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Forthcoming
Mwenesi BM. "- Cohesion and Integration in Kenya through the teaching of French in Kenyan Schools.". In: NCIC. KCB Centre; Karen; Forthcoming.
Owakah F, Musili T. "Ideology, Politics and Human Rights in Africa: Conversations and Reflections on the Future of Human Rights in Africa Post COVID-19.". In: Third Annual International Multi-Disciplinary Conference: Global and Local Response to Emerging Issues in the Third Decade of the Millennium: Opportunities and Threats. Nairobi; Forthcoming.
Muchiri J. "The Art of Narrating Pain in Margaret Ogola’s Place of Destiny.". In: Readings on Margaret Ogola. Nairobi: Native Intelligence; Forthcoming.
and Wairire GG, Muiruri J. "Handbook of Social Work and Social Development Practice in Africa.". In: Afrocentric strengths-based community work practice: The case of vyamas in Kenya . Ashgate Publishing Ltd; Forthcoming.
Maturu BO, Nyang'oro O. "An Index of Exchange Rate Volatility for Kenya.". In: Research Department, Kenya School of Monetary Study (KSMS), Central Bank of Kenya.; Forthcoming.
MONARI FRONICA, Wakoli P. "Internet Access, Uses and Gratifications among University Students: A Survey of the School of Journalism and Mass Communication.". In: African International Business and Mnagement (AIBUMA). Nairobi, Kenya; Forthcoming.
Wambui K, Muiru N, Amatsimbi M. "The Kenya Media: A Brief History.". In: Voices of Media Veterans: Reflections over 70 Years on Communication and Media in Kenya . Nairobi: University of Nairobi & Ford Foundation; Forthcoming.
Mungania G. Maudhui Mbalimbali Katika Ushairi wa Mathias E. Mnyampala (Penda-Chako). Nairobi: University of Nairobi.; Forthcoming.
Bunyangha J, Majaliwa MJG, Muthumbi AW, Gichuki NN, Anthony Egeru. "Past and future land use/land cover changes from multi-temporal Landsat imagery in Mpologoma catchment, eastern Uganda." The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Sciences. Forthcoming.
Mwaura L. "The Psychology of Gender and Human Sexuality." Intimacy and Sanctity of Sexuality. Forthcoming.
Moses MP, Abungu NO. "REDUCING REAL AND REACTIVE POWER LOSSES IN THE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM BY DFIG PLACEMENT AND SIZING USING ORDINARY PSO AND HGAPSO : A COMPARISON." International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering. Forthcoming. Abstractijetae_paper_forthcoming_paper.pdf

Due to the increased importance of DFIGs in optimization of real and reactive power losses and the maintenance of voltage profile, the general methods of DG placement and sizing in the existing literature cannot be of practical importance in DFIG .In this paper a pure PSO method used in general DG is compared with a HGAPSO in the siting and sizing of DFIG with the objective of minimizing power losses. The corresponding Combined participation factors are assigned using the DFIG Domain Distributed Slack Bus Model and a comparison made on the two schemes of loss minimization.

MWIMALI DBUSALILEJACK. "Socio-Legal Perspective of HIV/AIDS in Media Discourses, In Katiambo D., HIV/AIDS and the Media." Nairobi: Moi University Press.; Forthcoming.
Mungania G. Ufundishaji wa Kiswahili katika shule za upili chini ya mfumo wa 8-4-4 (Kidato cha Kwanza). Anonymous, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi.; Forthcoming.
Mbatia T. "Urban Green Tourism in Nairobi's Karura Forest: Experiences and Potentials of Urban Eco-tourism in Urban Forests of Nairobi.". In: Beyond the Safari. Nairobi: French Research Institute in Africa; Forthcoming.
MAURI YAMBO. Field of Aaru (Poems).; Forthcoming. Abstract
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M MRNJOKAJOHN. "Ideology and Governance in Kenya. In Governance in Kenya Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press.". In: East African Medical Journal. East African Medical Journal; Forthcoming. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Malaria control in Africa relies primarily on early effective treatment for clinical disease, but most early treatments for fever occur through self-medication with shop-bought drugs. Lack of information to community members on over-the-counter drug use has led to widespread ineffective treatment of fevers, increased risks of drug toxicity and accelerating drug resistance. We examined the feasibility and measured the likely impact of training shop keepers in rural Africa on community drug use. METHODS: In a rural area of coastal Kenya, we implemented a shop keeper training programme in 23 shops serving a population of approximately 3500, based on formative research within the community. We evaluated the training by measuring changes in the proportions of drug sales where an adequate amount of chloroquine was purchased and in the percentage of home-treated childhood fevers given an adequate amount of chloroquine. The programme was assessed qualitatively in the community following the shop keeper training. RESULTS: The percentage of drug sales for children with fever which included an antimalarial drug rose from 34.3% (95% CI 28.9%-40.1%) before the training to a minimum of 79.3% (95% CI 71.8%-85.3%) after the training. The percentage of antimalarial drug sales where an adequate amount of drug was purchased rose from 31.8% (95% CI 26.6%-37.6%) to a minimum of 82.9% (95% CI 76.3%-87.3%). The percentage of childhood fevers where an adequate dose of chloroquine was given to the child rose from 3.7% (95% CI 1.2%-9.7%) before the training to a minimum of 65.2% (95% CI 57.7%-72.0%) afterwards, which represents an increase in the appropriate use of over-the-counter chloroquine by at least 62% (95% CI 53.7%-69.3%). Shop keepers and community members were strongly supportive of the aims and outcome of the programme. CONCLUSIONS: The large shifts in behaviour observed indicate that the approach of training shop keepers as a channel for information to the community is both feasible and likely to have a significant impact. Whilst some of the impact seen may be attributable to research effects in a relatively small scale pilot study, the magnitude of the changes support further investigation into this approach as a potentially important new strategy in malaria control.
MARY DROMOSA. "Katumanga, M. & M. Omosa (Forthcoming) and Navigating Realities. In: P. Wanyande; M. Omosa & L. Chweya [Eds] GovernLeadership and the Politics of Nation State: Searching for a Vision, Balancing Interests ance and Transition Politics in Kenya. Nairobi: Uni.". In: GovernLeadership and the Politics of Nation State: Searching for a Vision, Balancing Interests ance and Transition Politics in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Forthcoming. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "M. Omosa, D. McCormick & P. Alila (Forthcoming) Business in Kenya: Institutions, Interactions and Strategies. In: D. McCormick, P. Alila & M. Omosa [Eds] African Business Systems in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Pres.". In: African Business Systems in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Forthcoming. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "McCormick; D.; P. Alila & M. Omosa (Forthcoming) [Eds] African Business Systems in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press.". In: African Business Systems in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Forthcoming. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. & J. Onjala (Forthcoming) Kenya\.". In: Business Systems in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Forthcoming. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (Forthcoming) Incorporation into the Market Economy and Food Security among the Gusii: Paradise Lost or Paradise Gained. African Journal of Sociology. Volume VI, No. 1.". In: GovernLeadership and the Politics of Nation State: Searching for a Vision, Balancing Interests ance and Transition Politics in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Forthcoming. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (Forthcoming) The Smallholder Tea Industry in Kenya: Networks, Markets and Livelihoods. In: D. McCormick, P. Alila & M. Omosa [Eds] African Business Systems in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press.". In: The Smallholder Tea Industry in Kenya: Networks, Markets and Livelihoods. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Forthcoming. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "P. Alila, D. McCormick & M. Omosa (Forthcoming) Introduction. In: D. McCormick, P. Alila & M. Omosa [Eds] African Business Systems in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press.". In: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Forthcoming. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Place, F.; M. Adato; P. Hebinck & M. Omosa (Forthcoming) Agro-forestry-Based Soil Fertility Replenishment Practices and Poverty in Western Kenya. In: M. Adato & R. Meinzen-Dick [Eds.] Agricultural Research and Poverty: Economic and Social Impacts in Six C.". In: African Business Systems in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Forthcoming. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MAURI YAMBO. Two Bridges (Collection of Haiku).; Forthcoming. Abstract
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Submitted
Magutu PO. "CHAPTER ONE: OPERATIONIRISING MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Integrated Waste Management - Volume II Edited by Sunil Kumar ISBN 978-953-307-447-4 472 pages, August 2011, 23 chapters.". In: Integrated Waste Management - Volume II. InTech Janeza Trdine 9, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia; Submitted. Abstract

This book reports mostly on institutional arrangements under policy and legal issues, composting and vermicomposting of solid waste under processing aspects, electrical and electronic waste under industrial waste category, application of GIS and LCA in waste management, and there are also several research papers relating to GHG emission from dumpsites.

Mbatia T. "Urban Green Spaces and Urban Eco-tourism in Nairobi: The Case of Nairobi National Park.". In: Bio-divercities Rio 2012. Rio de Janeiro; Submitted.
Mueni J, Ndavula J. "New media and political marketing in Kenya: a case of 2013.". In: Kenya Elections Workshop 2013. Nairobi, Kenya; Submitted.
PENINAH MUTONGA (Eds.). Circular Affordable Urban Housing: developing a viable new typology for affordable housing. NAIROBI: A project run by Orkidstudio and supported by the DOEN Foundation.; Submitted.
K. M, Mbote PK, Musembi C. Women's Access to Land Land-based Resources among Forest-dwelling Communities in East Africa:. Nairobi: CASELAP, University of Nairobi; Submitted.
K. M, Mbote PK, Musembi C. Women's Access to Land Land-based Resources among Forest-dwelling Communities in East Africa:. Nairobi: CASELAP, University of Nairobi; Submitted.
MWANGI MUREITHISTEPHEN. "Aboveground net primary productivity in grazed and ungrazed pastures: Grazing optimisation hypothesis or local extinction of vegetation species. Otieno, S.G., T.J. Njoka, T.P. Young, S.M. Mureithi and Ngugi, R.K. .". In: Nature Proceedings. Afr. J. Range For. Sci.; Submitted. Abstract

The controversy that has surrounded herbivory studies in the last few decades prompted our investigation to establish the extent to which herbivore optimisation hypothesis or compensatory growth evidence is real. We used the traditional movable cage method to collect primary productivity data on herbage, functional groups and key individual grass species in various controlled large herbivore treatments in an east African savanna. The herbivore treatments in triplicate blocks included cattle, wild herbivores with and without mega herbivores and combinations of cattle and wild herbivores also with and without mega herbivores. The findings revealed that at herbage level, most grazed treatments (four out of five) had higher productivity than the ungrazed control and three showed grazing optimisation curve at sixth polynomial degree between monthly productivity and grazing intensity (1-g/ng). At functional group level forbs productivity was higher in the ungrazed control than in any of the grazed treatments while at individual grass species level Themeda triandra productivity was higher in all grazed treatments than in ungrazed control. We conclude against presence of herbivore optimisation hypothesis at herbage, functional group and species level because of lack of attributable grazing effect in grazed treatments that matches complex ecological effects in the ungrazed treatment.

Kariuki S, Mirza N, Mitema ES, Olsvik O. "Acquired tetracycline resistance genes in nosocomial Salmonella typhimurium infection in a Kenyan hospital.". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Tetracyclines have been among the most widely used antibiotics worldwide. Plasmid-mediated tetracycline resistance among hospital strains of bacteria has continued to rise and of major concern has been the transfer of resistance to pathogenic organisms. Bacteraemia due to hospital acquired S. typhimurium has been a major cause of morbidity at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), hence the need to study drug susceptibility pattern of this organism. This study also characterized the tetracycline resistance genes using oligonucleotide probes. Ninety seven S. typhimurium strains isolated from patients at KNH were used. Agar dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Plasmids were isolated from each strain and the different plasmid profiles were grouped by their molecular weights into 6 patterns. Out of 97, 87 (88%) strains were resistant. MIC ranged from 1 microgram/ml to 128 micrograms/ml. Genes encoding for tetracycline resistance were located on plasmids of molecular weights 65 MDa, 5.2 or both. Plasmid-encoded antimicrobial resistance is likely to spread to other pathogenic organisms, reduce our ability to treat the infection and increase the cost and duration of treatment.

Olsvik O, Mitema ES, Gathuma J, Mirza N. "Acquired tetracycline resistance genes in nosocomial Salmonella typhimurium infection in a Kenyan hospital.". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Tetracyclines have been among the most widely used antibiotics worldwide. Plasmid-mediated tetracycline resistance among hospital strains of bacteria has continued to rise and of major concern has been the transfer of resistance to pathogenic organisms. Bacteraemia due to hospital acquired S. typhimurium has been a major cause of morbidity at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), hence the need to study drug susceptibility pattern of this organism. This study also characterized the tetracycline resistance genes using oligonucleotide probes. Ninety seven S. typhimurium strains isolated from patients at KNH were used. Agar dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Plasmids were isolated from each strain and the different plasmid profiles were grouped by their molecular weights into 6 patterns. Out of 97, 87 (88%) strains were resistant. MIC ranged from 1 microgram/ml to 128 micrograms/ml. Genes encoding for tetracycline resistance were located on plasmids of molecular weights 65 MDa, 5.2 or both. Plasmid-encoded antimicrobial resistance is likely to spread to other pathogenic organisms, reduce our ability to treat the infection and increase the cost and duration of treatment.

