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Lydia W. Njenga, Lydia W. Njenga, Kariuki DK, Yusuf AO, Wendt OF. "“Synthesis and Characterization of Tris-Cyclometalated Iridium (III) 2-(1-naphthyl)-pyridine Complexes for Photoredox Catalysis.". In: 3rd Nordic Meeting on Organometallic Chemistry. Lund, Sweden; 2015.
Lydia W. Njenga, Njogu REN, Fodran P, Kariuki DK, Amir O. Yusuf, Scheblykin I, Ola F. Wendt, Wallenti C-J. "Electronically Divergent Triscyclometalated Iridium(III)2-(1-naphthyl)pyridine Complexes and Their Application in Three-Component Methoxytrifluoromethylation of Styrene ." Synlett. 2019;30:A-G.
Lydia W. Njenga, Rachael E.N. Njogu, Kariuki DK, Yusuf AO, Wendt OF. "Tris-Cyclometalated Iridium (III) Complexes as Photoredox Catalysts in Organic Synthesis.". In: Oorgandagarna - Inorganic Days,. Nynäshamn, Sweden; 2017.
Lydia MS, Bulimo WD, Verani JR, Victor O, Ouma A, Kiplangat S, Opanda S, Imbuga M, Juma B, Godfrey B, Hunsperger E. "Molecular Characterization of Human Enteroviruses Detected in Children Under Five Years Old in Kenya 2009 - 2015." African Journal of Health Sciences. 2019;32(2):15-33. Abstract195711-article_text-494299-1-10-20200512.pdf195711-article_text-494299-1-10-20200512.pdf

INTRODUCTION
Human enterovirus (HEVs) infection is common, with an extensive array of clinical
displays ranging from asymptomatic to life-threatening. Presentation include nonspecific febrile
illness often accompanied by muscle pain, sore throat, abdominal discomfort, rash, headache,
encephalitis, aseptic meningitis and acute flaccid paralysis [2].
OBJECTIVES
The study objective was to investigate the natural selection and genetic variability of HEVs
and to identify HEV serotypes in circulation among children below 5 years old with diarrhea in
an informal settlement(Kibera) in Kenya.
METHODOLOGY
Specimens (n=628) from a prospective cohort study assessing the incidence and etiology of
diarrhea from 2009-2015 were analyzed. Enteric Taqman array cards (TAC) were used for initial
screening where two hundred and nine (78%) tested positive for HEVs.
Of these specimens, 72 (42%) had a cycle threshold (Ct) ≤30 and were tested by conventional
PCR targeting the 3’ regions of the viral protein 1 (VP1) gene. A total of 48 (67%) underwent
sequencing; 11 (23%) of which yielded nucleotide sequences. Phylogenetic analyses clustered
the Kenyan serotypes to HEVs groups C, B and A. Evaluation of the VP1 amino acid sequences
revealed numerous amino acid substitutions in relation to reference strains, which were confirmed
to be due to natural selection by negative or positive selection.
CONCLUSION
The Heterogeneous nature of stool samples is known to influence disparities in viral nucleic
acid yields. TAC detected 209 of which 171 (82%) were confirmed positive for HEVs by realtime
reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR), targeting the 5’ NTR regions.
Therefore, the results may not be a representative of all circulating HEVs in the study area. Since
this was a retrospective study of previously collected samples, it is possible that some HEVs strains
may have failed to amplify.

Lyakurwa W, Owiti E. "High Oil Prices and the African Economy: the Impact of High Oil Prices in SSA.". In: Annual Meetings of the African Development Bank Group at Ouagadougou. Burkina Faso; 2005.
Lyakurwa W, Owiti E. "Sustainable Financing and Governance of Regional Initiative s in Higher Education in Africa.". In: Region al Workshop on Sustainable Financing and Governance of Higher Education in Africa . uagadougou, Burkina Faso; 2011.
Lyakurwa W, Owiti E. "An Overview of American and Chinese Activities in Africa – And African Priorities for the Future.". In: China – Africa – US Trilateral Dialogue. Tswalu, South Africa; 2006.
Lwande W, Ndakala AJ, A H, Moreka L, Nyandat E, Ndungu M, Amiani H, Gitu PM, Malonza MM, Punyua DK. "Gynandropsis gynandra Essential Oil and Its Constituents as Tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ) Repellents." Phytochemistry. 1999;50:401-405. AbstractWebsite

 
 
 
 

Lwai-Lume L, Ogutu EO, Amayo EO, Kariuki S. "Drug susceptibility pattern of Helicobacter pylori in patients with dyspepsia at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2005. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine drug susceptibility pattern of Helicobacter pylori to metronidazole, clarithromycin, amoxicillin and tetracycline in patients presenting with dyspepsia at the Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and sixty-seven patients aged 15 to 85 years, presenting with dyspepsia and referred for upper gastro-intestinal endoscopy were recruited into the study. RESULTS: Between October 2003 and April 2004, 138 male and 129 female patients aged 15-85 years, with a mean age of 45.4 years were studied. Gastritis was the most common endoscopic finding, occurring in 55%, followed by normal-looking mucosa in 27% and peptic ulcer disease in 16% of the patients. The rapid urease test was positive in 184 patients (69%). The culture yield was 62% of these CLO (Campylobacter like organisms) positive biopsies. The MIC90 (minimum inhibitory concentration) was 256 mg/l for metronidazole, 1.5 mg/l for clarithromycin, 1.5 mg/l for tetracycline and 0.75 mg/l for amoxicillin. The MIC values for amoxicillin were significantly higher in the female patients (p = 0.02) but showed no significant variation for age. The MIC values for metronidazole, tetracycline and clarithromycin showed no significant difference for age or gender. MIC values for tetracycline were significantly higher for patients with duodenitis and duodenal ulcer p = 0.009 and 0.02, respectively. CONCLUSION: All isolated H. pylori organisms were resistant to metronidazole. The susceptibility of the H. pylori isolates was 93.6% for clarithromycin, 95.4% for amoxicillin and 98.1% for tetracycline. The MIC90 for amoxicillin and clarithromycin were found to be close to the upper limit of the susceptibility range. There was a rising MIC90 for tetracycline and metronidazole compared to that found in a previous study in 1991.

LWABUKHA HILDAN. OCCURRENCE OF SYPHILIS IN RESIDENT OF SHER AGENCIES FIRM IN NAIVASHA. G.M.MURAGE, ed. NAIROBI: THE KENYA POLYTECHNIC; 2005.hilda_higher_dip.pdf
LW. N, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Minga U, Olsen JE. "Sensitivity of Listeria species, recovered from indigenous chickens to antibiotis and disinfectants." East African Medical Journal. 2004;81(10):534-537.abstract-_sensitivity_of_listeria_-eamj-2004.pdf
LW. M. "Role of fine needle aspiration in the diagnosis of neoplasms." East Afr Med J.. 2001;78(5):225.
LW G, N NE, J O, S M. "Oral sex and wet kissing among female sex workers in two slum areas in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: The 16th International Association for Dental Research (IADR). Second joint congress of the Southern Africa and East and southern Africa divisions. Durban; 2002.
LW I, RN K, SM K. "Helminth parasites in the intestinal tract of indigenous poultry in parts of Kenya." Journal of the South African Veterinary Association. 2004;75(1):58-59. AbstractPubMed link

A study was carried out on 456 indigenous poultry intestinal specimens from various towns in Kenya to determine the occurrence and distribution of helminth parasites in the intestinal tract of the birds. Of the specimens examined, 414 had parasites whereas the remaining 42 had none, which is an infection rate of 90.78%. The main species of helminths found in the intestines were Raillietina sp. (47.53%), Heterakis gallinarum (21.33%), Ascaridia galli (10.03%), Strongyloides avium (9.96%), Choanotaenia infundibulum (4.61%), Cotugnia digonopora (3.6%), Capillaria sp. (1.5%), Trichostrongylus tenius (1.04%) and Syngamus trachea (0.40%). Most helminths were present in both the mid- and hindguts. Syngamus trachea and C. digonopora were only found in the foregut and midgut, respectively. Although chickens from which the specimens were collected appeard healthy, the high prevalence of helminthiasis observed shows the poor level of helminth infection control practiced by the indigenous poultry keepers in the country, which might affect the health status of the birds and their growth rates. Poultry keepers should be encouraged to prevent, control and treat such cases.

Luzzi A, Morettini F, Gazaneo S, Rogena EA, Bellan C, Leoncini L. "HIV-1 Tat induces DNMT over-expression through microRNA dysregulation in HIV-related non Hodgkin lymphomas." Luzzi et al. Infectious Agents and Cancer. 2014. AbstractWebsite

Background:
A close association between HIV infection and the development of cancer exists. Although the
advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy has changed the epidemiology of AIDS-associated malignancies, a better understanding on how HIV can induce malignant transformation will help the development of novel
therapeutic agents.
Methods:
HIV has been reported to induce the expression of DNMT1
in vitro, but still no information is available about the mechanisms regulating DNMT expression in HIV-related B-cell lymphomas. In this paper, we investigated the expression of DNMT family members (DNMT1, DNMT3a/b) in primary cases of aggressive B-cell lymphomas of HIV-positive subjects.
Results:
Our results confirmed the activation of DNMT1 by HIV in vivo, and reported for the first time a marked up-regulation of DNMT3a and DNMT3b in HIV-positive aggressive B-cell lymphomas. DNMT up-regulation in
HIV-positive tumors correlated with down-regulation of specific microRNAs, as the miR29 family, the miR148-152 cluster, known to regulate their expression. Literature reports the activation of DNMTs by the human polyomavirus BKV large T-antigen and adenovirus E1a, through the pRb/E2F pathway. We have previously demonstrated that the HIV Tat protein is able to bind to the pocket proteins and to inactivate their oncosuppressive properties, resulting in uncontrolled cell proliferation. Therefore, we focused on the role of Tat, due to its capability to be released from infected cells and to dysregulate uninfected ones, using an
in vitro model in which Tat was ectopically expressed in B-cells.
Conclusions:
Our findings demonstrated that the ectopic expression of Tat was per sesufficient to determine
DNMT up-regulation, based on microRNA down-regulation, and that this results in aberrant hypermethylation of target genes and microRNAs. These results point at a direct role for Tat in participating in uninfected B-cell lymphomagenesis, through dysregulation of the epigenetical control of gene expression.
Keywords:
HIV, Aggressive B-cell lymphomas, microRNAs, DNMTs, Tat

