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SM Mwagha MM. "APPLICATION OF COMPUTER VISION IN DETECTING SKY OBJECTS AS WEATHER LORE CONCEPTS ." Interim: Interdisciplinary Journal. 2016;15(1):1-17. AbstractFull text link

Weather lore is a body of informal folklore associated with weather prediction. Different types of weather lore exist and utilize almost all available human senses (feel, smell, sight and hear). Out of all the types of weather lore in existence, it is the visual or observed weather lore that is mostly used by indigenous communities to come up with weather predictions. Modern scientists also observe the sky to enhance their numerical weather prediction models. The visualization and representation of knowledge from sky objects (such as moon, clouds, stars and rainbow) in forecasting weather is a significant area of research. In order to realize the integration of visual weather lore knowledge in modern weather forecasting systems, there is a need to characterize and represent weather lore knowledge on visual sky objects. This paper reports on a method of approximating the presence of astronomical and meteorological objects in the sky. To achieve this objective, we designed detectors for the sky objects and score their presence and quantity in the sky panorama. The method of recognizing objects in images using image feature extraction techniques together with benchmark of similarity of extracted object against ideal objects (ground truths) was used. The results of this study reveal that our method is ideal in unlocking the extraction and computation of similarity of visual sky objects. The recommendation of this study is to use our method as a preprocessing task (using represented weather lore concepts) in the process of predicting weather outcomes and verifying visual based weather lore. Keywords: Representation; object similarity; object recognition; weather lore; bag of words; image features; classifiers

SM K, JA O, H S, B.M N. ". Comparative intimo-media morphology of the human splenic and common hepatic arteries." J. Morph. Sci,2011. 2011:28:52-25 – 2011.
Slyker JA, John-Stewart GC, Dong T, Lohman-Payne B, Reilly M, Atzberger A, Taylor S, Maleche-Obimbo E, Mbori-Ngacha D, Rowland-J. "Phenotypic Characterization of HIV-Specific CD8+ T Cells during Early and Chronic Infant HIV-1 Infection." BMC Infect Dis. 2011; 11: 259. Published online 2011 September 30. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-11-259. 2011. Abstractphenotypic_characterization_of_hiv-specific_cd8.pdf

Abstract
Although CD8+ T cells play an important role in the containment of adult HIV-1 replication, their role in infant HIV-1
infection is not as well understood. Impaired HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses may underlie the persistently high viral loads
observed in infants. We examined the frequency and phenotype of infant HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in 7 HIV-infected
antiretroviral therapy-naı¨ve infants during the first 2 years of life, using class I HLA tetramers and IFN-c-ELISPOT. The
frequency (0.088–3.9% of CD3+CD8+ cells) and phenotype (CD27+CD282, CD45RA+/2, CD57+/2, HLA-DR+, CD95+) of infant
HIV-specific CD8+ T cells were similar to reports in adults undergoing early infection. Unlike adults, at 23–24 months postinfection
a high frequency of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells expressed HLA-DR (mean 80%, range 68–85%) and CD95 (mean 88%,
range 79–96%), suggesting sustained activation and vulnerability to apoptosis. Despite comparable expansion of HIVspecific
CD8+ T cells of a similar phenotype to adults during early infection, infant T cells failed to contain HIV-1 replication,
and remained persistently activated and vulnerable to apoptosis during chronic infection.

Slyker JA;, Chung MH;, Lehman DA;, Kiarie J;, Kinuthia J;, Holte S;, Tapia K;, Njiri F;, Overbaugh J;, John-Stewart G. "Incidence and Correlates of HIV-1 RNA Detection in the Breast Milk of Women Receiving HAART for the Prevention of HIV-1 Transmission.". 2012. Abstract

Background The incidence and correlates of breast milk HIV-1 RNA detection were determined in intensively sampled women receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. Methods Women initiated HAART at 34 weeks of pregnancy. Breast milk was collected every 2–5 days during 1 month postpartum for measurements of cell-associated HIV DNA and cell-free HIV RNA. Plasma and breast milk were also collected at 2 weeks, 1, 3 and 6 months for concurrent HIV-1 RNA and DNA measurements. Regression was used to identify cofactors for breast milk HIV-1 RNA detection. Results Of 259 breast milk specimens from 25 women receiving HAART, 34 had detectable HIV-1 RNA (13%, incidence 1.4 episodes/100 person-days 95% CI = 0.97–1.9). Fourteen of 25 (56%) women had detectable breast milk HIV-1 RNA [mean 2.5 log10 copies/ml (range 2.0–3.9)] at least once. HIV-1 DNA was consistently detected in breast milk cells despite HAART, and increased slowly over time, at a rate of approximately 1 copy/106 cells per day (p = 0.02). Baseline CD4, plasma viral load, HAART duration, and frequency of breast problems were similar in women with and without detectable breast milk HIV-1 RNA. Women with detectable breast milk HIV-1 RNA were more likely to be primiparous than women without (36% vs 0%, p = 0.05). Plasma HIV-1 RNA detection (OR = 9.0, 95%CI = 1.8–44) and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels (OR = 12, 95% CI = 2.5–56) were strongly associated with concurrent detection of breast milk HIV-1 RNA. However, no association was found between breast milk HIV-1 DNA level and concurrent breast milk HIV-1 RNA detection (OR = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.54–1.7). Conclusions The majority of women on HAART had episodic detection of breast milk HIV-1 RNA. Breast milk HIV-1 RNA detection was associated with systemic viral burden rather than breast milk HIV-1 DNA.

Slyker JA, Lohman-Payne BL, John-Stewart GC, Maleche-Obimbo E, Emery S, Richardson B, Dong T, Iversena AKN, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Overbaugh J, Rowland-Jones SL. "Acute cytomegalovirus infection in Kenyan HIV-infected infants.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

Objective: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) coinfection may influence HIV-1 disease progression
during infancy. Our aim was to describe the incidence of CMV infection
and the kinetics of viral replication in Kenyan HIV-infected and HIV-exposed uninfected
infants.
Methods: HIV-1 and CMV plasma viral loads were serially measured in 20 HIVexposed
uninfected and 44 HIV-infected infants born to HIV-infected mothers.
HIV-infected children were studied for the first 2 years of life, and HIV-exposed
uninfected infants were studied for 1 year.
Results: CMVDNAwas detected frequently during the firstmonths of life; by 3months of
age,CMVDNAwasdetectedin90%ofHIV-exposeduninfectedinfantsand93%of infants
whohadacquiredHIV-1inutero.CMVviral loadswerehighest inthe1–3monthsfollowing
the first detection of virus and declined rapidly thereafter. CMV peak viral loads were
significantlyhigher in theHIV-infectedinfantscomparedwith theHIV-exposeduninfected
infants (mean3.2versus2.7 log10CMVDNAcopies/ml, respectively,P¼0.03).Thedetection
of CMV DNA persisted to 7–9 months post-CMV infection in both the HIV-exposed
uninfected (8/17, 47%) and HIV-infected (13/18, 72%, P¼0.2) children. Among HIVinfected
children, CMV DNA was detected in three of the seven (43%) surviving infants
tested between 19 and 21 months post-CMV infection. Finally, a strong correlation was
found between peak CMV and HIV-1 viral loads (r¼0.40, P¼0.008).
Conclusion: Acute CMV coinfection is common in HIV-infected Kenyan infants. HIV-1
infection was associated with impaired containment of CMV replication.

Slyker JA, Chung MH, Lehman DA, Kiarie J, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Holte S, Tapia K, Njiri F, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart G. "Incidence and correlates of HIV-1 RNA detection in the breast milk of women receiving HAART for the prevention of HIV-1 transmission." PLoS ONE. 2012;7(1):e29777. Abstract

The incidence and correlates of breast milk HIV-1 RNA detection were determined in intensively sampled women receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission.

Slyker JA, Casper C, Tapia K, Richardson B, Bunts L, Huang M-L, Maleche-Obimbo E, Ruth Nduati, John-Stewart G. "Clinical and virologic manifestations of primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in Kenyan infants born to HIV-infected women." J. Infect. Dis.. 2013;207(12):1798-806. Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a risk factor for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphomas. Characterizing primary infection may elucidate risk factors for malignancy.

Slyker JA, Rowland-Jones SL, Dong T, Reilly M, Richardson B, Emery VC, Atzberger A, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Lohman-Payne BL, John-Stewart GC. "Acute cytomegalovirus infection is associated with increased frequencies of activated and apoptosis-vulnerable T cells in HIV-1-infected infants.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) coinfection is associated with infant HIV-1 disease progression and mortality. In a cohort of Kenyan HIV-infected infants, the frequencies of activated (CD38(+) HLA-DR(+)) and apoptosis-vulnerable (CD95(+) Bcl-2(-)) CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells increased substantially during acute CMV infection. The frequency of activated CD4(+) T cells was strongly associated with both concurrent CMV coinfection (P = 0.001) and HIV-1 viral load (P = 0.05). The frequency of apoptosis-vulnerable cells was also associated with CMV coinfection in the CD4 (P = 0.02) and CD8 (P < 0.001) T cell subsets. Similar observations were made in HIV-exposed uninfected infants. CMV-induced increases in T cell activation and apoptosis may contribute to the rapid disease progression in coinfected infants.

Slyker JA, Chung MH, Lehman DA, Kiarie J, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Holte S, Tapia K, Njiri F, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart G. "Incidence and correlates of HIV-1 RNA detection in the breast milk of women receiving HAART for the prevention of HIV-1 transmission." PLoS ONE. 2012;7(1):e29777. Abstract

The incidence and correlates of breast milk HIV-1 RNA detection were determined in intensively sampled women receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission.

Slyker J, Farquhar C, Atkinson C, Ásbjörnsdóttir K, Roxby A, Drake A, Kiarie J, Wald A, Boeckh M, Richardson B, Odem-Davis K, John-Stewart G, Emery V. "Compartmentalized cytomegalovirus replication and transmission in the setting of maternal HIV-1 infection." Clin. Infect. Dis.. 2014;58(4):564-72. Abstract

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is associated with adverse outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed infants. Determinants of vertical CMV transmission in the setting of maternal HIV-1 infection are not well-defined.

Slyker JA, Casper C, Tapia K, Richardson B, Bunts L, Huang M-L, Maleche-Obimbo E, Ruth Nduati, John-Stewart G. "Clinical and virologic manifestations of primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in Kenyan infants born to HIV-infected women." J. Infect. Dis.. 2013;207(12):1798-806. Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a risk factor for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphomas. Characterizing primary infection may elucidate risk factors for malignancy.

