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Nderitu JH;, Kasina M;, Muchirah N. "Commercialization Of Patented Herbal Medicinal Products In Kenya."; 2011.
Karimurio J. Commitant Esotropia in a Kenyan African Population at Kenyatta National Hospital.. Nairobi: Nairobi; 1990. Abstract

Hard copy available at the Department of Ophthalmology of the University of Nairobi.

Kibugi R. "Common but differentiated responsibilities in a North-South context: assessment of the evolving practice under climate change treaties.". In: Elgar Encyclopedia of Environmental Law. Edward Elgar Publishing Limited; 2018:. Abstract
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Karanja DN;, Ngatia TA;, Wandera JG;, Njomo. "Common Gastrointestinal Parasites In Donkeys In Kenya.".; 1993.
Obondo A, Khasakhala L, editor Ndetei DM, Mutiso V, Ongecha-Owuor F. "Communication and Communication Skills."; 2006.
KAVITI DRLILIANKATUNGE. "A Communications Strategy and Marketing Handbook for the International Peace Support Training Centre: Kenya,.". In: Acarologia, XLIX, 3-4 : 121-137. Noel Design and Publishing, Nairobi.; 2011.
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Community capacity building as an opportunity for sustainable land management: lessons from Ndome and Ghazi in Taita-Taveta District, Kenya. Journal of Agriculture in the Tropics and Subtropics, Vol 101 pp 181-189.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2000. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
KANYIRI PROFMUCHUNGAELISHA. "Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 .". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1979. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

Chimoita EL, Njuguna EK, Khaleha CM. "Community Efforts Towards Farms Management Through Agroforestry Activities in Western Kenya." The Asian Academic Research Journal of Multidiciplinary. 2014;1(27).published_paper2.pdf
E.S A, Opiyo J, Menberu R, Odoyo J, Kaseje D. "Community Empowerment for Food and Income Security through Partnership Agriculture: An approach to sustainable food security in Abom sub location in Bondo district, Kenya.". In: The Quest for Equity in Access to Health and Development. Scaling Up Best Practices In Decentralized District Health Systems. TICH, Kisumu, Kenya; 2003.
Lund JF;, Bhandari NS;, Baral K;, Kharel KK;, KK; Puri L;, Chhetri BBK;, Nielsen, Ø.J; Upadhyaya CP, Upadhyaya CP. "Community forestry common funds in Nepal."; 2010.
Lund JF;, Bhandari NS;, Baral K;, Kharel KK;, Puri L;, Chhetri BBK;, Nielsen, Ø.J; Upadhyaya CP, Nielsen, Ø.J; Upadhyaya CP. "Community forestry common funds in Nepal."; 2010.
E.N. PN, Hirschfeld M, Lindsey E, Kimani V, Mwanthi M, Olenja J, Pigott W, Messervy P, Mudongo K, Ncube E, Rantona K, Bale S, Limtragool P, Nunthachaipun P. COMMUNITY HOME-BASED CARE IN RESOURCE-LIMITED SETTINGS. Geneva: THE CROSS CLUSTER INITIATIVE ON HOME-BASED LONG-TERM CARE, NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND MENTAL HEALTH AND THE DEPARTMENT OF HIV/AIDS, FAMILY AND COMMUNITY HEALTH, WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION; 2002. AbstractWebsite

COMMUNITY HOME-BASED CARE IN RESOURCE-LIMITED SETIINGS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
6
his document provides a systematic framework for establishing and maintaining community home-based care (CRBC) in resource-limited
settings for people with RIV / AIDS and those with other chronic or disabling conditions. Most CRBC services so far have been established through unsystematic, needs-based efforts. As the RIV / AIDS epidemic continues to grow, many organizations and communities are now considering expanding in a more programmatic approach, and countries are looking for scaled-up responses and national strategies for CRBe. This document therefore provides an important framework to guide governments, national and international donor agencies and community-based organizations (including nongovernmental organizations, faith-based organizations and community groups) in developing or expanding CRBC programmes. The need for such a document has been clearly identified.
CRBC is defined as any form of care given to ill people in their homes. Such care includes physical, psychosocial, palliative and spiritual activities. The goal of CRBC is to provide hope through high-quality and appropriate care that helps ill people and families to maintain their independence and achieve the best possible quality of life.
This document targets three important audiences: policy-makers and senior administrators, middle managers and those who develop and run CRBC programmes. Although the roles and responsibilities of these target audiences differ somewhat, developing effective partnerships among the three is essential. Policy-makers and senior administrators must be involved in developing and monitoring CRBC programmes, and the people who manage and run the programmes must share information and feedback with senior administrators. In this sense, policy and action are interrelated as each partner learns from and guides the other. To this end, this document is divided into four interrelated sections: a policy framework for CRBC; the roles and responsibilities for CRBC at the national, district and local levels of administration; the essential elements of CRBC; and the strategies for action in establishing and maintaining CRBC in resource-limited settings.

