Abstract

Evidence suggests that specific vaginal bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) may increase the risk of adverse health outcomes in women. Among women participating in a randomized, double-blinded trial, we assessed the effect of periodic presumptive treatment (PPT) on detection of select vaginal bacteria.

Wall KM, Rida W, Haddad LB, Kamali A, Karita E, Lakhi S, Kilembe W, Allen S, Inambao M, Yang AH, Latka MH, Anzala O, Sanders EJ, Bekker L-G, Edward VA, Price MA. "Pregnancy and HIV Disease Progression in an Early Infection Cohort from Five African Countries." Epidemiology. 2017;28(2):224-232. Abstract

Understanding associations between pregnancy and HIV disease progression is critical to provide appropriate counseling and care to HIV-positive women.

Gichuhi S, Kabiru J, Zindamoyen AM'bongo, Rono H, Ollando E, Wachira J, Munene R, Onyuma T, Sagoo MS, Macleod D, Weiss HA, Burton MJ. "Delay along the care-seeking journey of patients with ocular surface squamous neoplasia in Kenya." BMC Health Serv Res. 2017;17(1):485. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND:

In Africa, accessing eye health services is a major challenge. Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) is a substantial ocular health problem in Africa related to solar UV light exposure and HIV infection among other risk factors. The disease causes visual loss and even death in advanced cases. This study was conducted to assess referral pathway and treatment delay for patients with OSSN in Kenya.
METHODS:

Adults with conjunctival lesions presenting to four eye centres were asked about their occupations, when they noticed the growth, health facilities visited in seeking care, cost of consultation, surgery, medicines and histopathology and dates at each step. The time-to-presentation was divided into quartiles and correlates analysed using ordinal logistic regression.
RESULTS:

We evaluated 158 first-time presenters with OSSN. Most were women (102 [65%]), living with HIV (78/110 tested [71%]), with low to medium income (127 [80%]). Most of the HIV patients (49/78 [63%]) were in antiretroviral care programs. About half (88/158, [56%]) presented directly to the study centres while the rest were referred. Indirect presenters sought care earlier than direct presenters (median 2.0 months vs 5.5 months) and travelled a shorter distance to the first health facility (median 20 km vs 30 km) but had surgery later (median 12.5 months vs 5.5 months). Visits beyond the first health facility for indirect presenters markedly increased delay (median 7.3, 29.0, 37.9, and 32.0 months for 1-4 facilities, respectively). Delay was associated with number of health facilities visited (adjusted ordered OR = 9.12; 95%CI 2.83-29.4, p < 0.001) and being female (adjusted ordered OR = 2.42; 95%CI 1.32-4.44, p = 0.004). At the time of presentation at the study centres for surgery the median tumour diameter in both directly and indirectly presenting patients was 6 mm (p = 0.52) and the histological spectrum of OSSN was similar between the groups (p = 0.87).
CONCLUSIONS:

Referral delays definitive treatment for OSSN. Women were more likely to experience delay. Despite regular contact with the health system for those with known HIV infection, delays occurred. Early detection and referral of OSSN in the HIV service might reduce delays, but reassuringly delay did not give rise to a larger proportion with more advanced grade of OSSN.

Nyombayire J, Anzala O, Gazzard B, Karita E, Bergin P, Hayes P, Kopycinski J, Omosa-Manyonyi G, Jackson A, Bizimana J, Farah B, Sayeed E, Parks CL, Inoue M, Hironaka T, Hara H, Shu T, Matano T, Dally L, Barin B, Park H, Gilmour J, Lombardo A, Excler J-L, Fast P, Laufer DS, Cox JH. "First-in-Human Evaluation of the Safety and Immunogenicity of an Intranasally Administered Replication-Competent Sendai Virus-Vectored HIV Type 1 Gag Vaccine: Induction of Potent T-Cell or Antibody Responses in Prime-Boost Regimens." J. Infect. Dis.. 2017;215(1):95-104. Abstract

 We report the first-in-human safety and immunogenicity assessment of a prototype intranasally administered, replication-competent Sendai virus (SeV)-vectored, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine.

Goyette MS, Wilson KS, Deya R, Masese LN, Shafi J, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Jaoko W, McClelland SR. "Brief Report: Association Between Menopause and Unprotected Sex in High-Risk HIV-Positive Women in Mombasa, Kenya." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2017;74(5):488-492. Abstract

Many HIV-positive women now live well beyond menopause. Postmenopausal women are no longer at risk for pregnancy, and some studies suggest that they may use condoms less often than premenopausal women. This study tests the hypothesis that, in HIV-positive women who report trading sex for cash or in-kind payment, unprotected sex is more common at postmenopausal visits compared with premenopausal visits.

Dziuban EJ, DeVos J, Ngeno B, Ngugi E, Zhang G, Sabatier J, Wagar N, Diallo K, Nganga L, Katana A, Yang C, Rivadeneira ED, Mukui I, Odhiambo F, Redfield R, Raizes E. "High Prevalence of Abacavir-associated L74V/I Mutations in Kenyan Children Failing Antiretroviral Therapy." Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.. 2017;36(8):758-760. Abstract

A survey of 461 HIV-infected Kenyan children receiving antiretroviral therapy found 143 (31%) failing virologically. Drug resistance mutations were found in 121; 37 had L74V/I mutations, with 95% receiving abacavir (ABC)-containing regimens. L74V/I was associated with current ABC usage (P = 0.0001). L74V/I may be more prevalent than previously realized in children failing ABC-containing regimens, even when time on treatment has been short. Ongoing rigorous pediatric drug resistance surveillance is needed.

Hlushchuk R, Styp-Rekowska B, Dzambazi J, Wnuk M, Huynh-Do U, Makanya A, Djonov V. "Endoglin inhibition leads to intussusceptive angiogenesis via activation of factors related to COUP-TFII signaling pathway." PLoS ONE. 2017;12(8):e0182813. Abstract

Angiogenesis is a highly coordinated, extremely complex process orchestrated by multiple signaling molecules and blood flow conditions. While sprouting mode of angiogenesis is very well investigated, the molecular mechanisms underlying intussusception, the second mode of angiogenesis, remain largely unclear. In the current study two molecules involved in vascular growth and differentiation, namely endoglin (ENG/CD105) and chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) were examined to unravel their specific roles in angiogenesis. Down- respectively up-regulation of both molecules tightly correlates with intussusceptive microvascular growth. Upon ENG inhibition in chicken embryo model, formation of irregular capillary meshwork accompanied by increased expression of COUP-TFII could be observed. This dynamic expression pattern of ENG and COUP-TFII during vascular development and remodeling correlated with formation of pillars and progression of intussusceptive angiogenesis. Similar findings could be observed in mammalian model of acute rat Thy1.1 glomerulonephritis, which was induced by intravenous injection of anti-Thy1 antibody and has shown upregulation of COUP-TFII in initial phase of intussusception, while ENG expression was not disturbed compared to the controls but decreased over the time of pillar formation. In this study, we have shown that ENG inhibition and at the same time up-regulation of COUP-TFII expression promotes intussusceptive angiogenesis.

Steven Awino, Afullo A. "Analytic BER of OFDM Powerline Communication at different IAT of Impulsive Noise.". In: SAUPEC. StellenBosch, South Africa; 2017.
Ngowi BV, Tonnang HEZ, Khamis F, Mwangi EM, Nyambo B, Ndegwa PN, Subramanian S. "14.5 Population dynamics of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and Its Parasitoids Along Altitudinal Gradients of the Eastern Afromontane." Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods. 2017:231.
Ambale 1. CA, Sinei KA, Amugune BK, Oluka MN. "Accessibility of medicines used in the management of substance use disorders in selected hospitals in Nairobi." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2017;6(2):102-108.
Ambale CA, Sinei KA, Amugune BK, Oluka MN. "Accessibility of medicines used in the management of substance use disorders in selected hospitals in Nairobi." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther.. 2017;6(2):102-108.
Sherrif SS, Madadi V. "Adsorption of Lambda Cyhalothrin onto Athi River Sediments: Apparent Thermodynamic Properties." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2017;3(3):568-574.
Vogel JP, Oladapo OT, Pileggi-Castro C, Adejuyigbe EA, Althabe F, Ariff S, Ayede AI, Baqui AH, Costello A, Chikamata DM, Crowther C, Fawole B, Gibbons L, Jobe AH, Kapasa ML, Kinuthia J, Kriplani A, Kuti O, Neilson J, Patterson J, Piaggio G, Qureshi R, Qureshi Z, Sankar MJ, Stringer JSA, Temmerman M, Yunis K, Bahl R, Gülmezoglu AM. "Antenatal corticosteroids for women at risk of imminent preterm birth in low-resource countries: the case for equipoise and the need for efficacy trials." British Medical Journal Global Health. 2017;2(3). AbstractWebsite

The scientific basis for antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) for women at risk of preterm birth has rapidly changed in recent years. Two landmark trials-the Antenatal Corticosteroid Trial and the Antenatal Late Preterm Steroids Trial-have challenged the long-held assumptions on the comparative health benefits and harms regarding the use of ACS for preterm birth across all levels of care and contexts, including resource-limited settings. Researchers, clinicians, programme managers, policymakers and donors working in low-income and middle-income countries now face challenging questions of whether, where and how ACS can be used to optimise outcomes for both women and preterm newborns. In this article, we briefly present an appraisal of the current evidence around ACS, how these findings informed WHO's current recommendations on ACS use, and the knowledge gaps that have emerged in the light of new trial evidence. Critical considerations in the generalisability of the available evidence demonstrate that a true state of clinical equipoise exists for this treatment option in low-resource settings. An expert group convened by WHO concluded that there is a clear need for more efficacy trials of ACS in these settings to inform clinical practice.