Slyker JA, Patterson J, Ambler G, Richardson BA, Maleche-Obimbo E, Bosire R, Mbori-Ngacha D, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G. "Correlates and outcomes of preterm birth, low birth weight, and small for gestational age in HIV-exposed uninfected infants." BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2014;14:7. Abstract

Preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA) contribute to neonatal mortality. Maternal HIV-1 infection has been associated with an increased risk of PTB, but mechanisms underlying this association are undefined. We describe correlates and outcomes of PTB, LBW, and SGA in HIV-exposed uninfected infants.

Slyker JA;, Lohman-Payne B;, John-Stewart GC;, Dong T;, Mbori-Ngacha DA;, Tapia K;, Atzberger A;, Taylor S;, Rowland-Jones SL;, Blish CA. "The impact of HIV-1 infection and exposure on natural killer (NK) cell phenotype in Kenyan infants during the first year of life.". 2012. Abstract

Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in the containment of HIV replication during primary infection, though their functions are impaired during chronic HIV infection. Infants experience more rapid HIV disease progression than adults, but contributions of infant NK cells to containing HIV infection are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of HIV infection on infant NK cell phenotype by evaluating samples and data from a cohort study of women and their infants, conducted in Nairobi, Kenya between 1999 and 2003. The percentage and phenotype of NK cells was evaluated longitudinally by multi-parameter flow cytometry over the first year of life in HIV-infected (HIV+, = 16), HIV-exposed uninfected (HIV-EU, n = 6), and healthy unexposed controls (HIV-, n = 4). At birth, NK subset distributions based on expression of CD56 and CD16 did not differ between HIV+, HIV-EU, or HIV- infants. However, HIV infection was associated with a subsequent decline in NK cells as a percentage of total lymphocytes (p < 0.001), and an expanding proportion of CD56-CD16+ NK cells (p < 0.001). Activated CD38(bright)CD69+ NK cells were more frequent in the HIV+ infants, followed by HIV-EU and HIV- infants, in both CD56(dim) (p = 0.005) and CD56(bright) compartments (p = 0.03). HIV infection and exposure was also associated with a significant decline in the percentage of perforin-expressing NK cells in the CD56(dim) compartment over the first year of life, with HIV+ infants losing approximately 2.5% (p < 0.001) and HIV-EU infants losing 3.0% (p = 0.01) of perforin+ cells per month. Thus, infant HIV infection is associated with alterations in NK cell subsets, activation, and cytolytic potential that could contribute to their poor control over HIV infection. Furthermore, exposure to HIV infection in infants who escaped infection is also associated with alterations in NK cells that may contribute to the reduced ability to fight infections that is observed in HIV-EU infants

Sly DF, Muchunga EK, Muganzi Z, Lenior B. "Stability and change in family size preferences among rural youth in Kenya.". 2000. Abstract

Data analyzed here indicate that rural youth in Kenya are developing rather clearly defined family size preferences and that they are capable of differentiating their own family desires from what they see as ideal for others. The validity of responses is checked by looking for general patterns in these data which have been previously observed for youth ideal fertility than desired fertility, that younger youth have higher family size preferences than older youth and that males generally have slightly higher family size desires than females. A unique feature of the data is that the same questions were asked of respondents nine months apart. While the period between interviews is not ideal for a test-retest reliability check, analysis indicates that the level of stability in response to family size preference questions was remarkably high for a population of this type.

Slevin M, Krupinski J, Badimon L. "Controlling the angiogenic switch in developing atherosclerotic plaques: {Possible} targets for therapeutic intervention." Vascular Cell. 2009;1:4. AbstractWebsite

Plaque angiogenesis may have an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Vasa vasorum angiogenesis and medial infiltration provides nutrients to the developing and expanding intima and therefore, may prevent cellular death and contribute to plaque growth and stabilization in early lesions. However in more advanced plaques, inflammatory cell infiltration, and concomitant production of numerous pro-angiogenic cytokines may be responsible for induction of uncontrolled neointimal microvessel proliferation resulting in production of immature and fragile neovessels similar to that seen in tumour development. These could contribute to development of an unstable haemorrhagic rupture-prone environment. Increasing evidence has suggested that the expression of intimal neovessels is directly related to the stage of plaque development, the risk of plaque rupture, and subsequently, the presence of symptomatic disease, the timing of ischemic neurological events and myocardial/cerebral infarction. Despite this, there is conflicting evidence regarding the causal relationship between neovessel expression and plaque thrombosis with some in vivo experimental models suggesting the contrary and as yet, few direct mediators of angiogenesis have been identified and associated with plaque instability in vivo. PMID: 19946412

Sleper DA. "Use of a Prepaid Cellulase Solution for Screening Forage Grass Germplasm for Digestibilit.". 1993. AbstractWebsite

A reliable rapid and inexpensive laboratory procedure is needed to screen native African forage grass species for forage quality. This study determined the potential of using a prepared cellulase solution to assess in vitro dry matter solubility of 22 native Kenyan forage grasses and 18 native warm season grasses from Missouri, USA. A prepared cellulase solution was used for screening the grass species for digestibility using two procedures. One procedure involved digesting grass samples in prepared cellulose solution without any pre-treatment (CSD), and the other procedure used an acid pepsin pretreatment prior to digestion in the prepared cellulose solution (APCS). The CSD procedures in comparison to APCS generally underestimated in vitro dry matter solubility by a rand of up to 23%. The variations were highly species dependent. Although the APCS procedure more time consuming, it made it possible to identify a group of species resolvable into high (42.6-61.4%), medium (36-40%) and low (29-34%) digestibility. With intensified efforts it is possible for one person to obtain in vitro dry matter solubility estimates on up to 200 samples in 30 days with minimal expense. Results of this investigation points to the end need for further research on the potential of the two digestibility procedures for rationalizing numbers in germplasm collection for initial screening

Sleper DA. "Short Communication: Use of a Prepaid Cellulase Solution for Screening Forage Grass Germplasm for Digestibility.". 1993. Abstract

A reliable rapid and inexpensive laboratory procedure is needed to screen native African forage grass species for forage quality. This study determined the potential of using a prepared cellulase solution to assess in vitro dry matter solubility of 22 native Kenyan forage grasses and 18 native warm season grasses from Missouri, USA. A prepared cellulase solution was used for screening the grass species for digestibility using two procedures. One procedure involved digesting grass samples in prepared cellulose solution without any pre-treatment (CSD), and the other procedure used an acid pepsin pretreatment prior to digestion in the prepared cellulose solution (APCS). The CSD procedures in comparison to APCS generally underestimated in vitro dry matter solubility by a rand of up to 23%. The variations were highly species dependent. Although the APCS procedure more time consuming, it made it possible to identify a group of species resolvable into high (42.6-61.4%), medium (36-40%) and low (29-34%) digestibility. With intensified efforts it is possible for one person to obtain in vitro dry matter solubility estimates on up to 200 samples in 30 days with minimal expense. Results of this investigation points to the end need for further research on the potential of the two digestibility procedures for rationalizing numbers in germplasm collection for initial screening.

Skoracki M, Klimovičová MIROSLAVA, Muchai M, Hromada M. "New taxa of the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Prostigmata) from African barbets and woodpeckers (Piciformes: Lybiidae, Picidae)." Zootaxa. 2014;3768:178-188. Abstract
n/a
Skjerdal TS, Ngugi CM. "Institutional and governmental challenges for journalism education in East Africa." Ecquid Novi: AJS . 2007;28(1-2):176-190.
Skilton MR, Boussel L, Bonnet F, Bernard S, Douek PC, Moulin P, Serusclat A. "Carotid intima–media and adventitial thickening: {Comparison} of new and established ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging techniques." Atherosclerosis. 2011;215:405-410. AbstractWebsite

Objective Carotid intima–media thickness is a well established non-invasive surrogate marker of cardiovascular disease, however there is evidence that structural modification of the arterial adventitia also accompanies cardiovascular risk factors and might be involved causally in atherosclerosis. We sought to determine the relative contributions of the intima–media and adventitia to variation in ultrasound and magnetic resonance derived measures of carotid wall thickness. Methods Carotid ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging were undertaken in 20 participants. Carotid intima–media thickness, carotid extra–media thickness (which incorporates the arterial adventitia) and total wall thickness (a combined near-wall intima–media thickness and carotid extra–media thickness) using high-resolution ultrasound, and wall thickness using magnetic resonance imaging, were obtained. Results All ultrasound-derived measures of the arterial wall thickness were highly correlated with wall thickness by magnetic resonance imaging (all P{\textless}0.001); as expected the total wall thickness by ultrasound measure was most tightly correlated (correlation coefficient=0.814, P{\textless}0.0001). In multivariable models, there was evidence that both carotid intima–media thickness and carotid extra–media thickness contributed independently to the variance in wall thickness by magnetic resonance imaging, especially for the most severe focal thickening. Measures of carotid wall thickness that incorporated all three layers of the arterial wall were more closely correlated with the number of cardiovascular risk factors than carotid intima–media thickness alone. Conclusions These results indicate that the arterial adventitia is an important contributor to the wall thickness measure derived by magnetic resonance imaging, and that carotid extra–media thickness likely provides additional information concerning arterial structure than that obtained from carotid intima–media thickness alone.

Skilton MR, Sullivan TR, Ayer JG, Harmer JA, Toelle BG, Webb K, Marks GB, Celermajer DS. "Carotid extra-medial thickness in childhood: early life effects on the arterial adventitia." Atherosclerosis. 2012;222:478-482. Abstract

{OBJECTIVE: Structural modification of the arterial adventitia may be an early event in atherosclerosis. Carotid extra-medial thickness is a new measure of arterial adventitial thickness. We examined the association of cardiovascular risk factors with extra-medial thickness, in childhood. METHODS: Carotid extra-medial thickness was assessed by high-resolution ultrasound in 389 non-diabetic children aged 8-years. A non-fasting blood sample was collected from 314 participants. Associations of gender, age, lipoproteins, blood pressure, BMI z-score, waist:height ratio and parental history of early vascular disease, with extra-medial thickness were examined. RESULTS: Carotid extra-medial thickness was lower in girls (r=-.163

Skilton R;, Kitala PM;, Ngumi PN;, Gachohi JM. "The prevalence of serum antibodies to East coast fever and associated risk factors in cattle in the traditional crop-livestock system in Mbeere district, Kenya; a cross-sectional study."; 2003. Abstract

East coast fever (ECF) is the most important tick-borne disease (TBD) of cattle in Kenya. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the cattle population raised under traditional crop-livestock production system in Mbeere district, Kenya. The objective was to estimate ECF seroprevalence and identify associated risk factors for planning ECF control strategies in the district. A total of 440 cattle of all ages from 80 farms were selected by multistage random sampling. Prevalence of serum antibodies to ECF was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Risk factor information was collected at three levels: animal-, farm-(herd) and division-levels. The relationship between ECF seropositivity and the risk factors was assessed by multivariable analysis using logistic regression models. The overall ECF seroprevalence was 19.3% (range: 3.9% to 48% across divisions) in the district [95%CI: 13.7%, 24.9%]. Regression analysis found four major factors associated with seropositivity: presence of the vector tick on the farm (OR=3.8), frequency of calf tick control before 6 months of age (for frequency of >5 times, OR=3.9 relative to frequency of ≤5 times), herd size (OR for herd size category 6-10 cattle = 2.7; OR for over 10 cattle = 0.95 relative to herd size category 1-5 cattle) and division (ORs for Siakago, Gachoka and Mwea divisions = 0.3, 0.21 and 5.1 respectively relative to Evurore division). The low ECF seroprevalence indicates that ECF occurs in the district in an endemic instability state. The significant herd management factors possibly arose out of differential perceptions of ECF occurrence and importance across the district while the wide variation in seroprevalence across divisions was thought to be due to a gradient in vector tick environmental suitability habitats. These findings suggest that ECF seroprevalence in Mbeere district is mainly influenced by herd and environmental factors.