Othieno CJ, Kitazi N, Mburu J, Obondo A, Mathai MA, Loewenson R. Community participation in the management of Mental disorders in Kariobangi, Kenya .; 2008.
Ouko C, Mulwa R, Kibugi R, Owuor M, Zaehringer J, Oguge N. "Community Perceptions of Ecosystem Services and the Management of Mt. Marsabit Forest in Northern Kenya." Environments. 2018;5(11):121. Abstract
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Mochabo MOK, Kitala PM, Gathura PB, Ogara WO, Eregae EM, Kaitho TD, A C. "Community perceptions of important camel diseases in Lapur Division of Turkana District, Kenya." Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2005;37(3):187-204.
Kimiti KS, Wasonga OV, Western D, Mbau JS. "Community perceptions on spatio-temporal land use changes in the Amboseli ecosystem, southern Kenya." Pastoralism. 2016;6:24. Abstract
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Wyckliff N, Kitaa J, Thaiyah A, others. "Community's perception on zoonotic potential of dog helminthes infections in Kangemi slum of Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2017;6:90-95. Abstract
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Sahu BK, Kimata PM, Gichaga FJ. "Compaction Characteristics of Nairobi Soils.". In: First National Conference.Sudan Engineering Society. Khartoum.; 1984.
MUTAYOBA, B.M., GOMBE, S., Waindi EN, KAAYA GP. "Comparative trypanotolerance of the small East African breeds of goats, from different localities, to Trypanosoma congolense infection." Veterinary Parasitology . 1989;31:95-105.
Kipchirchir IC. "Comparative Analysis of Dispersion Models." Advances and Applications in Statistics. 2013;37(1):13-35.
Gawriluk TR, Simkin1 J, L K, K S, Thompson, K.L., Biswas1, Clare-Salzler Z, Kimani JM, Kiama SG, J. J. "Comparative analysis of ear-hole closure identifies epimorphic regeneration as a discrete trait in mammals.". 2016.
Gawriluk, T. R., Simkin, J., Thompson, K.L., Biswas, S., Clare-Salzler, Z., Kimani, J.M., Kiama, S.G., Ezenwa V.O., Smith, M. "Comparative analysis of ear-hole closure identifies epimorphic regeneration as a discrete trait in mammals. Nat. Commun. 7:11164 doi: 10.1038/ncomms11164.". 2016.
Mwabu G, K.Muriithi M, G.Mutegi R. "Comparative Analysis of Labour Income Profiles.". In: NTA Meetings. University of Hawaii, USA; 2011.
CORNEJO JAF, MAGAS LE, GARCÍA EMDP, LARRIBA CH, RUIZ CÁCERESJI, KABUBO-MARIARA J, Kinuthia BK, EYDAL BJÖRKG, Bjarnason T, HRAFNSDÓTTIR S, JEANS CL. "COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PROFESSIONAL AND FAMILY ASPIRATIONS OF FEMALE AND MALE UNIVERSITY STUDENTS FROM KENYA, SPAIN AND ICELAND." Fundación de las Cajas de Ahorros (FUNCAS). 2014.
Kipchirchir IC. "COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF DISPERSION AND COMPETITION ON POPULATION SUSTAINABILITY." ADVANCES AND APPLICATIONS IN STATISTICS. 2017;51(1):17-38. AbstractWebsite

In this paper, dispersion, population dynamics and competition which are typical characteristic ecological properties of a population are discussed. In particular, a comparative analysis of the effect of dispersion (overdispersion and randomness) and competition (contest and scramble) on sustainability of a single species population is considered. Population sustainability by the environment is captured by the carrying capacity of the environment which is also the equilibrium of the population. In the study, the comparative analysis is restricted to positive growth of a single species population and a stable equilibrium. The results indicate that overdispersed (clustered) population contest for resources whereas random population scramble for resources. The comparative analysis established that population sustainability of overdispersed population characterized by contest competition is more than three times population sustainability of random population characterized by scramble competition.

Kimani JM. "Comparative Analysis of Wound Healing and Regenerative Ability in Different Mammals. .". In: Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine. South Africa; 2016.
Gikonyo J, Kibegwa F, Inyangala B. "Comparative assessment of hatching rates of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) eggs using Nile cabbage and kaka bans substrates." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2017;29. Abstract
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Barry A, Olsson S, Minzi O, Bienvenu E, Makonnen E, Kamuhabwa A, Oluka M. "Comparative Assessment of the National Pharmacovigilance Systems in East Africa: Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda and Tanzania." Drug Safety. 2020;43(4):339-350.abby_et_almanuscript-2020.pdf
Oluka MN, Mitema SE, Kibwage IO, Kibwage IO, Kwasa TO, Kokwaro GO. "comparative bioavailability of four Carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market." East Afr Med J. . 1996;73(5):323-326. AbstractWebsite

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.

Mutsotso B, Muya EM, Karanja N, Okoth PFZ, Romen H, Munga'tu J, Thuranira G. "COMPARATIVE DESCRIPTION OF LAND USE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF BELOWGROUND BIODIVERSITY BENCHMARK SITES IN KENYA ." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2009;11(2):263-275.
K.Gakunga D. Comparative Education TFD 401 E-learning Module uploaded in the University of Nairobi E-learning Portal . Nairobi: University of Nairobi e-Learning Portal; 2010.
Nakami WN, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Kipyegon AN’eno, Ogugo M, Muteti C, Kemp S. "Comparative Efficiency for in vitro Transfection of Goat Undifferentiated Spermatogonia Using Lipofectamine Reagents and Electroporation." Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications. 2022;15:11-20.
Nakami WN, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Kipyegon AN’eno, Ogugo M, Muteti C, Stephen K. "Comparative Efficiency for in vitro Transfection of Goat Undifferentiated Spermatogonia Using Lipofectamine Reagents and Electroporation." Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications. 2022;15:11. Abstract

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Nakami WN, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Kipyegon AN’eno, Ogugo M, Muteti C, Stephen K. "Comparative Efficiency for in vitro Transfection of Goat Undifferentiated Spermatogonia Using Lipofectamine Reagents and Electroporation." Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications. 2022;15:11.
Mathenge EM, Omweri GO, Irungu LW, Ndegwa PN, Welczak E, undefined, Kileen GF, Knols BJG. "Comparative field evaluation of Mbita trap, CDC light trap and the Human Landing Catch for sampling of malaria vectors." American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene . 2004;70:33-37.Website
Mathenge EM, Omweri GO, Irungu LW, Ndegwa PN, Walczak E, Smith TA, Killeen GF, Knols BG. "Comparative field evaluation of the Mbita trap, the Centers for Disease Control light trap, and the human landing catch for sampling of malaria vectors in western Kenya." The American journal of tropical medicine & hygiene. 2004;70(1):33-37. AbstractThe American journal of tropical medicine &amp; hygiene

The mosquito sampling efficiency of a new bed net trap (the Mbita trap) was compared with that of the Centers for Disease Control miniature light trap (hung adjacent to an occupied bed net) and the human landing catch in western Kenya. Overall, the Mbita trap caught 48.7 +/- 4.8% (mean +/- SEM) the number of Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu lato caught in the human landing catch and 27.4 +/- 8.2% of the number caught by the light trap. The corresponding figures for Anopheles funestus Giles were 74.6 +/- 1.3% and 39.2 +/- 1.9%, respectively. Despite the clear differences in the numbers of mosquitoes caught by each method, both the Mbita trap and light trap catches were directly proportional to human landing catches regardless of mosquito density. No significant differences in parity or sporozoite incidence were observed between mosquitoes caught by the three methods for either An. gambiae s.l. or An. funestus. Identification of the sibling species of the An. gambiae complex by a polymerase chain reaction indicated that the ratio of An. gambiae Giles sensu stricto to An. arabiensis Patton did not vary according to the sampling method used. It is concluded that the Mbita trap is a promising tool for sampling malaria vector populations since its catch can be readily converted into equivalent human biting catch, it can be applied more intensively, it requires neither expensive equipment nor skilled personnel, and it samples mosquitoes in an exposure-free manner. Such intensive sampling capability will allow cost-effective surveillance of malaria transmission at much finer spatial and temporal resolution than has been previously possible.