MUTONGA PENINAH. "Adaptation of Swahili architecture and identity, a case of Lamu and Shela." Africa Habitat Review Journal. Submitted;1(1/2019):50.
Emelda OP, Nyambura MI, Masikini M, Emmanuel I. "Biosynthesized Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles for Ethanol Chemical Sensor." Journal of Nano Research. Submitted.
Mandela P. calling sin, SIN.; Submitted.
MBALUKA DRMUNYAOTITUS. "Common skin diseases.". In: Journal. Child Health Dialogues; Submitted. Abstract

The chapter discusses common both infectious and non infectious skin diseases in the tropical environment in a medicine text book: Medicine: Non-communicable Diseases in Adults; which widely explores common medical diseases in the tropical setting. The chapter begins with the outline, glossary of terms and introduction to the structure and function of the skin. Skin infections are discussed under bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic infestations at the end of the section.The section on Allergic or immunological disorders discusses eczema in its diversity, urticaria and adverse cutaneous drug reactions.The last section discusses acne vulgaris and the papulosquamous disorders.

Othieno CJ, Okoth RO, Peltzer K, Pengpid S, Malla LO. "Depression among university students in Kenya: Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates." Journal of affective disorders. Submitted;165:120-125. AbstractWebsite

Background Depression is a common cause of morbidity but prevalence levels among
Kenyan university students are poorly understood. A better understanding of depression and
its correlates is essential in planning for appropriate interventions in this population group.
Method A random sample of 923 University of Nairobi students (525 male and 365 female)
were interviewed using a questionnaire to record sociodemographic variables. Depressive
symptoms were measured using Centre for Epidemiological Studies Short Depression ..

Birithia R;, Subramanian S;, Villinger J;, Muthomi J;, Narla RD;, Pappu HR. "Distribution of tospoviruses, Iris yellow spot virus infecting onions in Kenya."; Submitted.
Mbuge DO, MM K, E BKM, S M, DA M, J A. "The Effect of Drying Temperature on Nutrient levels in Oyster Mushroom." AJST. Submitted.
Mbuge DO, Kanyara MM, B.K.Mutai E, Murunga S, Mutuli DA, Agullo J. "The Effect of Drying Temperature on Nutrient levels in Oyster Mushroom." AJST. Submitted; ( ). Abstractdocument_2.pdf

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Mutembe N, Elly D. "Effect of Financial Literacy on Voluntary Retirement Planning Among Employees of State Corporations Under the Ministry of Health in Nairobi County, Kenya ." African development finance journal . Submitted;1(1):1-27 . Abstracteffect_of_financial_literacy_on_voluntary_retirement_planning_among_employees_of_state_corporations_under_the_ministry_of_health_in_nairobi_county_kenya.pdf

Purpose - The study sought to determine the effect of financial literacy on voluntary retirement planning among employees of state corporations under the Ministry of Health in Nairobi County, Kenya. Methodology – This study adopted a descriptive study design and uses primary data collected using a questionnaire with a five point Likert scale on the parameters of each variable. The study applied simple random sampling technique to select respondents to participate in the study. Data is analysed using means, percentages and frequencies. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the relationship between financial literacy and voluntary retirement planning. Findings – Financial literacy was found to influence the level of voluntary retirement planning among the employees since they are able to make key decisions that involve money in such a way that there is minimal risk to them. The study also established that financial literacy has a positive impact on voluntary retirement planning, however the results indicate that other factors such as income levels, age, marital status and level of education are also strongly related to retirement planning. Implications – To boost the voluntary retirement planning process, the eventuality of retirement should be made obvious for all the employees in the Kenyan economy so as to influence peoples’ attitude and receptiveness to the process. There is therefore need to develop financial education programs that focus particularly on important financial planning aspects for employees that will help them strike a balance between consumption and saving. Value – The findings of this study would also be valuable to the Retirement Benefits Authority and the Government of Kenya in development of policies and regulations

Nyabul P, Owakah F, Muyila JW. Elements Philosophy.; Submitted.
Thongoh MW, Mutembei HM, Mburu J, Kathambi BE. "Evaluating Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Livestock Value Chain Actors on Climate Smart Agriculture/Livestock (CSA/L) in Kajiado County, Kenya." Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology. Submitted;39(4):134-148.
Muirhead JD, Kattenhorn SA, Lee H, Mana S, Turrin BD, Fischer TP, Kianji G, Dindi E, Stamps DS. "Evolution of upper crustal faulting assisted by magmatic volatile release during early-stage continental rift development in the East African Rift." Geosphere. Submitted;12(6):1-31.
Munyoki JM,, Kibera FN, Ogutu M. "Extent To Which University- Industry Linkage Exists In Kenya: A Study Of Medium And Large Manufacturing Firms In Selected Industries In Kenya." Business Administration and Management . Submitted;Vol 1(4):163-169, .
Mbunya NN. Factors hindering paediatric ward nurses from using nursing care plans at Kenyatta National Hospital.; Submitted. Abstract

Factors Hindering Paediatric Ward Nurses from Using Nursing Care Plans at Kenyata
National Hospital (KNH)
BACKGROUND: Documentation is an essential and integral part of quality nursing care.
A nursing care plan best suits this purpose because it combines holistic and scientific
approach to patient care. Further, it communicates and supports continuity of care though
minimally used by nurses.
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to identify factors hindering paediatric nurses from using
nursing care plans.
METHOD: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from June to August 2007
at KNH. It used a random sample of 7 in-charge and 100 non in-charge nurses who filled a
self-administered close-ended questionnaire. Pearson product-moment correlation was used
to assess the association between variables with a P value set at 0.05.
RESULTS: Only 2% nurses were utilizing care plans. The characteristics of the nurse (i.e.
age: r = .026, p= .796 ; qualification: r = .007 , p= .941 and years of service: r = .135 , p=
.181 ), nursing work (i.e. workload: r = .099 ,p = .328 and stress: r = -.027 ,p = .786) and
nursing administration (i.e. staffing: r = .192 ,p = .680 and care plan policy: r = .277 ,p =
.547) had a non significant linear relationship with utilizing care plans. The linear
relationship between familiarity with the care plan content (r=.198, p= .049)) and its use
was statistically significant whereas ease to update a care plantr = .013, p = .897) was not.
CONCLUSION: Further research is indicated to determine hospital-specific factors
predicting non-use of care plans in order to address them with aim of popularizing their
use. This will go a long way to enrich the four main areas of nursing: Research, Education,
Administration and Teaching.

MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "HIV-1 Disease Progression in Breast-Feeding and Formula-Feeding Mothers: A Prospective 2-Year Comparison of T Cell Subsets, HIV-1 RNA Levels, and Mortality. Otieno PA, Brown ER, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Nduati RW, Farquhar C, Obimbo EM, Bosire RK, Emery S, Overba.". In: J Infect Dis. 2007 Jan 15;195(2):220-9. Epub 2006 Dec 13. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); Submitted. Abstracthiv.pdf

Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. Background. There is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of breast-feeding on maternal mortality from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, and little is known about the effects of breast-feeding on markers of HIV-1 disease progression.Methods. HIV-1-seropositive women were enrolled during pregnancy and received short-course zidovudine. HIV-1 RNA levels and CD4 cell counts were determined at baseline and at months 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 postpartum and were compared between breast-feeding and formula-feeding mothers.Results. Of 296 women, 98 formula fed and 198 breast-fed. At baseline, formula-feeding women had a higher education level and prevalence of HIV-1-related illness than did breast-feeding women; however, the groups did not differ with respect to CD4 cell counts and HIV-1 RNA levels. Between months 1 and 24 postpartum, CD4 cell counts decreased 3.9 cells/ mu L/month (P<.001), HIV-1 RNA levels increased 0.005 log(10) copies/mL/month (P=.03), and body mass index (BMI) decreased 0.03 kg/m(2)/month (P<.001). The rate of CD4 cell count decline was higher in breast-feeding mothers (7.2 cells/ mu L/month) than in mothers who never breast-fed (4.0 cells/ mu L/month) (P=.01). BMI decreased more rapidly in breast-feeding women (P=.04), whereas HIV-1 RNA levels and mortality did not differ significantly between breast-feeding and formula-feeding women.Conclusions. Breast-feeding was associated with significant decreases in CD4 cell counts and BMI. HIV-1 RNA levels and mortality were not increased, suggesting a limited adverse impact of breast-feeding in mothers receiving extended care for HIV-1 infection.

Otieno-Omutoko L, Mburunga S, Pokhariyal G, Ndiritu N. "Influence of Community Equity Financing On Sustainability of Community Water Projects, In Kieni Constituency, Nyeri County, Kenya." African Journal of Project Planning and Management. Submitted.
Njuru SN, Njogu PM, Mugo HN, Thoithi GN. "Is tablet splitting a potential pitfall in drug therapy? A case study of amlodipine tablets." Pharmaceut. Jour. Kenya. Submitted.
Mungai NN, Kibwage IO, Mwangi JW, Guantai AN, Njogu PM, Ongarora DSB. "Isolation, Characterization and Antiplasmodial Activity of Phytochemical Constituents from Monanthotaxis parvifolia (Oliv.) Verdc ssp. kenyensis Verdc." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Submitted;17:87-93.abstract__mungai_et_al._2014.pdf
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "Linear operators for which T* and T^2 commute." Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM),2012, to appear. Submitted. Abstract

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Plasman, M., Tiberi, C., Ebinger, C., Albaric, J., Peyrat, S., Déverchère, J., Le Gall, B., Tarits, P., Roecker, S., Wambura, R. MMAG, Wambura, R. MMAG, Wambura, R. MMAG, Mtelela, K. MKHPGMGS, Msabi, M. KHPGGSJ. "Lithospheric low-velocity zones associated with a magmatic segment of the Tanzanian Rift, East Africa." Geophyscical Journal International. Submitted.
Weinstein, A. EORTALWAGMCSS, Ebinger, C. ORTALWAGMSSC, Oliva, S. RTALWAGMSCM, Roecker, S. TALWAGMCMC, Tiberi, C. ALWAGMMCE, Aman, M. LWAGMCEJ, Lambert, C. WAGMEJS, Witkin, E. AGMJS, Albaric, J. GMS, Gautier, S. M, Muzuka, A. MKHI-KMFPMRGGR, Mulibo, G. KG, Kianji, G., Hadfield, R. I-KMFPMRFMR, Illsley-Kemp, F. MFPMRMRS, Msabi, M. FPMRRSJ, Ferdinand, R. PMRSJ, Peyrat, S. MRJ, Muirhead, J. R, Rodzianko, A., Fischer T. "Magmatic Co2 assisted rifitng in East Africa : seismicity of the Magadi-Natron-Manyara basins, Africa. Submitted to Tectonics." tectonics. Submitted.
Omonge E;, Kyateesa; J, Otieno FCF;, Kayima, Lule G;, McLigeyo AA. Metabolic factors associated with the development of lipodystrophy in patients on long-term highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART).; Submitted. Abstract

Dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and diabetes are frequent in patients on highly active anti-retroviral
therapy (HAART) and especially in patients with lipodystrophy, and may lead to atherosclerosis. This
study described the metabolic alterations associated with lipodystrophy in adults on chronic HAART in
Kenya. The prevalence of dyslipidaemia amongst the study participants was (211) 79.6%. Elevated total
cholesterol was found in 129, high low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in 107, low High-density
lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in 110 and high triglycerides in 131 participants. Lipodystrophic
patients were more likely to have dyslipidemia than normal lipids (55.4 versus 35.1%, p = 0.007 OR 2.2
CI 1.3 to 4.6) with 57, 45.9, 65.9 and 45.2% having elevated total cholesterol, elevated LDL-C, elevated
triglycerides and low HDL-C, respectively. Hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia were
significantly associated with lipodystrophy (OR 3.8 CI 2.3 to 6.4; p = 0.000) and (OR 1.94 CI 1.2 to 3.2; p
= 0.008), respectively. The odds of lipodystrophy was 2.913 times higher for patients with elevated
triglycerides than for those with normal triglycerides (p < 0.001). Sixty-four (24.3%) participants had
dysglycemia, with 3.5% having diabetes and 20.8% having impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Among
patient with lipodystrophy, 69.8% had normal fasting glucose, 25.1% had IFG and 5.1% were diabetic.
Lipodystrophic patients were not more likely to have abnormal blood sugars than normal blood sugars
(p value 0.125).