Luzi L, Barrett EJ, Groop LC, Ferrannini E, DeFronzo RA. "Metabolic effects of low-dose insulin therapy on glucose metabolism in diabetic ketoacidosis." Diabetes. 1988;37:1470-1477. Abstract

The effect of low-dose insulin treatment (5-10 U/h) on hepatic glucose production (HGP) and peripheral glucose disposal was determined in 5 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) subjects who were admitted with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA; plasma glucose 598 +/- 50 mg/dl, blood pH 7.20 +/- 0.06, plasma bicarbonate 12 +/- 2 meq/L). Basal hepatic glucose production (4.3 +/- 0.5 mg.kg-1.min-1) in the DKA patients was 1.5- to 2-fold greater (P less than .01) than in controls (2.1 +/- 0.1 mg.kg-1.min-1) and nonketotic IDDM subjects (2.9 +/- 0.3 mg.kg-1.min-1), whereas tissue glucose disposal was significantly reduced (1.7 +/- 0.1 vs. 2.1 +/- 0.1 mg.kg-1.min-1, P less than .05). After the institution of insulin therapy (1 mU.kg-1.min-1), the plasma glucose concentration fell at the rate of 60 +/- 5 mg.dl-1.h-1 to reach a value of 220 +/- 10 mg/dl, which was maintained constant for 2 h (insulin-clamp technique). Blood pH (7.21 +/- 0.06 to 7.35 +/- 0.05) and plasma bicarbonate (12 +/- 3 to 18 +/- 2 meq/L) both increased during insulin therapy (P less than .01). The decline in plasma glucose concentration during insulin therapy primarily resulted from a suppression of HGP (from 4.3 +/- 0.5 to 1.7 +/- 0.2 mg.kg-1.min-1, P less than .01) and to a lesser extent from the stimulation of tissue glucose disposal (1.7 +/- 0.2 to 2.6 +/- 0.3 mg.kg-1.min-1, P less than .01). At this time, urine glucose excretion decreased from 2.6 +/- 0.2 to 0.6 +/- 0.1 mg.kg-1.min-1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Luvembe AM, Mutai H. "Big Data Framework for Kenya’s County Governments." Journal of Computer and Communications. 2019;07(01):1-9. AbstractFull Text Link

Digitalization is transforming governments across the globe. At the national level, down to regional and multiple departments in the public institutions, unprecedented change is occurring exponentially as a result of massive digitalization. Digitalization is compelling governments at all levels to embrace voluminous data and institute appropriate multi-channel platforms to support digital transformation. While this is the case, most governments have been caught unprepared thwarting maximum benefits spurred by digitalization. Inherently, the social media and e-participation tools for generating huge amount of data have convoluted most governments’ appetite in Big Data management. This situation is further compounded with the slow pace of adoption of these technological tools by citizens and the public sectors. For enhanced e-citizen satisfaction and engagement, as well as e-participation processes, public institutions need to promote engagement and collaboration. In view of advancing benefits to their citizens, public institutions need to institute appropriate measures to collect citizen’s data. The information collected is vital for public institutions in actualizing what services the citizens want. Using literature reviews and cases, the authors examine Big Data benefits in counties and propose a Big Data model to improve efficiency of e-governance services and productivity in county governments. The authors demonstrate Big Data framework has the aptitude of molding citizen’s opinion in county decision making process. Better use of e-technologies is shown in the proposed model which illustrates sharing resources among various data analytics sources. Our proposed framework based on Big Data analytics is a viable initiative to progress effectiveness and productivity, strengthen citizen engagement and participation and encourage decision-making in e-governance services delivery in the counties.

Luvai AK, Obiero JPO, Omuto. CT. "Methods for Erosion Estimates in Assessment of Soil Degradation: A Review for Catchments in Kenya." . International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT). 2020;Vol. 9 (Issue 05):489-494.
Luvai AK, Obiero JPO, Omuto CT. "Assessment of Soil Loss in a Typical Ungauged Dam Catchment using RUSLE Model (Maruba Dam, Kenya)." Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2021;Vol 11(No. 16):56-68.
Lutta HO, Wesonga HO, Odongo DO, Thiaucourt F, Naessens J. "Inoculation of Mycoplasma mycoides by endotracheal intubation produces a milder disease than by contact transmission." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production Africa. 2017;65:477-484.
Lutta AI, Wasonga OV, Robinson LW, Nyangito MM, Jason Sircely. "Determinants of livestock market participation among pastoral communities of Tana River County, Kenya." Environment, Development and Sustainability. 2020.
Lutta HO, Mather A, Maina TW, Odongo DO, Ndiwa NN, Wesonga HO, Naessens J. "Preliminary Findings of Lipoprotein B in Detecting Cattle Chronically Infected with Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia." Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis . 2018;7:2.
Lutta, A. I., Wasonga OV, Robinson LW, Nyangito MM, Sircely J. "Determinants of livestock market participation among pastoral communities of Tana River County, Kenya." Environment, Development and Sustainability, . 2021;23(5):7393-7411.
Lutta HO, Odongo D, Mather A, Perez-Casal J, Potter A, Gerdts V, Berberov EM, Prysliak T, Martina Kyallo, Kipronoh A, Olum M, Pelle R, Naessens J. "Baseline analysis of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides antigens as targets for a DIVA assay for use with a subunit vaccine for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia." BMC Vet Res. 2020;16(1):236. Abstract

Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in cattle. A prototype subunit vaccine is being developed, however, there is currently no diagnostic test that can differentiate between infected cattle and those vaccinated with the prototype subunit vaccine. This study characterized Mmm proteins to identify potential antigens for use in differentiating infected from vaccinated animals.