KAVOI M. BONIFACE ET AL. "Comparative functional structure of the olfactory mucosa in the domestic dog and sheep." Annals of Anatomy. 2010;192:329-337. AbstractWebsite

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Olfactory acuity differs among animal species depending on age and dependence on smell. However, the attendant functional anatomy has not been elucidated. We sought to determine the functional structure of the olfactory mucosa in suckling and adult dog and sheep. Mucosal samples harvested from ethmoturbinates were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. In both species, the olfactory mucosa comprised olfactory, supporting and basal cells, and a lamina propria containing bundles of olfactory cell axons, Bowman’s glands and vascular elements. The olfactory cells terminated apically with an expanded knob, from which cilia projected in a radial fashion from its base and in form of a tuft from its apex in the dog and the sheep respectively. Olfactory cilia per knob weremorenumerous in the dog (19±3) compared to the sheep (7±2) (p < 0.05). In the dog, axonal bundles exhibited one to two centrally located capillaries and the bundles were of greater diameters (73.3±10.3_m) than those of the sheep (50.6±6.8_m), which had no capillaries. From suckling to adulthood in the dog, the packing density of the olfactory and supporting cells increased by 22.5% and 12.6% respectively. Surprisingly in the sheep, the density of the olfactory cells decreased by 26.2% while that of the supportive cells showed no change. Overall epithelial thickness reached 72.5±2.9_m in the dog and 56.8±3.1_m in the sheep. These observations suggest that the mucosa is better structurally refined during maturation in the dog than in the sheep.

Kavoi B, Makanya A, Hassanali J, Carlsson HE, Kiama S. "Comparative functional structure of the olfactory mucosa in the domestic dog and sheep.". 2010. Abstract

Olfactory acuity differs among animal species depending on age and dependence on smell. However, the attendant functional anatomy has not been elucidated. We sought to determine the functional structure of the olfactory mucosa in suckling and adult dog and sheep. Mucosal samples harvested from ethmoturbinates were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. In both species, the olfactory mucosa comprised olfactory, supporting and basal cells, and a lamina propria containing bundles of olfactory cell axons, Bowman's glands and vascular elements. The olfactory cells terminated apically with an expanded knob, from which cilia projected in a radial fashion from its base and in form of a tuft from its apex in the dog and the sheep respectively. Olfactory cilia per knob were more numerous in the dog (19 ± 3) compared to the sheep (7 ± 2)
(p<0.05). In the dog, axonal bundles exhibited one to two centrally located capillaries and the bundles were of greater diameters (73.3 ± 10.3 μm) than those of the sheep (50.6 ± 6.8 μm), which had no capillaries. From suckling to adulthood in the dog, the packing density of the olfactory and supporting cells increased by 22.5% and 12.6% respectively. Surprisingly in the sheep, the density of the olfactory cells decreased by 26.2% while that of the supportive cells showed no change. Overall epithelial thickness reached 72.5 ± 2.9 μm in the dog and 56.8 ± 3.1 μm in the sheep. These observations suggest that the mucosa is better structurally refined during maturation in the dog than in the sheep.

Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
PMID: 20801626
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Kavoi BM, Makanya AN, Hassanali J, Carlsson HE, Kiama S. "Comparative functional structure of the olfactory mucosa in the domestic dog and sheep." Ann. Anat.. 2010;192(5):329-37. Abstract

Olfactory acuity differs among animal species depending on age and dependence on smell. However, the attendant functional anatomy has not been elucidated. We sought to determine the functional structure of the olfactory mucosa in suckling and adult dog and sheep. Mucosal samples harvested from ethmoturbinates were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. In both species, the olfactory mucosa comprised olfactory, supporting and basal cells, and a lamina propria containing bundles of olfactory cell axons, Bowman's glands and vascular elements. The olfactory cells terminated apically with an expanded knob, from which cilia projected in a radial fashion from its base and in form of a tuft from its apex in the dog and the sheep respectively. Olfactory cilia per knob were more numerous in the dog (19 ± 3) compared to the sheep (7 ± 2) (p<0.05). In the dog, axonal bundles exhibited one to two centrally located capillaries and the bundles were of greater diameters (73.3 ± 10.3 μm) than those of the sheep (50.6 ± 6.8 μm), which had no capillaries. From suckling to adulthood in the dog, the packing density of the olfactory and supporting cells increased by 22.5% and 12.6% respectively. Surprisingly in the sheep, the density of the olfactory cells decreased by 26.2% while that of the supportive cells showed no change. Overall epithelial thickness reached 72.5 ± 2.9 μm in the dog and 56.8 ± 3.1 μm in the sheep. These observations suggest that the mucosa is better structurally refined during maturation in the dog than in the sheep.