Skilton MR, Sérusclat A, Sethu AHAU, Brun S, Bernard S, Balkau B, Moulin P, Bonnet F. "Noninvasive measurement of carotid extra-media thickness: associations with cardiovascular risk factors and intima-media thickness." JACC. Cardiovascular imaging. 2009;2:176-182. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: We sought to develop a noninvasive technique to quantify the thickness of a segment of the carotid artery wall that incorporates the adventitia and to identify whether differences in this measure are associated with cardiovascular risk factors. BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that the arterial adventitia undergoes extensive structural alteration, including thickening, in response to arterial injury. However, there is currently no widely accepted noninvasive technique for studying the thickness of the arterial adventitia in humans. METHODS: The carotid artery and jugular vein were imaged simultaneously in longitudinal section with the use of high-resolution ultrasound. The distance from the jugular intima-lumen interface to the carotid media-adventitia margin was denominated as the carotid extra-media thickness (EMT). This measure includes the arterial adventitia but not the arterial intima or media. We measured the carotid EMT and intima-media thickness (IMT) in 175 subjects, including 54 with diabetes, 43 with dyslipidemia, 26 with other cardiovascular risk factors, and 52 healthy control subjects. RESULTS: When compared with control subjects, the EMT was increased in both the diabetes (p {\textless} 0.0001) and dyslipidemia (p = 0.04) groups. Multivariate linear regression analyses revealed that diabetes, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (inverse association), and systolic blood pressure (J-shaped association) were the factors most strongly associated with EMT. These associations appear to be independent of carotid IMT. CONCLUSIONS: Carotid EMT can be assessed by ultrasonography. It is physically distinct from IMT and provides additional information concerning the vascular changes associated with cardiovascular risk factors. As such, the measurement of EMT, in addition to IMT, may provide a more complete indication of the structural modification of the vasculature associated with cardiovascular risk factors than that obtained by the measurement of carotid IMT alone.

Skilton MR, Sérusclat A, Sethu AHAU, Brun S, Bernard S, Balkau B, Moulin P, Bonnet F. "Noninvasive measurement of carotid extra-media thickness: associations with cardiovascular risk factors and intima-media thickness." JACC. Cardiovascular imaging. 2009;2:176-182. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: We sought to develop a noninvasive technique to quantify the thickness of a segment of the carotid artery wall that incorporates the adventitia and to identify whether differences in this measure are associated with cardiovascular risk factors. BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that the arterial adventitia undergoes extensive structural alteration, including thickening, in response to arterial injury. However, there is currently no widely accepted noninvasive technique for studying the thickness of the arterial adventitia in humans. METHODS: The carotid artery and jugular vein were imaged simultaneously in longitudinal section with the use of high-resolution ultrasound. The distance from the jugular intima-lumen interface to the carotid media-adventitia margin was denominated as the carotid extra-media thickness (EMT). This measure includes the arterial adventitia but not the arterial intima or media. We measured the carotid EMT and intima-media thickness (IMT) in 175 subjects, including 54 with diabetes, 43 with dyslipidemia, 26 with other cardiovascular risk factors, and 52 healthy control subjects. RESULTS: When compared with control subjects, the EMT was increased in both the diabetes (p {\textless} 0.0001) and dyslipidemia (p = 0.04) groups. Multivariate linear regression analyses revealed that diabetes, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (inverse association), and systolic blood pressure (J-shaped association) were the factors most strongly associated with EMT. These associations appear to be independent of carotid IMT. CONCLUSIONS: Carotid EMT can be assessed by ultrasonography. It is physically distinct from IMT and provides additional information concerning the vascular changes associated with cardiovascular risk factors. As such, the measurement of EMT, in addition to IMT, may provide a more complete indication of the structural modification of the vasculature associated with cardiovascular risk factors than that obtained by the measurement of carotid IMT alone.

Sketchley HR, Scilley FM, Wokobi SM. "Soil science [in the Marginal Semi-Arid Lands of Kenya].". 1978.Website
Sketchley HR, Mbuvi JP, Scilley FM, Wokobi SM. "Soil science [in the Marginal Semi-Arid Lands of Kenya].". 1978.
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Skandalakis JE, Colborn GL. Skandalakis' {Surgical} anatomy: the embryologic and anatomic basis of modern surgery. Vol. 2. Athens, Greece: PMP; 2004. Abstract
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Skandalakis L, Colborn G, Weidman T, Skandalakis J, Skandalakis P. "Skandalakis' {Surgical} {Anatomy}: {The} {Embryologic} {And} {Anatomic} {Basis} {Of} {Modern} {Surgery}.". In: {SKANDALAKIS}' {SURGICAL} {ANATOMY}: {The} {Embryologic} and {Anatomic} {Basis} of {Modern} {Surgery}. Athens, Greece: Paschalidis Medical Publications; 2004:. Abstract
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Skadhauge E;, Maloiy GMO. "The intestine and osmoregulation."; 1979.
SK M, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Njagi LW. "Prevalence of haemoparsites in free-range local ducks.". In: Biennial FVM scientific conference and the 46th KVA annual scientific conference. Safari park hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.2012-_prevalence_of_haemoparasites_in_ducks.pdf
SK M, M W, JK S, CK G. ") Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) Breed characteristics, Farmer Objectives and Preferences in Kenya: A correspondence analysis." Discourse Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences. 2014;2(4):118-125.
SK M, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Njagi LW. "Prevalence and pathology of Echidnophaga gallinacean in free-range local ducks.". In: Biennial FVM scientific conference and the 46th KVA annual scientific conference. Safari park hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.2012-prevalence_and_pathology_of_e.gallinacea_in_ducks.pdf
SJ S. "Effect of homemade dental powder on population of streptococcus mutans." journal of dentistry and oral care. 2016;2(4):1-7.
Sixsmith DG, Watkins WM, Kokwaro GO. "The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions on sterilization and storage.". 2009. Abstract

The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values

Sivapalasingam S, McClelland RS RACCMGMMJAP, Shafi J, Masese L FAMEJKAEMW &. "An Effective Intervention to reduce intravaginal practices among HIV-1 uninfected Kenyan women." AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses . 2014;30(11)::1046-57.
Siundu G. Imagining Home and Community in East African Asian Writings. Saarbrucken: VDM Verlag Dr. Muller; 2009.
Siundu G. "Beyond Auto/Biography: Power, Politics, and Gender in Kenyan-Asian Women Writings." Research in African Literatures. 2011;42(3):117-131.
Siundu G. "Metaphors and the Economy of Hope in Jared Angira’s Lament of the Silent & Other Poems.". In: East African Literature: Essays in Written and Oral Traditions. Berlin: Logoa Verlag; 2011.
Siundu G. "Gender Affirmation or Racial Loyalties? Women and the Domestication of History in Neera Kapur-Dromson’s From Jhelum to Tana.". In: Rethinking Eastern African Literary and Intellectual Landscapes. New Jersey: Africa World Press; 2012.
Siundu G, W B. " “Christianity in Early Kenyan Novels: Ngugi Wa Thiong’o’s Weep Not, Child and The River Between” ." Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa . 2010;Vol. 2 No. 1: :292-310.
Situma J, Attoh F, Ndohvu J. "Mapping Out the Identity of African Arts and Aesthetics." Thought and Practice. 2016;7(1):77-102.
Situma J, Ndohvu JB. "Poverty and Human Rights: Dimensions of Morals and Ideas.". In: Poverty and Human Rights: East African Experiences. Nairobi: Focus Publishers ltd; 2017.
Sitta J, Nzuve F, Olubayo FM, Mutinda C, Muiru WM, Miano DW, Muthomi JW, Leley PK. "Response of Assorted Maize Germplasm to the Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease in Kenya." Journal of Plant Studies. 2017;6(2):65-76.
Sitonik N. "Functionality of the Dispute Settlement System: A world Trade Organization's (WTO) Approach." Global Journal of Politics and Law Research. 2016;4(2):19-28.
Sitienei JK, Kipruto K, Borus P, Nyambati V, Sitienei JC, Kihara AB, Kosgei RJ. "Predictors of low body mass index among patients with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Kenya." International Journal of Tropical Disease & Health. 2014;4(4):427-436.predictors_of_low_body_mass_index_among_patients_with_smear_positive_pulmonary_tuberculosis_in_kenya.pdf
Sitienei JJ, Kihara AB, Kosgei RJ, Cheserem EJ, Siika AM, Nangami M, Kimaiyo S, Maina F. "Patients’ views on the care they receive in Express Care, a task-shifting model in HIV care, at AMPATH, Western Kenya ." Journal of Scientific & Innovative Research. 2013;2(2):243-251.patients_views_on_the_care_they_receive_in_express_care_a_task-shifting.pdf
Sitati IN, Nzimbi BM, Luketero SW, Khalagai JM. "On A-Self-Adjoint, A-Unitary Operators and Quasiaffinities." SciencePG journals. 2016;Vol. 1(3 ):56-60. Abstract

In this paper, we investigate properties of A-self-adjoint operators and other relations on Hilbert spaces. In this
context, A is a self-adjoint and an invertible operator. More results on operator equivalences including similarity, unitary and metric equivalences are discussed. We also investigate conditions under which these classes of operators are self- adjoint and unitary. We finally locate their spectra.