Lusweti D, Ochieng JW, Maina JG, Kinyanjui P. "DNA Evidence for a Population Bottleneck in Lake Victoria Nile perch." African Journal of Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries. 2018;16(1):24-32.
Lusweti D, Ochieng JW, Maina JG, Kinyanjui P. "DNA Evidence for a Population Bottleneck in Lake Victoria Nile perch." African Journal of Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries. 2018;16(1):24-32.
Lusigi EEM, Mbuge DO, Obiero JP, Ondieki SC, Ndiba; P.K. "Quality Assessment of Rain and Storm Water Runoff for Nairobi City Industrial and Sub-Urban Areas." International Journal of Innovative Research in Engineering & Management (IJIREM); . 2017;volume 4(issue 1).
Lusigi EM, Mbuge DO, Obiero JP, Ondieki SC, Ndiba PK. "Quality Assessment of Rain and Storm Water Runoff for Nairobi City Industrial and Sub-Urban Areas." International Journal of Innovative Research in Engineering & Management (IJIREM). 2017;4(1):540-546.
LUSI DRCHEKJOHNBILLY. "Chek, J. B. L. and K^ombutu F. O. X. (1995). The effect on fibrinolytic system of blood plasma of Wister rats after feeding them with coix mixed diet. East African Medical Journal 72(1):51 .". In: East African Medical Journal 72(1):51 . University of Nairobi Press; 1995. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To detect fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) in blood as a result of induced hyperfibrinolysis. DESIGN: This in-vitro and in-vivo study compared the relationship between the plasma FDP levels, the rate of their production, the degree of fibrinolysis and the effect of protease inhibitors in primary hyperfibrinolysis conditions. SETTING: Department of Medical Biochemistry, Kharkov General and Emergency Operational and Research Institute, Ukraine in collaboration with the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Blood plasma of humans and rabbits. INTERVENTION: Streptokinase was added to plasma of humans and rabbits to induce in vitro primary hyperfibrinolysis. Studies on the activity of plasmin by protamine degradation was conducted with this streptokinase treated plasma. The effect of natural protease inhibitors of rabbit fibrinolysis were also conducted by adding each inhibitor to the streptokinase treated blood plasma. A further study on FDP levels in experimental rabbits with primary hyperfibrinolysis, was conducted by giving the animals intramuscular injections of pantripin. RESULTS: In vivo studies with rabbits show a correlation between the degree of fibronolysis and the inhibitory effect of natural inhibitors of fibrinolysis. Increased FDP levels were recorded following hyperfibrinolysis. Natural inhibitors of fibrinolysis decrease FDP levels in experimental samples. CONCLUSION: These results suggest the possibility of applying plasmin inhibitors during pathological conditions of hyperfibrinolysis.
LUSI DRCHEKJOHNBILLY. "Chek J. B. L. (1997). The present use of state of vitamin K deficiency bleeding in infancy. Letter to the editor. East African Medical Journal. 74(2) : 118.". In: East African Medical Journal. 74(2) : 118. University of Nairobi Press; 1997. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To detect fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) in blood as a result of induced hyperfibrinolysis. DESIGN: This in-vitro and in-vivo study compared the relationship between the plasma FDP levels, the rate of their production, the degree of fibrinolysis and the effect of protease inhibitors in primary hyperfibrinolysis conditions. SETTING: Department of Medical Biochemistry, Kharkov General and Emergency Operational and Research Institute, Ukraine in collaboration with the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Blood plasma of humans and rabbits. INTERVENTION: Streptokinase was added to plasma of humans and rabbits to induce in vitro primary hyperfibrinolysis. Studies on the activity of plasmin by protamine degradation was conducted with this streptokinase treated plasma. The effect of natural protease inhibitors of rabbit fibrinolysis were also conducted by adding each inhibitor to the streptokinase treated blood plasma. A further study on FDP levels in experimental rabbits with primary hyperfibrinolysis, was conducted by giving the animals intramuscular injections of pantripin. RESULTS: In vivo studies with rabbits show a correlation between the degree of fibronolysis and the inhibitory effect of natural inhibitors of fibrinolysis. Increased FDP levels were recorded following hyperfibrinolysis. Natural inhibitors of fibrinolysis decrease FDP levels in experimental samples. CONCLUSION: These results suggest the possibility of applying plasmin inhibitors during pathological conditions of hyperfibrinolysis.
LUSI DRCHEKJOHNBILLY. "Chek, J. B. L and Laniko A. L. (2002). The effect of Hypokinesia on cyclic nucleotides and hormonal regulation of calcium metabolism in rats. East Medical Journal 79(4): 210 .". In: East Medical Journal 79(4): 210 . University of Nairobi Press; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To study the dynamic of changes in the level of parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin (CT), cyclic nucleotides (cAMP, cGMP) and calcium in the blood of rats, while in urine–phosphate, calcium and cyclic nucleotides. DESIGN: Laboratory based experiment. SETTING: Laboratory in the Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya and in the Department of Biochemistry, Kharkov State University, Ukrain Republic. RESULTS: Correlation between the changes in the parameters of study was shown. This supports the theory about the relationship between branches of hormonal systems (cyclic nucleotides-calcium), which perform the central role in the regulation of homeostasis. The results show that daily excretion of calcium and phosphate is age dependent in rats during the pathogenesis of hypokinesia: the values are higher in control groups. Changes in calcium in the blood and phosphaturia in the experimental animals of all ages were attributed to changes in the intensive re-absorption process within the bones during the readaptation period of hypokinesia. CONCLUSION: Old rats have a higher ability to adaptation than younger experimental counterparts during hypokinesia.
LUSI DRCHEKJOHNBILLY. "Chek, J. B. L. , Okello G. B. A. and Kyobe, J. (1992). Estimation of fibrinogen and products of its degradation blood plasma of uncomplicated cases of malaria with low parasitemia. East African Medical Journal 69(10):583 .". In: East African Medical Journal 69(10):583 . University of Nairobi Press; 1992. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
LUSI DRCHEKJOHNBILLY. "Chek, J. B. L. (1997). Monitoring anticoagualant therapy by measuring haemostatic parameters. East African Medical Journal 74(1):1.". In: East African Medical Journal 74(1):1. University of Nairobi Press; 1997. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To detect fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) in blood as a result of induced hyperfibrinolysis. DESIGN: This in-vitro and in-vivo study compared the relationship between the plasma FDP levels, the rate of their production, the degree of fibrinolysis and the effect of protease inhibitors in primary hyperfibrinolysis conditions. SETTING: Department of Medical Biochemistry, Kharkov General and Emergency Operational and Research Institute, Ukraine in collaboration with the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Blood plasma of humans and rabbits. INTERVENTION: Streptokinase was added to plasma of humans and rabbits to induce in vitro primary hyperfibrinolysis. Studies on the activity of plasmin by protamine degradation was conducted with this streptokinase treated plasma. The effect of natural protease inhibitors of rabbit fibrinolysis were also conducted by adding each inhibitor to the streptokinase treated blood plasma. A further study on FDP levels in experimental rabbits with primary hyperfibrinolysis, was conducted by giving the animals intramuscular injections of pantripin. RESULTS: In vivo studies with rabbits show a correlation between the degree of fibronolysis and the inhibitory effect of natural inhibitors of fibrinolysis. Increased FDP levels were recorded following hyperfibrinolysis. Natural inhibitors of fibrinolysis decrease FDP levels in experimental samples. CONCLUSION: These results suggest the possibility of applying plasmin inhibitors during pathological conditions of hyperfibrinolysis.
LUSI DRCHEKJOHNBILLY. "Chek, J. B. L. and Werimo K. E. S. (2000) . Concepts on early and delayed malaria infection. East African Medical Journal 77(12) : 639.". In: East African Medical Journal 77(12) : 639. University of Nairobi Press; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To study the dynamic of changes in the level of parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin (CT), cyclic nucleotides (cAMP, cGMP) and calcium in the blood of rats, while in urine–phosphate, calcium and cyclic nucleotides. DESIGN: Laboratory based experiment. SETTING: Laboratory in the Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya and in the Department of Biochemistry, Kharkov State University, Ukrain Republic. RESULTS: Correlation between the changes in the parameters of study was shown. This supports the theory about the relationship between branches of hormonal systems (cyclic nucleotides-calcium), which perform the central role in the regulation of homeostasis. The results show that daily excretion of calcium and phosphate is age dependent in rats during the pathogenesis of hypokinesia: the values are higher in control groups. Changes in calcium in the blood and phosphaturia in the experimental animals of all ages were attributed to changes in the intensive re-absorption process within the bones during the readaptation period of hypokinesia. CONCLUSION: Old rats have a higher ability to adaptation than younger experimental counterparts during hypokinesia.
LUSI DRCHEKJOHNBILLY. "Chek JB.Monitoring anticoagulant therapy by measuring haemostatic parameters.East Afr Med J. 1997 Jan;74(1):1-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 1997 Jan;74(1):1-2. University of Nairobi Press; 1997. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To detect fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) in blood as a result of induced hyperfibrinolysis. DESIGN: This in-vitro and in-vivo study compared the relationship between the plasma FDP levels, the rate of their production, the degree of fibrinolysis and the effect of protease inhibitors in primary hyperfibrinolysis conditions. SETTING: Department of Medical Biochemistry, Kharkov General and Emergency Operational and Research Institute, Ukraine in collaboration with the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Blood plasma of humans and rabbits. INTERVENTION: Streptokinase was added to plasma of humans and rabbits to induce in vitro primary hyperfibrinolysis. Studies on the activity of plasmin by protamine degradation was conducted with this streptokinase treated plasma. The effect of natural protease inhibitors of rabbit fibrinolysis were also conducted by adding each inhibitor to the streptokinase treated blood plasma. A further study on FDP levels in experimental rabbits with primary hyperfibrinolysis, was conducted by giving the animals intramuscular injections of pantripin. RESULTS: In vivo studies with rabbits show a correlation between the degree of fibronolysis and the inhibitory effect of natural inhibitors of fibrinolysis. Increased FDP levels were recorded following hyperfibrinolysis. Natural inhibitors of fibrinolysis decrease FDP levels in experimental samples. CONCLUSION: These results suggest the possibility of applying plasmin inhibitors during pathological conditions of hyperfibrinolysis.
LUSI DRCHEKJOHNBILLY. "Chek, J. B. L. and Panchenko (2000). Fibrinogen degradation products in plasma following induced hyperfibrinolysis. East African Medical J. 77(4) : 217 .". In: East African Medical J. 77(4) : 217 . University of Nairobi Press; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To detect fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) in blood as a result of induced hyperfibrinolysis. DESIGN: This in-vitro and in-vivo study compared the relationship between the plasma FDP levels, the rate of their production, the degree of fibrinolysis and the effect of protease inhibitors in primary hyperfibrinolysis conditions. SETTING: Department of Medical Biochemistry, Kharkov General and Emergency Operational and Research Institute, Ukraine in collaboration with the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Blood plasma of humans and rabbits. INTERVENTION: Streptokinase was added to plasma of humans and rabbits to induce in vitro primary hyperfibrinolysis. Studies on the activity of plasmin by protamine degradation was conducted with this streptokinase treated plasma. The effect of natural protease inhibitors of rabbit fibrinolysis were also conducted by adding each inhibitor to the streptokinase treated blood plasma. A further study on FDP levels in experimental rabbits with primary hyperfibrinolysis, was conducted by giving the animals intramuscular injections of pantripin. RESULTS: In vivo studies with rabbits show a correlation between the degree of fibronolysis and the inhibitory effect of natural inhibitors of fibrinolysis. Increased FDP levels were recorded following hyperfibrinolysis. Natural inhibitors of fibrinolysis decrease FDP levels in experimental samples. CONCLUSION: These results suggest the possibility of applying plasmin inhibitors during pathological conditions of hyperfibrinolysis.
LUSI DRCHEKJOHNBILLY. "Chek, A. L. and Chek J. B. L. (2002). Comparative studies in interlaboratory Data on Soil/Plant Tissue analysis in Kenya. African Journal Sc. Tech. 3(1):79-84.". In: African Journal Sc. Tech. 3(1):79-84. University of Nairobi Press; 2002. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
Lung’aho C, C. Lung’aho, Chemining’wa G, G. Chemining’wa, Chemining’wa G, Shibairo S, Shibairo S, Hutchinson M, Hutchinson. M. "Dynamics of on-farm management of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars in Central Kenya." African Journal of Science and Technology. 2012;7(17):2701-2712.dynamics_of_on-farm_management_of_potato_solanum_tuberosum_cultivars_in_central_kenya.
Lung’aho CG, Chemining’wa S, Shibairo, Hutchinson M. "Reaction of Potato Cultivars to Natural Infestation of Late Blight Caused by Phytophthora infestans in Kenya.". 2008. Abstract

The late blight resistance and yield characteristics of 32 potato genotypes were studied at KARI-Tigoni between 2006 and 2007 under natural late blight inoculums pressure. Foliar late blight resistance was assessed on the basis of area under disease progress curve (AUDPC) whereas the relative area under disease progress curve (RAUDPC) was used to classify the genotypes into five late blight resistance groupings (resistant, moderately resistant, intermediate, moderately susceptible and susceptible). Tuber yields for individual cultivars ranged from 5.87 to 60.70 t/ha. The correlation between foliar late blight and total tuber blight was weak but that between foliar late blight and total tuber yield was negative and significant. On the basis of RAUDPC, it was possible to classify 26 of the 32 cultivars into distinct resistance classes. Cultivars Kenya Karibu, Tana Kimande, Kihoro, Kenya Sifa and Kenya Karibu (white flowers) were rated as resistant. The most susceptible cultivars were Kerr’s Pink, Ngure, Desiree, Romano and Pimpenel. Any of the resistant or susceptible varieties can be used as checks in evaluating germplasm for late blight tolerance.

Lung’aho C, Chemining’wa G, Shibairo S, Hutchinson M. "Dynamics of on-farm management of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars in Central Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2012;7(17):2701-2712.
Lung'aho C, Chemining’wa G, Fu Y-B, Shibairo S, Hutchinson MJ, Paniagua HG. "Genetic diversity of Kenyan Potato Germplasm Revealed by Simple Sequence Repeat markers." American Journal of Potato Research . 2011;88:424-434.genetic_diversity_of__potato_germplasm_revealed_by__sequence_repeat_markers._
Lundengard Karl, Ogutu C, Silvestrov S, Weke P. "Construction of moment– matching multinomial lattices for pricing of Asian Options under a Jump–Diffusion Process." New Trends in Stochastic Modeling and Data Analysis, ISAST. 2015:211-220.
Lundengård K, Ogutu C, Silvestrov S, Weke P. Construction of moment-matching multinomial lattices using Vandermonde matrices and Gröbner bases.; 2017. Abstract

In order to describe and analyze the quantitative behavior of stochastic processes, such as
the process followed by a financial asset, various discretization methods are used. One such
set of methods are lattice models where a time interval is divided into equal time steps and
the rate of change for the process is restricted to a particular set of values in each time step.
The well-known binomial-and trinomial models are the most commonly used in applications,
although several kinds of higher order models have also been examined. Here we will
examine various ways of designing higher order lattice schemes with different node
placements in order to guarantee moment-matching with the process.