Keywords: antenatal corticosteroids; neonatal mortality; preterm birth.

Musila, F.M., Nguta, CM, Lukhoba CW, S.F. D. "Antibacterial and antifungal activities of 10 Kenyan Plectranthus species in the Coleus clade." Journal of Pharmacy Research . 2017;11(8):1003-1014.
Okombo J, Singh K, Ndubi F, Barnard L, Wilkson C, Peter M. Njogu, Mireille V, Keiser Jennifer, Egan T, Chibale K. "Antischistosomal activity of pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazole derivatives and correlation with inhibition of β-hematin formation." ACS Infect. Dis.. 2017;3:411-420.
Mwangi W, Isaiah N, Shadrack K. "Application of Hydrological Models In Poorly Gauged Watersheds: A Review of the usage of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) In Kenya." International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research. 2017;Volume 6(Issue 08):2277-8616.
MBUYA TO, Sinclair I, Soady KA, Reed PAS. "Application of X-Ray Microtomography to Evaluate Complex Microstructure and Predict the Lower Bound Fatigue Potential of Cast Al–7(0.7)Si–4Cu–3Ni–Mg Alloys." Advanced Engineering Materials. 2017;19(11):1700218. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.1002/adem.201700218

The 3D architecture of intermetallics and porosity in two multicomponent cast Al–7(0.7)Si–4Cu–3Ni–Mg alloys is characterized using conventional microscopy and X-ray microtomography. The two alloys are found to contain intermetallic phases such as Al3Ni, Al3(NiCu)2, Al9FeNi, and Al5Cu2Mg8Si6 that have complex networked morphology in 3D. The results also show that HIPping does not significantly affect the volume fraction, size, and shape distribution of the intermetallic phases in both alloys. A novel technique similar to serial sectioning that circumvents quantification difficulties associated with interconnected particles is used to quantify the intermetallics. The largest particle size distribution is then correlated to fatigue performance using extreme value analysis to predict the maximum particle size in a sample of S-N fatigue specimens and subsequently, the lower bound fatigue life. The predictions are found to correlate well with fatigue data. The effect of HIPping on porosity characteristics is also characterized. Large pore clusters with complex morphology are observed in the unHIPped versions of both alloys, but more significant in the low Si (Al–0.7Si–4Cu–3Ni–Mg) alloy. However, these are significantly reduced after HIPping. The differences between 2D and 3D pore morphology and size distribution is discussed in terms of the appropriate pore size parameter for fatigue life prediction.

Barasa IN, Simiyu J, WAITA SEBASTIAN, Wekesa D, Aduda B. "Automobile Battery Monitoring System using Arduino Uno R3 Microcontroller Board." The International Journal Of Science & Technoledge. 2017;5(6):24-36.
Wanyonyi WC, Onyari JM, Shiundu PM, Mulaa FJ. "Biodegradation and Detoxification of Malachite Green Dye Using Novel Enzymes from Bacillus cereus Strain KM201428: Kinetic and Metabolite Analysis.". 2017. AbstractFull text link

Enzyme based degradation of organic pollutants is a promising detoxifying approach due to the promiscuous nature of the enzyme, efficiency, cost effective and ecofriendly. In the present study, we have carried out detailed decoloration and degradation studies on a model triphenyl methane group of dyes (Malachite Green dye (MG)) using a newly isolated enzyme from Bacillus cereus KM201428 under the static condition. Biodegradation of dyes was monitored by UV-VIS spectrophotometer and the resultant metabolites analyzed by Liquid Chromatography–Hybrid Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (LC–QToF-MS) and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC - MS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that enzymatic degradation of MG dye resulted in complete mineralization and benzene ring-removal; the latter known for organic dye toxicity. Kinetic study results revealed that first-order kinetic model was best applicable for describing MG dye decoloration. Michaelise-Menten kinetics, Lineweaver–Burk plot and Eadie-Hofstee plot models were used to establish the kinetic parameters for the dye decoloration. Lineweaver–Burk plot provided the best theoretical correlation of the experimental data with maximum rate (Vmax) of 17.70 mg l-1h-1 and Michaelis constant (Km) of 124 mgl-1. Results provide evidence that crude enzyme from Bacillus cereus strain KM201428 offers an effective, renewable, ecofriendly and affordable biotechnology for treatment of industrial effluents polluted with organic dye.

Wanyonyi WC, Onyari JM, Shiundu PM, Mulaa FJ. "Biodegradation and detoxification of malachite green dye using novel enzymes from bacillus cereus strain KM201428: kinetic and metabolite analysis." Energy Procedia. 2017;119:38-51. AbstractScience Direct Journal

Description
Enzyme based degradation of organic pollutants is a promising detoxifying approach due to the promiscuous nature of the enzyme, efficiency, cost effective and ecofriendly. In the present study, we have carried out detailed decoloration and degradation studies on a model triphenyl methane group of dyes (Malachite Green dye (MG)) using a newly isolated enzyme from Bacillus cereus KM201428 under the static condition. Biodegradation of dyes was monitored by UV-VIS spectrophotometer and the resultant metabolites analyzed by Liquid Chromatography–Hybrid Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (LC–QToF-MS) and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC - MS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that enzymatic degradation of MG dye resulted in complete mineralization and benzene ring-removal; the latter known for organic dye toxicity. Kinetic study results revealed that first-order kinetic …

Ngugi HN, Mutuku F, Ndenga B, Siema P, Maleka H, IRUNGU LUCY, Mukoko D, Vulule J, Kitron U. "CHARACTERIZATION OF LARVAL HABITATS OF AEDES AEGYPTI IN KENYA.". 2017;95(5):56-57.
Martelat J-E, Paquette J-L, Bosse V, Giuliani G, Monié P, Omito E, Simonet C, Ohnenstetter D, Daniel Ichang'i, Nyamai C, Wamunyu A. "Chronological Constraints On Tsavorite Mineralizations and Related Metamorphic Episodes In Southeast Kenya." The Canadian Mineralogist. 2017;55(5):845-865. AbstractFull text link

Tsavorite is exclusively hosted in the Neoproterozoic Metamorphic Mozambique Belt (NMMB). The gemstone mines, widespread between Kalalani (Tanzania) and Mgama Ridge (Kenya), define a continuous corridor over a hundred kilometers in length. The tsavorite is hosted by a metasedimentary sequence defined as the Kurase tsavorite-bearing metasediments (Kurase-TB metasediments) that also hosts rubies. These metasediments underwent amphibolite-facies metamorphism and are surrounded by granulitic gneisses that are also of sedimentary origin (the Kurase high-temperature gneisses). All these rocks lie below the Kasigau Group, a unit dominated by granulite-facies metamagmatic rocks.

To constrain the timing of events that led to this peculiar occurrence of tsavorite, we have performed geochronological analyses of thin sections and of separated grains of zircon, monazite, and rutile using LA-ICP-MS and ID-TIMS, as well as 40Ar/39Ar of muscovite and phlogopite from various lithologies. The results show that the different terranes were metamorphosed synchronously between 620–580 Ma but under different P-T strain conditions. The Kurase-HT gneisses and the rocks from the Kasigau Group are highly strained and underwent granulite-facies metamorphism with abundant partial melting and emplacement of felsic melts between 620 and 600 Ma. Textural observations also underlined a late regional water flux controlling the occurrence of V-free muscovite and monazite mineralizations at 585 Ma. The latter event can be related to the activity of the Galana shear zone, in the east. The Kurase-TB metasediments escaped strain and partial melting. They record amphibolite-facies conditions with static heating, since initial sedimentary structures were locally preserved. The age of the tsavorite mineralization was inferred at 600 Ma from metamorphic zircon rims and monazite from the closest host-rocks, sampled in the mines. Hence, tsavorite crystallization occurred statically at the end of the metamorphic event, probably when the temperature and the amount of volatiles were at maximum levels.