Sitati IN, Musundi SW, Nzimbi BM, Kirimi J. "On similarity and quasisimilarity equivalence relations." Bull. Soc. Math. Serv. and Standards. 2012;1(2):151-171.
Sitati F, Kingori JK. "A Novel Treatment for Severely Porotic Humerus Non Union with Plate and Rush Pin: A Report of 2 Cases." The Internet Journal of Orthopedic Surgery . 2009;14(2):7-19. Abstracta_novel_treatment_for_severely_porotic_humerus_non_unionwith_plate_and_rush_pin.pdf

The management of humerus non-union in severely porotic bone mainly encountered in the elderly is challenging .The incidence of nonunion is higher in cases involving porotic bones. Non unions can result in significant patient morbidity by limiting activities of daily living due to pain and loss of function especially in the elderly. The literature is replete with studies outlining the various methods of treating humeral shaft non unions with severely porotic bones following primary operative management. However no study describes combining a plate and rush pin together with cancellous bone graft for severely porotic humerus non unions. We have applied this technique in 2 cases of previously plated porotic humerus non unions in the elderly with good results. This technique could be a very useful procedure in underdeveloped countries and rural hospitals where facilities like methylmethacrylate, a plate with a blade and spiked nuts that lock the screws to the plate are not available.

Sitati IN, Nzimbi BM, Luketero SW, Khalagai JM. "On A-Self-Adjoint, A-Unitary Operators and Quasiaffinities." SciencePG journals. 2016;Vol. 1(3 ):56-60. Abstract

In this paper, we investigate properties of A-self-adjoint operators and other relations on Hilbert spaces. In this
context, A is a self-adjoint and an invertible operator. More results on operator equivalences including similarity, unitary and metric equivalences are discussed. We also investigate conditions under which these classes of operators are self- adjoint and unitary. We finally locate their spectra.

Sitati IN, Nzimbi BM, Luketero SW, Khalagai JM. "Remarks on A-skew-adjoint, A-almost similarity equivalence and other operators in Hilbert space." Pure and Applied Mathematics Journal. 2017;6(3):101-107. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
In this paper, notions of A-almost similarity and the Lie algebra of A-skew-adjoint operators in Hilbert space are introduced. In this context, A is a self-adjoint and an invertible operator. It is shown that A-almost similarity is an equivalence relation. Conditions under which A-almost similarity implies similarity are outlined and in which case their spectra is located. Conditions under which an A-skew adjoint operator reduces to a skew adjoint operator are also given. By relaxing some conditions on normal and unitary operators, new results on A -normal, binormal and A-binormal operators are proved. Finally A-skew adjoint operators are characterized and the relationship between A-self- adjoint and A-skew adjoint operators is given.

Sitati FC, Mogire TS. "Ankle Arthrodesis Using a Vertical Steinman’s Pin in a Severely Osteopenic Bone." East Central Africa Journal of Surgery. 2014;19(1):125-128.
Sitati IN, Musundi SW, Nzimbi BM, Kikete DW. "A note on quasi-similarity of operators in Hilbert spaces." International Journal of Mathematical Archives. 2015;6(7):49-54.
Siro L, Kamuti I. "On the Actions of the Symmetric Group, Sn, n ≤ 7 on Unordered Quadruples, X(4)." International Journal of Algebra. 2013;Vol. 8, 2014(no. 3):115-120.
Sirma AJ, Senerwa DM, Lindahl. JF, D G, K M, Mtimet N, EK K’ethe. "Aflatoxin B1 occurrence in Millet, Sorghum, and maize from four agro-ecological zones in Kenya. ." African Journal of Food Nutrition and Development. 2016;16:10991-11003:10991-11003.
and Sirma A J; Ouko E. O., Gatwiri M. MMOKK’etheCIJN. "Prevalence of Aflatoxin contamination in cereals in Nandi County, Kenya. ." International journal of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine. 2015;3(3):55-63.
Sirma AJ, Ouko EO, Murith G, Mburug C, Mapena I, Ombui JN, Korhone H, Erastus K’etheK, Korhone H. "PREVALENCE OF AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION IN CEREALS NANDI COUNTY, KENYA." Int. J. Agric.Sc & Vet.Med. 2015;3(3).
Sirma AJ, Lindahl JF, Makita K, Senerwa D, Mtimet N, Kangethe EK, D.Grace. "The impacts of aflatoxin standards on health and nutrition in sub-saharan Africa: The case of Kenya ." Global food security . 2018;18:57-61.
Sirma AJ, Makita K, Grace D, Senerwa D, Lindahl JF. "Aflatoxin exposure from milk in rural Kenya and contribution to the risk of liver cancer." Toxins. 2019;11:469.
Siriba DN, Farah HO. "Land Management Information Systems in the Knowledge Economy: What options are there for Kenya.". In: Discussion and Guiding Principles for Africa - land management Systems in the Knowledge Economy. Addis Ababa: Economic Commission for Africa; 2007.
Siriba DN. "Towards a GNSS Data Accuracy Standard for Georeferencing." Kenya Surveyors' Journal. 2021;2021:5.
Siriba DN, Mwenda JN. "Towards Kenya’s Profile of the Land Administration Domain Model.". In: LADM 2013: 5th FIG International Land Administration Domain Model Workshop. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2013.
Siriba DN. "The Relationship between the Mining and Property Cadastre in Kenya." African Journal of Land Policy and Geospatial Sciences. 2019;2(2):1-9.
Siriba DN, Voss W, Mulaku GC. "The Kenyan Cadastre and Modern Land Administration." Zeitschrift für Vermessung. 2011;136(3):177-186.
Siriba DN, Dalyot S. "Should Volunteered Geographic Information on Land Parcels be Formalized or Coexist with the Formal Land Administration Systems?". In: Joint Workshop Fig Commission 7 and 3 - Crowdsourcing of Land Information & Annual Meeting . Malta, Italy; 2015.
Siriba DN, Mwenda JN, Dalyot S. "Time-enabled two-dimensional digital cadastre: Case of the Kenyan cadastre." South-Eastern European Journal of Earth Observation and Geomatics. 2014;3(1):109-121.
Siriba DN, Voss W, Mulaku GC. "The Kenyan cadastral system and modern land administration." ZfV (Germany)[ISSN 1618-8950]. 2011;136 (3):177-186.
Siriba DN, Mwenda JN. Towards Kenya’s Profile of the Land Administration Domain Model (LADM). , Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: International Federation of Surveyors (FIG); 2013.
Siriba DN, Matara SM, Musyoka SM. "Improvement of Volume Estimation of Stockpile of Earthworks Using a Concave Hull-Footprint." International Scientific Journal for Micro, Macro and Mezzo Geoinformation. 2015;5:11-25.
Siriba DN, Mwenda JN, Dalyot S. "Time‐Enabled Two‐Dimensional Digital Cadastre: Case of the Kenyan Cadastre." South‐Eastern European Journal of Earth Observation and Geomatics. 2014;3(1s):109-121.
Siriba DN. "Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) in Cadastral Surveying and Mapping." Kenya Surveyors' Journal. 2017;2017:7-9.
Siriba DN. "Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) for Land Administration: Is it Feasible?" Kenya Surveyors' Journal. 2016;8(1):10-13.
Siriba DN, Dalyot S. "Automatic georeferencing of non-geospatially referenced provisional cadastral maps." Survey Review. 2012;44(325):142-152.
Sipulwa LA, Ongus JR, Coldren RL, Bulimo WD. "Molecular characterization of human coronaviruses and their circulation dynamics in Kenya, 2009–2012." Virology Journal. 2016;13. AbstractWebsite
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Sipulwa LA, Ongus JR, Bulimo WD. Molecular characterization of human coronavirus circulating in Kenya, 2009-2012. Hilton Hotel; Nairobi, Kenya; 2014. Abstract

Background: The genome of a human coronavirus (HCoV) is composed of a linear, single-stranded, non-segmented, positive-sense RNA of 27-32 kb. The pol gene of HCoV found in ORF1ab, is a good molecular chronometer for molecular characterization of HCoV types because in a region of ~900bp towards the 5’, it contains two conserved flanks with a hypervariable middle. Thus, this region of the pol gene has been used to type all known HCoVs. Thus, molecular typing using this gene segment corresponds well to the classical typing based on serological cross-reactivity which groups CoVs into four groups. HCoVs cause a variety of mild and severe respiratory tract diseases including SARS and MERS. To date there are six known types of HCoVs. Although studies have shown evidence of global distribution of HCoVs and the diseases they cause, there is limited information on their presence, distribution and genetic characteristics in Kenya.Objective: To isolate, type and infer the genetic diversity of HCoVs that circulated in Kenya from 2009-2012 using the pol gene.Methods: Archived nasopharyngeal (NP) swab specimens from consenting outpatients aged ≥2 months were screened by real-time RT-PCR using HCoV-specific primers. Positive specimens were inoculated onto LLCMK2 monolayers to isolate the virus. RNA was extracted from virus isolates followed by PCR amplification of the HCoV pol gene using gene-specific primers. Nucleotide sequencing of amplicons was carried out using the BigDye chemistry prior to analyses using a suite of bioinformatics tools.Results and discussion: 29 of the 417 (7%) NP samples tested were positive for HCoV. The highest proportion (33%) were HCoV-NL63 followed by HCoV-HKU1 (30%), HCoV-OC43 (27%) and HCoV-229E (10%) respectively. SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV were not detected. Of the 29 positive samples, 14 (47%) yielded viral isolates for nucleotide sequencing. Sequence and Phylogenetic analyses identified 4 HCoV-HKU1, 5 HCoV-NL63, 4 HCoV-OC43 and 3 HCoV-229E. Mutation analyses revealed that 2/3 of the Kenyan HCoV-229E had Y4682L and one had F4821T amino acid substitutions relative to the prototype (GenBank Acc. No. NC_002645.1) The other human coronavirus types (HKU1, NL63 & OC43) had a few disparate silent mutations and were phenotypically identical to their respective prototypes. Conclusion: Four types of HCoVs circulated in Kenya during the study period. Genetic diversity in the hypervariable region of the pol gene was only observed in the HCoV-229E.

Sipulwa LA, Ongus JR, Coldren RL, Bulimo WD. "Molecular characterization of human coronaviruses and their circulation dynamics in Kenya, 2009-2012." Virol. J.. 2016;13(1):18. Abstractsipulwa_et_al_2016.pdf

Human Coronaviruses (HCoV) are a common cause of respiratory illnesses and are responsible for considerable morbidity and hospitalization across all age groups especially in individuals with compromised immunity. There are six known species of HCoV: HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-HKU1, HCoV-OC43, MERS-CoV and SARS-HCoV. Although studies have shown evidence of global distribution of HCoVs, there is limited information on their presence and distribution in Kenya.