Lundengård K, Ogutu C, Silvestrov S, Weke P. "Moment Matching Multinomial Lattices using Vandermonde Matrices for Option Pricing." Stochastic and Data Analysis Methods and Applications in Statistics and Demography, ISAST. 2016:15-29.
Lund JF;, Bhandari NS;, Baral K;, Kharel KK;, KK; Puri L;, Chhetri BBK;, Nielsen, Ø.J; Upadhyaya CP, Upadhyaya CP. "Community forestry common funds in Nepal."; 2010.
Lund, JF; Carlsen HCP; TK; T. The political economy of timber governance in Ghana.; 2012.
Lund JF(ed). Measuring Livelihoods and Environmental Dependence: Methods for Research and Fieldwork..; 2011. AbstractWebsite

Thousands of surveys on rural livelihoods in developing countries are being done every year. Unfortunately, many suffer from weaknesses in methods and problems in implementation. Quantifying households' dependence on multiple environmental resources (forests, bush, grasslands and rivers) is particularly difficult and often simply ignored in the surveys. The results therefore do not reflect rural realities. In particular, 'the hidden harvest' from natural resources is generally too important to livelihoods for development research, policies and practice to ignore. Fieldwork using state-of-the-art methods, and in particular well-designed household questionnaires, thus becomes an imperative to adequately capture key dimensions of rural welfare. This book describes how to do a better job when designing and implementing household and village surveys for quantitative assessment of rural livelihoods in developing countries. It covers the entire research process from planning to sharing research results. It draws on the experiences from a large global-comparative project, the Poverty Environment Network (PEN), to develop more robust and validated methods, enriched by numerous practical examples from the field. The book will provide an invaluable guide to methods and a practical handbook for students and professionals.

Lund, JF; Larsen HO; CBK; RNOJ; OCSS;. "When Theory Meets Reality – How To Do Forest Income Surveys In Practice."; 2008.
Lund JF;, Bhandari NS;, Baral K;, Kharel KK;, Puri L;, Chhetri BBK;, Nielsen, Ø.J; Upadhyaya CP, Nielsen, Ø.J; Upadhyaya CP. "Community forestry common funds in Nepal."; 2010.
Lund LH;, Boon TE. "Accountability of experts in the Danish national park process.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

In 2002 the Danish Minister of Environment initiated a process to investigate the possibilities of establishing national parks in Denmark. For this purpose experts were mobilised to investigate the status and potentials of the areas in question. The national park process was extensive in scope and complex, and in theory such complexity is assumed to make it difficult for non-experts to understand all the relevant aspects of policy. This exclusion of non-experts may lead to scientification of politics. Furthermore politicisation of science might occur as experts might advocate political interests disguised as objective science, and policy-makers might select results that further their own interests. As a result policy-makers risk losing a source of legitimacy, scientists risk losing credibility and the citizens risk losing the possibility to hold policy-makers accountable for their decisions, which puts democracy at risk. This paper examines the accountability relationships that experts were a part of in the national park process. These include accountability towards the employer, towards the buyer and towards the general public. The purpose is to determine if these relationships were adequate to circumvent the problems associated with scientification of politics and to discuss how accountability relationships and thereby democracy could be strengthened. The empirical analysis shows that in the national park process experts were mainly accountable towards the National Forest and Nature Agency. There were formal accountability relationships between the experts and the local steering committees and the national advisory group, but these relationships were less significant. Moreover, despite the fact that the process was deemed unusually open to the public by the participants, the relationship between experts and the public cannot be characterised as an accountability relationship and could have been improved by including experts in the deliberative fora of the process.

Lund, JF; Helles MNI; TF; H; I. Landsbyskovbrug i Tanzania : hvem vinder, hvem taber?.; 2008.
Lund JF;, Helles F. "Taxation issues in Tanzanian forest decentralisation."; 2006. Abstract

The paper deals with issues of taxation in relation to decentralisation of forest resources. It presents preliminary empirical data from Tanzania in the form of forest taxation records from 12 villages that have gained jurisdiction over forest products taxation through a decentralisation reform. The analysis shows that (i) decentralisation of forest resources can lead to vast improvements of taxation effectiveness and (ii) taxation of forest products may be regressive or progressive in relation to income distribution. Thus, the effects of increased forest taxation effectiveness on poverty alleviation are ambiguous and highly dependent upon the local pattern of forest utilisation. The indication that forest decentralisation can lead to higher effectiveness in the taxation of forest products contradicts some of the general debate on the effects and potentials of decentralisation on taxation, and, hence, provides an argument for continued decentralisation of natural resources.

Lund JF;, Carlsen K;, Thorsen BJ. "Alternative indkomster til skovbruget på Vallø Stift.". 2009. Abstract

Denne arbejdsrapport er et af produkterne fra projektet ”Alternative indkomster til skovbruget: Case- og feasibility-studier”. Projektet er finansieret af Skov- og Naturstyrelsen og bliver realiseret af Skov & Landskab, Københavns Universitet, i samarbejde med Centre for Tourism and Culture Management, Handelshøjskolen København. Vallø Stift er en af projektets case-ejendomme og nærværende rapport er et resultat bl.a. af et tæt produktudviklingssamarbejde mellem Vallø Stift, Skov & Landskab og Centre for Tourism and Culture Management. Der blev i Juni 2008 afholdt en temadag på Vallø Stift for at give et praktisk eksempel på en oplevelsesøkonomisk produktudviklingsproces. Vallø Stift har en særlig historie som Kongeligt Frøkenstift for ugifte døtre af dansk adel og med Dronning Margrethe II som nuværende protektor. Vallø Slot kan som ejendom dateres tilbage til 1200-tallet, og det nuværende slot og omkringliggende bygninger kan dateres tilbage til 1700 tallet. Med et jordtilliggende på 4 200 ha er Vallø Stift blandt landets største godser. Ejendommens primære produktion er landbrug og skovbrug. Den sekundære produktion indbefatter bl.a. salg af fødevareprodukter med et særligt Vallø brand, som indbefatter garanti for dyreetisk forsvarlige produktionsmetoder og høj kvalitet. Ejendommen ligger umiddelbart Syd for Køge, skovene har et højt besøgstal, parken, slottet og bygningerne heromkring har en række æstetiske og landskabelige kvaliteter og en spændende historie. Disse egenskaber giver mulighed for at udbyde en række oplevelser, som er særlige for Vallø Stift. Der udbydes allerede nu en række oplevelsesrelaterede produkter på ejendommen. De inkluderer udlejning af jagt, udlejning af arealer til campingplads, tilladelse til fotografering og filmoptagelser omkring hovedbygningen, større selskaber og events i parken, absolut eksklusive arrangementer på slottet, udstedelse af ridekort til skovene samt mulighed for benyttelse af betalingshundeskov. I forbindelse med dette projekt er yderligere muligheder for oplevelsesrelaterede produkter blevet analyseret og i enkelte tilfælde allerede afprøvet. Hen gengives kort en samlet konklusion for de analyserede produkter: - Sæsonmarked: Vallø Stift’s produktion og afsætning af udvalgte kvalitetsfødevarer er allerede i god gænge. Med udgangspunkt i erfaringer indsamlet i dette projekt, fx fra Løndal, vurderes det at det på sigt kan danne rygraden i fx et påskemarked (æg og lam) med fokus på kvalitetsmadvarer - Tematiserede børnefødselsdage: Vallø Stift’s beliggenhed, opland, historie og slottets og skovenes æstetiske kvaliteter er et godt grundlag for denne ydelse. Det vurderes dog, at skal det lønne sig for alvor skal der satses på ret eksklusive versioner og etableres velfungerende samarbejder med en guide/instruktør. - Hundeskove har allerede her under projektet vist sig interessante som nye betalingsydelser målrettet specielle grupper af hundeejere. Det vurderes, at kan man fastholde det gode samarbejde kan der være grundlag for udvidelser både rettet mod almindelige hundeluftere såvel som hundesportsfolk. 3 - Live Rollespil er en mulig udnyttelse af de to pladser i Skovhusvænge. Det vurderes dog, at beliggenhed og rollerspillernes efterspørgsel gør, at en rentabel brug nok primært vil kunne lade sig gøre ved at udleje arealet til enkeltstående lejre og spil. - Mountainbikere anvender ganske ofte Skovhusvænge. Størstedelen af brugerne er ikke organiserede og ikke bosiddende i det umiddelbare opland. Det betyder manglende ejerskabsfølelse og ansvar for lokaliteterne på Vallø, og mulighederne for konstruktive aftaler med og selvjustits blandt brugerne begrænsede. Det vurderes derfor der p.t. ikke er basis for rentable samarbejdsaftaler med de mountainbikere, der bruger området. Muligheden for mountainbikerute kan overvejes når/hvis mountainbikere i/omkring Køge organiserer sig. - Træklatring er en lille niche-sportsgren, der potentielt kan vokse sig større og Skovhusvænge er igen et interessant område. På grund af de store krav til sikkerhed mv. vurderes det, at aktiviteter på dette område alene kan gøres rentable gennem samarbejde med professionelle specialister, som lejer adgang til skovparten. - Eventarrangementer er en mulig videreudvikling af de eksklusive selskabsarrangementer Vallø Stift allerede har. Det vurderes dog at muligheden skal anvendes med omtanke for fortsat at sikre betalingsvilje for netop det eksklusive brand. - Nye aktiviteter omkring campingpladsen kan være med til at øge dens værdi og dermed forpagtningsindtægterne. Skovlegepladser, trætophytter og andre ting er mulige måder at differentiere campingpladsen fra andre, men det vurderes som en risikabel investering umiddelbart.