Conversely, the ruby formed by local metasomatism of felsic dikes and isolated ultramafic bodies. The rubies are older and zircons and monazites from a ruby-bearing felsic dike (plumasite) were dated at 615 Ma. Finally, data from rutile and micas indicate a global cooling below 430 °C of the whole region between 510 and 500 Ma.

Gichobi AN, Ndwigah SN, Sinei KA, Guantai EM. "Clinical audit of Heparin use in Rift Valley General Hospital, Nakuru County, Kenya. ." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. . 2017;6(1):27-37.
Gichobi 2. AN, Ndwigah SN, Sinei KA, Guantai EM. "Clinical audit of Heparin use in Rift Valley General Hospital, Nakuru County, Kenya." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2017;6(1):27-37.
Wafula HB, Musembi RJ, Juma AO, Patrick Tonui, Simiyu J, Sakwa T, Prakash D, K.D.Verma. "Compositional analysis and optical properties of Co doped TiO2 thin films fabricated by spray pyrolysis method for dielectric and photocatalytic applications." Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics. 2017;128:212-217.
Wanjiru KG, Samwel Owino Mwanda, Ronnie Midigo. "Computer Based Instruction and Learner Achievement; Implications for Training Art and Design in Kenya’s Secondary Schools." Journal of Academic Research. . 2017;5(5):19-31.
Sihanya B. "Conduct of IEBC Commissioners key to just 2017 General Elections." The Advocate, Law Society of Kenya Magazine. 2017;1(8).
S MJ, M. G. "Conserving Forest Biodiversity through Value Chain Development: The Case Study of Karura Forest.". In: A review of best practices for selected biodiversity-based value chains that promotes pro-poor conservation in the Horn of Africa. NAIROBI: ICRAF; 2017.
Lundengård K, Ogutu C, Silvestrov S, Weke P. Construction of moment-matching multinomial lattices using Vandermonde matrices and Gröbner bases.; 2017. Abstract

In order to describe and analyze the quantitative behavior of stochastic processes, such as
the process followed by a financial asset, various discretization methods are used. One such
set of methods are lattice models where a time interval is divided into equal time steps and
the rate of change for the process is restricted to a particular set of values in each time step.
The well-known binomial-and trinomial models are the most commonly used in applications,
although several kinds of higher order models have also been examined. Here we will
examine various ways of designing higher order lattice schemes with different node
placements in order to guarantee moment-matching with the process.

S Q, A L, J G, K K, W W, EA D. "Design and Implementation of the Retinoblastoma Collaborative Laboratory." Ocular Oncology and Pathology. 2017.
Kimani J, Osanjo GO, Sang R, Ochieng J, Mulaa F. "Development of Dromedary Antibody-based Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detecting Chikungunya virus Infections." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2017;6(2).
King-Okumu C, Wasonga OV, Jarso I, Salah YMS. "Direct use values of climate-dependent ecosystem services in Isiolo County, Kenya.". 2017. Abstract

n/a

Aldhaher A, Langat M, Ndunda B, Chirchir D, Midiwo JO, Njue A, Schwikkard S, Carew M, Mulholland D. "Diterpenoids from the roots of Croton dichogamus Pax." Phytochemistry. 2017;144:1-8. AbstractFull text

Four previously undescribed diterpenoids including two crotofolanes, crotodichogamoin A and B, and two halimanes, crothalimene A and B, a new sesquiterpenoid, and fifteen previously reported compounds, including the crotofolane, crotohaumanoxide, the casbane, depressin, a further seven furanohalimane diterpenoids, three patchoulane and two further cadinane sesquiterpenoids and aleuritolic acid were isolated from the root of Croton dichogamus. Crotodichogamoin B is an important biosynthetic intermediate of the crotofolane class and this is the first report of patchoulene sesquiterpenoids from the genus. Compounds were tested at one concentration, 1 × 10−5 M, in the NCI59 cell one-dose screen but did not show significant activity snd were also evaluated for their cytotoxicity against Caco-2 cell lines using the neutral red assay. 10-epi-Maninsigin D reduced Caco-2 cell viability at 10, 30 and 100 μM, with values of decreased viability of 28%, 48% and 43% respectively. None of the other tested compounds showed significant activity.
Keywords
Croton dichogamusEuphorbiaceaeCrotofolaneCrotodichogamoin BCrothalimene ACrothalimene BPatchoulaneCaco-2 cell viability

Aldhaher A, Langat M, Ndunda B, Chirchir D, Midiwo JO, Njue A, Schwikkard S, Carew M, Mulholland D. "Diterpenoids from the roots of Croton dichogamus Pax." Phytochemistry . 2017;144(2017):1-8.
Akach JA, Michael K, Soderenko S, Mijthab M, Nicole F. DWSI Kenya Workshop Report.; 2017.
Soki KB, Were AJ, OGOLA EN, Nyale GM, Murage MM. "An echocardiographic evaluation of pulmonary pressures in hemodialysis patients at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(6). AbstractWebsite

Abstract

Background: A high prevalence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has been noted. In these patients, PH increases morbidity and mortality and worsens prognosis post-renal transplant. Its aetiopathogenesis may be multifactorial, involving the process of haemodialysis itself.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of PH among patients with ESRD undergoing haemodialysis at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), using Doppler echocardiography

Design: 117 patients were consecutively recruited into this cross-sectional study.
Medical history was used to exclude patients with possible PH of known aetiology. Patients were examined for features of fluid overload. Each patient then underwent haemodialysis followed by echocardiography within two hours. Haemoglobin was measured.

Setting: The Renal Unit, KNH, a tertiary hospital in Nairobi

Subjects: Patients undergoing regular haemodialysis within the renal unit, thirteen years and above, who gave written informed consent or assent.

Results: 63.2% of the participants were male. Mean age was 44 years. Prevalence of PH among ESRD patients was 32.5%, with a median PASP of 47.3mmHg and a range of 36.1–79 mmHg. A strong association between PH and EF of less than 50%, as a marker of LV dysfunction, was demonstrated.

Conclusion: The prevalence of PH among end-stage renal disease patients was high. This suggests an indication for routinely screening haemodialysis patients for PH.

Keywords: ESRD: End stage renal disease, LV: Left ventricle, KNH: Kenyatta National Hospital, PASP: Pulmonary arterial systolic pressure, PH: Pulmonary Hypertension

Shakur H, Roberts I, Fawole B, Chaudhri R, El-Sheikh M, desina Akintan, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Kidanto H, Vwalika B, Abdulkadir A, Etuk S, Noor S, Asonganyi E, Alfirevic Z, Beaumont D, Ronsmans C, Arulkumaran S. "Effect of early tranexamic acid administration on mortality, hysterectomy, and other morbidities in women with post-partum haemorrhage (WOMAN): an international, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial." Lancet. 2017. AbstractWebsite