Monyonko NM, Reid JH. "One-loop vacuum polarization in the nonlinear Re gauge." Physical Review D. Submitted;32(Number 4):962-967.
MUTONGA PENINAH. "The origin of the Swahili stone house and the dual nature of Swahili urbanism." Africa Habitat Review Journal . Submitted;1(1/2019):50.
MWANGI EN, KAAYA GP, ESSUMAN S, KIMONDO MG. "Parasitism of Amblyomma variegatum by a Hymenopteran Parasitoid in the Laboratory, and Some Aspects of Its Basic Biology.". Submitted. AbstractParasitism of Amblyomma variegatum by a Hymenopteran Parasitoid in the Laboratory, and Some Aspects of Its Basic Biology

Unfed Amblyomma variegatum F. nymphs were experimentally infected in the laboratory with a hymenopteran parasitoid, Ixodiphagus hookeri (Howard). The parasitoid was originally obtained from ticks collected from cattle in the Trans-Mara area of Kenya where it naturally infects 50% of A. variegatum nymphs. In the field, nymphs collected from cattle were found to be infected, but not those collected from grass. The optimum temperature for emergence of parasitoids from the nymphs in the laboratory was 28°C, but emerged parasitoids were more active and survived longer at 22°C. There was a higher proportion of parasitoid nonemergence from laboratory-infected than from the field-infected nymphs. This study is the first record of infection of A. variegatum in the laboratory with a parasitoid. Possibilities of mass rearing and use of the parasitoid as a biocontrol agent for ticks are discussed.

Shiundu PM, Munguti SM, Williams KRS. "Practical implications of ionic strength effects on particle retention in thermal field-flow fractionation.". Submitted. AbstractPractical implications of ionic strength effects on particle retention in thermal field-flow fractionation

Modification of ionic strength of an aqueous or non-aqueous carrier solution can have profound effects on the particle retention behavior in thermal field-flow fractionation (ThFFF). These effects can be considered as either advantageous or not depending on the performance criteria under consideration. Aside from the general increase in retention time of particulate material (latexes and silica particles), our experiments indicate improvement in resolution with increases in electrolyte concentration. Absence of an electrolyte in the carrier solution causes deviations from the theoretically expected linear behavior between the retention parameter l (a measure of the extent of interaction between the applied field and the particle) and the reciprocal temperature drop across the channel walls. A negative interaction parameter d of about 20.170 was determined for 0.105- and 0.220-mm polystyrene (PS) latex particles suspended in either a 0.25 or a 1.0 mM TBAPcontaining acetonitrile carrier and for 0.220 mm PS in 0.50 and 1.0 mM NaCl-containing aqueous medium. This work also demonstrates that optimum electrolyte concentrations can be chosen to achieve reasonable experimental run-times, good resolution separations, and shifts in the steric inversion points at lower field strengths, and that too high electrolyte concentrations can have deleterious effects such as band broadening and sample loss through adsorption to the channel accumulation surface. The advantages of using ionic strength rather than field strength to effect desired changes are lowered power consumption and possible application of ThFFF to high temperature-labile samples.

Mutahi WT, Thiong'o FW. "Prevalence and intensity of Schistosomiasis mansoni in irrigation and non-irrigation areas of central Kenya.". Submitted. AbstractPrevalence and intensity of Schistosomiasis mansoni in irrigation and non-irrigation areas of central Kenya

OBJECTIVE: To compare the extent of intestinal schistosomiasis among school children attending school in an irrigation and non-irrigation area of Central Kenya. DESIGN: A cross sectional study. SETTING: Three separate parasitological surveys involving four primary schools in Mwea irrigation scheme, Kirinyaga District and two from a non-irrigation area in Machakos District. SUBJECTS: One thousand two hundred and twenty two children aged between five and nineteen years were examined for Schistostoma mansoni infection by Kato thick smear technique. RESULTS: High prevelances ranging from 73% to 94% were noted among children in all the participating schools. Overall 41% of the infected children had heavy infection (>400 eggs per gram), 27% had moderate infection (101-400 epg) and 32% had light infection (10-100epg). When data from the two areas were analysed seperately, peak eggs output were found in 5-9 year olds among children in Kirinyaga while this situation shifted to the 10-14 year olds in Machakos children. In Kirinyaga District, boys in the 10-14 years age group had a significantly higher output than girls (P<0.01), but this situation was reversed in the older children (P<0.05). Girls in Machakos District had consistently but non-significantly higher output than boys. CONCLUSION: Intestinal schistomiasis is more prevalent and with a higher intensity in the irrigated than in non-irrigated areas. There were also pronounced age and gender related differences in the pattern of infection between the two study areas.

Mutahi WT, Thiong'o FW. "Prevalence and intensity of Schistosomiasis mansoni in irrigation and non-irrigation areas of central Kenya.". Submitted. AbstractPrevalence and intensity of Schistosomiasis mansoni in irrigation and non-irrigation areas of central Kenya

OBJECTIVE: To compare the extent of intestinal schistosomiasis among school children attending school in an irrigation and non-irrigation area of Central Kenya. DESIGN: A cross sectional study. SETTING: Three separate parasitological surveys involving four primary schools in Mwea irrigation scheme, Kirinyaga District and two from a non-irrigation area in Machakos District. SUBJECTS: One thousand two hundred and twenty two children aged between five and nineteen years were examined for Schistostoma mansoni infection by Kato thick smear technique. RESULTS: High prevelances ranging from 73% to 94% were noted among children in all the participating schools. Overall 41% of the infected children had heavy infection (>400 eggs per gram), 27% had moderate infection (101-400 epg) and 32% had light infection (10-100epg). When data from the two areas were analysed seperately, peak eggs output were found in 5-9 year olds among children in Kirinyaga while this situation shifted to the 10-14 year olds in Machakos children. In Kirinyaga District, boys in the 10-14 years age group had a significantly higher output than girls (P<0.01), but this situation was reversed in the older children (P<0.05). Girls in Machakos District had consistently but non-significantly higher output than boys. CONCLUSION: Intestinal schistomiasis is more prevalent and with a higher intensity in the irrigated than in non-irrigated areas. There were also pronounced age and gender related differences in the pattern of infection between the two study areas.

Mutahi WT, Thiong'o FW. "Prevalence and intensity of Schistosomiasis mansoni in irrigation and non-irrigation areas of central Kenya.". Submitted. AbstractPrevalence and intensity of Schistosomiasis mansoni in irrigation and non-irrigation areas of central Kenya

OBJECTIVE: To compare the extent of intestinal schistosomiasis among school children attending school in an irrigation and non-irrigation area of Central Kenya. DESIGN: A cross sectional study. SETTING: Three separate parasitological surveys involving four primary schools in Mwea irrigation scheme, Kirinyaga District and two from a non-irrigation area in Machakos District. SUBJECTS: One thousand two hundred and twenty two children aged between five and nineteen years were examined for Schistostoma mansoni infection by Kato thick smear technique. RESULTS: High prevelances ranging from 73% to 94% were noted among children in all the participating schools. Overall 41% of the infected children had heavy infection (>400 eggs per gram), 27% had moderate infection (101-400 epg) and 32% had light infection (10-100epg). When data from the two areas were analysed seperately, peak eggs output were found in 5-9 year olds among children in Kirinyaga while this situation shifted to the 10-14 year olds in Machakos children. In Kirinyaga District, boys in the 10-14 years age group had a significantly higher output than girls (P<0.01), but this situation was reversed in the older children (P<0.05). Girls in Machakos District had consistently but non-significantly higher output than boys. CONCLUSION: Intestinal schistomiasis is more prevalent and with a higher intensity in the irrigated than in non-irrigated areas. There were also pronounced age and gender related differences in the pattern of infection between the two study areas.

Muma MK, Kimani K, Kariuki – Wanyoike MM, ILAKO DR, Njuguna MW. "Prevalence of Refractive errors among Primary School Pupils in Kilungu Division of Makueni District, Kenya.". Submitted. Abstract

To determine the magnitude and pattern of significant refractive errors in primary school children in Kilungu division of Makueni District, Kenya. Design: A cross – sectional primary school based study. Setting: Eight (8) Primary school in Kilungu division of Makueni District, Kenya. Target population: 1439 Primary school pupils aged between 12 and 15 years. Results: The prevalence of significant refractive error was 5.2%, 75/1439, (95% CI) being responsible for 92.6 % of all causes of poor eyesight. Hypermetropia accounted for 3.2% (95% CI), myopia 1.7% (95% CI) and astigmatism 0.3% (95% CI) of refractive errors. Myopia was more likely to be present in the pupils aged 14 to 15 years than those aged 12 to 13 years with OR 2.9 (0.1 – 9.2) which was statistically significant (p = 0.022). Conclusion: The overall prevalence of significant refractive errors in pupils aged 12 to 15 years in Makueni's Kilungu division at 5.2% (95% CI) was high enough to justify a regular school eye screening in primary schools in Kenya.

MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, NJIHIA JM. "Road Maintenance in Kenya: A Soft Systems Approach.". In: Conference Proceedings, all Africa Conference of Engineers,. IBIMA Publishing; Submitted. Abstract

Kenya Literature Bureau, Nairobi, Kenya.

Muia JMK, Kariuki JN, Mbugua PN, Gachuiri CK, Lukibisi LB, Ayako WO, Ngunjiri WV. "Smallholder dairy production in high altitude Nyandarua milk-shed in Kenya: Status, challenges and opportunities.". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

A stratified sampling method was used to select 156 dairying households from representative Divisions in Nyandarua County. The stratification was based on cattle grazing systems (CGS) and agro-ecological zones (AEZs) across the Divisions. The objectives of the study were to assess status of smallholder dairy cattle production in relationship to CGS and AEZ, major challenges facing smallholder dairy production, and the opportunities for improvement. Data collected included the characteristics of the farm, family, farmer, feeds and feeding, dairy cattle and their performance, milk uses and markets, and the dairy production services. The information on the challenges facing dairy production and the opportunities for improvement was obtained from discussions with livestock extension workers, dairy co-operatives, milk processors, and from secondary sources. The present results indicated that the average farm size was 3.5 Ha and 41, 38, and 44% of the households fed dairy stock with improved fodders, grass hay, and concentrate supplements, respectively. Among the households, about 44, 38 and 32% had access to artificial insemination (AI), extension, and all weather roads services, respectively. Households keeping crosses of the dairy breeds were 59% while the average herd size was 5.3 heads consisting of 40% cows in milk. The average calf live-weight gain was 322g/ day and milk yield per cow was 8.4kg/day. About 65% of the milk was marketed at an average price of 15.00 KES/kg, equivalent to 0.205 US$/kg. As the levels of dairy intensification increased, there were significant increase in milk production per hectare and decrease in calf live-weight gains (P<0.05). On the other hand, as the level of agricultural potential increased, there were significant decreases in milk production and marketed milk per farm (P<0.05). It was concluded that smallholder dairy cattle production was below the potential for Nyandarua County and was influenced by the CGS and AEZs. The major challenges in smallholder dairy production included poor road network and milk marketing, high costs and inaccessibility of dairy production inputs and support services, inappropriate dairy production technologies, and limited value addition of milk.

Monyonko NM, Reid JH, Sen A. "SOME PROPERTIES OF GREEN'S FUNCTIONS IN THE NON LINEAR R GAUGE." Physics Letters. Submitted;136B(Number 4):265-268.
Okeng'o GO, Malo JO, Awuor JB, Genga RO. "Testing Structure Formation in the Universe via Coupled Matter Fluids.". Submitted.
Mbuthia PG, Njagi AW, Bebora LC, Minga UM, Christensen JP, Olsen JE. "Time-course investigation of infection with a low virulent Pasteurella multocida strain in normal and immune-suppressed 12-week-old free-range chickens.". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Twelve-week-old indigenous chickens, either immune-suppressed using dexamethasone (IS) or non-immunesuppressed (NIS), were challenged with a low virulent strain, Pasteurella multocida strain NCTC 10322T, and developed clinical signs and pathological lesions typical of chronic fowl cholera. NIS birds demonstrated much more severe signs of fowl cholera than IS birds. With few exceptions, signs recorded in IS and NIS birds were of the same types, but significantly milder in the IS birds, indicating that immune suppression does not change the course of infection but rather the severity of signs in fowl cholera. P. multocida signals by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were observed between 1 h and 14 days in the lungs, trachea, air sacs, liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and caecal tonsils, while signals from other organs mostly were observed after 24 h. More organs had FISH signals in NIS birds than in IS birds and at higher frequency per organ. Many organs were positive by FISH even 14 days post infection, and it is suggested that these organs may be likely places for long-term carriage of P. multocida following infection. The present study has demonstrated the spread of P. multocida in different tissues in chickens and distribution of lesions associated with chronic fowl cholera, and pointed to a decrease of pathology in IS birds. Since dexamethasone mostly affects heterophils, the study suggests that these cells play a role in the development of lesions associated with chronic fowl cholera in chickens.