Kinyanyi, Amwayi, Wamalwa, M;, Obiero, G.O. "Comparative in silico study of congocidine congeners as potential inhibitors of African swine fever virus." Plos One. 2019;14(8).
Kiama SG, Adekunle JS, Maina JN. "Comparative in vitro study of interactions between particles and respiratory surface macrophages, erythrocytes, and epithelial cells of the chicken and the rat. .". In: Journal of Anatomy 213:452-63. Elsevier; 2008. Abstract

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya

Kimani SM, Ogeng'o JA, Saidi H, Ndung'u B. "Comparative intimal-media morphology of the human splenic and common hepatic arteries." J. Morphol. Sci. 2011;28(1):52-56.
K.W. M, R.M. W, J.W. M, Mbuthia PG, R.H. M. "Comparative management practices and parasitic infestations of farmed tilapia in Kiambu and Kirinyaga counties, Kenya." Scholars Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences. 2018;5(3):156-161.
KAVOI M. BONIFACE ET AL. "Comparative Morphometry of the Olfactory Bulb, Tract and Stria in the Human, Dog and Goat." International Journal of Morphology. 2011;29:939-946.Website
Kavoi, B.M ETAL. "Comparative Morphometry of the Olfactory Bulb, Tract and Stria in the Human, Dog and Goat.". In: The 10th International Conference of the Society of Neuroscientists of Africa “Topics in Neuroscience: Basic to Clinic. University of Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2011.
Mathenge EM, Misiani GO, Oulo DO, Irungu LW, Ndegwa PN, Smith TA, Killeen GF, Knols BGJ. "Comparative performance of the Mbita trap, CDC light trap and the human landing catch in the sampling of Anopheles arabiensis, An. funestus and culicine species in a rice irrigation in western Kenya." Malaria Journal . 2005;4(doi:10.1186/1475-2875-4-7):4-7. AbstractMalaria journal link

Abstract
Background
Mosquitoes sampling is an important component in malaria control. However, most of the methods used have several shortcomings and hence there is a need to develop and calibrate new methods. The Mbita trap for capturing host-seeking mosquitoes was recently developed and successfully tested in Kenya. However, the Mbita trap is less effective at catching outdoor-biting Anopheles funestus and Anopheles arabiensis in Madagascar and, thus, there is need to further evaluate this trap in diverse epidemiological settings. This study reports a field evaluation of the Mbita trap in a rice irrigation scheme in Kenya

Methods
The mosquito sampling efficiency of the Mbita trap was compared to that of the CDC light trap and the human landing catch in western Kenya. Data was analysed by Bayesian regression of linear and non-linear models.

Results
The Mbita trap caught about 17%, 60%, and 20% of the number of An. arabiensis, An. funestus, and culicine species caught in the human landing collections respectively. There was consistency in sampling proportionality between the Mbita trap and the human landing catch for both An. arabiensis and the culicine species. For An. funestus, the Mbita trap portrayed some density-dependent sampling efficiency that suggested lowered sampling efficiency of human landing catch at low densities. The CDC light trap caught about 60%, 120%, and 552% of the number of An. arabiensis, An. funestus, and culicine species caught in the human landing collections respectively. There was consistency in the sampling proportionality between the CDC light trap and the human landing catch for both An. arabiensis and An. funestus, whereas for the culicines, there was no simple relationship between the two methods.

Conclusions
The Mbita trap is less sensitive than either the human landing catch or the CDC light trap. However, for a given investment of time and money, it is likely to catch more mosquitoes over a longer (and hence more representative) period. This trap can therefore be recommended for use by community members for passive mosquito surveillance. Nonetheless, there is still a need to develop new sampling methods for some epidemiological settings. The human landing catch should be maintained as the standard reference method for use in calibrating new methods for sampling the human biting population of mosquitoes.

Mutua PM, Gicheru MM, Makanya AN, Kiama SG. "Comparative Quantitative and Qualitative Attributes of the Surface Respiratory Macrophages in the Domestic Duck and the Rabbit." International Journal of Morphology. 2011;29(2):353-362.
Mwaniki SW, Nderitu JH, Olubayo F, Kimenju JW. "Comparative resistance /tolerance of commercial potato cultivars in Kenya to major aphid pests.". In: Africa crop Science Conference .; 2005.
Maichomo MW;, Gitau GK;, Gathuma JM;, Ndung'u JM;, Kosura WO;, Nyamwaro SO. "Comparative returns from livestock and crops among the agro-pastoralists of Magadi division, Kajiado District, Kenya."; 2009. Abstract

A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kajiado District in August 2003 to estimate incomes from livestock and crop agricultural enterprises, and assess important factors associated with them. Purposive and random selection of pastoralists and their animals was used in order to collect data which were then analyzed using descriptive statistics and Generalized Linear Models from the households (HHs) that were all headed by men. These pastoralists were considered generally wealthy with an average livestock holding of 232 heads of livestock and annual total profit margins of Kshs 436,300 from both livestock and crops, demonstrating their complementarity and livelihood diversification for risk aversion. Cost of inputs and value of income were significantly associated with profit from either crop or livestock production enterprises. This study revealed that livestock production still remained the major source of livelihood in Kajiado District compared to crop production. While reducing cost of livestock and crop production could increase profit for the large and small scale pastoralists respectively, complementarity of crop and livestock production could be exploited by medium scale pastoralists to harness existing opportunities for significant wealth generation and achieve food security.

Maichomo MW;, Gitau GK;, Gathuma JM;, Ndung'u JM;, Kosura WO;, Nyamwaro SO. "Comparative returns from livestock and crops among the agro-pastoralists of Magadi division, Kajiado District, Kenya."; 2009. Abstract

A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kajiado District in August 2003 to estimate incomes from livestock and crop agricultural enterprises, and assess important factors associated with them. Purposive and random selection of pastoralists and their animals was used in order to collect data which were then analyzed using descriptive statistics and Generalized Linear Models from the households (HHs) that were all headed by men. These pastoralists were considered generally wealthy with an average livestock holding of 232 heads of livestock and annual total profit margins of Kshs 436,300 from both livestock and crops, demonstrating their complementarity and livelihood diversification for risk aversion. Cost of inputs and value of income were significantly associated with profit from either crop or livestock production enterprises. This study revealed that livestock production still remained the major source of livelihood in Kajiado District compared to crop production. While reducing cost of livestock and crop production could increase profit for the large and small scale pastoralists respectively, complementarity of crop and livestock production could be exploited by medium scale pastoralists to harness existing opportunities for significant wealth generation and achieve food security.

Maichomo MW;, Gitau GK;, Gathuma JM;, Ndung'u JM;, Kosura WO;, Nyamwaro SO. "Comparative returns from livestock and crops among the agro-pastoralists of Magadi division, Kajiado District, Kenya."; 2009. Abstract

A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kajiado District in August 2003 to estimate incomes from livestock and crop agricultural enterprises, and assess important factors associated with them. Purposive and random selection of pastoralists and their animals was used in order to collect data which were then analyzed using descriptive statistics and Generalized Linear Models from the households (HHs) that were all headed by men. These pastoralists were considered generally wealthy with an average livestock holding of 232 heads of livestock and annual total profit margins of Kshs 436,300 from both livestock and crops, demonstrating their complementarity and livelihood diversification for risk aversion. Cost of inputs and value of income were significantly associated with profit from either crop or livestock production enterprises. This study revealed that livestock production still remained the major source of livelihood in Kajiado District compared to crop production. While reducing cost of livestock and crop production could increase profit for the large and small scale pastoralists respectively, complementarity of crop and livestock production could be exploited by medium scale pastoralists to harness existing opportunities for significant wealth generation and achieve food security.