LUMUMBA W, OLUOCH M F. "Intrinsic Reward and Organization Performance at Vihiga County Government, Kenya." International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS). 2019;3(11):ISSN 2454-6186.
Lumumba P;, Gitau W;, Ogallo LA;, Mutemi JN. "National Culture And Constitution Review Process: Bridging The Gap.". 1988.Website
Lumumba PO;, Gitau W;, Ogallo LA;, Mutemi JN. "An outline of judicial review in Kenya.". 1999.Website
Lumumba, B. O, Nzuma MJ. "Spatial Integration and Price Relationships in Kenyan Sorghum Markets." Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development. 2019;7(7):944-949.
Lumumba P;, Gitau W;, Ogallo LA;, Mutemi JN. "National Culture And Constitution Review Process: Bridging The Gap.". 1998.Website
Lumumba PO;, Gitau W;, Ogallo LA;, Mutemi JN. "An outline of judicial review in Kenya.". 1999.Website
Lule. GN. "Helicobacter Pylori.". 1999.
Lule, G.N; Shah GWMV; EM;. "Malabsorption Syndromes in Kenyatta National Hospital.". 1984.
LULE GN. "Hepatitis E Virus." East African Medical Journal. 2009:357.
LULE GN, Ogutu EO, Okoth F, Were IB, Wambugu M. "Sclerotheraphy in the treatment of bleeding oesophageal, varices: preliminary report.". 1988. Abstract

I n an on-going clinical trial 12 patients with upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage due to oesophageal varices have undergone injection sclerotherapy. Another 5 have been followed up on conservative management. Of the sclerosed group 8, had schistosoma! disease, J cirrhosis of the liver while I had portal vein thrombosis. Three of the controls had schistosomiasis and 2 had cirrhosis. All of them were in Child's Classfication A or B. Sclerotherapy effectively stopped acute bleeding in all cases reducing further transfusions and hospital visits although 2 cases have been lust to follow-up and 3 have had repeat scler otherapy within 3 months, of initial management. Three art! alive and well. whereas I died ofa bout of haem ate me sis in the absence of the authors. A cast of 14-Jear-old boy who has had portal hypertension since birth and has had 2 shunt operations and oesophagectomy following which sclerothe rapy has been done is highlighted. Of the 5 control groups 2 patients have died due to bleeding varices within one year of follow-up, 1 patient has had to be changed to sclerotherapy as a life saving manoeuvre, however, the remaining 2 are a live and well on conservative management but have high rebleeding rates.

Lule G;, Omonge E;, Kayima JK;, Otieno FCF;, McLigeyo AA. Metabolic factors associated with the development of lipodystrophy in patients on long-term highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART).; 2013. Abstract

Dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and diabetes are frequent in patients on highly active anti-retroviral
therapy (HAART) and especially in patients with lipodystrophy, and may lead to atherosclerosis. This
study described the metabolic alterations associated with lipodystrophy in adults on chronic HAART in
Kenya. The prevalence of dyslipidaemia amongst the study participants was (211) 79.6%. Elevated total
cholesterol was found in 129, high low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in 107, low High-density
lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in 110 and high triglycerides in 131 participants. Lipodystrophic
patients were more likely to have dyslipidemia than normal lipids (55.4 versus 35.1%, p = 0.007 OR 2.2
CI 1.3 to 4.6) with 57, 45.9, 65.9 and 45.2% having elevated total cholesterol, elevated LDL-C, elevated
triglycerides and low HDL-C, respectively. Hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia were
significantly associated with lipodystrophy (OR 3.8 CI 2.3 to 6.4; p = 0.000) and (OR 1.94 CI 1.2 to 3.2; p
= 0.008), respectively. The odds of lipodystrophy was 2.913 times higher for patients with elevated
triglycerides than for those with normal triglycerides (p < 0.001). Sixty-four (24.3%) participants had
dysglycemia, with 3.5% having diabetes and 20.8% having impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Among
patient with lipodystrophy, 69.8% had normal fasting glucose, 25.1% had IFG and 5.1% were diabetic.
Lipodystrophic patients were not more likely to have abnormal blood sugars than normal blood sugars
(p value 0.125).

Lule GN;, Okoth F;, Ogutu EO;, Mwai SJ. "HBV markers (HBsAg, HBSAb, HBCAb in 160 medical students at Kenyatta National Hospital.". 1985. Abstract

In an exercise to study the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of the Engerix B vaccine, 160 medical students were screened for Hepatitis B Markers (HBsAg, HBsAb and HBcAb) with a view to vaccinating those that were negative. 18% were HBsAg + ve, 33% were HBsAb + ve and 38% were positive for the HBcAb. These figures were extremely high and obviated the need to vaccinate the students as they begin their clinical years

Lulalire FR, Karimi PN, Mwagangi EM, Wandolo G. "Effect of Magnesium Sulphate in Mothers suffering from Toxemia of Pregnancy and their Neonates." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics . 2016;5(2): 59-64. Abstract

Effect of Magnesium Sulphate in Mothers suffering from Toxemia of Pregnancy and their Neonates
Faith R. Lulalire a,b, Peter N. Karimi a,*, Evans M. Mwagangi a, and George Wandolo c
a Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy. University of Nairobi, Kenya
b Ministry of Health, Kenya
c Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya
_____________
* Corresponding author: Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, University of
Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676-00202, Nairobi, Kenya; Tel: +254-72-2604216; Email: ndirang@yahoo.com
Background: Severe pre-eclampsia is one of the major causes of high maternal mortality rate in both developed and developing countries. The goals of management are to prevent progression to eclampsia thus preventing convulsions, to control the blood pressure and to prevent untoward effects in the foetus. The first-line option for the treatment and prevention of eclamptic seizures is magnesium sulphate.
Objective: To determine the serum magnesium, urea and electrolyte levels in neonates of mothers treated with magnesium sulphate and compare the findings with the levels in non-exposed neonates.
Methodology: A quasi experimental design was adopted where test subjects were neonates of mothers suffering from preeclampsia and severe eclampsia and were being treated with magnesium sulphate just before delivery at Pumwani Maternity hospital. The control group comprised neonates of hypertensive mothers without preeclampsia being treated using other drugs. Blood samples were obtained from the mother at onset of labor and from the neonates at birth and analyzed in the clinical chemistry laboratory of the University of Nairobi.
Results: A total of 54 mothers and their neonates were enrolled with 27 in each arm of the study. The mean maternal serum magnesium in the test group was significantly higher than in the control group (p = 0.008). The mean neonatal serum magnesium in the test group was also significantly higher compared to the control group (p = 0.008). There were statistically significant differences in serum sodium (p = 0.015), urea (p = 0.043) and creatinine (p = 0.008) levels between the maternal test and control groups. There were significant differences in serum urea (p = 0.007) and
chloride (p = 0.017) between the neonatal test and control groups. The calcium and potassium levels were elevated in the test group but not to significant levels. There was a positive correlation between maternal and neonatal serum magnesium levels in both groups stronger in the test group (r = 0.56, p = 0.003) as compared to the control group (r = 0.35, p = 0.087).
Conclusion: Maternally administered magnesium sulphate raises urea and creatinine levels to significant levels in mothers. Calcium levels are also raised while in mothers not receiving magnesium sulphate they were slightly lower.
In neonates the urea and chloride levels are elevated to significant levels while the calcium and potassium levels are not significantly elevated. We suggest monitoring of both in the immediate post-partum period.
Keywords: Preeclampsia, eclampsia, magnesium sulphate, neonate, serum urea and electrolytes.
Received: November, 2015
Published: May, 2016

Lukorito CB, Ouma GO. "Enhancing the Capacity of Kenya on Climate Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation for Sustainable Agricultural Productivity and Food Security." Second RUFORUM Biennial Meeting, Entebbe, Uganda. 2010:1459-1468. Abstractenhancing_the_capacity_of_kenya_on_climate_risk_reduction_and_climate_change_adaptation_for_sustainable_agricultural_productivity_and_food_security.pdf Regional Universities Forum for Capacity Building in Agriculture (RUFORUM)

Most vulnerable groups in countries in Sub Saharan Africa including Kenya are the poor who have least capacity for coping with the adverse impacts of the current climate extremes, and adapting to future climate changes. Lack of suitable coping and adaptation strategies coupled with limited institutional, economic, and technological capacity to support the required actions increases the vulnerability of the country to adverse climatic impacts. This project aims at exploring ways of enhancing Kenya’s capacity through training to adequately respond to the devastating climatic extremes such as droughts, floods and other weather related disasters that have impacted
negatively to its socio-economic development and community livelihoods. This was addressed through four supervised projects by postgraduate meteorology and agrometeorology students of the university of Nairobi. Both field work and desk top studies involving analysis of secondary data of various project concerns were carried out. Decision on-farm experiments covering potential adaptation strategies targeting both crop (pigeon pea and sugarcane) and livestock (pasture) production systems were conducted in selected study districts of the country. Preliminary results of the project show great potential for using remote sensing data for rainfall estimation and identification of pasture availability and management by ASAL communities as well as policy makers. With regard to sugarcane-based livelihoods, climate variability as determined by rainfall variability during the grand growth stage of sugarcane was identified as exerting greater influence on sugarcane productivity. The study also showed that the use of basal phosphorus fertilizer in pigeon pea growing area of Makueni district resulted into tremendous crop yield increase.

Key words: Agriculture, climate change, climate risk reduction, food security

Lukhoba CW, Simmonds MSJ, Paton AJ. "Plectranthus : A review of ethnobotanical uses." Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2006;103(1):1-24. Abstract

Plectranthus is a large and widespread genus with a diversity of ethnobotanical uses. The genus is plagued with numerous nomenclatural disharmonies that make it difficult to collate accurate data on the uses. The aim of this review is to gather together all ethnobotanical information on
Plectranthus and to map the data onto the most up-to-date phylogenetic classification in order to see if there are similar uses among related species and hence provide a framework for the prediction and exploration of new uses of species. The uses of 62 species of Plectranthus were mapped onto a current phylogeny based on DNA sequence data. The phylogeny reveals two major Clades, 1 and 2. The members of Clade 1 (corresponding to the formally recognized genus Coleus ) were richer in number and diversity of uses than members of Clade 2 (comprising the remaining species of Plectranthus
). The high incidence of synonymy can lead to problems in uncovering a species’ ethnobotanical profile. About 30% of all citations of Plectranthus use a synonym and most of the synonyms are attributed to 10 of the most used species, 9 of which are in Clade 1. Members of the ‘Coleus’ Clade are the most studied group both taxonomically and economically. The higher incidence of study may be as a result of the higher diversity of uses and the fact that species in Clade 1, such as Plectranthus barbatus, Plectranthus amboinicus andPlectranthus mollis, are geographically more widespread than those in Clade 2. Plectranthus species in Clade 1 are frequently used as medicines and are used to treat a range of ailments, particularly digestive, skin, infective and respiratory problems. Plectranthus
used as foods, flavours, fodder and materials are also mostly found in Clade 1. Monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids and phenolics have been reported in species of Plectranthus. The abietane diterpenoids are the most diverse of the diterpenoids isolated from species of Plectranthus. The labdane diterpenoid, forskolin, occurs in Plectranthus barbatus and could explain some of the traditional uses of this species. This review highlights the fact that not enough is known about the chemistry of other species of Plectranthus to explain their traditional uses.