Degu A, Mekonnen A, Njogu P. "Treatment outcome among prostate cancer patients in Africa: A systematic review." Cancer Investigation. Submitted.
Obiero JA, Mburu MN, Ndung’u BM, Waititu KK, Farah IO, Mwethera PG. "UniPron is A Fully Effective Non-hormonal Reversible Contraceptive in Baboon Model (Papio Anubis).". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Objective To determine the safety and efficacy of UniPron as a reversible contraceptive. Methods Vaginal swabs were obtained before and after UniPron administration, cultured onto appropriate culture media and bacteria identification was done based on type of media used, Gram stain reactions, colony morphology and biochemical tests. Vaginal biopsy tissues were processed using paraffin wax method, stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined under light microscopy to determine the effect of the product on vaginal tissues. The effect of UniPron on sperm was examined by mixing the product with electroejaculated spermatozoa in vitro at different concentrations. For efficacy studies, male baboons of proven fertility were mated with UniPron treated or untreated females of proven fertility during the fertile stages. Results All the five females (100%) that were treated with UniPron did not conceive and they regained total fertility when the treatment was stopped while all the controls conceived. At a concentration of 40%,UniPron completely immobilized spermatozoa in an in-vitro system. UniPron mechanism of action was by lowering the vaginal pH and on application in baboon, the pH was lowered for at least 3 h after which it went back to normal. Conclusions As we plan for a study to test UniPron as a microbicide to prevent STIs including HIV, our current study has established that this novel product is effective in contraception and harmless to vaginal tissues and vaginal microbial flora in a baboon model (Papio anubis).

Githigia SM, Njagi LW, Mbuthia PG, Gathumbi PK, Cooper ME, Cooper JE. "veterinary forensic medicine: an emerging and important discipline.". Submitted.Website
Njagi LW, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, Minga UM. "Viral nucleoprotein localization and lesions of Newcastle disease in tissues of indigenous ducks.". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Localization of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein and pathological lesions was valuated in tissues of 55 indigenous ducks (45 experimentally infected and 10 sentinel ones). In addition, ten Newcastle disease infected chickens were used to ensure that the virus inoculum administered to the ducks produced the disease in chickens, the susceptible hosts. Ducks were killed on day 1, 4, 8 and 14 post-infection. Postmortem examination was done with six tissues (liver, spleen, lung, caecal tonsils, kidneys and brain) being collected from each bird. The tissues were preserved in 10% neutral formalin for 24 h. They were then transferred to 70% ethanol for histology and immunohistochemical staining. Airsacculitis, necrotic splenic foci, congested intestines, lymphoid depleted caecal tonsils and focal infiltrations by mononuclear cells were the main pathological lesions in infected ducks. Over 28.9% of the infected ducks had Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in macrophage-like large mononuclear cells in the caecal tonsils and kidney tubular epithelium. The viral antigens were located in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of the cells. The other organs had no detectable viral antigens. This study shows that the kidneys and caecal tonsils are the likely predilection sites for the virus in ducks. They thus need to be considered as diagnostic indicators for the viral carriage in ducks.

Seth D. Goldstein, MD1; Dominic Papandria MD2; ALMDMPH3;, ani Georges Azzies, MD4; Eric Borgstein FRCS5; CMD6; SFMDMPH7; PJMBCB;RG, Mary Klingensmith, MD9; Mohamed Labib10 FLMD; MMMD11; EO’F12; RRMDMPH7;A, Fizan Abdullah, MD PD1. “Innovative approaches to educating the global surgical worldforce: A pilot camparison of online curricula for use in low and middle income countries”.; Submitted.
Mwendarani B. “Taswira ya mwanamke katika tamthilia mbili za kiswahili’’. Mbuthia DE, Musyoka DF, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; Submitted.
Mwangi W.E., Mogoa E.M N-MJ, C.M. M. "Addition of xylazine in epidural ketamine anaesthesia causes cardiopulmonary depression but minimizes hematological changes in dogs." International journal of veterinary sciences. Submitted;5. Abstract
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Aduda BOC, Egbe PDDDAM, Musembi RJ, WAITA SEBASTIAN, Kaduki KA, Simiyu J, Agacho A, Nyongesa F. "ANSOLE Mini-Symposium in Kenya (AMSK 2013).". Submitted. Abstract
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MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and J.M. Khalagai, Characterization of C_00 Contractions and their invariant subspaces, corrected manuscript re-submitted to Opuscula Mathematica, paper under review.". In: God Conference at Mara (Kenya). Proc. pp. 165-171 (New Era book). Opuscula Mathematica,; Submitted. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and J.M. Khalagai, Linear operators for which T* and T^2 commute, Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM), 2012, to appear.". In: Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM),2012, to appear. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM), 2012, to appear; Submitted. Abstract
Recent publications have demonstrated that the protease caspase-1 is responsible for the processing of pro-interleukin 18 (IL-18) into the active form. Studies on cell lines and murine macrophages have shown that the bacterial invasion factor SipB activates caspase-1, triggering cell death. Thus, we investigated the role of SipB in the activation and release of IL-18 in human alveolar macrophages (AM), which are the first line of defense against inhaled pathogens. Under steady-state conditions, AM are a more important source of IL-18 than are dendritic cells (DC) and monocytes. Cytokine production by AM and DC was compared after both types of cells had been infected with a virulent strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and an isogenic sipB mutant, which were used as an infection model. Infection with virulent Salmonella led to marked cell death with features of apoptosis while both intracellular activation and release of IL-18 were demonstrated. In contrast, the sipB mutant did not induce such cell death or the release of active IL-18. The specific caspase-1 inhibitor Ac-YVAD-CMK blocked the early IL-18 release in AM infected with the virulent strain. However, the type of Salmonella infection did not differentially regulate IL-18 gene expression. We concluded that the bacterial virulence factor SipB plays an essential posttranslational role in the intracellular activation of IL-18 and the release of the cytokine in human AM.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and J.M. Khalagai, Linear operators for which T* and T^2 commute, Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM), 2012, to appear.". In: Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM),2012, to appear. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM), 2012, to appear; Submitted.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and S.K. Moindi, A note on A-self-adjoint and A-skew-adjoint operators and their extensions, Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences, accepted January, 2012, to appear.". In: Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PJMMS). Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences; Submitted. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and S.K. Moindi, A note on A-self-adjoint and A-skew-adjoint operators and their extensions, Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences, accepted January, 2012, to appear.". In: Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PJMMS). Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences; Submitted.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and S.K. Moindi, A note on metric equivalence of operators, Far East Math Jourmal (FMJS), accepted March 2012, to appear.". In: Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS). Far East Math Science Journal; Submitted. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and S.K. Moindi, A note on metric equivalence of operators, Far East Math Jourmal (FMJS), accepted March 2012, to appear.". In: Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM),2012, to appear. Far East Math Science Journal; Submitted.
Muchane M, Githiru M. "The birds of Gongoni Forest Reserve South Coast, Kenya." SCOPUS. Submitted:1. Abstract
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MURIGU D(MRS) JENNIFER. "BURYING AS AN INTERMENT METHOD AND ITS IMPACT ON LAND IN KENYAN URBAN AREAS.". In: Bristol University, UK, September 1989. University of Nairobi; Submitted.
Mwangi E, Gatari M. "Curriculum Development of a Nuclear Engineering Course for Human Resources Enhancement in the Kenya Nuclear Energy Program." kns.org. Submitted. AbstractWebsite

In order to increase generation capacity from reliable sources, Kenya has proposed to install a low-end nuclear power plant to supplement the envisaged short fall. At the moment, most of the power is generated from hydro and geothermal sources. Although an expansion of …

Maina DM, Gatari MM, Bartilol SK, Nguli MK. "ESSENTIAL TRACE METALS IN SELECTED MAIZE FLOUR BRANDS CONSUMED IN NAIROBI, KENYA: APPLICATION OF TXRF." imeko.org. Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Human beings obtain their essential trace metals form their diets. The objective of this study was to determine the Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn concentration levels in maize flour and based on the results estimate the daily intake of these essential metals through consumption of Ugali; …

M. MF. "GENDER ROLE-PLAY REPRESENTATION IN KENYAN CLASSICAL KISWAHILI LITERATURE ." Afrikannistiche Arbeitspapiere - Swahili Frum; Submitted. Abstract
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Kairu WM, Gatari MM, MUIA ML, Mumenya SW,... "Health monitoring of concrete using rebar-guided ultrasound." pdfs.semanticscholar.org. Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Concrete is one of the commonly used materials worldwide in the construction industry due to its durability [1]. Civil infrastructures such as power plants, bridges and large buildings are typically built using concrete. It is typically composed of aggregate, sand, cement, water as …

M DRKEMOLIARTHUR. "Heinemann Things Fall Apart Achinua Achebe (1st edition 1976 and 2 edition.". In: UoN Press. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; Submitted. Abstract

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MWANGI MRMUREITHISTEPHEN. "The impact of rangeland livestock manure on nutrient depleted soils in highland small-holder croplands in Central Kenya. Kirigia, AK, Njoka, JT, Kinyua PID Young, TP and Mureithi, SM.". In: Tropical and Sub-tropical Agroecosystems. Tropical and Sub-tropical Agroecosystems; Submitted. Abstract
Cities around the world are currently facing considerable pressure to cope with infrastructure provision amidst rapid urban development and economic growth. Kenya is also facing an increasing growth of informal settlements in her urban centres. As rapid urbanization takes its toll, so has the development and growth of slums. More than 34% of Kenya‟s total population lives in urban areas and of this, more than 71% is confined in informal settlements (UN-Habitat, 2009). This paper presents the result of study to assess the effects of the change in land use in two sub-catchments, in an urban area close to the Nairobi Central Business District (NCBD). The paper compares the change in land use of two regions in Nairobi, Kenya that are slowly changing due to the fast growing population and economy, on urban runoff.
BIRIR JK, GATARI MJ, RAJAGOPAL P, MUIA ML. "Improved Resolution in Guided Wave Testing." pdfs.semanticscholar.org. Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Guided wave technology is today widely used for long range ultrasonic testing, especially for pipeline, tank floor and rail track condition monitoring. In pipeline inspection for instance guided wave testing (GWT) offers advantages over other mainstream technologies such as …

MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, MILE DRJUSTUSKITHEKA. "Justus K. Mile, Bernard M. Nzimbi and S.K. Moindi, On the characterization of Class R_1 of non-normal operators in a Hilbert space, Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS), accepted March 2012, to appear.". In: Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PJMMS). Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Submitted. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
MUSAKULU DRKEMOLIARTHUR. "Kemoli AM, Opinya GN, van Amerongen WE. Two-year survival of glass ionomer sealants placed as part of proximal ART restorations, E Afr Med J (in press).". In: The Kenya Accountant, Vol. 1:14; Vol.2. E Afr Med J; Submitted. Abstract
Abstract Objectives: To evaluate after 2 years, the survival rate of glass ionomer cement (GIC) sealants placed in primary molars of 6-8 year-olds and as part of proximal ART restoration. Study design: A longitudinal clinical study. Setting: Matungulu/Kangundo rural divisions, Machakos district. Participants: A total of 804 six to eight year-olds from rural Kenya received sealants as part of proximal restorations placed in primary molars using the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach. Trained operators, using the ART approach, placed the proximal restorations and the sealants using Fuji IX, Ketac Molar Easymix and Ketac Molar Aplicap, together with rubber dam and cotton roll tooth-isolation methods. Evaluation to determine the survival of the sealants was done soon after placement (within 2 hours of placing them) and after 2 years. The data were analyzed using SPSS 14.0 computer programme, and the survival results related to the materials and the isolation-methods used. Results: The 2-year cumulative survival of the sealants was 10.9%, and the survival of the sealants was not significantly affected by the GIC material brand and the tooth-isolation method used. However, slightly more sealants survived when Fuji IX and rubber dam tooth-isolation method were used. Conclusion: The two-year survival rate of the sealants was poor and was not significantly influenced by the GIC material or the tooth-isolation method used.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Moindi, S.K., Pokhariyal, G.P. and Nzimbi, B.M., W_4-Curvature tensor on a A-Einstein Sasakian manifold, Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS), accepted Feb 2012, to appear.". In: Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS). Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS); Submitted. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Moindi, S.K., Pokhariyal, G.P. and Nzimbi, B.M., W_4-Curvature tensor on a A-Einstein Sasakian manifold, Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS), accepted Feb 2012, to appear.". In: Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS). Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS); Submitted.
KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA, M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Mungai T.C. Kisumbi B.K Wakiaga J.M and Ireri S.K : Patients.". In: Journal of Dental Research. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
This study was done to determine the nature of utilization of dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies in private dental surgeries in Kenya. A self administering questionnaire with pre-paid postage was mailed to 138 dentists. 27.5% responded. 81.6% used dental auxiliaries and the main reason was to improve efficiency in managing patients. 93.5% of the auxiliaries were on job trained secondary school graduates. 63.2% of the respondents delegated duties which were mainly non-clinical. 26.3% did not delegate any duties. In a descending order, the reasons for non delegation were: that it would be risky to patients, not allowed by law, they did not find it necessary and that auxiliaries were not held responsible if something went wrong. The main duties delegated to the auxiliaries were cleaning of instruments and sterilization, mixing of restorative materials and preparing amalgam. Delegation was done primarily based on auxiliaries capability to perform the procedure and meet the set standards. 57.9% indicated that they rarely encountered medical emergencies. Syncope was the commonest emergency encountered. 72.7% indicated that auxiliaries could not handle medical emergencies because they were not trained. It is concluded that most dentists did not delegate clinical duties to dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies were rare.
MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA. "Nduati R, and Mbori-Ngacha D. Prevention Of Breastmilk Transmission of HIV: Balancing the Benefits and the Risks In: Essex M, Mboup S, Kanki PJ, Kalengayi MR, (eds). AIDS in Africa. 2nd Ed.". In: Book. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); Submitted. Abstract
A study of malaria on the Kano Plain, Kisumu District, Western Kenya, was carried out between April and August, 1985. The study included a knowledge, attitudes and practices (K.A.P.) survey on malaria illness and the mosquito vector. Overall knowledge about malaria illness was found to be good. However, treatment and prevention practices of malaria were found to be poor. Knowledge of the mosquito and its relationship to malaria was found to be high. Knowledge of methods of prevention of mosquito bites was also found to be high but actual use of the methods was low. Knowledge of traditional methods of prevention of mosquito bites was also found to be high. Actual use was again found to be low.
M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. "Patrick M. Shem, Paul M. Shiundu, Nicholas K. Gikonyo, Ahmed Hasssanali and Rajinder K. Saini, .". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; Submitted. Abstract
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M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. "Patrick M. Shem, Paul M. Shiundu, Nicholas K. Gikonyo, Ahmed Hasssanali and Rajinder K. Saini, .". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; Submitted. Abstract
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MWANIA MJM, GATARI MJ, MAINA MDM, KINYUA R. "Recycled waste plastics composite: Possible construction material for wind turbine blades." promitheasnet.kepa.uoa.gr. Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Electrical power supply in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) is expensive and very low, and most families have no chance of accessing clean lighting and cooking power. Off grid systems are the best viable solution in SSA and wind energy has a potential. However, the components …

M PROFOGUTUGILBERTE. "Religion and Societal Harmony in Africa: The case of Dialogue, Dialogue & Alliance, Vol. 2 No. 4.". In: The African Journal of Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries Vol. 5 No. 2.; Submitted. Abstract
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MULU NATHANIEL. "Rock art sites of Wajir and Laikipia Districts." For International News on Rock Art (INORA); Submitted. Abstract
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MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Stephen Moindi Kibet, G.P. Pokhariyal and B.M. Nzimbi, W_2-Recurrent LP-Sasakian manifold, Universal Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(UMMS) accepted in May 2012. Paper under review.". In: E.A.M. J. 58: 401-404, 1981. Universal Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(UMMS); Submitted. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Stephen Moindi Kibet, G.P. Pokhariyal and B.M. Nzimbi, W_2-Recurrent LP-Sasakian manifold, Universal Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(UMMS) accepted in May 2012. Paper under review.". In: Asynchronous Content Development Workshop,Kenya Wildlife Service Training Institute, Naivasha, Kenya,31st March 2004. Universal Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(UMMS); Submitted.
Mutua M, Kinuthia W, Otieno NE, Muriuki JM, Lange CN, Muchai M, Ingrisch S, Oyieke H, Lampe KH. "Type specimen of the insect order Coleoptera in the scientific collection of the National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi.". Submitted. Abstract
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KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA, M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Wakiaga J.M and Kisumbi B.K: In-vitro colour changes of resin composites in beverages. Journal of Dental Research.". In: Journal of Dental Research. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
This study was done to determine the nature of utilization of dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies in private dental surgeries in Kenya. A self administering questionnaire with pre-paid postage was mailed to 138 dentists. 27.5% responded. 81.6% used dental auxiliaries and the main reason was to improve efficiency in managing patients. 93.5% of the auxiliaries were on job trained secondary school graduates. 63.2% of the respondents delegated duties which were mainly non-clinical. 26.3% did not delegate any duties. In a descending order, the reasons for non delegation were: that it would be risky to patients, not allowed by law, they did not find it necessary and that auxiliaries were not held responsible if something went wrong. The main duties delegated to the auxiliaries were cleaning of instruments and sterilization, mixing of restorative materials and preparing amalgam. Delegation was done primarily based on auxiliaries capability to perform the procedure and meet the set standards. 57.9% indicated that they rarely encountered medical emergencies. Syncope was the commonest emergency encountered. 72.7% indicated that auxiliaries could not handle medical emergencies because they were not trained. It is concluded that most dentists did not delegate clinical duties to dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies were rare.
W DRMAINASUSAN, M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Wakiaga J.M., Maina S.W and Kisumbi B.K. Incidence of the Second Canal the Upper Second Premolar. Journal of Dental Research 13th Annual Scientific Conference of the East and Southern Division of IADR.". In: Journal of Dental Research. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
This study was done to determine the nature of utilization of dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies in private dental surgeries in Kenya. A self administering questionnaire with pre-paid postage was mailed to 138 dentists. 27.5% responded. 81.6% used dental auxiliaries and the main reason was to improve efficiency in managing patients. 93.5% of the auxiliaries were on job trained secondary school graduates. 63.2% of the respondents delegated duties which were mainly non-clinical. 26.3% did not delegate any duties. In a descending order, the reasons for non delegation were: that it would be risky to patients, not allowed by law, they did not find it necessary and that auxiliaries were not held responsible if something went wrong. The main duties delegated to the auxiliaries were cleaning of instruments and sterilization, mixing of restorative materials and preparing amalgam. Delegation was done primarily based on auxiliaries capability to perform the procedure and meet the set standards. 57.9% indicated that they rarely encountered medical emergencies. Syncope was the commonest emergency encountered. 72.7% indicated that auxiliaries could not handle medical emergencies because they were not trained. It is concluded that most dentists did not delegate clinical duties to dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies were rare.
KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA, M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Wakiaga J.M., Maina S.W., Kisumbi B.K. : Incidence of the second Canal in the upper Second Premolar. (Journal of Dental Research).". In: Journal of Dental Research. Taylor & Francis; Submitted. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to study dimensional time-dependence of resin/ionomer formulations from 5 min age to one month and to separate out the intrinsic setting shrinkage and hygroscopic expansion effects, by using non-aqueous and aqueous storage media, respectively. METHODS: Materials studied included: A: resin-, B: metal- and C: polyphosphonate-modified glass-ionomer cements [GICs]; and controls of D: poly-acid modified composite [compomer]; and E: resin-composite. Separate specimen groups (n = 5) were stored in different storage-media: (i) silicone fluid; (ii) de-ionized water. Experiments were repeated at 23 and 37 degrees C. Volumetric changes of specimens (4 mm diameter x 6 mm height) were obtained via accurate mass measurements (to 10(-4) g), using Archimedes principle, with silicone or water also used as the Archimedean fluid. These measurements were made periodically over a 30 day period, post fabrication. RESULTS: In silicone at 23 degrees C, all materials underwent further gradual intrinsic shrinkage (after 5 min from mix). This was highly significant (p < 0.05) for the RM-GIC (A). At 37 degrees C, however the RM-GIC expanded, indicating that its cure is temperature-sensitive. In water, at 23 and 37 degrees C, the shrinkage was either partially offset (materials C, D, E), or replaced by appreciable expansions (materials A and B). Differences between RM-GIC (A) and MM-GIC (B) were significant (p < 0.05). SIGNIFICANCE: The deployment of dual storage media made an important contribution to the separate analysis of the volumetric changes due to the on-going setting chemistry in these systems and the time-dependent effects of an aqueous environment.
KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA, M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Wakiaga J.M., Maina S.W., Kisumbi B.K. : Incidence of the second Canal in the upper Second Premolar. (Journal of Dental Research).". In: Journal of Dental Research. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
This study was done to determine the nature of utilization of dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies in private dental surgeries in Kenya. A self administering questionnaire with pre-paid postage was mailed to 138 dentists. 27.5% responded. 81.6% used dental auxiliaries and the main reason was to improve efficiency in managing patients. 93.5% of the auxiliaries were on job trained secondary school graduates. 63.2% of the respondents delegated duties which were mainly non-clinical. 26.3% did not delegate any duties. In a descending order, the reasons for non delegation were: that it would be risky to patients, not allowed by law, they did not find it necessary and that auxiliaries were not held responsible if something went wrong. The main duties delegated to the auxiliaries were cleaning of instruments and sterilization, mixing of restorative materials and preparing amalgam. Delegation was done primarily based on auxiliaries capability to perform the procedure and meet the set standards. 57.9% indicated that they rarely encountered medical emergencies. Syncope was the commonest emergency encountered. 72.7% indicated that auxiliaries could not handle medical emergencies because they were not trained. It is concluded that most dentists did not delegate clinical duties to dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies were rare.
M DRININDAJOSEPH, A. DROKOOLARAPHAELE. "Wet periods along the East Africa Coast and the extreme wet spell event of October 1997.". In: A Journal in Meteorology and Related Sciences. Kenya Met Soc; Submitted.
M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. "Wilson G. Kamundia, Paul M. Shiundu, and John M. Onyari, .". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; Submitted. Abstract
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M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. "Wilson G. Kamundia, Paul M. Shiundu, and John M. Onyari, .". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; Submitted. Abstract
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for History {C, Media} N. Zotero {Quick} {Start} {Guide}.; Submitted. Abstract
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In Press
Oloo CM, Onyari JM, Wanyonyi WC, Wabomba JN, Muinde VM. "Adsorptive removal of hazardous crystal violet dye form aqueous solution using Rhizophora mucronata stem-barks: Equilibrium and kinetics studies." Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology. In Press. AbstractEnvironmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology

Description
Adsorption of crystal violet (CV) dye from aqueous solution using dried bark powder of mangrove species Rhizophora mucronata was studied. Characterization of adsorbent was done using FTIR and SEM. Batch experiment was carried out to examine the viability of using mangrove bark for adsorption of CV dye from aqueous solutions under different process conditions. The result revealed that removal of CV increased with contact time, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration and decreased with increased particle size and ionic strength. pH 7 was the optimum pH for CV dye removal. The adsorption equilibrium for CV dye by Rhizophora mucronata stem-bark was attained within 60 min with removal efficacy of up to 99.8%. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model was best used to describe sorption kinetics while Freundlich isotherm model was appropriate for describing adsorption isotherm. The results demonstrated …

D.O. O, Mavuti KM, Aloo-Obudho P, Ojuok JE, Britton JR. "Fish habitat suitability and community structure in an equatorial Lake Naivasha, Kenya. ." Hydrobiologia . In Press.
Sinei KA, Mwang JW. "An in vitro study on the oxytocic action action of Adenia Globosa Engl." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. In Press.
Mueni J. Kenyan women in music videos. Nairobi: Nairobi Academic Press; In Press.
Nzimbi BM, Luketero SW, Sitati IN, Musundi SW, Mwenda E. "On almost-similarity and metric equivalence of operators." Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PJMMS)-accepted June 14, 2016. In Press.
Muli CM, Musiga LA. "A Stochastic Model for Predicting Loan Portfolio Performance." Kenya Journal of Sciences. In Press.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "W_4-Curvature tensor on a A-Einstein Sasakian manifold." Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS). In Press. Abstract

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2022
Mary T. Simiyu, Nyongesa FW, Birech Z, Njenga L, Ilin N, Thomas F. Krauss, Pitruzzello G, Aduda BO. "Application Of Molasses In Improving Water Purification Efficiency Of Diatomaceous Earth-Waste Ceramic Membranes.". In: EAI International Conference on Innovations and Interdisciplinary Solutions for Underserved Areas (INTERSOL 2022) . Nile University Of Nigeria Abuja ; 2022. Abstract