KIMANI DRJOHNMUTURI. "Comparative Skin Histology and Wound Healing of African Mole Rats: Heterocephalus glaber and Tachyoryctes ibeanus.". In: Biovision Alexandria. BiovisionAlexandria 2012 Conference; 2012. Abstract

The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.

Dukuzemariya T, Kiema JBK, Khan S. "A Comparative Study of General and Fixed Boundaries in Rwanda.". In: Geospatial Technologies for Sustainable Urban and Rural Development. Kigali, Rwanda; 2015.
KAAYA GP, RATCLIFFE NA. "Comparative study of haemocytes and the associated cells of some medically important Dipterans." Journal of Morphology . 1982;173:351-365.
Kokwaro JO, Aketch CA. "A comparative study of the Kenya Acacia species based on their pollen morphological characters." Mitt. Inst. Allg. Bot.. 1990;23b:665-676.
Kavoi M.B. ET AL. "A Comparative Study of the Olfactory Mucosa in the Dog and the Sheep.". In: the 6th Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference . Upper Kabete Campus, University of Nairobi; 2008.
Mueni J. A comparative study of the representation of the female gender in local and foreign soap operas. Kareithi PP, NgugiJo DM, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013.abstract.docx
Karara MW. "Comparative tolerability and efficacy of stavudine 30 mg versus stavudine 40 mg in patients on combination antiretroviral therapy in Kenya." Journal of AIDS and HIV Research. 2010;2(2):024-031. AbstractWebsite

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This study compared the efficacy and tolerability of stavudine at the two dose levels in patients attending HIV Comprehensive Care Centre, in the largest public hospital in Kenya. Data on CD4 cell counts, drug adverse events and opportunistic infections were collected retrospectively from the records of 810 adult patients distributed in three study groups: patients weighing ≥ 60 kg receiving 40 mg BD stavudine; patients weighing ≥ 60 kg receiving 30 mg BD stavudine; and patients weighing < 60 kg receiving 30 mg BD stavudine. Fewer stavudine related adverse effects were seen in patients weighing ≥ 60 kg treated with 30 mg stavudine compared to those who received 40 mg stavudine in the same weight category (4.2 % vs 16.7 %, p < 0.001). Patients weighing < 60 kg were more likely to experience drug toxicity than those ≥ 60 kg when given 30 mg stavudine (12.8% vs 4.2 %, p<0.001). Occurrence of any adverse drug reactions was also significantly associated with age greater than 45 years (HR = 2.16, CI:1.41-3.31, p<0.001), co-morbidities (HR = 2.16, CI:1.06-4.38, p < 0.001), treatment with isoniazid (HR = 2.07, CI:1.09-3.96, p<0.001) and severe (WHO stage IV) immunosuppression (HR=1.45,CI:0.86-2.45, p<0.001). The onset of drug related toxicities, for all study arms, was principally in the first year of commencing therapy, for example 76 % of all cases of peripheral neuropathy were diagnosed within 12 months of treatment. The study demonstrated similar immunologic outcomes in the treatment groups given either 30 or 40 mg stavudine, with median CD4 cell counts after 12 months of treatment more than doubling for patients in all the study cohorts. The findings support the use of combination antiretroviral therapy regimens containing low dose stavudine in Kenya.
Key words
Low-dose stavudine, combination antiretroviral therapy, HIV, stavudine tolerability

Karara MW, Okalebo FA, Oluka MO, Ombega J, Guantai AN, Osanjo GO. "Comparative tolerability and efficacy of stavudine 30 mg versus stavudine 40 mg in patients on combination antiretroviral therapy in Kenya." Journal of AIDS and HIV Research. 2010;2(2):024-031.
Karara MW, Okalebo FA, Oluka MO, Ombega J, Guantai AN, Osanjo GO. "Comparative tolerability and efficacy of stavudine 30 mg versus stavudine 40 mg in patients on combination antiretroviral therapy in Kenya." Journal of AIDS and HIV Research. 2010;2(2):024-031.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "COMPARATIVE ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDIES ON BESNOITIA BESNOITI AND BESNOITIA CAPRAE.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1995. Abstract
Comparative transmission electron microscopy on Besnoitia besnoiti and on a strain of Besnoitia derived from goats in Kenya revealed that the two organisms differ in their pellicle, micropore, microtubules, nucleus, wall-forming body 1 (W1), amount of lipids and amylopectin. Thus the caprine besnoitia is probably a different organism and the term Besnoitia caprae should continue to be used.   Keywords; Besnoitia besnoiti, Besnoitia caprae, cystozoite, goat, ultrastructure, speciation 
and Kibebe H.W., Gathumbi P.K. KMKCSPGJ. "Comparison between glycated hemoglobin and blood glucose in monitoring diabetic patients at point of care testing. ." Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research. 2013;2:1-4.
Iqbal Z, Ali IS, Khan M. "Comparison between predicted position of appendix on clinical examination and position of appendix as an intraoperative finding in patients with clinically suspected acute appendicitis." Journal of Postgraduate Medical Institute (Peshawar - Pakistan). 2011;25. AbstractWebsite

COMPARISON BETWEEN PREDICTED POSITION OF APPENDIX ON CLINICAL EXAMINATION AND POSITION OF APPENDIX AS AN INTRAOPERATIVE FINDING IN PATIENTS WITH CLINICALLY SUSPECTED ACUTE APPENDICITIS