Keywords: Plectranthus; Ethnobotanical uses; Coleus

Lukhoba CW, Siboe GM. "The value of ethnobotanical data in the preliminary search and identification of potential drug plants. The 9th symposium of the Natural Products Research network for Eastern and Central Africa (NAPRECA).". In: The 9th symposium of the Natural Products Research network for Eastern and Central Africa (NAPRECA).; 2001. Abstract

Traditional medicine has utilized plants to palliate, cure and/or prevent diseases in both humans and
animals. The acquisition of knowledge has been through trial and error, and observation. Today, the enhanced search for botanical drugs throughout the world has increased the need for accurate means of identifying plants with possible pharmacological and biological activity. A number of methodologies have been used in selecting plants likely to possess pharmacological properties, but many have recorded low success rates. Data reported in this paper reveal that the accuracy of identification of these herbal drugs for pertinent ailments using ethnobotanical data is almost as accurate as techniques applied in modern medical practice. This paper discusses the value of ethno - botanical data in the preliminary search for potential drug plants.

Luketero SW, Khalagai JM. "On unitary equivalence of some classes of operators in Hilbertspaces." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2020;5(2):35-37. Abstractfull text link

It is a well-known result in operator theory that whenever two operators are similar then they have equal spectra even though they do not have to belong to the same class of operators. However under a stronger relation of unitary equivalence it can be shown that two unitarily equivalent operators may belong to the same class of op erators. In this paper we endeavor to exhibit results on such classes of operators which belong to same class under unitary equivalence.

Luketero SW, Khalagai JM. "On unitary equivalence of some classes of operators in Hilbert spaces." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2020;5(2):35-37. AbstractWebsite

It is a well-known result in operator theory that whenever two operators are similar then they have equal spectra even though they do not have to belong to the same class of operators. However under a stronger relation of unitary equivalence it can be shown that two unitarily equivalent operators may belong to the same class of operators. In this paper we endeavor to exhibit results on such classes of operators which belong to same class under unitary equivalence.

Lukandu O, Dimba E, Vintermyr O, Costea D, Johannessen A. "P221 Khat inhibits proliferation of normal oral keratinocytes in monolayers and organotypic cultures." Oral Oncology Supplement. 2007;1:198. Abstract
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Lukandu OM, Costea DE, Dimba EA, Neppelberg E, Bredholt T, Gjertsen BT, Vintermyr OK, Johannessen AC. "Khat induces G1-phase arrest and increased expression of stress-sensitive p53 and p16 proteins in normal human oral keratinocytes and fibroblasts." European journal of oral sciences. 2008;116:23-30. Abstract
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Lukandu OM, Koskei LC, Dimba EO. "Motivations for a Career in Dentistry among Dental Students and Dental Interns in Kenya." International journal of dentistry. 2020;2020. Abstract
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Luiza C. Campos DO, Osborn. D. "Water and the UN sustainable development goals." UCL Open Eviron. Submitted:1. Abstract
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Lugusa KO, Wasonga OV, Elhadi YA, Crane TA. "Value chain analysis of grass seeds in the drylands of Baringo County, Kenya: A producers." Pastoralism. 2016;6:6. Abstract
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Ludeki C, Wanyande P, Omosa M. Governance Issues in Kenya: An Overview.; 2007.Website
Lucy W Njagi, Nyaga PN, Mbuthia PG. "Newcastle disease virus and antibody levels in matched sera, ovules and mature eggs of indigenous village hens.". 2008. Abstract

Abstract
In this study, one hundred and thirty three non - vaccinated village hens in lay were tested for carriage of Newcastle disease virus and presence of antibody against the virus in sera, ovules and eggs. Blood was obtained from the hens through wing venipuncture while matched ovules and mature eggs were taken from the oviducts. Cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs
were collected from each hen for virus isolation. Haemagglutination inhibition assay was performed for all sera and egg yolk samples. Protective serum antibody titres of ≥3 (log2) were recorded in 5.3% of the naturally exposed, indigenous village hens. Antibody titres to Newcastle disease virus in the yolks were higher than in their sera (230.08 ± 40.05; 1.56
± 0.74 for egg yolk and sera, respectively) (P<0.05). The mature egg yolks had significantly higher titres of antibodies as compared to the ovules (P<0.05). Sera and egg yolk antibodies were positively correlated (r = 0.50). Newcastle disease virus was isolated in 3.0% of the hens that were also sero - negative. The presence of Newcastle disease virus antibodies in egg yolks and Newcastle disease virus isolation in sero-negative hens, indicate previous natural exposure to the virus, hence viral endemicity in the area.

Key words: Newcastle disease, egg yolk, non-vaccinated, village chickens

Lucy Muchiri, Gathari Ndirangu CKPGJMBEMT. "HIV infection and cervical neoplasia in a Kenyan semi-urban population.". In: 9th APECSA Conference. Mombasa, Kenya; 2008.
Lucy MW, Christine S-KB, Benson EBA, Marleen TT. "Risk Association between Human Leucocyte Antigens (HLA) and Cervical Neoplasia in Kenyan Women.". 2012. Abstract

Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer mortality among women worldwide (Franco et al, 2003). Epidemiological studies have shown a strong link between human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and the development of cervical cancer (Franco et al, carcinogenic process (Chan et al, 2005). Most HPV infections are transient and regress spontaneously and only a minority of women develops persistent infection that with time may evolve into cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and/or progress to invasive cervical cancer(Villa, 1997; Franco et al, 1999). Given that host immune response to HPV is thought to be an important determinant of HPV acquisition and progression to high-grade cervical lesions and cancer, it is plausible that human leucocyte antigen (HLA) variations may affect pathogenesis of cervical neoplasia (Beskow et al, 2005; Clerici et al, 1997; Hildesheim et al, 1997). The major histocompatibility complex is a highly polymorphic gene cluster on the short arm of chromosome six. The genes in this cluster are divided into three classes with different roles in immune responses. HLA gene polymorphisms result in variations in peptide-binding cleft, therefore influencing the antigens bound and presented to T cells (Beskow et al, 2005; Wang e al, 2005). The HLA class I genes (HLAA, -B, and –C) present foreign antigens to CD8+ Cytotoxic T lymphocytes, while class II genes (HLA-DR, - DQ and –DP) present antigenic peptides to CD4+ T helper cells and are important in host immune responses to viruses and other pathogens (Wang et al, 2001).

Lucy OP, Odero AN. "Solution to Economic Load Dispatch Problem using Particle Swarm Optimization.". In: KSEEE. Mombasa, Kenya; 2014. Abstractpso18sept2014.pdf

This paper proposes to determine the feasible optimal solution of the economic load dispatch power systems problem using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) considering various generator constraints. The objective of the proposed method is to determine the steady-state operating point which minimizes the fuel cost, while maintaining an acceptable system performance in terms of limits on generator power, line flow,
prohibited operating zone and non linear cost function. Three diff erent inertia weights; a constant inertia weight CIW, a timevarying inertia weight TVIW, and global-local best inertia weight GLbestIW, are considered with the (PSO) algorithm to analyze the impact of inertia weight on the performance of PSO algorithm. The PSO algorithm is simulated for each of the method individually. It is observed that the PSO algorithm with
the proposed inertia weight (GLbestIW) yields better results, both in terms of optimal solution and faster convergence.

Lucy K, Angeline C. "Computerization readiness among Nurse managers at Kenyatta National Hospital, kenya. ." Online Journal of Nursing Informatics. 2011;15, (1)(February).
Luciani R, Laneve G, Mito C, Jahjah M. "Developing a satellite based automatic system for crop monitoring: Kenya's Great Rift valley a case study.". In: ESA SP 740, LPS16, Proceedings of the conference held 9–13 May 2016. L. Ouwehand. Vol. 740.; 2016:. Abstract
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Luciani R, Laneve G, Jahjah M, Collins M. "Crop species classification: A phenology based approach.". In: 2017 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS). IEEE; 2017:. Abstract
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Luciani R, Laneve G, Jahjah M, Collins M. "Crop species classification: A phenology based approach.". In: 2017 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS). IEEE; 2017:. Abstract
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and Luc Van Purvelde. H., Boscelaers NVDFMMJDK. "Activity of 6-pentacylsalicylic Acid of Ozoroa insignis (Anarcadiaceae) against Marine Crustacians." Pharmaceutical Biology . 2000;40 ((1)):74-76 .
Lubwama SW;, Plummer FA;, Ndinya-Achola JO;, Nsanze H;, Namaara W;, D'Costa LJ;, Ronald AR. "Isolation and identification of Haemophilus ducreyi in a clinical laboratory.". 1986. Abstract

Routine procedures used to isolate Haemophilus ducreyi in a busy laboratory are reported. Identification was based on colony morphology and nutritional and biochemical properties of 120 fresh isolates of H. ducreyi. These isolates grew very well on Gonococcal Agar and Mueller-Hinton Agar incubated at 34 degrees C in candle extinction jars containing moistened filter paper. Colonies varied in size, giving a polymorphic appearance. They were smooth, dome-shaped, and buff-yellow to grey in colour, and measured 2 mm in diameter. They could be pushed intact across the agar surface. By microscopic examination of gram-stained smears the isolates were gram-negative coccobacilli arranged in short chains, clumps or whorls and occasionally in typical "rail track" arrangements. Individual bacteria showed bipolar staining. Colonies autoagglutinated in saline. All strains were catalase-negative and did not produce indole or H2S. They were oxidase- and beta-lactamase positive and required X but not V factor for growth. Now that reliable techniques have been developed and characteristics established it is possible for most clinical laboratories to isolate and identify this organism from most patients with chancroid.

Lubembe DM, Odongo DO, Joubert F, Sibeko-Matjila KP. "Limited diversity in the CD8+ antigen-coding loci in Theileria parva parasites from cattle from southern and eastern Africa." Vet Parasitol. 2021;291:109371. Abstract

Theileria parva infections in cattle causes huge economic losses in the affected African countries, directly impacting the livelihood of the poor small-holder farmers. The current immunization protocol using live sporozoites in eastern Africa, is among the control measures designed to limit T. parva infections in cattle. However, the ability of the immune protection induced by this immunization to protect against field parasites has been compromised by the diversity of the parasite involving the schizont antigen genes. Previous studies have reported on the antigenic diversity of T. parva parasites from southern and eastern Africa, however, similar reports on T. parva parasites particularly from cattle from southern Africa remains scanty, due to the self-limiting nature of Corridor disease. Thus, we evaluated the diversity of CD8+ T-cell regions of ten schizont antigen genes in T. parva parasites associated with Corridor disease and East Coast fever (ECF) from southern and eastern Africa respectively. Regions of schizont antigen (TpAg) genes containing the CD8+ T-cell epitopes (CTL determinants) were amplified from genomic DNA extracted from blood of T. parva positive samples, cloned and sequenced. The results revealed limited diversity between the two parasite groups from cattle from southern and eastern Africa, defying the widely accepted notion that antigen-encoding loci in cattle-derived parasites are conserved, while in buffalo-derived parasites, they are extensively variable. This suggests that only a sub-population of parasites is successfully transmitted from buffalo to cattle, resulting in the limited antigenic diversity in Corridor disease parasites. Tp4, Tp5, Tp7 and Tp8 showed limited to absence of diversity in both parasite groups, suggesting the need to further investigate their immunogenic properties for consideration as candidates for a subunit vaccine. Distinct and common variants of Tp2 were detected among the ECF parasites from eastern Africa indicating evidence of parasite mixing following immunization. This study provides additional information on the comparative diversity of TpAg genes in buffalo- and cattle-derived T. parva parasites from cattle from southern and eastern Africa.