Summary
Background
Post-partum haemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death worldwide. Early administration of
tranexamic acid reduces deaths due to bleeding in trauma patients. We aimed to assess the effects of early administration
of tranexamic acid on death, hysterectomy, and other relevant outcomes in women with post-partum haemorrhage.
Methods
In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we recruited women aged 16 years and older with a
clinical diagnosis of post-partum haemorrhage after a vaginal birth or caesarean section from 193 hospitals in 21 countries.
We randomly assigned women to receive either 1 g intravenous tranexamic acid or matching placebo in addition to usual
care. If bleeding continued after 30 min, or stopped and restarted within 24 h of the first dose, a second dose of 1 g of
tranexamic acid or placebo could be given. Patients were assigned by selection of a numbered treatment pack from a box
containing eight numbered packs that were identical apart from the pack number. Participants, care givers, and those
assessing outcomes were masked to allocation. We originally planned to enrol 15
000 women with a composite primary
endpoint of death from all-causes or hysterectomy within 42 days of giving birth. However, during the trial it became
apparent that the decision to conduct a hysterectomy was often made at the same time as randomisation. Although
tranexamic acid could influence the risk of death in these cases, it could not affect the risk of hysterectomy. We therefore
increased the sample size from 15
000 to 20
000 women in order to estimate the effect of tranexamic acid on the risk of
death from post-partum haemorrhage. All analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. This trial is registered with
ISRCTN76912190 (Dec 8, 2008); ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00872469; and PACTR201007000192283.
Findings
Between March, 2010, and April, 2016, 20
060
women were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive
tranexamic acid (n=10
051) or placebo (n=10
009), of whom 10
036 and 9985, respectively, were included in the analysis.
Death due to bleeding was significantly reduced in women given tranexamic acid (155 [1·5%] of 10
036 patients
vs
191
[1·9%] of 9985 in the placebo group, risk ratio [RR] 0·81, 95% CI 0·65–1·00; p=0·045), especially in women given
treatment within 3 h of giving birth (89 [1·2%] in the tranexamic acid group
vs
127 [1·7%] in the placebo group,
RR 0·69, 95% CI 0·52–0·91; p=0·008). All other causes of death did not differ significantly by group. Hysterectomy
was not reduced with tranexamic acid (358 [3·6%] patients in the tranexamic acid group
vs
351 [3·5%] in the placebo
group, RR 1·02, 95% CI 0·88–1·07; p=0·84). The composite primary endpoint of death from all causes or hysterectomy
was not reduced with tranexamic acid (534 [5·3%] deaths or hysterectomies in the tranexamic acid group
vs
546 [5·5%]
in the placebo group, RR 0·97, 95% CI 0·87-1·09; p=0·65). Adverse events (including thromboembolic events) did
not differ significantly in the tranexamic acid versus placebo group.
Interpretation
Tranexamic acid reduces death due to bleeding in women with post-partum haemorrhage with no
adverse effects. When used as a treatment for postpartum haemorrhage, tranexamic acid should be given as soon as
possible after bleeding onset.
Funding
London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Pfizer, UK Department of Health, Wellcome Trust, and
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Ombega NJ, S. M. Mureithi, O. K. Koech, Karuma AN, Gachene CKK. "Effect of rangeland rehabilitation on the herbaceous species composition and diversity in Suswa catchment, Narok County, Kenya." Ecological Processes. 2017.
Ombega NJ, S. M. Mureithi, O. K. Koech, Karuma AN, Gachene CKK. "Effect of rangeland rehabilitation on the herbaceous species composition and diversity in Suswa catchment, Narok County, Kenya." Ecological Processes. 2017.
Ombega NJ, S. M. Mureithi, O. K. Koech, Karuma AN, Gachene CKK. "Effect of rangeland rehabilitation on the herbaceous species composition and diversity in Suswa catchment, Narok County, Kenya." Ecological Processes. 2017.
Ombega NJ, S. M. Mureithi, O. K. Koech, Karuma AN, CKK G. "Effect of rangeland rehabilitation on the herbaceous species composition and diversity in Suswa catchment, Narok County, Kenya." Ecological Processes. 2017.
Syomiti M, Kuria J, Wahome R. Effective Microorganisms as an Additive for Improving Feed Value of Maize stovers. LAMBERT academic Publishers, Germany; 2017.
S PE, Mutuku RN, N MJ. "Effects of Palm Kernel Shell and Rice Husk Ash as Partial Replacements of Normal Weight Aggregate and ordinary Portland Cement in Concrete." European international Journal of Science and Technology. 2017;Vol 6(8):42-54.
Wabomba JN, Shiundu PM, Onyari JM, Yanful E. "Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies of Cu (Ii) Removal from Aqueous Solutions Using a Kenyan Micaceous Mineral." International Journal of Innovation Education and Research. 2017;5(4):181-198. AbstractInternational Journal of Innovation Education and Research

Description
Copper (II) sorption on a Kenyan micaceous mineral (Mica-K) was studied in the batch mode. The effects of different experimental parameters such as; initial concentration, contact time, sorbent dose, pH, particle size, agitation speed, competition and temperature on the kinetics of copper removal were studied. The sorption pattern of copper onto Mica-K followed Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Thermodynamic parameters for copper sorption on Mica-K were also determined. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis of metal ion-equilibrated Mica-K, demonstrated that copper, cadmium and Zinc containing nodules existed on the surface of Mica-K.

Wabomba JN, Shiundu PM, Onyari JM, Yanful E. "Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies of Cu(Ii) Removal from Aqueous Solutions Using a Kenyan Micaceous Mineral.". 2017. AbstractFull text link

Copper (II) sorption on a Kenyan micaceous mineral (Mica-K) was studied in the batch mode. The effects of different experimental parameters such as; initial concentration, contact time, sorbent dose, pH, particle size, agitation speed, competition and temperature on the kinetics of copper removal were studied. The sorption pattern of copper onto Mica-K followed Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Thermodynamic parameters for copper sorption on Mica-K were also determined. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis of metal ion-equilibrated Mica-K, demonstrated that copper, cadmium and Zinc containing nodules existed on the surface of Mica-K.

Kang’ethe EK, Gatwiri M, Sirma AJ, Ouko EO, Mburugu-Musoti CK, Kitala PM, Nduhiu GJ, Nderitu JG, JK Mungatu, Hietaniemi V, V Joutsjoki, Korhonen HJ. "Exposure of Kenyan population to aflatoxins in foods with special reference to Nandi and Makueni counties." Food Quality and Safety. 2017;1 (2):131-137.
J.G.N. K, S.O. W, I. J, A.M. M. "Fate of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in the Upper Tana River, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge.. 2017;2(6):29-46.abstract.pdf
Sarguta R. Four Routes to Mixed Poisson Distributions. Ottieno JAM, Mwaniki JI, Kipchirchir IC, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2017.
Hayashi, H., K. Fujiwara, S. Meguro, S. K. Kiboi, P. C. Mutiso, Kage SK, Mutiso DC. "Growth dynamics of indigenous seedlings planted by a dense and mixed method in the Nairobi city, Kenya. ." Eco-Habitat. 2017;24(1):35-51.
Serem JK, John M. Kimani, Raphael G. Wahome, Daniel W. Gakuya, G.Kiama S, Onyango DW, Mbuthia PG. "Growth performance, feed conversion efficiency and 3 blood characteristics of growing pigs fed on different levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal diets. J. Vet. Med. Anim. Health, .". 2017;19(1):478-486,.
Serem JK, Wahome RG, D.W. Gakuya, S.G.Kiama, G.C.Gitao, D, W O. "Growth performance, feed conversion efficiency and blood characteristics of growing pigs fed on different levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal health . 2017;9(11):327-333.serem_et_al_2017.pdf
Serem JK, G WR, DW G, SG K, G GC, DW O. "Growth performance, feed conversion efficiency and blood characteristics of growing pigs fed on different levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health. 2017;9(11):327-333.serem_et_al_2017.pdf
Gatari MJ, Kinney PL, Yan B, Sclar E, Volavka-Close N, Ngo N, Gaita SM, Law A, Ndiba PK, Gachanja A, Graeff J, Chillrud SN. "High airborne black carbon concentrations measured near roadways in Nairobi, Kenya. Transportation Research." Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment. 2017;68:99-109.
Serem Jared K., John M. Kimani, Raphael G. Wahome, Daniel W. Gakuya, G.Kiama S, Onyango DW, Mbuthia PG. "Histopathological Evaluation of Spleen, Liver and Kidneys from Pigs Fed on Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal Diets Global Veterinaria 19 (1): 478-486, .". 2017.
Serem JK, Muturi JK, Wahome RG, Gakuya DW, Kiama SG, Onyango DW, Mbuthia PG. "Histopathological Evaluation of Spleen, Liver and Kidneys from Pigs Fed on Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal Diets." Global Veterinaria . 2017;19(1):478-486.
Serem JK, John M. Kimani, Raphael G. Wahome, Kiama, S.G., Onyango DW, Mbuthia PG. "Histopathological evaluation of spleen, liver and kidneys from pigs fed on Moringa oleifera leaf meal diets. Global Veterinaria,.". 2017;19(1):478-486.
Samuel SM, Mulwa DM, Migosi J, Kamau LM. "Home based Factors and Educational Wastage in Public Secondary Schools in Machakos County, Kenya." The International Journal of Humanities & Social Studies. 2017;5(2):116-119.
Peter O, Daniel O, William O, Shem W. "Households’ climate change adaptive capacity in the Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya." Journal Of Humanities And Social Science. 2017;22(3):26-32. Abstractresearchgate.net

A households’ climate change adaptive (CCA) capacity simply refers to the household head’s potential to effectively respond to climate change induced forcings. The households’ adaptive capacity hinges on several factors. This paper reports the evaluation results of the households’ CCA capacity in the Lake Victoria Basin (LVB), Kenya. The knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of households are said to be predictors of households’ CCA capacity. There is evidence that over the past 30 years, a number of permanent streams in the LVB, Kenya, have dried up. Across sectional survey was conducted in Gwasi and Nyando areas within the LVB, Kenya. The level of education of respondents was 44.2% (n=523) primary, 35% high school and 20.8% diploma training and above. The level of awareness of CC was 62% and 94.6% among the male respondents in Gwasi and Nyando respectively. About 57.9% (n=523) stated that both human activities and natural changes are responsible for the CC. Approximately 27.2% (n=261) and 33.5 % (n=262) in Gwasi and Nyando respectively store roof catchment water. Approximately 35.3 % (n=261) and 22.2% (n=262) in Gwasi and Nyando respectively keep donkeys for water transport. These results reveals that the CCA was positively influenced by household heads’ KAP
Keywords: Households, adaptive capacity, climate change and variability.