Gitao CG, Kihu SM, Muse AE. Comparison of Peste des petits ruminants in Kenya and Tanzania.. in Nairobi Jacaranda Hotel, Westlands Nairobi-Kenya 9th – 10th June: FAO-EU ; 2015.comparison_of_peste_des_petits_ruminants_ppr.pptx
Okoth E, Gallardo C, Macharia JM, Omore A, Pelayo V, Bulimo DW, Arias M, Kitala P, Baboon K, Lekolol I, Mijele D, Bishop RP. "Comparison of African swine fever virus prevalence and risk in two contrasting pig-farming systems in South-west and Central Kenya." Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2013;110(2):198-205. Abstract1-s2.0-s0167587712003765-main.pdfWebsite

We describe a horizontal survey of African swine fever virus (ASFV) prevalence and risk factors associated with virus infection in domestic pigs in two contrasting production systems in Kenya. A free range/tethering, low input production system in Ndhiwa District of South-western Kenya is compared with a medium input stall fed production system in Kiambu District of Central Kenya. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of data derived from cluster analysis showed that number of animals, number of breeding sows and number of weaner pigs were a significant factor in classifying farms in Nhiwa and Kiambu. Analysis of blood and serum samples using a PCR assay demonstrated an average animal level positivity to ASFV of 28% in two independent samplings in South-western Kenya and 0% PCR positivity in Central Kenya. No animals were sero-positive in either study site using the OIE indirect-ELISA and none of the animals sampled exhibited clinical symptoms of ASF. The farms that contained ASFV positive pigs in Ndhiwa District were located in divisions bordering the Ruma National Park from which bushpig (Potamochoerus larvatus) incursions into farms had been reported. ASFV prevalence (P < 0.05) was significantly higher at distances between 6 and 16 km from the National Park than at distances closer or further away. One of the 8 bushpigs sampled from the park, from which tissues were obtained was PCR positive for ASFV. The data therefore indicated a potential role for the bushpig in virus transmission in South-western Kenya, but there was no evidence of a direct sylvatic virus transmission cycle in Central Kenya. ASF control strategies implemented in these areas will need to take these epidemiological findings into consideration.

Arias M, Kitala P, Baboon K, Lekolol I, Okoth E, Bulimo DW, Gallardo C, Pelayo V, Macharia JM, Omore A, et al. "Comparison of African swine fever virus prevalence and risk in two contrasting pig-farming systems in South-west and Central Kenya." Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2013;110:198-205. AbstractWebsite
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Gakuya EM, Kamau DM, Gakuu LN, Sang EK. "COMPARISON OF CLOSED FEMUR FRACTURE: SKELETAL TRACTION AND INTRAMEDULLARY NAILING COST-EFFECTIVENESS." East African Orthopaedic Journal. 2014;8:4-9. Abstract

Background: Fractures of the femur are common injuries affecting the productive age group. Skeletal
traction is the mainstay of treatment in Kenya, hence comparison with operative management, to determine which is more cost-effective. To our knowledge no similar study has been done in Africa.Objective: To determine the cost-effectiveness of skeletal traction compared to intramedullary nailing. Design: Prospective conventional sampling analytical study. Setting: Hospital based study in a referral and teaching institution - Kenyatta National Hospital, orthopaedic wards. Study population: Patients admitted at Kenyatta National Hospital with diaphyseal femur fracture aged between 18 – 50 years. The study was done from October 2012 to May 2013. Materials and methods: A structured data collection sheet was used. It included the patient particulars, hospital stay and per diem cost, the type of injury, type of management and comparing the cost of
each, X-ray findings during treatment and at 3 months to assess for union. Data was represented in
form of tables, and figures. Results: Males were more affected than females, with a mean age of 31.5 years. The mean length of hospital stay was 11.48 days for the operative group and 66.7 days for the skeletal traction group. The average total hospital cost for the operative group was Kshs 54, 380.44 (US$640) compared to Kshs 67,792 (US$798) for the traction group. In the operative group 24 patients had union with one delayed union while in the traction group 12 patients had union, 9 with mal union and 4 delayed union.
Conclusion: Intramedullary nailing is more cost-effective than skeletal traction. It met the dominant
strategy, because it was significantly less costly than skeletal traction, with a better outcome

Chunge CN, Estambale B, Pamba HO, Chitayi PM, Munanga PN, Kang'ethe S. "Comparison of four nitroimidazole compounds for treatment of symptomatic amoebiasis in Kenya.". 1989. AbstractWebsite

Four antiamoebic drugs currently used in many Kenyan hospitals and health centres were compared for their efficacy on symptomatic luminal amoebiasis in Kiambu, Kilifi, and Machakos hospitals during this study. The drugs were; the brand metronidazole (Flagyl, May & Baker, Kenya Ltd.), the generic metronidazole (Metrozol, Cosmos Ltd., Nairobi, Kenya), the brand tinidazole (Fasigyn, Pfizer Laboratories Ltd.) and the generic tinidazole (Tynazole Laboratory and Allied Equipments, Kenya Ltd). Clinical cure was achieved in all individuals receiving any of the four drugs. Parasitological cure was better for those receiving either Flagyl or Fasigyn, than those receiving the generic counterparts. Both parasitological and clinical cures were achieved in about 50% of all those who received either Flagyl or Fasigyn. It appears that Flagyl and Fasigyn are not as efficacious as previously reported but are still much better than their generic counterparts for the treatment of symptomatic Entamoeba histolytica infections

Kiaira JK, Njogu RM. "Comparison of glycolysis in intact and digitonin-permeabilized bloodstream trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma brucei.". 1983. AbstractWebsite

Digitonin has been used to permeabilize bloodstream trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma brucei. Such permeabilized parasites revealed a fully-functional glycolytic pathway which catabolized glucose and some phosphorylated glycolytic intermediates. Glucose-starved bloodstream trypomastigotes revealed saturation kinetics with a glucose Km = 0.6 mM and Vmax = 150 natom O/min per 10(8) for intact parasites; Km = 4 mM and Vmax = 100 natom O2/min per 10(8) for permeabilized parasites. Glucose oxidation in intact parasites was stimulated 40% by addition of 3 micrograms digitonin/10(8) parasites. Higher concentrations of digitonin than this inhibited the glucose oxidation. Ten millimolar phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) inhibited the rate of O2 consumption by permeabilized trypanosomes respiring on glucose under aerobic conditions by 50%. It is proposed that glucose oxidation is apparently limited by transport across trypanosomal plasma membrane, and phosphofructokinase is regulated by PEP levels. It is concluded that permeabilization of trypanosomes with digitonin might offer a closer physiological condition for the study of the regulation of glycolysis by using glycolytic intermediates and other chemical compounds which would otherwise not be transported across the membrane(s).