Lubembe DM, Githigia SM, Chogo P, Athumani HM, Kitaa JM. "Management of Bovine Papillomatosis using an Autogenous Vaccine: A case study in Bukura Agricultural College, Western Kenya." Kenya Veterinarian. 2014;38:43-44. Abstract
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Lubembe DM, Odongo DO, Salih DA, Sibeko-Matjila KP. "Microsatellite and minisatellite genotyping of Theileria parva population from southern Africa reveals possible discriminatory allele profiles with parasites from eastern Africa." Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2020;11(6):101539. Abstract

The control of Theileria parva, a protozoan parasite that threatens almost 50% of the cattle population in Africa, is still a challenge in many affected countries. Theileria parva field parasites from eastern Africa, and parasites comprising the current live T. parva vaccine widely deployed in the same region have been reported to be genotypically diverse. However, similar reports on T. parva parasites from southern Africa are limited, especially in Corridor disease designated areas. Establishing the extent of genetic exchange in T. parva populations is necessary for effective control of the parasite infection. Twelve polymorphic microsatellite and minisatellite loci were targeted for genotypic and population genetics analysis of T. parva parasites from South Africa, Mozambique, Kenya and Uganda using genomic DNA prepared from cattle and buffalo blood samples. The results revealed genotypic similarities among parasites from the two regions of Africa, with possible distinguishing allelic profiles on three loci (MS8, MS19 and MS33) for parasites associated with Corridor disease in South Africa, and East Coast fever in eastern Africa. Individual populations were in linkage equilibrium (VL) was observed. Genetic divergence was observed to be more within (AMOVA = 74%) than between (AMOVA = 26%) populations. Principal coordinate analysis showed clustering that separated buffalo-derived from cattle-derived T. parva parasites, although parasites from cattle showed a close genetic relationship. The results also demonstrated geographic sub-structuring of T. parva parasites based on the disease syndromes caused in cattle in the two regions of Africa. These findings provide additional information on the genotypic diversity of T. parva parasites from South Africa, and reveal possible differences based on three loci (MS8, MS19 and MS33) and similarities between buffalo-derived T. parva parasites from southern and eastern Africa.

Lubembe DM, Githigia SM, Chogo P, Athumani HM, Kitaa JM. "Management of bovine papillomatosis using an Autogenous Vaccine: A case study in Bukura Agricultural College, Western Kenya.". In: Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 8th Biennial and 46th Annual Scientific Conference of the Kenya Veterinary Association. Safaripark Hotel, Nairobi Kenya; 2012.
Luambano N;, Kimenju JW;, Narla R;, Waceke JW. "Colonisation of the Rhizosphere of plants which are poor host to root-knot nematodes by the biological agent Pochonia chlamydosporia."; 2011. Abstract

Management of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.,) using fungi that parasitize eggs of root-knot and cyst nematodes has been gaining popularity. Application of this fungus to plants that are poor host to root-knot nematodes has shown good results. This study was conducted to screen plants that support growth of Pochonia chlamydosporia on its rhizosphere. Seedlings of cabbage, sunhemp, maize, velvet bean, African marigold and tomato were planted in pots containing sterilized soil which had Pochonia chlamydosporia. Thirty days after planting, the fungal propagules in the soil and roots increased significantly (P<0.05) in all plants with the exception of velvet beans. Ninety days after planting, the counts of the fungal propagules taken from the soil were significant higher (P<0.05) in the rhizosphere where maize was planted than in other plants. This study concluded that maize is a promising rotational in system where P. chlamydosporia is used as a biocontrol agent.

Luambano N;, Kimenju JW;, Narla R;, Waceke JW. "Colonisation of the Rhizosphere of plants which are poor host to root-knot nematodes by the biological agent Pochonia chlamydosporia."; 2011. Abstract

Management of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.,) using fungi that parasitize eggs of root-knot and cyst nematodes has been gaining popularity. Application of this fungus to plants that are poor host to root-knot nematodes has shown good results. This study was conducted to screen plants that support growth of Pochonia chlamydosporia on its rhizosphere. Seedlings of cabbage, sunhemp, maize, velvet bean, African marigold and tomato were planted in pots containing sterilized soil which had Pochonia chlamydosporia. Thirty days after planting, the fungal propagules in the soil and roots increased significantly (P<0.05) in all plants with the exception of velvet beans. Ninety days after planting, the counts of the fungal propagules taken from the soil were significant higher (P<0.05) in the rhizosphere where maize was planted than in other plants. This study concluded that maize is a promising rotational in system where P. chlamydosporia is used as a biocontrol agent.

Luambano ND, Manzanilla-López RH, Kimenju JW, Powers SJ, Narla RD, Wanjohi WJ, Kerry BR. "Effect of temperature, pH, carbon and nitrogen ratios on the parasitic activity of Pochonia chlamydosporia on Meloidogyne incognita. Biological Control.". 2015;80:23-29.
Lu Y, Benlic U, Wu Q, Peng B. "Memetic algorithm for the multiple traveling repairman problem with profits." Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence. 2019;80:35-47. Abstract
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Lu W, Liu S, Li B, Xie Y, Adhiambo C, Yang Q, Ballard BR, Nakayama KI, Matusik RJ, Chen Z. "SKP2 inactivation suppresses prostate tumorigenesis by mediating JARID1B ubiquitination." Oncotarget. 2015;6(2):771-88. Abstract

Aberrant elevation of JARID1B and histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) is frequently observed in many diseases including prostate cancer (PCa), yet the mechanisms on the regulation of JARID1B and H3K4me3 through epigenetic alterations still remain poorly understood. Here we report that Skp2 modulates JARID1B and H3K4me3 levels in vitro in cultured cells and in vivo in mouse models. We demonstrated that Skp2 inactivation decreased H3K4me3 levels, along with a reduction of cell growth, cell migration and malignant transformation of Pten/Trp53 double null MEFs, and further restrained prostate tumorigenesis of Pten/Trp53 mutant mice. Mechanistically, Skp2 decreased the K63-linked ubiquitination of JARID1B by E3 ubiquitin ligase TRAF6, thus decreasing JARID1B demethylase activity and in turn increasing H3K4me3. In agreement, Skp2 deficiency resulted in an increase of JARID1B ubiquitination and in turn a reduction of H3K4me3, and induced senescence through JARID1B accumulation in nucleoli of PCa cells and prostate tumors of mice. Furthermore, we showed that the elevations of Skp2 and H3K4me3 contributed to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in mice, and were positively correlated in human PCa specimens. Taken together, our findings reveal a novel network of SKP2-JARID1B, and targeting SKP2 and JARID1B may be a potential strategy for PCa control.

LT E, J O, GO O. "Fever of unknown origin: A rheumatologic perspective." Afr J Rheumatol . 2018;6(1):26-28.fever_of_unknown_origin.pdf
Loyford Njagi, Bernard Nzimbi, Moindi S. "A note on analysis and synthesis operators of a frame and reconstruction of a signal from frame coefficients." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2019;4(5):93-99. AbstractWebsite

We discuss basic properties of Analysis and synthesis operators a frame. The structure of matrix
representation of the Synthesis operator is also analysed. This matrix is what most frame constructions in
fact focus on. The frame operator which is just the joining together of the analysis and synthesis
operators is fundamental for the reconstruction of signals from frame coefficients

Loyal P, ONGETI K, Mandela P, Ogeng’o J. "Gender related patterns in the shape and dimensions of the foramen magnum in an adult Kenyan population." Anat J Afr . 2013;2 (2):138-141.
Loyal PK, Ongeti K, Mandela P, Odula P. "Functional adaptability of the tunica media of the atriopulmonary junction." Austin J of . 2015;2(2):1034.poonamjeet_atj_austin.pdf
Loyal PK, Butt F, Ogeng’o JA. "Branching pattern of the Extraosseus Mental Nerve in a Kenyan population." Craniomaxilofac Trauma Reconstruct. 2013;6:251-256.
Lowther K, Harding R, Victoria Simms, Aabid Ahmed, Zipporah Ali, Nancy Gikaara, Lorraine Sherr, Hellen Kariuki, and Selman IHLEJ. "Active ingredients of a person-centred intervention for people on HIV treatment: analysis of mixed methods trial data ." BMC Infectious Diseases . 2018;18:27(1):27.
Lowther K, Harding R, Aabid Ahmed, Nancy Gikaara, Ali Z, Hellen Kariuki, Lorraine Sherr 5 VS. "Conducting experimental research in marginalised populations: clinical and methodological implications from a mixed-methods randomised controlled trial in Kenya." AIDS Care . 2016;28 (Suppl 1(sup1)):60-63.
Lowther K, Irene J Higginson, Victoria Simms, Nancy Gikaara, Aabid Ahmed, Zipporah Ali, Gaudencia Afuande, Hellen Kariuki, Lorraine Sherr, Rachel Jenkins LSRH. "A randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of a nurse-led palliative care intervention for HIV positive patients on antiretroviral therapy: recruitment, refusal, randomisation and missing data." BMC Res. Notes. 2014;3(7):600.
Lowther K, Harding R, Victoria Simms, Nancy Gikaara, Aabid Ahmed, Zipporah Ali, Hellen Kariuki, Lorraine Sherr, Selman IHLJ &. "Effect of participation in a randomised controlled trial of an integrated palliative care intervention on HIV-associated stigma." AIDS Care . 2018;30(9):1180-1188.
Lowther K, Victoria Simms, Selman L, Lorraine Sherr, Liz Gwyther, Hellen Kariuki, Aabid Ahmed, Zipporah Ali, Rachel Jenkins, Irene J Higginson RH. "Treatment outcomes in palliative care: the TOPCare study. A mixed methods phase III randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of a nurse-led palliative care intervention for HIV positive patients on antiretroviral therapy." BMC Infect Dis.. 2012;6(12):288.
Lown B;, Bukachi F;, Xavier R. "Health information in the developing world.". 2001. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical outcome of successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) in patients with poor ventricular function. METHODS: Analysis of angiographic, echocardiographic and clinical records of patients with severe LV dysfunction who underwent PTCA from January 1, 1995 to December 31, 1997 was undertaken. Forty-one patients aged 63+/-10 years, 36 men, all with significant coronary artery disease and impaired LV function (fractional shortening, FS

Lowe NK. "The nature of labor pain." American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2002;186:S16-S24. AbstractWebsite

A somewhat paradoxic aspect of childbirth is the association of this physiologic process with acute pain. The experience of pain during labor is the result of complex processing of multiple physiologic and psychosocial factors on a woman's individual interpretation of nociceptive labor stimuli. The nature of labor pain, particularly its physiologic and psychologic influences, is reviewed in the context of a multidimensional framework of the pain experience and an understanding of the origin of labor pain stimuli, of potential adverse effects of the pain response, and of the concepts of suffering and comfort. (Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002;186:S16-24.)