Addisu A, Daniel O, Shem W, Philip O, Silas O. "Household’s adaptive capacity level to climate change impacts and food security in Northern Ethiopia, Kolla Temben District." International Journal of Interdisciplinary Research and Innovations . 2017;5(3):9-13. Abstractresearch publish

This study was conducted in Kolla Temben district of the Tigray regional state, north Ethiopia. The main
aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between households’ adaptive capacity to climate change and
food security status. Data on generic and area specific indicators of food security status, adaptive capacity and
other factors were collected from 400 households and were statistically analysed. The study revealed that there was
a statistically significant positive relationship between adaptive capacity to climate change and food security status.
Rainfall fluctuation, small land holding, pest and insect infestation were found to be among the area specific
determinants of household’s food security status in the arid and semi-arid areas of northern Ethiopia. The
recommended solutions to improve household’s food security in the ever-changing climate were: institutionalize
measures to improve household’s adaptive capacity to climate change; reverse household’s vulnerability level to
climate change impacts through evidence based policy initiatives, and; revise existing system to deal with new
infestations of pests. Policy decision makers should also give attention to climate change impact research to
moderate damages related to climate change as the climate will continue to change for many decades regardless of
the extent of global efforts on mitigation.

Motomura K, Ganchimeg T, Nagata C, Ota E, Vogel JP, Betran AP, Torloni MR, Jayaratne K, Jwa SC, Mittal S, Recidoro ZD, Matsumoto K, Fujieda M, Nafiou I, Yunis K, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Souza JP, Mori R. "Incidence and outcomes of uterine rupture among women with prior caesarean section: WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health." Scientific Reports. 2017;7. AbstractWebsite

Caesarean section (CS) is increasing globally, and women with prior CS are at higher risk of uterine rupture in subsequent pregnancies. However, little is known about the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of uterine rupture in women with prior CS, especially in developing countries. To investigate this, we conducted a secondary analysis of the World Health Organization Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health, which included data on delivery from 359 facilities in 29 countries. The incidence of uterine rupture among women with at least one prior CS was 0.5% (170/37,366), ranging from 0.2% in high-Human Development Index (HDI) countries to 1.0% in low-HDI countries. Factors significantly associated with uterine rupture included giving birth in medium- or low-HDI countries (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.0 and 3.88, respectively), lower maternal educational level (≤6 years) (AOR 1.71), spontaneous onset of labour (AOR 1.62), and gestational age at birth <37 weeks (AOR 3.52). Women with uterine rupture had significantly higher risk of maternal death (AOR 4.45) and perinatal death (AOR 33.34). Women with prior CS, especially in resource-limited settings, are facing higher risk of uterine rupture and subsequent adverse outcomes. Further studies are needed for prevention/management strategies in these settings.

Use of caesarean section (CS) deliveries has been steadily increasing, from 6.7% in 1990 to 19.1% in 2014 globally1,2. Consequently, the number of deliveries by mothers with prior CS is also on the rise1.

Women with prior CS are at higher risk of uterine rupture. The reported incidence of uterine rupture among women with prior CS ranged from 0.22% to 0.5% in some developed countries3,4,5,6. The risk factors for uterine rupture in women with a history of CS include prior classical incision, labour induction or argumentation, macrosomia, increasing maternal age, post-term delivery, short maternal stature, no prior vaginal delivery, and prior periviable CS4,7,8,9,10,11. Uterine rupture poses considerable risk of adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. The prevalence of maternal and perinatal complications, such as severe post-hemorrhagic anemia, major puerperal infection, bladder injury, hysterectomy, and perinatal mortality, are significantly higher in women with uterine rupture than women without uterine rupture4,10,12,13.

A World Health Organization (WHO) systematic review to determine the prevalence of uterine rupture worldwide identified uterine rupture as a serious obstetric complication being more prevalent and with more serious consequences in developing countries than in developed countries14. In developing countries, uterine rupture has been reportedly associated with obstructed labour, grand multiparity, injudicious obstetric interventions/manipulations, lack of antenatal care, unbooked status, poor access to emergency obstetric care, and low socioeconomic status rather than prior CS15,16,17,18. However, uterine rupture after prior CS is becoming more common as the availability of CS increases in these settings18. According to a literature review on uterine rupture in developing countries, the proportion of women with prior CS or uterine scar among women who had uterine rupture was up to 64%18. A study in India reported that the incidence of uterine rupture among women with prior CS was 1.69%19. Nevertheless, there are few studies about the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of uterine rupture among women with prior CS from these settings.

Typically, uterine rupture occurs suddenly and requires immediate critical emergency care for mothers, fetuses, or neonates. The strategies for prevention and management, as well as the quality of affordable care for women at risk of or experiencing uterine rupture, are likely to vary across settings depending on their diagnostic capacity, availability of obstetric interventions, and human and facility resources. Therefore, the findings in developed countries may not be generalizable to low-resource countries and settings. The aim of this analysis was to describe the incidence, risk factors, and maternal and perinatal outcomes of uterine rupture among women with prior CS using data from the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health (WHOMCS), which was conducted in facilities in 29 countries worldwide from 2010 to 2011.

Samuillah MH, Varma V, Nguhiu J, Mogoa E. "Incidence, types and outcomes of distal limb fractures of racehorses in Kenya: a retrospective study of radiographs (2005-2014)." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2017;6(2):81-85.
Samiullah MH, Varma VS, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM. "Incidence, types and outcomes of distal limb fractures of racehorses in Kenya: a retrospective study of radiographs (2005-2014)." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2017;6(2):81-85.
Samiullah MH, Varma VS, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM. "Incidence, types and outcomes of distal limb fractures of racehorses in Kenya: a retrospective study of radiographs (2005-2014).". 2017. Abstract

This retrospective study aimed to determine the incidence of fractures affecting the distal limbs of racehorses and their outcomes. A total of 387 radiographs each showing at least one significant bone lesion were examined. These radiographs were from racehorses examined in the period starting 1st January 2005 to 31st December 2014 at the Equine Clinic of the Jockey Club in Kenya. Radiographs showing all types of fractures were retrieved from the records archive and evaluated. Fractures accounted for 23.5% (91/387) of the cases studied and out of these, 56.0% (n=51) were of the distal limb. The commonest distal limb fractures occurred in the phalangeal bones (47.1%, n=24), followed by the proximal sesamoid bones (27.4%, n=14), metacarpal bones (19.6%, n=10) involving mainly metacarpus IV (50.0%, n=5) and metacarpus III (40.0%, n=4), navicular bones (3.9%, n=2) and metatarsal bone (2.0%, n=1). Of the phalangeal fractures, 45.8% (n=11) were chip fractures, while 41.7% (n=10) were single line fractures. Overall, horses with fractures involving the distal limb had a higher incidence for retirement (74.5%, n=38) compared to those that returned to racing (25.5%, n=13). Out of these distal limb fractures, those of the proximal sesamoid bones had a higher incidence for retiring from racing at 85.7% (n=12), while cases of navicular bone fractures that were only 2 retired from racing. The study concluded that among the distal limb fractures occurring in racehorses in Kenya, phalangeal fractures are the commonest particularly those affecting the third phalanx. Racehorses with distal limb fractures in Kenya have a high likelihood of retiring

Samiullah MH, Varma VS, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM. "Incidence, types and outcomes of distal limb fractures of racehorses in Kenya: a retrospective study of radiographs (2005-2014)." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2017;6(2):81-85.
Kariuki BN, Saidi H, Ndung’u B, Kaisha W, Ogeng’o J. "INFLUENCE OF AGE ON GALLBLADDER MORPHOMETRY." Anatomy Journal of Africa. . 2017;6(2):987-994. Abstractinfluence_of_age_on_gallbladder_morphometry.pdf

Morphometric properties of the gallbladder such as length, diameter and volume are determinants of gallbladder
function. These parameters are altered with age and may explain the age-related reduction in gallbladder
contractility associated with gallstone formation. Ninety-two gallbladder specimens of subjects aged between 21
and 84 were sourced from City mortuary and the Department of Human anatomy during autopsy. For each
gallbladder specimen, measurements of length and circumference were taken to the accuracy of 0.1millimetres
(mm) and used to calculate the gallbladder volume. These measurements were standardized using
measurements of liver length and weight. Data were recorded by age categories in age groups of 21-30, 31-40,
41-50, 51-60 and 61 or more years. The mean gallbladder volume was 47.948 (±19.080) cm3 and showed a
statistically significant increase with age (p <0.001). There was also a significant increase of gallbladder length
(p =0.01) and diameter (p <0.001). A positive correlation was observed between gallbladder length, diameter
and volume; 0.282, 0.485 and 0.480 respectively (p = 0.01). The gallbladder volume which is a function of
length and diameter, shows a statistically significant increase with age. Notably, there is a marked increase in
these parameters after the fifth decade. This could explain the exponential increase in prevalence of cholelithiasis
by 4 to 10 times after the fifth decade of life.