De Vuyst H, Chung MH, Baussano I, Mugo NR, Tenet V, van Kemenade FJ, Rana FS, Sakr SR, Meijer CJ, Snijders PJ, Franceschi S. "Comparison of HPV DNA testing in cervical exfoliated cells and tissue biopsies among HIV-positive women in Kenya.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

HIV-positive women are infected with human papillomavirus (HPV) (especially with multiple types), and develop cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer more frequently than HIV-negative women. We compared HPV DNA prevalence obtained using a GP5+/6+ PCR assay in cervical exfoliated cells to that in biopsies among 468 HIV-positive women from Nairobi, Kenya. HPV prevalence was higher in cells than biopsies and the difference was greatest in 94 women with a combination normal cytology/normal biopsy (prevalence ratio, PR = 3.7; 95% confidence interval, CI: 2.4-5.7). PR diminished with the increase in lesion severity (PR in 58 women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL)/CIN2-3 = 1.1; 95% CI: 1.0-1.2). When HPV-positive, cells contained 2.0- to 4.6-fold more multiple infections than biopsies. Complete or partial agreement between cells and biopsies in the detection of individual HPV types was found in 91% of double HPV-positive pairs. The attribution of CIN2/3 to HPV16 and/or 18 would decrease from 37.6%, when the presence of these types in either cells or biopsies was counted, to 20.2% when it was based on the presence of HPV16 and/or 18 (and no other types) in biopsies. In conclusion, testing HPV on biopsies instead of cells results in decreased detection but not elimination of multiple infections in HIV-positive women. The proportion of CIN2/3 attributable to HPV16 and/or 18 among HIV-positive women, which already appeared to be lower than that in HIV-negative, would then further decrease. The meaning of HPV detection in cells and random biopsy from HIV-positive women with no cervical abnormalities remains unclear.

Mutuku MW, Lu L, Otiato FO, Mwangi IN, Kinuthia JM, Maina GM, Laidemitt MR, Lelo EA, Ochanda H, Loker ES, Mkoji GM. "A Comparison of Kenyan Biomphalaria pfeifferi and B. Sudanica as Vectors for Schistosoma mansoni, Including a Discussion of the Need to Better Understand …." The Journal of parasitology. 2017;103(6):669-676.
Muriuki JM, Kitala P, Muchemi G, Njeru I, Karanja J, Bett B. "A comparison of malaria prevalence, control and management strategies in irrigated and non-irrigated areas in Eastern Kenya." Malaria Journal. 2016;15: 402.
Wanzala W, Onyango-Abuje JA, Kang’ethe EK, Ochanda H, Harrison LJS. "A comparison of meat inspection method and an antigen-ELISA in the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis in Kenyan cattle." Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences . 2002;2:265-277.
Kanja LW, Skaare JU, Ojwang SB, Maitai CK. "A comparison of organochlorine pesticide residues in maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood, cord blood, and human milk from mother/infant pairs." Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.. 1992;22(1):21-4. Abstract

A total of 41 samples of maternal blood, milk, subcutaneous fat and umbilical cord blood were collected from mothers giving birth by Caesarean operation at Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi in 1986. The samples were analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. The main contaminants found in all the samples were p,p'-DDT (100%), p,p'-DDE (100%), o,p'-DDT (59%), dieldrin (27%), transnonachlor (15%), beta-HCH (12%) and lindane (2%) of all the samples analyzed. Polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) residues were not detected in any of the samples. The mean levels (mg/kg fat) of sum of DDT were 5.9 in subcutaneous fat, 4.8 in mothers milk, 2.7 in maternal serum and 1.9 in umbilical cord serum. There was a significant correlation between the levels of sum DDT in subcutaneous fat and milk fat (r = 0.963), subcutaneous fat and maternal serum fat (r = 0.843), and maternal serum fat and maternal milk fat (r = 0.868), indicating the coherence of DDT in the body. Hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH) was found in subcutaneous fat and milk fat with the mean levels of 0.03 and 0.26 mg/kg fat, respectively. Dieldrin detected in mothers milk and subcutaneous fat could not be quantified.

K. DRGAKURUMUCEMI. "Comparison of Participative Design Experience in UK and Kenya.". In: Designing human centred technologies for the developing word, HCI 2007, 3-4 September 2007, Lancaster University, U.K. FARA; 2007.
Gitao CG, Kihu SM, Bebora LC, Njenga JM, Wairire GG, Maingi N, Muse E, E K, Misinzo G, Mellau LSB, Msoffe PLM, Swai ES, Albano. "Comparison of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) disease between Tanzania and Kenya.". In: Third Ruforum Biennial Meeting. Kampala, Uganda; 2012.gitao_523_3.pdf
SOLOMON G, KAAYA GP. "Comparison of resistance in three breeds of cattle against African Ixodid ticks." Experimental and Applied Acarology. 1996;20:223-230.
Kinuthia BK, Dietz T. "A Comparison of the Industrial Policies and Outcomes in Kenya and Malaysia.". In: Asian Tigers, African Lions: Comparing the Development Performance of Southeast Asia and Africa. Brill; 2013.
Kiplagat S. "Comparison of Two Communities Living with the Cyclone Risk in Madagascar .". In: The Annual British Psychology Society Conference. Belfast, Northern Ireland; 1999.
Kibegwa FM, Bett RC, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Francesca Stomeo, Mujibi FD. "A Comparison of Two DNA Metagenomic Bioinformatic Pipelines while evaluating the Microbial Diversity in feces of Tanzanian small holder dairy cattle." BioMed research international. 2020;2020.
Kibegwa FM, Bett RC, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Francesca Stomeo, Mujibi FD. "A Comparison of Two DNA Metagenomic Bioinformatic Pipelines while evaluating the Microbial Diversity in feces of Tanzanian small holder dairy cattle." BioMed research international. 2020;2020.
Kibegwa FM, Bett RC, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Francesca Stomeo, Mujibi FD. "A Comparison of Two DNA Metagenomic Bioinformatic Pipelines While Evaluating the Microbial Diversity in Feces of Tanzanian Small Holder Dairy Cattle." BioMed Research International. 2020;2020.
N PROFKARIUKIDAVID, W PROFNJENGALYDIAH, Kimarua RW. "Comparison of two microdiffusion methods used to measure ionizable fluoride in cow's milk.". In: Analyst, 120, 2245 (1995). UoN; 1995. Abstract

Two microdiffusion methods for measuring ionizable fluoride in cows’ milk have been compared. The comparison includes diffusion time, amount of fluoride in spiked and unspiked milk samples and the effect of aluminium as an interfering ion. This work uses an acid diffusion technique involving hexamethyldisiloxane at room temperature and acid diffusion at 60 °C in the oven for 20 h. A significant difference was found in diffusion time and in the effect of aluminium ions. There was no significant difference in the amount of fluoride found in the milk samples using the two microdiffusion methods.