The World Health Organization predicts that 90.0% of the 2.3 million people who die annually due to water-borne diseases come from developing countries. At the same time fluorosis occurrence in the world’s geological fluoride belts has left many people maimed due to drinking highly fluoridated water. This work reports on the use of molasses in making carbon-activated diatomaceous earth waste (DE-waste) ceramic membranes with improved mechanical strength and water purification efficiency. The fabricated diatomaceous membranes were soaked in molasses for 24.0 hours and fired at 600.0 for 3.0 hours. The carbon-activated membranes were used to filter water contaminated with Escherichia coli, Rotavirus, and sodium fluoride. The activated carbon obtained in this work had a bulk density of 450.0 kg/m3 and it reduced the porosity of the DE-waste membranes by 18.0%. The activated carbon improved the modulus of rupture (MOR) of the DE-waste membrane by 47.8% and the average pore size of the active DE-waste membrane was 18.4 nm. The filtration process was found to be dependent on the contaminant’s size, concentration, and the external pressure applied to the water during the filtration process. The filtration efficiency of >99.9 in E. coli was concentration and pressure. Membranes reported efficiency of 97.1% and 98.9% in deflouridation and Rotavirus filtration. Thus, molasses is potential material in fabrication of water membranes

Vannevel V, Vogel JP, Pattinson RC, Adanu R, Charantimath U, Goudar SS, Gwako G, Kavi A, Maya E, Osoti A, Pujar Y, Qureshi ZP, Rulisa S, Botha T, Oladapo OT. "Antenatal Doppler screening for fetuses at risk of adverse outcomes: a multicountry cohort study of the prevalence of abnormal resistance index in low-risk pregnant women." BMJ Open. 2022;12(3):e053622. Abstract

Few interventions exist to address the high burden of stillbirths in apparently healthy pregnant women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). To establish whether a trial on the impact of routine Doppler screening in a low-risk obstetric population is warranted, we determined the prevalence of abnormal fetal umbilical artery resistance indices among low-risk pregnant women using a low-cost Doppler device in five LMICs.

QURESHI ZAHIDA, Jamner A, Filippi V, Gwako G, Osoti A, Mehrtash H, Baguiya A, Bello FA, Compaoré R, Gadama L, Kim CR, Msusa AT, Tunçalp Ӧ, Calvert C. "Level and determinants of contraceptive uptake among women attending facilities with abortion-related complications in East and Southern Africa." Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2022;156 Suppl 1:27-35. Abstract

To investigate the level and determinants of nonreceipt of contraception among women admitted to facilities with abortion-related complications in East and Southern Africa.

Beydon N, Ferkol T, Harris AL, Colas M, Davis SD, Haarman E, Hogg C, Kilbride E, Kouis P, Kuehni CE, Latzin P, Marangu D, Marthin J, Nielsen KG, Robinson P, Rumman N, Rutter M, Walker W, Lucas JS. "An international survey on nasal nitric oxide measurement practices for the diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia." ERJ Open Res. 2022;8(2). Abstract

Nasal nitric oxide (nNO) measurements are used in the assessment of patients suspected of having primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), but recommendations for performing such measurements have not focused on children and do not include all current practices. To guide the development of a European Respiratory Society-supported technical standard for nNO measurement in children, an international online survey was conducted to better understand current measurement practices among providers involved in PCD diagnostics. 78 professionals responded, representing 65 centres across 18 countries, mainly in Europe and North America. Nearly all centres measured nNO in children and more than half performed measurements before 5 years of age. The test was often postponed in children with signs of acute airway infection. In Europe, the electrochemical technique was more frequently used than chemiluminescence. A similar proportion of centres performed measurements during exhalation against a resistance (49 out of 65) or during tidal breathing (50 out of 65); 15 centres used only exhalation against a resistance and 15 used only tidal breathing. The cut-off values used to discriminate PCD were consistent across centres using chemiluminescence analysers; these centres reported results as an output (nL·min). Cut-off values were highly variable across centres using electrochemical devices, and nNO concentrations were typically reported as ppb. This survey is the first to determine real-world use of nNO measurements globally and revealed remarkable variability in methodology, equipment and interpretation. These findings will help standardise methods and training.

Plisnier P-D, Kayanda R, MacIntyre S, Obiero K, Okello W, Vodacek A, Cocquyt C, Abegaz H, Achieng A, Akonkwa B, Albrecht C, Balagizi C, Barasa J, Abel Bashonga R, Bashonga Bishobibiri A, Bootsma H, Borges AV, Chavula G, Dadi T, De Keyzer ELR, Doran PJ, Gabagambi N, Gatare R, Gemmell A, Getahun A, Haambiya LH, Higgins SN, Hyangya BL, Irvine K, Isumbisho M, Jonasse C, Katongo C, Katsev S, Keyombe J, Kimirei I, Kisekelwa T, Kishe M, Otoung A. Koding S, Kolding J, Kraemer BM, Limbu P, Lomodei E, Mahongo SB, Malala J, Mbabazi S, Masilya PM, McCandless M, Medard M, Migeni Ajode Z, Mrosso HD, Mudakikwa ER, Mulimbwa N'sibula, Mushagalusa Déo, Muvundja FA, Nankabirwa A, Nahimana D, Ngatunga BP, Ngochera M, Nicholson S, Nshombo M, Ntakimazi G, Nyamweya C, Ikwaput Nyeko J, Olago D, Olbamo T, O'Reilly CM, Pasche N, Phiri H, Raasakka N, Salyani A, Sibomana C, Silsbe GM, Smith S, Sterner RW, Thiery W, Tuyisenge J, Van der Knaap M, Van Steenberge M, van Zwieten PAM, Verheyen E, Wakjira M, Walakira J, Ndeo Wembo O, Lawrence T. "Need for harmonized long-term multi-lake monitoring of African Great Lakes.". 2022. AbstractWebsite

To ensure the long-term sustainable use of African Great Lakes (AGL), and to better understand the functioning of these ecosystems, authorities, managers and scientists need regularly collected scientific data and information of key environmental indicators over multi-years to make informed decisions. Monitoring is regularly conducted at some sites across AGL; while at others sites, it is rare or conducted irregularly in response to sporadic funding or short-term projects/studies. Managers and scientists working on the AGL thus often lack critical long-term data to evaluate and gauge ongoing changes. Hence, we propose a multi-lake approach to harmonize data collection modalities for better understanding of regional and global environmental impacts on AGL. Climate variability has had strong impacts on all AGL in the recent past. Although these lakes have specific characteristics, their limnological cycles show many similarities. Because different anthropogenic pressures take place at the different AGL, harmonized multi-lake monitoring will provide comparable data to address the main drivers of concern (climate versus regional anthropogenic impact). To realize harmonized long-term multi-lake monitoring, the approach will need: (1) support of a wide community of researchers and managers; (2) political goodwill towards a common goal for such monitoring; and (3) sufficient capacity (e.g., institutional, financial, human and logistic resources) for its implementation. This paper presents an assessment of the state of monitoring the AGL and possible approaches to realize a long-term, multi-lake harmonized monitoring strategy. Key parameters are proposed. The support of national and regional authorities is necessary as each AGL crosses international boundaries.

Cohen AS, Campisano CJ, Arrowsmith RJ, Asrat A, Beck CC, Behrensmeyer AK, Deino AL, Feibel CS, Foerster V, Kingston JD, Lamb HF, Lowenstein TK, Lupien RL, Muiruri V, Olago DO, Owen BR, Potts R, Russell JM, Schaebitz F, Stone JR, Trauth MH, Yost CL. "Reconstructing the Environmental Context of Human Origins in Eastern Africa Through Scientific Drilling." Annual Review of Earth and Planetary SciencesAnnual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. 2022. AbstractWebsite

Paleoanthropologists have long speculated about the role of environmental change in shaping human evolution in Africa. In recent years, drill cores of late Neogene lacustrine sedimentary rocks have yielded valuable high-resolution records of climatic and ecosystem change. Eastern African Rift sediments (primarily lake beds) provide an extraordinary range of data in close proximity to important fossil hominin and archaeological sites, allowing critical study of hypotheses that connect environmental history and hominin evolution. We review recent drill-core studies spanning the Plio?Pleistocene boundary (an interval of hominin diversification, including the earliest members of our genus Homo and the oldest stone tools), and the Mid?Upper Pleistocene (spanning the origin of Homo sapiens in Africa and our early technological and dispersal history). Proposed drilling of Africa's oldest lakes promises to extend such records back to the late Miocene. ?High-resolution paleoenvironmental records are critical for understanding external drivers of human evolution. ?African lake basin drill cores play a critical role in enhancing hominin paleoenvironmental records given their continuity and proximity to key paleoanthropological sites. ?The oldest African lakes have the potential to reveal a comprehensive paleoenvironmental context for the entire late Neogene history of hominin evolution. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Volume 50 is May 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.Paleoanthropologists have long speculated about the role of environmental change in shaping human evolution in Africa. In recent years, drill cores of late Neogene lacustrine sedimentary rocks have yielded valuable high-resolution records of climatic and ecosystem change. Eastern African Rift sediments (primarily lake beds) provide an extraordinary range of data in close proximity to important fossil hominin and archaeological sites, allowing critical study of hypotheses that connect environmental history and hominin evolution. We review recent drill-core studies spanning the Plio?Pleistocene boundary (an interval of hominin diversification, including the earliest members of our genus Homo and the oldest stone tools), and the Mid?Upper Pleistocene (spanning the origin of Homo sapiens in Africa and our early technological and dispersal history). Proposed drilling of Africa's oldest lakes promises to extend such records back to the late Miocene. ?High-resolution paleoenvironmental records are critical for understanding external drivers of human evolution. ?African lake basin drill cores play a critical role in enhancing hominin paleoenvironmental records given their continuity and proximity to key paleoanthropological sites. ?The oldest African lakes have the potential to reveal a comprehensive paleoenvironmental context for the entire late Neogene history of hominin evolution. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Volume 50 is May 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

Moturi CA, Wairimu AG. "Big data adoption in official statistics in Kenya: challenges, opportunities and determinants." Statistical Journal of the IAOS . 2022;38(1):251-262. AbstractWebsite

The data revolution has increased data demands for leveraging on Big Data in the production of statistics. The paper assesses the adoption of Big Data in research institutes in Kenya. Data were collected from 64 data practitioners based in the 24 research institutes that have a mandate to produce and analyse official statistics. The paper establishes the risks and challenges of using Big Data in statistics, identifies the determinants of adoption of Big Data in statistics and validates the relevance of a Technology Adoption Model (TAM) for predicting the adoption. It is the conclusion that there are immense opportunities for Big Data in statistics if the associated risks and challenges are addressed and the identified key determinants prioritized to promote the adoption.

Hashim I, Onyari JM, Omosa LK, Maru SM, Nchiozem-Ngnitedem V-A, Karpoormath R. "Conglomeratin: A new antibacterial flavonol derivative from Macaranga conglomerata Brenan (Euphorbiaceae)." Natural Products Research. 2022:https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2022.2061481.hashim_et_al_2022_natural_products_research.pdf
Hoang NT, Nguyen VT, Tuan NDM, Manh TD, Le P-C, Tac DV, Mwazighe FM. "Degradation of dyes by UV/Persulfate and comparison with other UV-based advanced oxidation processes: Kinetics and role of radicals." Chemosphere. 2022.Website
Ali H, Nguta J, Musila F, Ole-Mapenay I, Matara D, Mailu J. "Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity, Cytotoxicity, and Phytochemical Composition of Ocimum americanum L. (Lamiaceae)." Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2022;2022:11.
MW N, GO O, M M, W S. "Frequency of thyroid dysfunction among rheumatoid arthritis patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." afr j Rheumatal. 2022;10(1):34-44. Abstractfrequency_of_thyroid_dysfunction_among_ra_patients_at_knh.pdf