Sinkeet SR, Awori KO, Odula PO, Ogeng'o JA, Mwachaka PM. "The suprascapular notch: its morphology and distance from the glenoid cavity in a {Kenyan} population." Folia morphologica. 2010;69:241-245. Abstract

The morphology of the suprascapular notch has been associated with suprascapular entrapment neuropathy, as well as injury to the suprascapular nerve in arthroscopic shoulder procedures. This study aimed to describe the morphology and morphometry of the suprascapular notch. The suprascapular notch in 138 scapulae was classified into six types based on the description by Rengachary. The suprascapular notch was present in 135 (97.8%) scapulae. Type III notch, a symmetrical U shaped notch with nearly parallel lateral margins, was the most prevalent type, appearing in 40 (29%) scapulae. The mean distance from the notch to the supraglenoid tubercle was 28.7 ± 3.8 mm. This varied with the type of notch, being longest in type IV (30.1 ± 1.8 mm) and shortest in type III (27.3 ± 2.3 mm). The mean distance between the posterior rim of the glenoid cavity and the medial wall of the spinoglenoid notch at the base of the scapular spine was found to be 15.8 ± 2.2 mm. Type III notch was the most prevalent, as found in other populations. In a significant number of cases the defined safe zone may not be adequate to eliminate the risk of nerve injury during arthroscopic shoulder procedures, even more so with type I and II notches.

Sinkeet SR, Awori KO, Odula PO, Ogeng'o JA, Mwachaka PM. "The suprascapular notch: its morphology and distance from the glenoid cavity in a {Kenyan} population." Folia morphologica. 2010;69:241-245. Abstract

The morphology of the suprascapular notch has been associated with suprascapular entrapment neuropathy, as well as injury to the suprascapular nerve in arthroscopic shoulder procedures. This study aimed to describe the morphology and morphometry of the suprascapular notch. The suprascapular notch in 138 scapulae was classified into six types based on the description by Rengachary. The suprascapular notch was present in 135 (97.8%) scapulae. Type III notch, a symmetrical U shaped notch with nearly parallel lateral margins, was the most prevalent type, appearing in 40 (29%) scapulae. The mean distance from the notch to the supraglenoid tubercle was 28.7 ± 3.8 mm. This varied with the type of notch, being longest in type IV (30.1 ± 1.8 mm) and shortest in type III (27.3 ± 2.3 mm). The mean distance between the posterior rim of the glenoid cavity and the medial wall of the spinoglenoid notch at the base of the scapular spine was found to be 15.8 ± 2.2 mm. Type III notch was the most prevalent, as found in other populations. In a significant number of cases the defined safe zone may not be adequate to eliminate the risk of nerve injury during arthroscopic shoulder procedures, even more so with type I and II notches.

Sinkeet S, Ogeng’o J, Saidi H, Awori K. "Topography of The Posterior Communicating Artery in a Kenyan Population.". 2010. Abstract

Configuration and branching pattern of the posterior communicating artery influence occurrence and approaches to management of aneurysms. Distribution of the various configurations and branching patterns shows population variations but reports from Africa are scanty. Configurations observed in the Kenyan population are comparable to those reported in the Caucasian populations. From an anatomical standpoint, the two are equally predisposed to development of aneurysms. Posterior third of PComA had the least number of branches suggesting that the pterional approach to basilar tip aneurysm among Kenyans may be a safer procedure.

Sinkeet SR, Ogeng'o JA, Elbusaidy H, Olabu BO, Irungu MW. "Variant origin of the lateral circumflex femoral artery in a black Kenyan population." Folia Morphol. (Warsz). 2012;71(1):15-8. Abstract

Variant origin of lateral circumflex femoral artery (FA) is important during harvesting of anterolateral thigh flaps, aortopopliteal by-pass, coronary artery grafting, and vascularised iliac transplant. The frequencies of variant origins display ethnic variations, but reports from black Africans are scarce. This study, therefore, aimed to describe the variant origins of lateral circumflex FA in a black Kenyan population. Eighty-four (42 right and 42 left) lateral femoral circumflex arteries from 42 cadavers (31 male and 11 female) were exposed by dissection of the femoral triangles at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. The arteries were then traced proximally to their parent trunks. Sites of origin were recorded and representative images of the variations taken using a high-resolution digital camera. Data were analysed using Statistical Program for Social Scientists version 16.0 for Windows and presented in tables and macrographs. The lateral circumflex artery was a branch of the profunda femoris in only 65.5% of cases. Variant origins included from a common trunk with medial circumflex artery (14.3%), with profunda femoris (10.7%), as a trifurcation with profunda femoris and medial circumflex FA (7.1%), and from FA (2.4%). Variant origin of the lateral circumflex FA occurred in nearly 35% of the Kenyan population studied, much lower than in oriental populations. The most frequent variant origin is as a common trunk with medial circumflex femoral and profunda femoris, with a very low prevalence of origin from FA. The unusual origins make the artery more vulnerable to iatrogenic injury during surgery and catheterisation. Preoperative angiographic evaluation of the femoral arterial system is recommended.

Sinkeet SR, Ogeng'o JA, Elbusaidy H, Olabu BO, Irungu MW. "Variant origin of the lateral circumflex femoral artery in a black Kenyan population." Folia Morphol. (Warsz). 2012;71(1):15-8. Abstract

Variant origin of lateral circumflex femoral artery (FA) is important during harvesting of anterolateral thigh flaps, aortopopliteal by-pass, coronary artery grafting, and vascularised iliac transplant. The frequencies of variant origins display ethnic variations, but reports from black Africans are scarce. This study, therefore, aimed to describe the variant origins of lateral circumflex FA in a black Kenyan population. Eighty-four (42 right and 42 left) lateral femoral circumflex arteries from 42 cadavers (31 male and 11 female) were exposed by dissection of the femoral triangles at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. The arteries were then traced proximally to their parent trunks. Sites of origin were recorded and representative images of the variations taken using a high-resolution digital camera. Data were analysed using Statistical Program for Social Scientists version 16.0 for Windows and presented in tables and macrographs. The lateral circumflex artery was a branch of the profunda femoris in only 65.5% of cases. Variant origins included from a common trunk with medial circumflex artery (14.3%), with profunda femoris (10.7%), as a trifurcation with profunda femoris and medial circumflex FA (7.1%), and from FA (2.4%). Variant origin of the lateral circumflex FA occurred in nearly 35% of the Kenyan population studied, much lower than in oriental populations. The most frequent variant origin is as a common trunk with medial circumflex femoral and profunda femoris, with a very low prevalence of origin from FA. The unusual origins make the artery more vulnerable to iatrogenic injury during surgery and catheterisation. Preoperative angiographic evaluation of the femoral arterial system is recommended.

Sinkeet S, Mwachaka P, Muthoka J, Saidi H. "Branching pattern of inferior mesenteric artery in a black African population: a dissection study." SRN Anatomy. 2013;doi.org/10.5402/2013/962904.
Sinkeet S, Mwachaka P, Muthoka J, Saidi H. "Branching Pattern of Inferior Mesenteric Artery in a Black African Population: A Dissection Study." {ISRN} Anatomy. 2013;2013:1-4. AbstractWebsite
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Sinkeet S, Ogeng’o J, Saidi H, Awori K. "Topography of the Posterior Communicating Artery in a Kenyan population." Ann Afr Surg. 2010;6:37-40.
Sinkeet SR, Ogeng'o JA, Elbusaidy H, Olabu BO, Irungu MW. "Variant origin of the lateral circumflex femoral artery in a black Kenyan population." Folia Morphol. (Warsz). 2012;71(1):15-8. Abstract

Variant origin of lateral circumflex femoral artery (FA) is important during harvesting of anterolateral thigh flaps, aortopopliteal by-pass, coronary artery grafting, and vascularised iliac transplant. The frequencies of variant origins display ethnic variations, but reports from black Africans are scarce. This study, therefore, aimed to describe the variant origins of lateral circumflex FA in a black Kenyan population. Eighty-four (42 right and 42 left) lateral femoral circumflex arteries from 42 cadavers (31 male and 11 female) were exposed by dissection of the femoral triangles at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. The arteries were then traced proximally to their parent trunks. Sites of origin were recorded and representative images of the variations taken using a high-resolution digital camera. Data were analysed using Statistical Program for Social Scientists version 16.0 for Windows and presented in tables and macrographs. The lateral circumflex artery was a branch of the profunda femoris in only 65.5% of cases. Variant origins included from a common trunk with medial circumflex artery (14.3%), with profunda femoris (10.7%), as a trifurcation with profunda femoris and medial circumflex FA (7.1%), and from FA (2.4%). Variant origin of the lateral circumflex FA occurred in nearly 35% of the Kenyan population studied, much lower than in oriental populations. The most frequent variant origin is as a common trunk with medial circumflex femoral and profunda femoris, with a very low prevalence of origin from FA. The unusual origins make the artery more vulnerable to iatrogenic injury during surgery and catheterisation. Preoperative angiographic evaluation of the femoral arterial system is recommended.

Sinkeet SR, Awori KO, Odula PO, Ogeng'o JA, Mwachaka PM. "The suprascapular notch: its morphology and distance from the glenoid cavity in a Kenyan population." Folia Morphol. (Warsz). 2010;69(4):241-5. Abstract

The morphology of the suprascapular notch has been associated with suprascapular entrapment neuropathy, as well as injury to the suprascapular nerve in arthroscopic shoulder procedures. This study aimed to describe the morphology and morphometry of the suprascapular notch. The suprascapular notch in 138 scapulae was classified into six types based on the description by Rengachary. The suprascapular notch was present in 135 (97.8%) scapulae. Type III notch, a symmetrical U shaped notch with nearly parallel lateral margins, was the most prevalent type, appearing in 40 (29%) scapulae. The mean distance from the notch to the supraglenoid tubercle was 28.7 ± 3.8 mm. This varied with the type of notch, being longest in type IV (30.1 ± 1.8 mm) and shortest in type III (27.3 ± 2.3 mm). The mean distance between the posterior rim of the glenoid cavity and the medial wall of the spinoglenoid notch at the base of the scapular spine was found to be 15.8 ± 2.2 mm. Type III notch was the most prevalent, as found in other populations. In a significant number of cases the defined safe zone may not be adequate to eliminate the risk of nerve injury during arthroscopic shoulder procedures, even more so with type I and II notches.

Sinkeet SR, Awori KO, Odula PO, Ogeng'o JA, Mwachaka PM. "The suprascapular notch: its morphology and distance from the glenoid cavity in a Kenyan population." Folia morphologica. 2010;69:241-245. Abstract

The morphology of the suprascapular notch has been associated with suprascapular entrapment neuropathy, as well as injury to the suprascapular nerve in arthroscopic shoulder procedures. This study aimed to describe the morphology and morphometry of the suprascapular notch. The suprascapular notch in 138 scapulae was classified into six types based on the description by Rengachary. The suprascapular notch was present in 135 (97.8%) scapulae. Type {III} notch, a symmetrical U shaped notch with nearly parallel lateral margins, was the most prevalent type, appearing in 40 (29%) scapulae. The mean distance from the notch to the supraglenoid tubercle was 28.7 ± 3.8 mm. This varied with the type of notch, being longest in type {IV} (30.1 ± 1.8 mm) and shortest in type {III} (27.3 ± 2.3 mm). The mean distance between the posterior rim of the glenoid cavity and the medial wall of the spinoglenoid notch at the base of the scapular spine was found to be 15.8 ± 2.2 mm. Type {III} notch was the most prevalent, as found in other populations. In a significant number of cases the defined safe zone may not be adequate to eliminate the risk of nerve injury during arthroscopic shoulder procedures, even more so with type I and {II} notches.