Vigedi, M., Sakaja Y. "Influence of Agricultural Training Services on Livelihoods of Women Self-help Groups in Kapseret Constituency in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya." American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS. 2017;38(1):7-16.
Rose N. Obae, Selpher K. Cheloti, Mwangi G. "Influence of Free Day Secondary Education Subsidy On Completion Rates; A Case of Public Day Secondary Schools in Kitui County, Kenya." International Journal of Research in Economics and Social Sciences (IJRESS). 2017;7(2):2249-7382.
Sugut, W.K; Rambo OCM & JA. "Influence of Monitoring and Evaluation on Sustainability of HIV/Aids Programmes among Community Based Organizations in Kericho County, Kenya." Journal of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) . 2017;22(10).
Sugut, W.K; Rambo OCM & JA. "Influence of Monitoring and Evaluation on Sustainability of HIV/Aids Programmes among Community Based Organizations in Kericho County, Kenya." Journal of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS). 2017;22(10).
S MS, Mulwa D, Migosi J, Kamau M. "Influence of School-based Factors on Educational Wastage in Public Secondary Schools in Machakos County, Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2017;7(1):257-262.
Samita F, Ochieng CO, Owuor PO, Manguro LOA, Midiwo JO. "Isolation of a new β-carboline alkaloid from aerial parts of Triclisia sacleuxii and its antibacterial and cytotoxicity effects." Natural product research. 2017;31(5):529-536. AbstractFull text link

A new β-carboline alkaloid named sacleuximine A (1) together with known compounds palmatine (2), isotetrandrine (3), trans-N-feruloyltyramine (4), trans-N-caffeoyltyramine (5), yangambin (6), syringaresinol (7), sesamin (8), (+) epi-quercitol (9), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (10), β-sitosterol (11), quercetin 3-O-rutinoside (12) and myricetin 3-O-β-glucose (1→6) α-rhamnoside (13) have been isolated from methanol extract of Triclisia sacleuxii aerial parts. Compounds 1–10 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against human adenocarcinoma (HeLa), human hepatocarcinoma (Hep3B) and human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) cells lines and also for antibacterial activities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The cytotoxicity (IC50) values ranged between 0.15 and 36.7 μM while the minimum inhibitory concentrations were found to be in the range of 3.9 and 125 μM, respectively. This is the first report of antibacterial compounds and the isolation of lignans together with a β-carboline alkaloid from T. sacleuxii.
Keywords: Triclisia sacleuxii, Menispermaceae, secondary metabolites, cytotoxicity, antibacterial, aerial parts

Kang’ethe EK, H Korhonen, KA Marimba, G Nduhiu, JK Mungatu, Okoth SA, V Joutsjoki, LW Wamae, Shalo P. "Management and mitigation of health risks associated with the occurrence of mycotoxins along the maize value chain in two counties in Kenya." Food Quality and Safety. 2017;1(4):268-274.
Mota SF, Oliveira DF, Heleno VCG, Soares ACF, Midiwo JO, Souza EA. "Methyl and p-Bromobenzyl Esters of Hydrogenated Kaurenoic Acid for Controlling Anthracnose in Common Bean Plants." Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2017;65(8):1489-1495. AbstractFull text link

Kaurenoic acid derivatives were prepared and submitted to in vitro assays with the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, which causes anthracnose disease in the common bean. The most active substances were found to be methyl and p-bromobenzylesters, 7 and 9, respectively, of the hydrogenated kaurenoic acid, which presented a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.097 and 0.131 mM, respectively, while the commercial fungicide methyl thiophanate (MT) presented a MIC of 0.143 mM. Substances 7 (1.401 mM) and 9 (1.886 mM) reduced the severity of anthracnose in common bean to values statistically comparable to MT (2.044 mM). According to an in silico study, both compounds 7 and 9 are inhibitors of the ketosteroid isomerase (KSI) enzyme produced by other organisms, the amino acid sequence of which could be detected in fungal genomes. These substances appeared to act against C. lindemuthianum by inhibiting its KSI. Therefore, substances 7 and 9 are promising for the development of new fungicides.
Keywords: Colletotrichum lindemuthianum; ent-kauran-18-oic acid methyl ester; ent-kauran-18-oic acid p-bromobenzyl ester; fungicide; ketosteroid isomerase

Njage PMK, Sawe CT, Onyango CM, I HABIB, NJAGI EDMUNDNJERU, AERTS MARC, MOLENBERGHS GEERT. "Microbial Performance of Food Safety Control and Assurance Activities in a Fresh Produce Processing Sector Measured Using a Microbial Assessment Scheme and Statistical Modeling." Journal of Food Protection. 2017;80(1):177-188.
Wakoko-Studstill  F, Khaitsa ML, Okech SG, Kaneene JB, Pithua P, Blackmon S, Rogers H, Shepelo G, Wambua MD, Komba E, Samson R, Gebrewahde TT, Habimana R, Kibogo A, Kasonev V, Okite A, Aijuka W, Kabasa JD. "Model African Union: experiential pedagogical approach to teaching one health in veterinary medicine and public health.". 2017.
Wakoko-Studstill F, Khaitsa ML, Okech SG, Kaneene JB, Pithua P, Blackmon S, Rogers H, Shepelo G, Wambua MD, Komba E, Samson R, Gebrewahde TT, Habimana R, Kibogo A, Kasonev V, Okite A, Aijuka W, Kabasa JD. "Model African Union: experiential pedagogical approach to teaching one health in veterinary medicine and public health. The Pan African Medical Journal." The Pan African Medical Journal. 2017;27(4):18.
Stasiewicz MJ, Falade TDO, Mutuma M, Mutiga SK, Harvey JJW, Fox G, Pearson TC, Muthomi JW, Nelson RJ. "Multi-spectral kernel sorting to reduce aflatoxins and fumonisins in Kenyan maize." Food Control. 2017;(78):203-214.
Hisco A, Tobias Homan, Smith TA, Masiga D, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Silky M, Collins K Mweresa, Prisca Oria, Jane Alaii, Cees Leeuwis, Teun Bousema, Nicolas Maire, DePasquale A. "ODOR-BAITED TRAPS AS A NOVEL TOOL FOR MALARIA CONTROL-THE SOLARMAL TRIAL." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE. 2017;95(5):26.
S PE, Mutuku RN, N MJ. "Palm Kernel Shell as Partial Replacement for Normal Weight Aggregagte in Concrete." Civil and Environmental Research. 2017;Vol 9(11):40-47.
Ru BL, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Musyoka BK, Pallangyo B, Njaku M, Goftishu M, Assefa Y, Sezonlin M, Ong’amo G, Kergoat GJ. "Phylogeny and systematics of the Acrapex apicestriata (Bethune-Baker, 1911) species complex (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Apameini, Sesamiina) with the description of eight new species from the Afrotropics." Annales de la Société entomologique de France (NS). 2017;53(2):106-130.
Musila, F.M., Lukhoba, C.W., Nguta, CM, S.F. D. "Phylogeny of Ten Kenyan Plectranthus Species in the Coleus Clade Inferred from Leaf Micromorphology, Rbcl and MatK Genes ." Journal of Botany. 2017;((https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/4369029).).
Jawuoro SO, Koech OK, Karuku GN, S MJ. "Plant species composition and diversity depending on piospheres and seasonality in the southern rangelands of Kenya." Ecological Processes, 6(1), 16.. 2017;6(1):16.
Onono JO, Wieland B, Suleiman A, Rushton J. "Policy analysis in delivery of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia control technologies in sub-Saharan Africa." Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epiz. 2017;36.
Sogoni, H. M. GMDKJN. "Postgraduate in Educational Studies in African Public Universities." International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 2017;6(1).
Situma J, Ndohvu JB. "Poverty and Human Rights: Dimensions of Morals and Ideas.". In: Poverty and Human Rights: East African Experiences. Nairobi: Focus Publishers ltd; 2017.
Abdel-Rahman EM, Landmann T, Richard Kyalo, Ong’amo G, Mwalusepo S, Sulieman S, Ru BL. "Predicting stem borer density in maize using RapidEye data and generalized linear models." International journal of applied earth observation and geoinformation. 2017;57:61-74.
Mbui JM, Oluka MN, Guantai EM, Sinei KA, Achieng L, Baker A, Jande M, Massele A, Godman B. "Prescription patterns and adequacy of blood pressure control among adult hypertensive patients in Kenya; findings and implications." Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology . 2017;10:1263-1271.
Gathumbi JK, Samson C, Wanjiru W, Christine B, Dorington O. "Prevalence of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Genes According to Aflatoxin Levels in Maize of Different Varieties in Kenya." Biotechnology Journal International.. 2017;19(2):1-21.
Sheikh MA, Kemoli AM, Owino RO. "Prevalence of Dental caries and Gingivitis among children with type 1 diabetes mellitus a ending an outpatient clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital in Kenya." East Afr Med J. 2017;2017;93(1); 82-88(2017;93(1); 82-88):2017;93(1); 82-88.
Bebora LC, Mpatswenumugabo JP, Gitao GC, Olivier KO, Mobegi VA, Iraguha B, Shumbusho B. "Prevalence of subclinical mastitis and distribution of pathogens in dairy farms of Rubavu and Nyabihu districts, Rwanda." Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 2017.abstract.pdf
Rehani B, Brown I, Dandekar S, Sarkodie B, Mwango GM, Rehani M, Lau L, Zhang Y, Dillon W. "Radiology education in Africa: Analysis of results from 13 African countries." Journal of the American College of Radiology. 2017;14(2):247-252.
Sitati IN, Nzimbi BM, Luketero SW, Khalagai JM. "Remarks on A-skew-adjoint, A-almost similarity equivalence and other operators in Hilbert space." Pure and Applied Mathematics Journal. 2017;6(3):101-107. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
In this paper, notions of A-almost similarity and the Lie algebra of A-skew-adjoint operators in Hilbert space are introduced. In this context, A is a self-adjoint and an invertible operator. It is shown that A-almost similarity is an equivalence relation. Conditions under which A-almost similarity implies similarity are outlined and in which case their spectra is located. Conditions under which an A-skew adjoint operator reduces to a skew adjoint operator are also given. By relaxing some conditions on normal and unitary operators, new results on A -normal, binormal and A-binormal operators are proved. Finally A-skew adjoint operators are characterized and the relationship between A-self- adjoint and A-skew adjoint operators is given.