Background: Rheumatoid Arthritis
(RA) affects 0.5-1% of the adult
population. A higher prevalence of
thyroid dysfunction is observed in
patients with RA compared to the
general population.
Objectives: To establish the
frequency of thyroid dysfunction
among ambulatory RA patients and
to describe the association between
thyroid dysfunction and the patients’
socio-demographic characteristics,
clinical characteristics, level of disease
activity, and their functional status.
Design: This was a cross-sectional
descriptive study.
Methods: Adult patients on follow
up for RA at the outpatient clinic were
sampled. Sociodemographic data was
recorded. The Clinical Disease Activity
Index (CDAI) and Health Assessment
Questionnaire (HAQ) scores were
computed from examination findings
and questionnaires respectively. A
venous blood sample was analyzed for
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH),
free triidothyronine (fT3), and free
tetraiodothyronine (fT4). This data
was analyzed to determine frequencies
and associations.
Results: Seventy-six patients were
recruited into the study. Sixty-one
participants were female. The mean
TSH level was 5.8Miu/L. The frequency
of thyroid dysfunction was 47.4%.
Overt hypothyroidism was the most
common form of thyroid dysfunction at
39.5% while 6.6% had Sick Euthyroid.
Majority of the participants, 75%, had
low disease activity, mean CDAI was
11.6. Forty-one (53.9%) participants
had no disability, mean HAQ was
0.5. Correlations between thyroid
dysfunction and advancing age,
duration of disease, level of disease
activity, and functional disability did
not attain statistical significance.
Conclusion: Thyroid dysfunction
is common among patients with RA
with no significant association found
between thyroid dysfunction sociodemographic characteristics, clinical
characteristics, level of disease activity,
and functional status.
Key words: Thyroid dysfunction,
Rheumatoid arthritis, Disease activity,
Functional disability
Introduction
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a
symmetric polyarthritis with a variety
of systemic manifestations. In the
general population thyroid dysfunction
affects 1-10% of adults, with variations
in geographical areas, age and sex1
.
The causes of thyroid dysfunction
include; iodine deficiency, infections
and autoimmune associated thyroid
disease2
. Thyroid dysfunction is more
prevalent in patients with autoimmune
diseases such as RA. This is attributed
to overlap of autoimmune conditions
that are initiated by loss of tolerance to
self-antigens3
.
The burden of thyroid dysfunction
among RA patients has been found
to vary between 6-47% in various
studies. The entire spectrum of thyroid
dysfunction has been described,
however, hypothyroidism occurs
more frequently. Patients with thyroid
dysfunction have higher RA disease
activity scores and poorer functional
status measured using the

Heng YY, Asad I, Coleman B, Menard L, Benki-Nugent S, Faridah H Were, Karr CJ, McHenry MS. "Heavy metals and neurodevelopment of children in low and middle-income countries: A systematic review." PLOS ONE. 2022;17(3).
Misango, G.V, Nzuma, M.J., Irungu, L.W., Kassie, M. "Intensity of adoption of integrated pest management practices in Rwanda: A fractional logit approach." Heliyon. 2022;https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e08735.
Mbuge DO, Gumbe LO. "Mechanical Properties of Bamboo (Bambusa Vulgaris)." Journal of Engineering in Agriculture and the Environment . 2022;8-no1.
Su R, Wu J, Hu J, Ma L, Ahmed S, Zhang Y, Abdulraheem MI, Birech Z, Li L, Li C, Wei W. "Minimalizing Non-Point Source Pollution Using a Cooperative Ion Selection Electrode System for Estimating Nitrate Nitrogen in Soil." Frontiers in Plant Science. 2022;12:810214.
Kimani PK´ethe, Mbuge D, Gitau AN. "Properties of Nonwoven Fabrics Containing Immobilized Superabsorbent Polymer Particles for Air Conditioning in Grain Dryers, Applied Engineering in Agriculture." American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers. 2022;38(2)(ISSN 0883-8542).
K G, T M, J N, MO O. "Studies on the ethnopharmacology, antimicrobial activity, and toxicity of Catha edulis (Vahl.) Endl., in Sprague Dawley rats.". 2022;([version 1; peer review: awaiting peer review]. F1000 Research 2022, 11:286):https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.109243.1.
Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D. "Synthesis and characterization of biodegradable cellulose-based polymer hydrogel.". In: Nanotechnology in Paper and Wood Engineering Fundamentals, Challenges and Applications. Amsterdam: Elsevier Radarweg 29, PO Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford OX5 1GB, United Kingdom 50 Hampshire Street, 5th Floor, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights res; 2022.
Muasya JN. "University Students Perceptions and Experiences of Quid Pro Quo Transactions in Kenya." Journal of Studies in Education . 2022;12(2):49-64.
2021
Chikwana N, Maina EN, Gavamukulya Y, Bulimo W, Wamunyokoli F. "Antiproliferative Activity, c-Myc and {FGFR}1 Genes Expression Profiles and Safety of Annona muricata Fruit Extract on Rhabdomyosarcoma and {BALB}/c Mice." Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research. 2021:30-46. AbstractWebsite
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Akinyi J, Mwaniki A, Gichamba A, Kariuki D, Chand P, Munene S, Nyakinyua C, Nzangi B, Akinyi V, Betsy M, Cosmas K, Mwangi M. "NanoSatellite Platform for the University of Nairobi (NaSPUoN) Student Project.". In: 72nd International Astronautical Congress (IAC). Dubai, United Arab Emirates (presented online); 2021.
Mutembei PH. "Insights of Sustainable Livestock Production.". In: KCSAP 2021. Naivasha Resort; 2021.
Matara SM, Siriba DN, Kiema JB, Musyoka SM. "Predicting Displacement Effects of Tectonic Movements on the Kenyan Geodetic Reference Frame Network (KENREF) .". In: Working eWeek. Netherlands; 2021.
Umuhoza T, Bulimo WD, Julius Oyugi, Musabyimana JP, Kinengyere AA, Mancuso JD. "Prevalence of human respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza and adenoviruses in East Africa Community partner states of Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda: A systematic review and meta-analysis (2007–2020)." PLOS ONE. 2021;16(4):e0249992-. Abstractjournal.pone_.0249992.pdfjournal.pone_.0249992.pdfWebsite

Background Viruses are responsible for a large proportion of acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs). Human influenza, parainfluenza, respiratory-syncytial-virus, and adenoviruses are among the leading cause of ARTIs. Epidemiological evidence of those respiratory viruses is limited in the East Africa Community (EAC) region. This review sought to identify the prevalence of respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza, and adenoviruses among cases of ARTI in the EAC from 2007 to 2020. Methods A literature search was conducted in Medline, Global Index Medicus, and the grey literature from public health institutions and programs in the EAC. Two independent reviewers performed data extraction. We used a random effects model to pool the prevalence estimate across studies. We assessed heterogeneity with the I2 statistic, and Cochran’s Q test, and further we did subgroup analysis. This review was registered with PROSPERO under registration number CRD42018110186. Results A total of 12 studies met the eligibility criteria for the studies documented from 2007 to 2020. The overall pooled prevalence of adenoviruses was 13% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6–21, N = 28829), respiratory syncytial virus 11% (95% CI: 7–15, N = 22627), and parainfluenza was 9% (95% CI: 7–11, N = 28363). Pooled prevalence of reported ARTIs, all ages, and locality varied in the included studies. Studies among participants with severe acute respiratory disease had a higher pooled prevalence of all the three viruses. Considerable heterogeneity was noted overall and in subgroup analysis. Conclusion Our findings indicate that human adenoviruses, respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus are prevalent in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. These three respiratory viruses contribute substantially to ARTIs in the EAC, particularly among those with severe disease and those aged five and above.

Nyumba TO, Sang CC, Olago DO, Marchant R, Waruingi L, Githiora Y, Kago F, Mwangi M, Owira G, Barasa R, Omangi S. "Assessing the ecological impacts of transportation infrastructure development: A reconnaissance study of the Standard Gauge Railway in Kenya." PLOS ONE. 2021;16(1):e0246248-. AbstractWebsite

Transportation infrastructure, such as railways, roads and power lines, contribute to national and regional economic, social and cultural growth and integration. Kenya, with support from the Chinese government, is currently constructing a standard gauge railway (SGR) to support the country’s Vision 2030 development agenda. Although the actual land area affected by the SGR covers only a small proportion along the SGR corridor, a significant proportion of the area supports a wide range of ecologically fragile and important ecosystems in the country, with potential wider impacts. This study used a qualitative content analysis approach to gain an understanding and perceptions of stakeholders on the potential ecological impacts of the interactions between the SGR and the traversed ecological systems in Kenya. Three dominant themes emerged: 1) ecosystem degradation; 2) ecosystem fragmentation; and 3) ecosystem destruction. Ecosystem degradation was the most commonly cited impact at while ecosystem destruction was of the least concern and largely restricted to the physical SGR construction whereas the degradation and fragmentation have a much wider footprint. The construction and operation of the SGR degraded, fragmented and destroyed key ecosystems in the country including water towers, protected areas, community conservancies and wildlife dispersal areas. Therefore, we recommend that project proponents develop sustainable and ecologically sensitive measures to mitigate the key ecosystem impacts.

Scriven YA, Mulinge MM, Saleri N, Luvai EA, Nyachieo A, Maina EN, Mwau M. "Prevalence and factors associated with HIV-1 drug resistance mutations in treatment-experienced patients in Nairobi, Kenya: A cross-sectional study." Medicine (Baltimore). 2021;100(40):e27460. Abstract

An estimated 1.5 million Kenyans are HIV-seropositive, with 1.1 million on antiretroviral therapy (ART), with the majority of them unaware of their drug resistance status. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of drug resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and protease inhibitors, and the variables associated with drug resistance in patients failing treatment in Nairobi, Kenya.This cross-sectional study utilized 128 HIV-positive plasma samples obtained from patients enrolled for routine viral monitoring in Nairobi clinics between 2015 and 2017. The primary outcome was human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance mutation counts determined by Sanger sequencing of the polymerase (pol) gene followed by interpretation using Stanford's HIV Drug Resistance Database. Poisson regression was used to determine the effects of sex, viral load, age, HIV-subtype, treatment duration, and ART-regimen on the primary outcome.HIV-1 drug resistance mutations were found in 82.3% of the subjects, with 15.3% of subjects having triple-class ART resistance and 45.2% having dual-class resistance. NRTI primary mutations M184 V/I and K65R/E/N were found in 28.8% and 8.9% of subjects respectively, while NNRTI primary mutations K103N/S, G190A, and Y181C were found in 21.0%, 14.6%, and 10.9% of subjects. We found statistically significant evidence (P = .013) that the association between treatment duration and drug resistance mutations differed by sex. An increase of one natural-log transformed viral load unit was associated with 11% increase in drug resistance mutation counts (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.11; 95% CI 1.06-1.16; P < .001) after adjusting for age, HIV-1 subtype, and the sex-treatment duration interaction. Subjects who had been on treatment for 31 to 60 months had 63% higher resistance mutation counts (IRR 1.63; 95% CI 1.12-2.43; P = .013) compared to the reference group (<30 months). Similarly, patients on ART for 61 to 90 months were associated with 133% higher mutation counts than the reference group (IRR 2.33; 95% CI 1.59-3.49; P < .001). HIV-1 subtype, age, or ART-regimen were not associated with resistance mutation counts.Drug resistance mutations were found in alarmingly high numbers, and they were associated with viral load and treatment time. This finding emphasizes the importance of targeted resistance monitoring as a tool for addressing the problem.

Zheng Y, Yang X-W, Schols D, Mori M, Botta B, Chevigné A, Mulinge M, Steinmetz A, Schmit J-C, Seguin-Devaux C. "Active Components from Prevent HIV-1 Entry by Distinct Mechanisms of Action." Int J Mol Sci. 2021;22(9). Abstract

is widely used in Sub-Saharan Africa for treating many diseases, including HIV-1 infection. We have recently described the chemical structures of 28 compounds isolated from an alcoholic crude extract of barks and roots of , and showed that six bioactive compounds inhibit HIV-1 infection. In the present study, we demonstrate that the six compounds block HIV-1 entry into cells: oleanolic acid, palmitic acid, taxifolin, piceatannol, guibourtinidol-(4α→8)-epiafzelechin, and a novel compound named as cassiabrevone. We report, for the first time, that guibourtinidol-(4α→8)-epiafzelechin and cassiabrevone inhibit HIV-1 entry (IC of 42.47 µM and 30.96 µM, respectively), as well as that piceatannol interacts with cellular membranes. Piceatannol inhibits HIV-1 infection in a dual-chamber assay mimicking the female genital tract, as well as HSV infection, emphasizing its potential as a microbicide. Structure-activity relationships (SAR) showed that pharmacophoric groups of piceatannol are strictly required to inhibit HIV-1 entry. By a ligand-based in silico study, we speculated that piceatannol and norartocarpetin may have a very similar mechanism of action and efficacy because of the highly comparable pharmacophoric and 3D space, while guibourtinidol-(4α→8)-epiafzelechin and cassiabrevone may display a different mechanism. We finally show that cassiabrevone plays a major role of the crude extract of by blocking the binding activity of HIV-1 gp120 and CD4.

Tanyi WN, Gachuno O, Odero T, Farquhar C, Kimosop D, Mayi A. "Factors affecting adherence to antiretroviral therapy among children and adolescents living with HIV in the Mbita Sub-County Hospital, Homa Bay- Kenya." Afr Health Sci. 2021;21(Suppl):18-24. AbstractWebsite

Adequate adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is key to the successful treatment of children and adolescents living with HIV. Continuous ART Adherence is the key factor for virologic suppression and stability of the immune system and prevents the occurrence of opportunistic infections. Children and adolescents struggle with adherence to ART for various reasons, including a poor psychosocial support system and clinic attendance.