Sinja J, Karugia J, Waithaka M, Miano D, Baltenweck L, Franzel S, Nyikal R. "“Adoption of fodder legumes technology through farmer-to-farmer extension approach”." Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences, . 2004;9(1):222-226.134898-article_text-362029-1-10-20160503.pdfWebsite
Sinja J;, Nyangaga J;, Karugia JT;, Waithaka MM;, Mwangi DM;, Romney DL. "Factors influencing farmer-to-farmer extension of forage legume technology."; 2004. Abstract

Forage legumes have been introduced to farmers in Central Kenya between 1980 and 2002 through various Institutional and Projects’ efforts. The adoption rate of these forages among farmers has been found to be rather low, with the NDDP reporting only 1.9 % of farms surveyed and an ICRAF report indicating that the technology was only reaching 1 % of smallholder farms. An evaluation of adoption of Calliandra and Desmodium was conducted to identify farm characteristics affecting the likelihood of sharing of Desmodium and Calliandra technologies as well as to characterise the spread or diffusion of the technology from the original contact groups and the effect of distance from those groups. Three groups of farmers were approached. A first generation who received planting material from the distributors, a second generation who received planting materials from the former, and a randomly selected group of farmers at various distances from the first contacts. Informal discussions were held with the farmers and formal questionnaires filled. Out of the 133 first generation farmers contacted 64.7% still had Desmodium and 89.5% still had Calliandra. More farms in the contact sub-locations had the plants than the sub-locations further away. The small sample size of those with the forages could not allow effect of distance to be worked out. Tobit estimates of effects of farmer attributes influencing sharing of planting materials shows that the status of the household head in the community positively affected the likelihood of giving out planting material. The technology has a rather slow spread as indicated by percentages of farms with the forages. For better adoption and spread proponents of the technology should have the technology introduced to farmers who have substantial positions in farmer groups or have been bestowed community responsibility.

Singh CB, Dervin KE, Gray SJ. "Effect of adrenalectomy on serum and tissue amylase.". 1965.Website
Singh R, Patel V, Mureithi MW, Naranbhai V, Ramsuran D, Tulsi S, Hiramen K, Werner L, Mlisana K, Altfeld M, Luban J, Kasprowicz V, Dheda K, Abdool Karim SS, Ndung'u T. "TRIM5α and TRIM22 are differentially regulated according to HIV-1 infection phase and compartment." J. Virol.. 2014. Abstracttrim5a_and_trim22_are_differentially_regulated_according_to_hiv.pdf

The antiviral role of TRIM E3 ligases in vivo is not fully understood. To test the hypothesis that TRIM5α and TRIM22 have differential transcriptional regulation and distinct anti-HIV roles according to infection phase and compartment, we measured TRIM5α, TRIM22 and type 1 interferon (IFN-1)-inducible MxA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during primary and chronic HIV-1 infection, and in matched PBMCs and central nervous system (CNS)-derived cells. Associations with biomarkers of disease progression were explored. The impact of IFN-1, select pro-inflammatory cytokines and HIV on TRIM E3 ligase-specific expression was investigated. PBMCs from individuals with primary and chronic HIV-1 infection had significantly higher levels of MxA and TRIM22 compared to HIV-1 negative PBMCs (P < 0.05, all comparisons). PBMCs from chronic infection had lower levels of TRIM5α compared to primary infection or HIV-1 uninfected (both P = 0.0001). In matched CNS-derived samples and PBMCs, higher levels of MxA (P = 0.001) and TRIM5α (P = 0.0001) were noted in the CNS. There was negative correlation between TRIM22 levels in PBMC and plasma viral load (r = -0.40, P = 0.04). In vitro, IFN-1 and rarely pro-inflammatory cytokines induced TRIM5α and TRIM22 in cell type-dependent manner and knockdown of either protein in CD4+ lymphocytes resulted in increased HIV-1 infection. These data suggest that there are infection-phase specific and anatomically compartmentalized differences in TRIM5α and TRIM22 regulation involving primarily IFN-1 and specific cell types, and indicate subtle differences in the antiviral role and transcriptional regulation of TRIM E3 ligases in vivo.Importance Interferon type I-inducible TRIM E3 ligases are a family of intracellular proteins with potent antiviral activities mediated through diverse mechanisms. However, little is known about the contribution of these proteins to antiviral immunity in vivo and how their expression is regulated. We show here that TRIM5α and TRIM22, two prominent members of the family, have different expression patterns in vivo and that expression pattern depends on HIV-1 infection status and phase. Furthermore, expression differs in peripheral blood versus central nervous system anatomical sites of infection. Only TRIM22 expression correlates negatively with HIV-1 viral load but gene silencing of both proteins enhances HIV-1 infection of target cells. We report on subtle differences in TRIM5α and TRIM22 gene induction by IFN-1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines in CD4+ lymphocytes, monocytes and neuronal cells. This study enhances our understanding of antiviral immunity by intrinsic antiviral factors and how their expression is determined.

Singh RB, Mengi SA, Xu Y-J, Arneja AS, Dhalla NS. "Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis: {A} multifactorial process." Experimental & Clinical Cardiology. 2002;7:40-53. AbstractWebsite

Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the western world. It has been recognized for over a century, and the understanding of its pathogenesis has undergone many changes. Pathophysiological studies have unravelled the interactions of molecular and cellular elements involved in atherogenesis. The focus has shifted to the novel risk factors as well as characteristics and stability of atherosclerotic plaque; the genetic predisposition has further broadened the pathogenetic mechanisms. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms involved in the evolution of the atherosclerotic plaque that may pave the way for selecting optimal therapies and preventing plaque complications. Atherosclerosis is no longer a disease attributed mainly to the high lipid content of the body. New insight into the disease pathology has shown it to be a disease of much greater ramifications. Endothelial damage and reactive oxygen species (and other free radicals) have predominantly emerged as factors in virtually all pathways leading to the development of atherosclerosis due to hyperlipidemia, diabetes, hypertension or smoking. Novel risk factors such as hyperhomocysteinemia, infections and systemic lupus erythematosus have emerged. Atherosclerosis has come to be regarded as a chronic inflammatory disease with an autoimmune component. The genetic basis of the disease assumes significance as candidate genes are identified and gene therapy becomes a promising new addition to the existing, less substantial conventional therapies.

Singh L, Silim SN, Baudoin JP, Kimani PM, Mwang’ombe AW. "Pigeon pea(Cjanus cajan(L.) Millspuagh in“Crop Production in Tropical Africa.". 2010.
Singh CB, Munshi JD, Sinha SP. "A new basic chromosome number in Saccharum spontaneum L.". 1990. AbstractA new basic chromosome number in Saccharum spontaneum L.

Study of meiosis in a clone of S. spontaneum (2n = 54), revealed that 11.39 ± 2.52% of PMCs undergo cytomixis during premetaphase I. Only 18 bivalents migrated with the nucleolus into the recipient cell and 9 remained in the donor cell, which was taken to indicate the existence of a basic number of 9, in addition to previously reported basic numbers of 6, 8 and 10.

Sinelnikova EM, Dvoretskova TV, Kagan ZS. "[Intermediate plateaux in kinetics of the reaction catalyzed by biodegradative L-threonine dehydratase from Escherichia coli]." Biokhimiia. 1975;40(3):645-51. Abstract

It has been shown that for the reaction catalyzed by "biodegradative" L-threonine dehydratase from E. coli strains K-12 and 980 in 0.5 M phosphate-carbonate buffer, pH 8.4 and pH 9.5, the plots of initial reaction rate (v) versus the initial substrate concentration ([S]0 are characterized by several inflection points, i. e. an intermediate plateau. The plot of v versus the allosteric activator (AMP) concentration have very complicated shapes: there are several inflection points, and also the maximum at L-threonine concentration equal to 3-10(2) and 5-10(-2) M. High AMP concentrations inhibit the enzyme at high substrate concentrations. The reduced glutathion dose not influence the enzyme and does not alter the activating effect of AMP. On the basis of the data obtained it is proposed that the substrate and AMP shift the equilibrium between multiple oligomeric enzyme forms differing in catalytic activity and kinetic manifestations of allosteric interactions between the active and allosteric AMP-binding sites towards polymerization. Thus, the functioning the enzyme under study is discussed in the frames of the model of dissociating regulatory enzymes with multiple intermediate oligomeric forms.

Sinei K, Okalebo FA MHNMJM. "An Investigation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Acmella caulirhiza." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2013;2(4):130-133.
Sinei K, Mwangi JW, Munenge RW, Mwaura AM. An in vitro study on the oxytocic action of Adenia globosa Engl.. Second International Scientific Conference of the College of Health Sciences,University of Nairobi & Kenyatta National Hospital; 2013. Abstract

BACKROUND: Adenia globosa Engl. (Passifloracea) is found in many parts of Kenya, Tanzania and Somalia. It is a shrub or climber with stems emerging from above-ground tuber of up to 2.5M wide. Some local names (of Adenia ssp.) are: Kilyambiti, Kasikimara, Ghole, Ngoli, Mugore, Mgore, Munua Nyoka etc.

PROPERTIES AND USES: Many of the Adenia species are extremely toxic and have been used for homicidal or suicidal purposes or for poisoning wild animals and fish. Nevertheless, several of the species are used in traditional herbal medicine: an anthelmintic, remedy for snake bite, antidote for arrow poison, orchitis, malaria and syphilis. It is also claimed that freshly prepared juice of the tuber of given to cows and goats that have difficulty in giving birth to hasten the process.

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study was to investigate the effect of the water extract of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus and how this could be affected by well known uterine stimulants such as ergometrine, oxytocin and prostaglandin F2α. and also by antagonists of acetylcholine and adrenaline.

SETTING: Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacognosy Laboratory, School of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi, KNH Campus.
STUDY DESIGN: It was a laboratory based study. The crude extract and the other drugs were tested on isolated rat uterus set up in an organ bath under the usual laboratory conditions.

RESULTS: The results obtained demonstrated that the plant extract caused a dose-depended contraction of the rat uterus which was not antagonized by atropine nor phenoxybenzamine. The contractile effect was however potentiated by small doses of ergometrine, oxytocin and prostaglandin F2α.

CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded from these observations that the contractile action was not mediated through cholinergic nor adrenergic system. Secondly, it was postulated that since prostaglandin F2α and oxytocin are also released at the time of labour, the potentiatory action probably occurs in vivo when the plant preparation is given to domestic animals to ease and speed up the process of giving birth as claimed in the traditional use of this plant. This traditional use of the plant preparation is therefore scientifically justifiable

Sinei KA, Mwang JW. "An in vitro study on the oxytocic action action of Adenia Globosa Engl." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. In Press.
Sinei KA, Nduni LW. "Patterns of acute poisoning of paediatric patients in Kenyatta National Hospital between in the years 2014 – 2017." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2018;21(21):16-20.
Sinei S, Morrison CS, Sekadde-Kigondu C, Melissa A, okonya D. "Complications of use of intrauterine devices among HIV-1-infected women.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Background A WHO expert group and the International
Planned Parenthood Federation recommend against use of
intrauterine devices (IUDs) in HIV-1-infected women based
on theoretical concerns about pelvic infection and increased
blood loss. We investigated whether the risk of
complications after IUD insertion is higher in HIV-1-infected
women than in non-infected women.
Methods 649 (156 HIV-1 infected 493 non-infected) women in
Nairobi, Kenya, who requested and met local eligibility criteria
for insertion of an IUD were enrolled. We gathered information
on IUD-related complications, including pelvic inflammatory
disease, removals due to infection, pain, or bleeding,
expulsions, and pregnancies at 1 and 4 months after insertion.
Patients’ HIV-1 status was masked from physicians.
Findings Complications were identified in 48 of 615 women
(11 [7·6%] HIV-1-infected women, 37 [7·9%] non-infected).
Incident pelvic inflammatory disease (two [1·4%] HIV-1
infected, one [0·2%] non-infected) and infection-related
complications (any tenderness, removal of IUD for infection
or pain; ten [6·9%] HIV-1 infected, 27 [5·7%] non-infected)
were also rare and similar in the two groups. Complication
rates were similar by CD4 (immune) status. Multivariate
analyses suggested no association between HIV-1 infection
and increased risks for overall complications (odds ratio 0·8
[95% CI 0·4–1·7]) or infection-related complications (1·0
[0·5–2·3]), adjusted for marital status, study site, previous
IUD use, ethnic origin, and frequency of sexual intercourse,
but a slight increase cannot be ruled out.
Interpretation Our data suggest that IUDs may be a safe
contraceptive method for appropriately selected HIV-1-
infected women with continuing access to medical services.
Lancet 1998; 351: 1238–41

Sinei KA, Redfern PH. "The Time-Dependent Effect of the Antidepressant Drug Paroxetine on the Synthesis of 5-Hydroxytryptamine in the Rat Brain." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2012;15(2):46-54. Abstractabstract

The effect of paroxetine on the day--night variations in the synthesis of 5HT was determined in the rat brain in an effort to gain an insight into the mechanism of action of this drug. This was done by determining its effect on the activity of tryptophan hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of 5HT in serotonergic neurons. The enzyme activity was determined in two brain regions, cortex and the brainstem, at two time points of 12hr light/12hr dark cycle, namely, mid-light and mid-dark. The results obtained showed that the activity of tryptophan hydroxylase was significantly greater in control animals during the dark than light phase both in the cortex and brainstem. They also demonstrate that the rate of synthesis of 5HT was affected by paroxetine in a time-dependent manner. It was therefore concluded that these time-dependent changes observed in paroxetine effect may influence the activity of serotonergic input into the suprachiasmatic nucleus and hence the regulation or expression of certain circadian rhythms. This action may help correct or compensate for abnormalities present in depressive illness.

Sinei KA;, Mwangi JW;, Munenge RM;, Mwaura AM. "An In Vitro Study On The Oxytocic Action Of Adenia Globosa Engl.". 1985.
Sinei KA. The effect of Antidepressant Drugs on the Circadian Rhythm of 5-Hydroxytrptamine Synthesis in The Central Nervous System. Redfern. S:PH, ed. Bath, England: PhD Thesis, University of Bath; 1987.
Sinei SK, Mati JKG, Mungai J, Mailu C, Mbugua Mulandi T, Ndavi PM. "Prevalence Of Anaemia Of Pregnancy And The Role Of Malaria In Its Aetiology In Rural Kenya.". 1984.
Sinei K, Okalebo FA, Mugo HN, Mwalukumbi JM. "An investigation of anti-microbial activity of Acmella caulirhiza." The African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2013;2(4):130-133. Abstract

Background: Acmella Caulirhiza is a plant that is used traditionally to treat several disorders such as oral thrash, mouth ulcers, toothache and earache, among others. It is a small annual or perennial herb whose location is widespread worldwide.

Objectives: The objective of the study was to determine whether the leaves, stem and the flowers extract of the plant possess antibacterial and antifungal activity and to find out which part of the plant is the most active, if any.

Methodology: Acmella caulirhiza was collected from the wild in Kericho County. The flower heads, the leaves and the stems were dried separately, ground into a powder and extracted with chloroform. The plant extracts were tested for activity against Escherichia Coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Bacillus pumilus.

Results and Discussion: The plant extracts significantly inhibited the growth of Escherichia Coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus pumilus. The activity was highest in the stems extracts. The extracts, however, did not have any anti-fungal activity when tested against Candida albicans. It was concluded from these results that the anti-bacterial activity may aid in the efficacy when the plant is used to treat mouth ulcers or oral thrash.

Sinei KA, JW M. "Effect of the tuber of Adenia globosa extract on the isolated rat uterus." Int. J. Pharmacog.. 1995;33 (3).
Sinei K, Okalebo FA, Mugo HN, Mwalukumbi JM. "An Investigation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Acmella caulirhiza." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. . 2013;2(4):130-133.
Simwa, R.O.;Kithinji MM, Ottieno JAM. "Application of Burr XII Mixture Distributions to model unemployment duration in Pricing Unemployment Insurance Assuming USA Data." International Journal of Statistical Distributions and Applications,. 2016;2(3):27-34. AbstractFull text link

The objective of this research is to consider varying unemployment duration in the pricing of unemployment insurance with application to USA data. The study assumes that unemployment duration follows Burr XII mixture distribution while the discount rate to use in the pricing of the scheme will bedetermined by fitting market data into the capital asset pricing model. The Burr XII mixture distribution has been used to model unemployment duration in order to allow for heterogeniety in the unemployment duration of the insured employees. The results yield a mean unemployment duration of approximately 16 weeks and premium contribution rate of 5.10% of the taxable wage base per month for a benefit of 45% of the taxable wage base per month payable on weekly basis during spells of unemployment.

Keywords
Burr XII Mixture Distribution, Unemployment Insurace, Capital Asset Pricing Model, Taxable Wage Base, Discounted Cash Flow, Mean Present Value, Premium Rate

Simotwo* HK, Mikalitsa† SM, Wambua† BN. "Climate change adaptive capacity and smallholder farming in Trans-Mara East sub-County, Kenya." Geoenvironmental Disasters. 2018;(2018) 5:5. Abstract

Abstract
Background: At the centre of smallholders’ adaptation is a need to understand their perceptions on key climatic
scenarios so as to glean helpful information for key decision-making processes. In Kenya at the moment, downstream
information regarding these circumstances remain scanty, with many smallholders being ‘on their own’, in spite of the
imminent threats from shifting precipitation patterns, rising temperatures, and intensifying droughts. At the sub-national
levels, potential impacts of these situations are likely to deepen due to extensive cases of land use transformations,
habitat degradation, plummeting water resources capacity and common inter-ethnic conflicts, among other negative
externalities. The study examined current climatic situations in Trans-Mara East sub-County, to the south-western part of
Kenya, as well as the smallholders’ perceptions about the situations, their adaptation levels and constraints thereof.
Results: Pearson correlation coefficient, indicated a weak positive association between smallholder’s perceptions and
either their age, marital status, level of education, or livelihood streams (r ≤ 0.1; p ≥ 0.05, for all), unlike their climatic
perceptions and farm sizes which showed a strong positive association (r = 0.430; p ≤ 0.01). Key desired adaptation
options, improving crop varieties, livestock feeding techniques and crop diversification, topped their options, with
destocking being least desired. Education levels (r = 0.229; p ≤ 0.05) and farm sizes (r = 0.534; p ≤ 0.01) had a positively
significant association with adaptive capacity, in addition to a significantly weak, association between their adaptive
capacity and both their individual’s marital status (r = 0.154; p ≥ 0.05) and diversity of livelihood streams (r = 0.034;
p ≥ 0.05). The analysis also showed a weak negative association between their adaptive capacity and age (r = − 0.026;
p ≥ 0.05). Amid the key constraints which emerged include high cost of farm inputs, limited access to credit and
market uncertainties, among others. Pearson correlation coefficient showed a significantly strong negative association
between smallholders’ constraints and both (r ≥ − 0.3; p ≤ 0.01) their level of education, and diversity of livelihood
streams. A significantly strong positive association (r = 0.280; p ≤ 0.01) was identified between smallholder’s age and
constraints, while marital status and farm sizes both (r ≤ − 0.01; p ≥ 0.05) revealed weak non-significant negative
association with the constraints.
(Continued on next page)

Simotwo LNM&. "Factors influencing performance in Mathematics at Kenya Certificate of Primary Education in Turkana Central Sub-County." Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development. 2018;3(1):434-437.
Simonsen PE, Estambale B, Agger M. "Antibodies in the serum of golden hamsters experimentally infected with the intestinal trematode Echinostoma caproni.". 1991. AbstractWebsite

The serum antibody response in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with the intestinal trematode Echinostoma caproni was examined with ELISA, SDS-PAGE and Western blot, and IFAT techniques. All methods showed that the hamsters responded slowly but developed a clear positive humoral response to the infection. In most hamsters, an antibody response to infection could not be detected earlier than 11-13 weeks after infection with 6 or 25 metacercariae, and responses were weak when compared to previous results from mice infected with the same parasite. IFAT with positive hamster sera on live juvenile E. caproni showed only fluorescence at the posterior tip, which is a different pattern from that seen using from infected mice, indicating a different response to antigens on the juvenile parasites by these two hosts. The results are discussed in relation to the limited selfcure and development of resistance which is observed in golden hamsters infected with E. capron

Simonich CA, Doepker L, Ralph D, Williams JA, Dhar A, Yaffe Z, Gentles L, Small CT, Oliver B, Vigdorovich V, Mangala Prasad V, NNduati R. "Kappa chain maturation helps drive rapid development of an infant HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibody lineage.". 2019.
Simonich CA, Williams KL, Verkerke HP, Williams JA, Ruth Nduati, Lee KK, Overbaugh J. "HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies with Limited Hypermutation from an Infant." Cell. 2016. Abstract

HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) develop in a subset of infected adults and exhibit high levels of somatic hypermutation (SHM) due to years of affinity maturation. There is no precedent for eliciting highly mutated antibodies by vaccination, nor is it practical to wait years for a desired response. Infants develop broad responses early, which may suggest a more direct path to generating bnAbs. Here, we isolated ten neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) contributing to plasma breadth of an infant at ∼1 year post-infection, including one with cross-clade breadth. The nAbs bind to envelope trimer from the transmitted virus, suggesting that this interaction may have initiated development of the infant nAbs. The infant cross-clade bnAb targets the N332 supersite on envelope but, unlike adult bnAbs targeting this site, lacks indels and has low SHM. The identification of this infant bnAb illustrates that HIV-1-specific neutralization breadth can develop without prolonged affinity maturation and extensive SHM.