Sitta J, Nzuve F, Olubayo FM, Mutinda C, Muiru WM, Miano DW, Muthomi JW, Leley PK. "Response of Assorted Maize Germplasm to the Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease in Kenya." Journal of Plant Studies. 2017;6(2):65-76.
KW M, Mbuthia P G, RM W, J N, JW M, Njagi L W, RH M, RH M, SK M. "Risk factors associated with parasites of farmed fish in Kiambu County, Kenya." International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies. 2017;5(4):217-223.
Muthami JMN, S.G S, J W. "The role of women in Socio-Economic Development: A Case Study of Women involved in small-scale business in Nairobi County." International Journal of Science Arts and Commerce. 2017;2(9):90-103.2.9.09_0.pdf
Kisumbi BK, Simila HO, Osiro OA, Omondi BI. "Selection of impression materials and techniques by dentists in Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(12):1040-1051.selectionofimpressionmaterialsandtechniquesemployedbydentists_kisumbietal2017.pdf
Miheso KO, Mbuthia PG, Njagi LW, Karanja DN, Gathumbi PK, Shah, Wanjohi CW, Murithi MR. "Sero-prevalence of avian leucosis in chicken in Nairobi and surrounding Counties. ." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2017;29(3).
MO N, M MG, M TS, F A, CO O, SG K, B B. "Seroepidemiological Survey of Rift Valley Fever Virus in Ruminants in Garissa, Kenya." Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2017;7(2):141-146.
Nanyingi Mark O., Muchemi GM, Samuel M. Thumbi, Ade F, Clayton O. Onyango, G.Kiama S, Bett B. "Seroepidemiological Survey of Rift Valley Fever Virus in Ruminants in Garissa, Kenya Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Volume 17, Number 2, 2017.". 2017.
J M, M TS, M O, S W, M N, E O, A B, S K. "Seroprevalence and factors associated with Coxiella burnetii infection in small ruminants in Baringo County, Kenya." Zoonoses Public Health. 2017;64(7).
Njagi LW, Miheso KO, Mbuthia PG, Gathumbi PK, Shah DN, Wanjohi CW, Murithi MR. "Seroprevalence of Avian Leucosis in chicken in Nairobi and surrounding Counties." Livestock Research for Rural Development. . 2017;29.
S OB, A O’o J. "SEX DIFFERENCES IN DIAMETER OF THE CORONARY SINUS OSTIUM: CORRELATION WITH WEIGHT OF THE HEART." Anatomy Journal of Africa.. 2017;6(1):862-866. Abstractsex_differences_in_diameter_of_the_coronary_sinus.pdfWebsite

Diameter of the coronary sinus ostium is important in the designing of cannulation devices used in cardiac
resynchronization therapy and percutaneous mitral valve annuloplasty. Population variation of the
diameter may account for the failure rate of these procedures. Studies of the coronary sinus ostium from
African populations are scarce and altogether absent for Kenya. Therefore, this study aimed at
determining sex differences in the diameter of coronary sinus ostium and its correlation with the weight
of the heart. Seventy-four hearts of adult black Kenyans [43 male, 31 females; age range 20 – 70 years]
obtained during autopsy at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya were
weighed. The coronary sinus ostium was identified and its transverse and supero-inferior diameters
measured in millimeters. The measurements were analyzed using SPSS version 17. Sex comparison was
established using student’s t test. Association between diameter and heart weight was established using
Pearson’s correlation test and considered significant at a p-value of ≤0.05. Data were presented using
scatter plots. Transverse and supero-inferior diameters of the ostium were 11.04±1.88mm and
9.50±1.80mm respectively. The mean diameter was 10.27 mm. These correlated positively with weight
of the heart. When corrected for weight of the hearts, the transverse and supero-inferior diameters were
larger in females (0.042 and 0.036 respectively) than in males (0.034 and 0.03 respectively). The
diameter of coronary sinus ostium is larger in females and shows positive correlation with weight of the
heart. These data should be considered during design and use of cardiac devices introduced through
the coronary sinus.

Kimuyu DM, Sensenig RL, Chira RM, GITHAIGA JOHNM, Young TP. "Spatial scales influence long-term response of herbivores to prescribed burning in a savanna ecosystem." International Journal of Wildland Fire. 2017;26(4):287-295.
Mwangi W, Isaiah N, Shadrack K. "Spatio-temporal dynamics of land use practices on rivers in tropical regions: A case study of Ruiru and Ndarugu Basins, Kiambu County, Kenya." African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2017;Vol. 11(8):426-437.
Nyarige JS, WAITA SEBASTIAN, Simiyu J, Mureramanzi S, Aduda B. "Structural and Optical Properties of Phosphorous and Antimony doped ZnO thin films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis: A Comparative Study." International Advanced Research Journal in Science, Engineering and Technology . 2017;4(11):149-154.
Nyarige JS, WAITA SEBASTIAN, Simiyu J, Mureramanzi S, Aduda B. "Structural and Optical Properties of Phosphorous and Antimony doped ZnO thin films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis: A Comparative Study." International Advanced Research Journal in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2017;4(11). Abstract

A study of structural and properties of pure (undoped) Zinc oxide (ZnO) and phosphorous (P) and Antimony (Sb) doped Zinc Oxide films has been carried out. The films were deposited by an automated spray pyrolysis equipment on both microscope glass at various elevated temperatures (270 oC - 420 oC) and on fluorine doped tin Oxide (FTO) substrates at 420 oC. Structural characterization using Raman spectroscopy showed the presence of the main peak for ZnO at 437 cm-1for all the films. Antimony doped films showed other peaks associated with the doping but phosphorous doping did not show extra peaks. Optical characterization using a UV-VIS-NIR Shimadzu (Model DUV 3700) double beam spectrophotometer provided both reflectance and transmittance data and Scout software was used to compute the band gap. At a wavelength of 600 nm, the average transmittance of the pure ZnO films was ~62 % while it was transmittance was ~85 % and ~80 % for Sb and P doped films respectively, an increase of ~23 % and ~18 % respectively. For the undoped ZnO films, high deposition temperatures led to band gap narrowing from 3.25eV to 3.10eVwhile doping resulted in band gap widening from 3.10 eV to 3.30 eV (for P-doped) and 3.10 eV to 3.33 eV (for Sb-doped),an observation confirmed by the increased transmittance on doping. The band gap narrowing for ZnO films makes the film become a better materials for visible light absorption which is good for photovoltaic applications. The wide gap broadening on doping makes the film more transparent to solar radiation making it suitable for transparent conducting oxide applications.

V D, S B, M L, L M, I S, A. W. "Structural drivers of vulnerability to zoonotic disease in Africa. ." Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B . 2017;372.
Mwangi HN'u, Wagacha P, Mathenge P, Sijenyi F, Mulaa F. "Structure of the 40S ribosomal subunit of Plasmodium falciparum by homology and de novo modeling." 7. 2017;1:97-105. AbstractFull Text

Generation of three dimensional structures of macromolecules using in silico
structural modeling technologies such as homology and de novo modeling has improved
dramatically and increased the speed by which tertiary structures of organisms can be
generated. This is especially the case if a homologous crystal structure is already available.
High-resolution structures can be rapidly created using only their sequence information as
input, a process that has the potential to increase the speed of scientific discovery.