Losovyj YB, Ruihua Cheng, J Carvell, E Ayieta. "Angle resolved photoemission study of surface states on the Pt (997) vicinal surface." Physics Letters A. 2010;374(30):3080-3083. Abstract

One-dimensional atomic chains can be synthesized on stepped surfaces and the electronic
structure of the high vicinal surface plays an essential role in determining the physical
properties of atomic chains grown on top of it. We have applied surface analysis techniques
to study the surface of a Pt (997) single crystal. The STM image of the surface showed that
the surface was uniform with a well defined distance between the terraces. Angle resolved
photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) was used to characterize the electronic states of …

Lorroki P, Muthomi J, Ininda J, Gichuru L, Githiri S, Wagacha. M. "Mode of Gene Action to Maize Streak Virus in Mid Altitude Inbred Lines CML202 and Osu23i." International Journal of Applied Science and Technology. 2017;7(3):9-18.
Lorraine A, Osanjo L. "Tinga Tinga Tales: Reawakening Folktales from Africa." Design Magazine,SA. 2010;(No. 2):108-113.
Lorkin PA, Stephens AD, Beard ME, Wrigley PF, Adams L, Lehmann H. "Haemoglobin Rahere (beta Lys-Thr): A new high affinity haemoglobin associated with decreased 2, 3-diphosphoglycerate binding and relative polycythaemia." Br Med J. 1975;4(5990):200-2. Abstract

A new haemoglobin with increased oxygen affinity, beta82 (EF6) lysine leads to threonine (Hb Rahere), was found during the investigation of a patient who was found to have a raised haemoglobin concentration after a routine blood count. The substitution affects one of the 2, 3-diphosphoglycerate binding sites, resulting in an increased affinity for oxygen, but both the haem-haem interaction and the alkaline Bohr effect are normal in the haemolysate. This variant had the same mobility as haemoglobin A on electrophoresis at alkaline pH but was detected by measuring the whole blood oxygen affinity; it could be separated from haemoglobin A, however, by electrophoresis in agar at acid pH. The raised haemoglobin concentration was mainly due to a reduction in plasma volume (a relative polycythaemia) and was associated with a persistently raised white blood count. This case emphasises the need to measure the oxygen affinity of haemoglobin in all patients with absolute or relative polycythaemia when some obvious cause is not evident.

Lorenza Beati, Jaymin Patel HL-WHAEKET-MRKJG. "Phylogeography and Demographic History of Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius) (Acari: Ixodidae), the Tropical Bont Tick." Vector-borne and Zoonotic Diseases . 2012;12:1-12.
Lorenz LM, Keane A, Moore JD, Munk CJ, Seeholzer L, Mseka A, Simfukwe E, Ligamba J, Turner EL, Biswaro LR, Okumu FO, GF K, WR M, SJ. M. "Taxis assays measure directional movement of mosquitoes to olfactory cues. Parasites & Vectors." Parasites & Vectors. 2013;3(6):131.
Lore T. Studies on the microflora in suusac, a Kenyan traditional fermented camel milk product. K. MS, J. W, eds. University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract

The purpose of the study was to determine the lactic acid bacteria (LAB)and yeasts
associated with the traditional fermented camel milk product (suusac) of the Somali
community in Kenya. The traditional method of suusac production was studied by use
of questionnaire and documented. The microbial content profile and changes during
fermentation were then determined.
From 15 samples of traditionally fermented suusac, 45 LABand 30 yeast strains were
isolated ~d identified using API 50 CHL and API 20C AUXidentification systems,
respectively. The total viable microorganisms, LAB,coliforms, and yeasts and molds
were enumerated. The isolates were investigated for their functional roles in the
fermentation process, namely, acidification, flavour/aroma production and proteolytic
activity. Fermentation trials with single and mixed strain cultures were investigated to
assess their acidification and flavour-producing properties.
The traditional production of suusac involves spontaneous fermentation of camel milk
in smoked gourds at ambient temperature for 1-2 days. The milk is not subjected to
heat treatment prior to fermentation. The isolated LAB species were identified as
Lactobacillus curvatus (8% of total isolates), Lactobacillus plantarum (16%), Lactobacillus
soliuarius (8%), Lactococcus raffinolactis (4%) and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp.
mesenteroides (24%). The isolated yeasts were Candida krusei (20%), Geotrichum
penicillatum (12%) and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (8%). In traditional suusac, LAB
counts averaged 6.77 logrocfu Zml, while yeast counts were relatively lower (2.05
log.ocfuZml]. Low coliform numbers were encountered « 1 log cfu /rnl].
The LAB produced considerable acidity and majority (60%) were homofermentative.
The primary functional role of the LAB was fermentation of lactose to lactic acid,
resulting in acidity levels ranging from 0.46-0.67% lactic acid equivalent. All the LAB
isolates recorded high proteolytic activity, except for L. raffinolactis, which did not
exhibit any proteolytic activity. The LAB showed varying degrees of diacetyl
production. Of the LAB, L. curvatus recorded the highest diacetyl flavour score,
corresponding to >30 mg diacetyl/ 100 ml of milk.
The yeast isolates showed limited carbohydrate-assimilating capabilities, but played a
role in flavour development and proteolysis. G. penicillatum produced diacetyl (3.1-10
mg/lOO ml), although it did not exhibit any proteolytic activity. C. krusei exhibited
some proteolytic activity, although its diacetyl-producing capacity in camel milk was
minimal (0.5-3 mg/ 100 ml).
C. krusei also played a role in mixed starter fermentation of camel milk by increasing
the activity of the LAB cultures and improving product flavour. The use of C. krusei +
1. plantarum (1: 1) and C. krusei + L. curvatus (1: 1) reduced the fermentation time by
half as compared to the use of the cultures individually.

Lore TA, Mbugua SK, Wangoh J. "Enumeration and identification of micro flora in suusac, a Kenyan traditional fermented camel milk product." Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und-Technologie . 2005;38(2):125-130.
Lore TA, Imungi JK, Mubuu K. "A Framing Analysis of Newspaper Coverage of Genetically Modified Crops in Kenya.". 2013. Abstract

There was much public debate in Kenya about genetically modified (GM) crops when the national Biosafety Bill went through the parliamentary process toward enactment into law. This study analyzed how GM crops were framed in three mainstream Kenyan newspapers—the Daily Nation, The Standard, and Taifa Leo—during the period. The agriculture frame was predominant in the Daily Nation and The Standard, while the safety and regulation frames dominated coverage in Taifa Leo. Only 34.7% of articles were neutral in tone. Scientists and government officials, who generally spoke in favor of GM crops, were the most frequently quoted sources. Recommendations to improve the quality of coverage include training of journalists to ensure objective and balanced reporting.

Loonturot PS, Mwero JN, Kabubo CK. "Laterized Quarry Dust and Crushed Bricks as Alternative Concrete Making Materials." Journal of Civil Engineering. 2017;Vol 3(1):1-14.
Longo D, Fauci A, Kasper D, Hauser S, Jameson J, Loscalzo J. Harrison's {Principles} of {Internal} {Medicine} 18E {Vol} 2 {EB}. McGraw Hill Professional; 2012. Abstract
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Longair MH, Baker DA, Armstrong DJ. "Simple {Neurite} {Tracer}: open source software for reconstruction, visualization and analysis of neuronal processes." Bioinformatics. 2011;27:2453-2454. AbstractWebsite

Motivation: Advances in techniques to sparsely label neurons unlock the potential to reconstruct connectivity from 3D image stacks acquired by light microscopy. We present an application for semi-automated tracing of neurons to quickly annotate noisy datasets and construct complex neuronal topologies, which we call the Simple Neurite Tracer. Availability: Simple Neurite Tracer is open source software, licensed under the GNU General Public Licence (GPL) and based on the public domain image processing software ImageJ. The software and further documentation are available via http://fiji.sc/Simple\_Neurite\_Tracer as part of the package Fiji, and can be used on Windows, Mac OS and Linux. Documentation and introductory screencasts are available at the same URL. Contact: longair@ini.phys.ethz.ch; longair@ini.phys.ethz.ch

Long J, Kanyinga K, Ferree K, Gibson C. "Choosing Peace over Democracy." Journal of Democracy. 2013;Vol. 24(No. 3):140-155.
Long JK, Murphy SP, Weiss RE, Nyerere S, Bwibo NO, Neumann CG. "Meat and milk intakes and toddler growth: a comparison feeding intervention of animal-source foods in rural Kenya." Public Health Nutr. 2012;15(6):1100-7. AbstractMeat and milk intakes and toddler growth

To examine the effects of animal-source foods on toddler growth.

Long J;, Kanyinga K. "The Political Economy of Reforms in Kenya: The Post-2007 Election Violence and a New Constitution." African Studies Review. 2012;55(1):31-51. AbstractWebsite

This article explores the package of “Agenda item 4” reforms
undertaken by the Kenyan government in the mediation process following
the 2007–8 postelection violence, including those relating to long-standing
issues over constitutional revision. It situates the previous lack of reforms
within Kenya’s political economy and demonstrates how political and economic
interests thwarted progress and produced the postelection crisis.
It also examines the more recent attempts to address reforms following
the signing of the National Accord and the creation of a power-sharing
government, and finds strong public support for constitutional revision.
It concludes that these pressures from below, along with a realignment of political interests and institutional change from power-sharing, helped support
reform.

Lombard A, Wairire GG. "Developmental Social Work in South Africa and Kenya: Some Lessons for Africa." The Social Work Practitioner-Researcher. 2010:98-111.

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