Simon Patrick Baenyi, Junga JO, et.al. "Phenotypic traits,reproductive and milk performance of indigenous goats of south Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo." Journal of Dairy, Veterinary and Animal Research. 2021;(Submitted).
Simon Patrick Baenyi, Junga JO, Christian Keambou Tiambo, Ahadi Bwihangane Birindwa, Katcho Karume, Getinet Mekuriaw Tarekegn, Ochieng JW. "Production Systems, Genetic Diversity and Genes Associated with Prolificacy and Milk Production in Indigenous Goats of Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review." Scientific Research Publishing. 2020;10(4):735-749.
Simon Patrick Baenyi, Junga JO, Christian Keambou Tiambo, Ahadi Bwihangane Birindwa, Katcho Karume, Getinet Mekuriaw Tarekegn, Ochieng JW. "Production Systems, Genetic Diversity and Genes Associated with Prolificacy and Milk Production in Indigenous Goats of Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review." Open Journal of Animal Sciences. 2020;10(4):735-749.
Simon Patrick Baenyi, Junga JO, Christian Keambou Tiambo, Ahadi Bwihangane Birindwa, Katcho Karume, Getinet Mekuriaw Tarekegn, Ochieng JW. "Production Systems, Genetic Diversity and Genes Associated with Prolificacy and Milk Production in Indigenous Goats of Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review." Open Journal of Animal Sciences. 2020;10(4):735-749.
Simon N. Mbugua, Njenga LW, ROA, Wandiga SO, Onani MO. "COVID-19 and Cancer Therapy: Interrelationships and Management of Cancer Cases in the Era of COVID-19 “.A Review." . Journal of Chemistry. 2021;2021:1-10. Abstract

The COVID-19 global epidemic poses this generation’s biggest worldwide public health challenge probably since the 1918 influenza epidemic. Recent reports on two new variants have triggered a dramatic upsurge in research to understand the pandemic, primarily focussing on the virology, triggers, clinical characteristics, and diagnostic tests including the prevention and management of the novel coronavirus. Whilst such studies are important in managing the present medical emergency, there is a need for further work to include interdependencies between the epidemic and other illnesses. 'is will help in developing effective approaches to treat and manage associated diseases in both the short and the long term. In this regard, people living with cancer are a subgroup that is highly vulnerable to respiratory infections and acute pneumonitis similar to the one caused by the COVID19 virus. 'is is because the state of their immunity is compromised due to malignancy and the adverse effects of anticancer treatments. With annual cancer projections rising globally and an estimated 70 percent of all cancer-related deaths occurring in low- and middle-income countries, the patient population with impaired immune systems that could be adversely impacted by COVID-19 is only anticipated to rise. In this review, we delve into the challenges and health risks facing cancer patients and cancer treatment in the COVID-19 context, with suggestions into viable measures which can be taken to minimize exposure to the risk of contracting COVID-19 for this vulnerable subgroup. New mutations and the prospects offered by vaccines development and how they relate to this class of patients are also discussed

Simon E. Bull 1, 3 Rob W. Briddon 1, 4 William S. Sserubombwe, 1 Kahiu Ngugi 2, and PM11 G, Stanley J. "Genetic diversity and phylogeography of cassava mosaic viruses in Kenya." Journal of General Virology. 2006;87, :3053-3065.genetic_diversity_and_phylogeography_of_cassava_mosaic_viruses_in_kenya.pdf
Simon E. Bull 1 4, Rob W. Briddon 1, 1 William S. Sserubombwe, 1 3 Kahiu Ngugi, and PM12 G, Stanley1 J. "Infectivity, pseudorecombination and mutagenesis of Kenyan cassava mosaic begomoviruses." Journal of General Virology . 2007;88, :1624-1633.infectivity_pseudorecombination_and_mutagenesis.pdf
Simon PB, Junga JO, Getinet Mekuriaw Tarekegn, Machuka E, Christian Keambou Tiambo, Kabange D, M KM, Dieudinné RVK, Ochieng JW, Pelle R. "Haplotype analysis of the mitochondrial DNA d-loop region reveals the maternal origin and historical dynamics among the indigenous goat populations in east and west of the Democratic Republic of Congo." Ecology and evolution. 2022;13(2):e8713.
Simon PB, Joseph JO, Ochieng JW, Christian Keambou Tiambo, Getinet Mekuriaw Tarekegn, Machuka EM, Kabange D, Musale K, Ciza AM, Kizungu RV, Pelle R. "Typology, management and smallholder farmer-preferred traits for selection of indigenous goats (Capra hisrcus) in three agro-ecological zones in the Democratic Republic of Congo." Journal of Applied Animal Research. 2021;49(1):423-430.
Simiyu J., Waita S, Musembi R, Ogacho A, Aduda B. Promotion of PV Uptake and Sector Growth in Kenya through Value Added Training in PV Sizing, Installation and Maintenance. Cancun, Mexico: Science Direct Energy Procedia ; 2014.
Simiyu A.N., Mile J. K. RGKR. "On The Relationship Between the Spectrum and Numerical Range of a Unbounded Linear Operator." Journal of Mathematical Sciences. 2012;vol.23(No.2).
SIMIYU PROFWANDIBBA. "Bukusu sacred sites. In Sacred sites, sacred places and sites of significance.". In: The University of Calgary Press, Calgary. Taylor & Francis; 1994. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
Simiyu J, WAITA SEBASTIAN, Robinson Musembi, Ogacho A, Aduda B. "Promotion of PV Uptake and Sector Growth in Kenya through Value Added Training in PV Sizing, Installation and Maintenance." Energy Procedia. 2014;7:817-825.
SIMIYU PROFWANDIBBA. "The socio-cultural and economic context of pottery production in Kenya.". In: MILA (N.S.), 2:52-60. Taylor & Francis; 1997. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
Simiyu J, WAITA SEBASTIAN, Robinson Musembi, Ogacho A, Aduda B. "Promotion of PV Uptake and Sector Growth in Kenya through Value Added Training in PV Sizing, Installation and Maintenance." Energy Procedia. 2014;57:817-825. Abstract

Sub-Saharan Africa, and more specifically the East African region, has the lowest rates of access to electricity in the world. On average, at most 15% of the rural population has access to electricity. Rural households and remote institutions use traditional energy sources such as charcoal, firewood, kerosene and diesel for generator sets, batteries and dry cell batteries. On the other hand, the region is one of the most promising in the world in economic development with growth levels being high and market saturation is a far away future problem. This growth has
however been hampered by several factors with lack of energy being one of them. Kenya being one of the countries
in the region faces a similar problem with the traditional sources of hydro facing weather related challenges. The
situation is more wanting in the rural setting having only achieved electrification rates of between 5 and 10%. The rural being where the majority of low-income earning groups reside is further compounded with large geographical imbalance in electricity demand and supply. The main challenge to adopting pv utilization however, is lack of local capacity to handle the uptake all the way from solar home systems to grid connected and hybrid systems. According to Kenya Renewable Energy Association (KEREA), it is estimated that between 800 and 1000 pv technicians have been in practice since this sector started in Kenya in the late eighties, majority of them having the basic skills but no formal training to provide the service. They however have been offering necessary service to end-users and are hence an important aspect in the pv sector as a whole. Currently the pv (mainly SHS) comprise an over the counter trade system which provides loopholes when it comes to quality of products and installation. To safeguard the quality and safety of installations, formal training has to be incorporated in the system.

SIMIYU PROFWANDIBBA. "With J. Barbour (Eds.) Kenyan pots and potters. Nairobi.". In: Oxford University Press. Taylor & Francis; 1985. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
Simiyu J, Aduda B, Mwabora JM. Conduction Band Edge of TiO2-SnO2 Solid Mixtures Tuning for Photoelctrochemical Applications. San Francisco, California, USA: Materials Research Society; 2009. Abstract

We report investigation of effect of conduction band edge on the dye injection and transport by preparation of (Ti,Sn)O2 solid mixtures in ratios of 80:20 and 90:10 as possible applications in dye sensitized solar cells. SEM micrographs showed highly porous with nanometer sized particles of around 6 - 10μm diameter. X-ray diffraction patterns showed strong TiO2 anatase peaks with crystal orientation directions (101) being the strongest in both the solid mixtures and in pure TiO2. XPS studies have shown an apparent chemical shift for Ti 2p and O1s core level spectra with an energy difference between the unmodified and the solid mixture being 0.65eV. Initial I-V studies have shown high Voc but low short circuit photocurrent, showing a possible unfavorable band edge shift between the semiconductor and the dye LUMO level.

Simiyu MT, Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Birech Z, Mwebaze G. "Application of An Organic Plant-Derived Binder in the Fabrication of Diatomaceous Earth Waste- Based Membranes for Water Purification Systems.". In: Materials Research Society Advances. Cambridge; 2020. Abstract

This work reports on the use of diatomaceous earth (DE) waste and organic binder derived from Corchorus olitorius, locally known as “Mrenda” in the design of an efficient water filtration membranes. Charcoal powder was incorporated to enhance the porosity of the membrane. The firing was done at temperatures varying from 700.0 °C to 1150.0 °C. The DE waste samples comprised 79.0% silica (by mass) and 11.0% total flux content compared to porter's clay that had 50.0% silica, 28.8% AL2O3 and 7.0% total flux content. On the other hand, the “Mrenda” binder contained 6.5% total organic matter. The use of the plant- derived binder enhanced the mechanical strength of the greenware by 52.7% and the fired membranes by 152.2%. The fabricated DE waste-based membranes were 15.0% stronger than clay-based ceramic membranes prepared under similar conditions. A sintering temperature of 900.0 °C was optimal in producing porous membranes for filtering of 4.1 liters of water per hour. The pore diameter of the membranes fabricated from DE waste only ranged between 2.0 nm – 99.0 nm. On micro-organisms filtering efficacy, the DE waste-based membranes and those fabricated with 5.0% charcoal were 99.9% and 88.4% effective in the removal of E. coli and Rotavirus respectively.

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