Soares ACF, Cabral MMW, Martins CHG, Ferreira AE, Bergamo PAS, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Parreira RLT, Heleno VCG. "Study of Anti-Tuberculosis Activity Behaviour of Natural Kaurane and Trachylobane Diterpenes Compared with Structural Properties Obtained by Theoretical Calculations." Natural Product Communications. 2017;12(5):763-769. AbstractFull text

A set of seven diterpenes, three kauranes and four trachylobanes, isolated from the African plant Psiadia punctulata were assayed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and reached activity comparable with cycloserine, a second line drug used to treat tuberculosis (TB). Several structural properties of those diterpenes, such as lipophilicity, HOMO and LUMO energies, charge density, and intramolecular hydrogen bond (IHB) formation, were obtained by theoretical calculations and compared with their activities. Peculiar correlations were observed, especially between activity, lipophilicity and IHB formation.

Study of anti-tuberculosis activity behaviour of natural kaurane and trachylobane diterpenes compared with structural properties obtained by theoretical calculations (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/317750342_Study_of_anti-tuberculosis_activity_behaviour_of_natural_kaurane_and_trachylobane_diterpenes_compared_with_structural_properties_obtained_by_theoretical_calculations [accessed Sep 25, 2017].

Soares ACF, Cabral MMW, Martins CHG, Ferreira AE, Bergamo PAS, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Parreira RLT, Heleno VCG. "Study of Anti-Tuberculosis Activity Behaviour of Natural Kaurane and Trachylobane Diterpenes Compared with Structural Properties Obtained by Theoretical Calculations." Natural Products Communications . 2017;12(5):763-769.
Soares ACF, Cabral MMW, Martins CHG, Ferreira AE, Bergamo PAS, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Parreira RLT, Heleno VCG. "Study of Anti-Tuberculosis Activity Behaviour of Natural Kaurane and Trachylobane Diterpenes Compared with Structural Properties Obtained by Theoretical Calculations." Natural product communications. 2017;12(5):1934578X1701200521. AbstractJournal article

Abstract
A set of seven diterpenes, three kauranes and four trachylobanes, isolated from the African plant Psiadia punctulata were assayed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and reached activity comparable with cycloserine, a second line drug used to treat tuberculosis (TB). Several structural properties of those diterpenes, such as lipophilicity, HOMO and LUMO energies, charge density, and intramolecular hydrogen bond (IHB) formation, were obtained by theoretical calculations and compared with their activities. Peculiar correlations were observed, especially between activity, lipophilicity and IHB formation.

Keywords Diterpenes, Kauranes, Trachylobanes, Psiadia punctulata, Structure-activity relationship, Lipophilicity, Computational study

Milford C, Kriel Y, Njau I, Nkole T, P G, Cordero JP, Smit JA, Steyn PS, Team UPTAKEP. "Teamwork in Qualitative Research: Descriptions of a Multicountry Team Approach." International Journal of Qualitative Methods. 2017;16 :1-10 .teamwork_in_qualitative_research.pdf
Scott AA, Misiani H, Okoth J, Jordan A, Gohlke J, Ouma G, Arrighi J, Zaitchik BF, Jjemba E, Verjee S, Waugh DW. "Temperature and Heat in Informal Settlements in Nairobi." PloS one. 2017;12(11). AbstractPLOS One

Nairobi, Kenya exhibits a wide variety of micro-climates and heterogeneous surfaces. Paved roads and high-rise buildings interspersed with low vegetation typify the central business district, while large neighborhoods of informal settlements or “slums” are characterized by dense, tin housing, little vegetation, and limited access to public utilities and services. To investigate how heat varies within Nairobi, we deployed a high density observation network in 2015/2016 to examine summertime temperature and humidity. We show how temperature, humidity and heat index differ in several informal settlements, including in Kibera, the largest slum neighborhood in Africa, and find that temperature and a thermal comfort index known colloquially as the heat index regularly exceed measurements at the Dagoretti observation station by several degrees Celsius. These temperatures are within the range of temperatures previously associated with mortality increases of several percent in youth and elderly populations in informal settlements. We relate these changes to surface properties
such as satellite-derived albedo, vegetation indices, and elevation.

Ngowi BV, Tonnang HEZ, Johansson T, Ndegwa PN, Subramanian S, Mwangi EM, Ambale J. "Temperature-dependent phenology of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae): Simulation and visualization of current and future distributions along the Eastern Afromontane." PloS one. 2017;12(3):e0173590.
A. K, SG. D. "Text Book of Paediatric Dentistry.". In: Text Book of Paediatric Dentistry. New Dehli: Arya (Med) Publishing House; 2017.
Olago D, Sier MJ, Langereis CG, Dupont-Nivet G, Feibel CS, Joordens JCA, et al. "The top of the Olduvai Subchron in a high-resolution magnetostratigraphy from the West Turkana core WTK13, hominin sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP)." Quaternary Geochronology. 2017;42:117-129. AbstractFull Text

One of the major challenges in understanding the evolution of our own species is identifying the role climate change has played in the evolution of hominin species. To clarify the influence of climate, we need long and continuous high-resolution paleoclimate records, preferably obtained from hominin-bearing sediments, that are well-dated by tephro- and magnetostratigraphy and other methods. This is hindered, however, by the fact that fossil-bearing outcrop sediments are often discontinuous, and subject to weathering, which may lead to oxidation and remagnetization. To obtain fresh, unweathered sediments, the Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) collected a ∼216-meter core (WTK13) in 2013 from Early Pleistocene Paleolake Lorenyang deposits in the western Turkana Basin (Kenya). Here, we present the magnetostratigraphy of the WTK13 core, providing a first age model for upcoming HSPDP paleoclimate and paleoenvrionmental studies on the core sediments. Rock magnetic analyses reveal the presence of iron sulfides carrying the remanent magnetizations. To recover polarity orientation from the near-equatorial WTK13 core drilled at 5°N, we developed and successfully applied two independent drill-core reorientation methods taking advantage of (1) the sedimentary fabric as expressed in the Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) and (2) the occurrence of a viscous component oriented in the present day field. The reoriented directions reveal a normal to reversed polarity reversal identified as the top of the Olduvai Subchron. From this excellent record, we find no evidence for the ‘Vrica Subchron’ previously reported in the area. We suggest that outcrop-based interpretations supporting the presence of the Vrica Subchron have been affected by the oxidation of iron sulfides initially present in the sediments -as evident in the core record- and by subsequent remagnetization. We discuss the implications of the observed geomagnetic record for human evolution studies.

Siriba DN. "Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) in Cadastral Surveying and Mapping." Kenya Surveyors' Journal. 2017;2017:7-9.
Karimurio J, Rono H, Njomo D, Sironka J, Kareko C, Gichangi M, Barasa E, A M, Kefa R, Kiio F. "Use of validated community-based trachoma trichiasis (TT) case finders to measure the total backlog and detect when elimination threshold is achieved: a TT methodology paper." Pan Afr Med J. 2017;27:18.
Solomon Mwanjele Mwagha MM. "Using fuzzy cognitive maps in modelling and representing weather lore for seasonal weather forecasting over east and Southern Africa." Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems. 2017;1(16):1-30. AbstractFull text link

The creation of scientific weather forecasts is troubled by many technological challenges while their utilization is dismal. Consequently, the majority of small-scale farmers in Africa continue to consult weather lore to reach various cropping decisions. Weather lore is a body of informal folklore associated with the prediction of the weather based on indigenous knowledge and human observation of the environment. As such, it tends to be more holistic and more localized to the farmers’ context. However, weather lore has limitations such as inability to offer forecasts beyond a season. Different types of weather lore exist and utilize almost all available human senses (feel, smell, sight and hear). Out of all the types of weather lore in existence, it is the visual or observed weather lore that is mostly used by indigenous societies to come up with weather predictions. Further, meteorologists continue to treat weather lore knowledge as superstition partly because there is no means to scientifically evaluate and validate it. The visualization and characterization of visual sky objects (such as moon, clouds, stars, rainbow, etc) in forecasting weather is a significant subject of research. In order to realize the integration of visual weather lore knowledge in modern weather forecasting systems, there is a need to represent and scientifically substantiate weather lore. This article is aimed at coming up with a method of organizing the weather lore from the visual perspective of humans. To achieve this objective, we used fuzzy cognitive mapping to model and represent causal relationships between weather lore concepts and weather outcomes. The results demonstrated that FCMs are efficient for matrix representation of selected weather outcome scenarios caused visual weather lore concepts. Based on these results the recommendation of this study is to use this approach as a preliminary processing task towards verifying weather lore.

Muthami J, Selvam SG, J W. "VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN AND GIRLS - Providing Therapy for Gender Based Violence Survivors." Journal for Innovation Education and Research. 2017;5((10)):153-176.827-article_text-1788-1-10-20171109.pdf
Borna A. Nyaoke, Mutua G, sajabi R, delvin nyasani, Mureithi MW, Anzala O. "Volunteer motivators for participating in HIV vaccine clinical trials in Nairobi, Kenya." PLOS ONE. 2017;https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0183788(12).journal.pone_.pdf

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