Theunissen F, Cleps I, Goudar S, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Owa OO, Mugerwa K, Piaggio G, Gülmezoglu MA, Nakalembe M, Byamugisha J, Osoti A, Mandeep S, Poriot T, Gwako G, Vernekar S, Widmer M. "Correction to: Cost of hospital care of women with postpartum haemorrhage in India, Kenya, Nigeria and Uganda: a financial case for improved prevention." Reprod Health. 2021;18(1):57.
Dean WH, Buchan J, Gichuhi S, Philippin H, Arunga S, Mukome A, Admassu F, Lewis K, Makupa W, Otiti J, Kim MJ, Macleod D, Cook C, Burton MJ. "Simulation-based surgical education for glaucoma versus conventional training alone: the GLAucoma Simulated Surgery (GLASS) trial. A randomised controlled, educational intervention efficacy trial in Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe." Br J Ophthalmol. 2021. AbstractWebsite

Background/aim: Glaucoma accounts for 8% of global blindness and surgery remains an important treatment. We aimed to determine the impact of adding simulation-based surgical education for glaucoma.

Methods: We designed a randomised controlled, parallel-group trial. Those assessing outcomes were masked to group assignment. Fifty-one trainee ophthalmologists from six university training institutions in sub-Saharan Africa were enrolled by inclusion criteria of having performed no surgical trabeculectomies and were randomised. Those randomised to the control group received no placebo intervention, but received the training intervention after the initial 12-month follow-up period. The intervention was an intense simulation-based surgical training course over 1 week. The primary outcome measure was overall simulation surgical competency at 3 months.

Results: Twenty-five were assigned to the intervention group and 26 to the control group, with 2 dropouts from the intervention group. Forty-nine were included in the final intention-to-treat analysis. Surgical competence at baseline was comparable between the arms. This increased to 30.4 (76.1%) and 9.8 (24.4%) for the intervention and the control group, respectively, 3 months after the training intervention for the intervention group, a difference of 20.6 points (95% CI 18.3 to 22.9, p<0.001). At 1 year, the mean surgical competency score of the intervention arm participants was 28.6 (71.5%), compared with 11.6 (29.0%) for the control (difference 17.0, 95% CI 14.8 to 19.4, p<0.001).

Conclusion: These results support the pursuit of financial, advocacy and research investments to establish simulation surgery training units and courses including instruction, feedback, deliberate practice and reflection with outcome measurement to enable trainee glaucoma surgeons to engage in intense simulation training for glaucoma surgery.

Trial registration number: PACTR201803002159198.

Theunissen F, Cleps I, Goudar S, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Owa OO, Mugerwa K, Piaggio G, Gülmezoglu MA, Nakalembe M, Byamugisha J, Osoti A, Mandeep S, Poriot T, Gwako G, Vernekar S, Widmer M. "Cost of hospital care of women with postpartum haemorrhage in India, Kenya, Nigeria and Uganda: a financial case for improved prevention." Reprod Health. 2021;18(1):18. Abstract

Access to quality, effective lifesaving uterotonics in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) remains a major barrier to reducing maternal deaths from postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). Our objective was to assess the costs of care for women who receive different preventative uterotonics, and with PPH and no-PPH so that the differences, if significant, can inform better resource allocation for maternal health care.

Mwangi KW, Macharia RW, Bargul JL. "Gene co-expression network analysis of Trypanosoma brucei in tsetse fly vector." Parasit Vectors. 2021;14(1):74. Abstract

Trypanosoma brucei species are motile protozoan parasites that are cyclically transmitted by tsetse fly (genus Glossina) causing human sleeping sickness and nagana in livestock in sub-Saharan Africa. African trypanosomes display digenetic life cycle stages in the tsetse fly vector and in their mammalian host. Experimental work on insect-stage trypanosomes is challenging because of the difficulty in setting up successful in vitro cultures. Therefore, there is limited knowledge on the trypanosome biology during its development in the tsetse fly. Consequently, this limits the development of new strategies for blocking parasite transmission in the tsetse fly.

Nyabongo L, Kanduma EG, Bishop RP, Machuka E, Njeri A, Bimenyimana AV, Nkundwanayo C, Odongo DO, Pelle R. "Prevalence of tick-transmitted pathogens in cattle reveals that Theileria parva, Babesia bigemina and Anaplasma marginale are endemic in Burundi." Parasit Vectors. 2021;14(1):6. Abstract

Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) constitute a major constraint for livestock development in sub-Saharan Africa, with East Coast fever (ECF) being the most devastating TBD of cattle. However, in Burundi, detailed information is lacking on the current prevalence of TBDs and on the associated economic losses from mortality and morbidity in cattle as well as the costs associated with TBD control and treatment. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the prevalence and spatial distribution of tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) in cattle across the major agro-ecological zones (AEZs) in Burundi.

Miruka SA, Aboge GO, Macharia RW, George O Obiero, Omwenga IM. "Beta hemolysin gene of Staphylococcus phage 3AJ_2017 genome is a suitable molecular marker for identification and characterization of pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus." Vet Med Sci. 2021. Abstract

Staphylococcus aureus cause diseases both in humans and animals. These diseases range from mild to fatal infections thus necessitating development of a specific molecular method for detection of pathogenic S. aureus.

Yang X, He Z, Zheng Y, Wang N, Mulinge M, Schmit J-C, Steinmetz A, Seguin-Devaux C. "Chemical Constituents of and Their Anti-HIV-1 Activity." Molecules. 2021;26(9). Abstract

Three new (-) and 25 known compounds were isolated from the crude extract of . The chemical structures of new compounds were established by extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS. Cassiabrevone () is the first heterodimer of guibourtinidol and planchol A. Compound was a new chalcane, while was a new naphthalene. Cassiabrevone (), guibourtinidol-(4α→8)-epiafzelechin (), taxifolin (), oleanolic acid (), piceatannol (), and palmitic acid (), exhibited potent anti-HIV-1 activity with IC values of 11.89 µM, 15.39 µM, 49.04 µM, 7.95 µM, 3.58 µM, and 15.97 µM, respectively.

Baguiya A, Bonet M, Cecatti JG, Brizuela V, Curteanu A, Minkauskiene M, Jayaratne K, Ribeiro-do-Valle CC, Budianu M-A, Souza JP, Kouanda S. "Perinatal outcomes among births to women with infection during pregnancy." Arch Dis Child. 2021;106(10):946-953. Abstract

This study is part of the Global Maternal Sepsis Study (GLOSS). It aimed to estimate neonatal near-miss (NNM) and perinatal death frequency and maternal risk factors among births to women with infection during pregnancy in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC).

Baguiya A, Bonet M, Cecatti JG, Brizuela V, Curteanu A, Minkauskiene M, Jayaratne K, Ribeiro-do-Valle CC, Budianu M-A, Souza JP, Kouanda S. "Perinatal outcomes among births to women with infection during pregnancy." Arch Dis Child. 2021;106(10):946-953. Abstract

This study is part of the Global Maternal Sepsis Study (GLOSS). It aimed to estimate neonatal near-miss (NNM) and perinatal death frequency and maternal risk factors among births to women with infection during pregnancy in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC).

Oreskovic A, Panpradist N, Marangu D, Ngwane WM, Magcaba ZP, Ngcobo S, Ngcobo Z, Horne DJ, Wilson DPK, Shapiro AE, Drain PK, Lutz BR. "Diagnosing Pulmonary Tuberculosis by Using Sequence-Specific Purification of Urine Cell-Free DNA." J Clin Microbiol. 2021;59(8):e0007421. Abstract

Transrenal urine cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is a promising tuberculosis (TB) biomarker, but is challenging to detect because of the short length (<100 bp) and low concentration of TB-specific fragments. We aimed to improve the diagnostic sensitivity of TB urine cfDNA by increasing recovery of short fragments during sample preparation. We developed a highly sensitive sequence-specific purification method that uses hybridization probes immobilized on magnetic beads to capture short TB cfDNA (50 bp) with 91.8% average efficiency. Combined with short-target PCR, the assay limit of detection was ≤5 copies of cfDNA in 10 ml urine. In a clinical cohort study in South Africa, our urine cfDNA assay had 83.7% sensitivity (95% CI: 71.0 to 91.5%) and 100% specificity (95% CI: 86.2 to 100%) for diagnosis of active pulmonary TB when using sputum Xpert MTB/RIF as the reference standard. The detected cfDNA concentration was 0.14 to 2,804 copies/ml (median 14.6 copies/ml) and was inversely correlated with CD4 count and days to culture positivity. Sensitivity was nonsignificantly higher in HIV-positive (88.2%) compared to HIV-negative patients (73.3%), and was not dependent on CD4 count. Sensitivity remained high in sputum smear-negative (76.0%) and urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM)-negative (76.5%) patients. With improved sample preparation, urine cfDNA is a viable biomarker for TB diagnosis. Our assay has the highest reported accuracy of any TB urine cfDNA test to date and has the potential to enable rapid non-sputum-based TB diagnosis across key underserved patient populations.

Mitchell EJ, Pallotti P, Qureshi ZP, Daniels JP, Oliver M, Were F, Osoti A, Gwako G, Kimani V, Opira J, Ojha S. "Parents, healthcare professionals and other stakeholders' experiences of caring for babies born too soon in a low-resource setting: a qualitative study of essential newborn care for preterm infants in Kenya." BMJ Open. 2021;11(6):e043802. Abstract

Prematurity is the leading cause of global neonatal and infant mortality. Many babies could survive by the provision of essential newborn care. This qualitative study was conducted in order to understand, from a family and professional perspective, the barriers and facilitators to essential newborn care. The study will inform the development of an early warning score for preterm and low birthweight infants in low and middle income countries (LMICs).

Burton MJ, Ramke J, Marques AP, Bourne RRA, Congdon N, Jones I, Ah Tong BAM, Arunga S, Bachani D, Bascaran C, Bastawrous A, Blanchet K, Braithwaite T, Buchan JC, Cairns J, Cama A, Chagunda M, Chuluunkhuu C, Cooper A, Crofts-Lawrence J, Dean WH, Denniston AK, Ehrlich JR, Emerson PM, Evans JR, Frick KD, Friedman DS, Furtado JM, Gichangi MM, Gichuhi S, Gilbert SS, Gurung R, Habtamu E, Holland P, Jonas JB, Keane PA, Keay L, Khanna RC, Khaw PT, Kuper H, Kyari F, Lansingh VC, Mactaggart I, Mafwiri MM, Mathenge W, McCormick I, Morjaria P, Mowatt L, Muirhead D, Murthy GVS, Mwangi N, Patel DB, Peto T, Qureshi BM, Salomão SR, Sarah V, Shilio BR, Solomon AW, Swenor BK, Taylor HR, Wang N, Webson A, West SK, Wong TY, Wormald R, Yasmin S, Yusufu M, Silva JC, Resnikoff S, Ravilla T, Gilbert CE, Foster A, Faal HB. "The Lancet Global Health Commission on Global Eye Health: vision beyond 2020." Lancet Glob Health. 2021;9(4):e489-e551.Website
Vogel JP, Comrie-Thomson L, Pingray V, Gadama L, Galadanci H, Goudar S, Rose Laisser, Lavender T, Lissauer D, Misra S, Pujar Y, Qureshi ZP, Amole T, Berrueta M, Dankishiya F, Gwako G, Homer CSE, Jobanputra J, Meja S, Nigri C, Mohaptra V, Osoti A, Roberti J, Solomon D, Suleiman M, Robbers G, Sutherland S, Vernekar S, Althabe F, Bonet M, Oladapo OT. "Usability, acceptability, and feasibility of the World Health Organization Labour Care Guide: A mixed-methods, multicountry evaluation." Birth. 2021;48(1):66-75. Abstract

The World Health Organization's (WHO) Labour Care Guide (LCG) is a "next-generation" partograph based on WHO's latest intrapartum care recommendations. It aims to optimize clinical care provided to women and their experience of care. We evaluated the LCG's usability, feasibility, and acceptability among maternity care practitioners in clinical settings.

Golden L, Chaya S, Reichmuth K, Visagie A, Ayuk A, Kwarteng Owusu S, Marangu D, Affendi N, Lakhan A, Gray D, Vanker A, Zar H, Zampoli M. "Aetiology and presentation of childhood pleural infections in the post-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era in South Africa." Afr J Thorac Crit Care Med. 2021;27(4). Abstract

Complications of respiratory infections including pleural effusion (PE) are associated with a high morbidity. Differentiating between PE caused by (Mtb) infection and other bacterial infections in endemic areas is difficult in children, thus, impacting treatment.

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