Keywords: Fluoride; microdiffusion; milk; fluoride-selective electrode; aluminium

Etenyi JO, Okalebo FA, S.A. Opanga, K. A. Sinei, Osanjo GO, Kurdi A, Goodman B. Comparison of zidovudine and tenofovir based regimens with regard to quality of life and prevalence of syptoms in HIV patients in Kenya. Prague; In Press.
Slyker J, Farquhar C, Atkinson C, Ásbjörnsdóttir K, Roxby A, Drake A, Kiarie J, Wald A, Boeckh M, Richardson B, Odem-Davis K, John-Stewart G, Emery V. "Compartmentalized cytomegalovirus replication and transmission in the setting of maternal HIV-1 infection." Clin. Infect. Dis.. 2014;58(4):564-72. Abstract

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is associated with adverse outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed infants. Determinants of vertical CMV transmission in the setting of maternal HIV-1 infection are not well-defined.

Kemoli AM, Opondo IA. "A compendium on oral health of children around the world: tooth eruption, tooth emergence and developmental dental anomalies of the dental hard tissues.". In: A compendium on oral health of children around the world: tooth eruption, tooth emergence and developmental dental anomalies of the dental hard tissues. NewCastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars publishing; 2019.
Kinoti MW, Meru AK. "Competencies for Green Marketing Success in Emerging Markets.". In: Green Marketing and Management in Emerging Markets. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham; 2021. Abstract

This chapter addresses the critical competencies that provide the requisite skills and knowledge for championing the development and growth of green marketing in emerging markets. The link between environmental responsibility, social change and sustainable business practices has been the concern for practitioners and environmentalist for the past couple of decades in developed countries, and multi-agency teams have been deployed to address emerging issues if any. Besides, deployment of highly focused and committed environmental conscious personnel, there has been a tremendous improvement of innovative manufacturing processes and efficient technologies, leading to successful green marketing systems and programmes. Though, efforts are bearing fruits in emerging markets, on account of countries affiliation to global agencies, such as United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) and many others, more need to be done to isolate key soft and hard competencies required to cascade global green marketing solutions to local firms. The chapter illustrates that green competencies, green thinking and rightful employee engagement foster green marketing activities in emerging markets.

Richard N. Onwonga, Ruth C. Sitienei, Joyce J. Lelei, Kamoni P. "Complementary Effects of Legume Integration and Fertilizer application on Soil Moisture and Long-Term Carbon Stocks in Maize Systems of Kabete Sub-County, Kenya." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2020.
Macharia-Mutie CW, Brouwer ID, Mwangi AM, Kok FJ. "Complementary Feeding Practices and Dietary Intake among Children 12-23 months in Mwingi District Kenya." Int. J. Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health . 2010;3(1):45-56.
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Kokonya DA, Kuria MW, Ong'echa FA, Mburu JM, Ndetei DM. "Complex Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in Defilement: Case Report." Open Journal of Psychiatry. 2014;4.
Gawriluk TR, Simkin J, Hacker CK, Kimani JM, Kiama SG, Ezenwa VO, Seifert AW. "Complex Tissue Regeneration in Mammals Is Associated With Reduced Inflammatory Cytokines and an Influx of T Cells." Front. Immunol.. 2020;11(1695):1-19.
Kiarie JN, Kreiss JK, Richardson BA, John-Stewart GC. "Compliance with antiretroviral regimens to prevent perinatal HIV-1 transmission in Kenya." AIDS. 2003;17(1):65-71. Abstract

To compare compliance and infant HIV-1 infection risk at 6 weeks with the Thai-CDC and HIVNET-012 antiretroviral regimens in a field setting.

Carter JY, ole Kiu JMN. "Complicated pregnancy: Clinicians guide to Quality outpatient diagnosis.". In: Clinicians' guide to quality Outpatient diagnosis an manual for eastern Africa. Nairobi: AMREF; 2005.
K. PROFSINEISAMUEL. "Complications of use of intrauterine devices among HIV-1-infected women.Sinei SK, Morrison CS, Sekadde-Kigondu C, Allen M, Kokonya D. Lancet. 1998 Apr 25;351(9111):1238-41.". In: Lancet. 1998 Apr 25;351(9111):1238-41. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1998. Abstract

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: A WHO expert group and the International Planned Parenthood Federation recommend against use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) in HIV-1-infected women based on theoretical concerns about pelvic infection and increased blood loss. We investigated whether the risk of complications after IUD insertion is higher in HIV-1-infected women than in non-infected women. METHODS: 649 (156 HIV-1 infected 493 non-infected) women in Nairobi, Kenya, who requested and met local eligibility criteria for insertion of an IUD were enrolled. We gathered information on IUD-related complications, including pelvic inflammatory disease, removals due to infection, pain, or bleeding, expulsions, and pregnancies at 1 and 4 months after insertion. Patients' HIV-1 status was masked from physicians. FINDINGS: Complications were identified in 48 of 615 women (11 [7.6%] HIV-1-infected women, 37 [7.9%] non-infected). Incident pelvic inflammatory disease (two [1.4%] HIV-1 infected, one [0.2%] non-infected) and infection-related complications (any tenderness, removal of IUD for infection or pain; ten [6.9%] HIV-1 infected, 27 [5.7%] non-infected) were also rare and similar in the two groups. Complication rates were similar by CD4 (immune) status. Multivariate analyses suggested no association between HIV-1 infection and increased risks for overall complications (odds ratio 0.8 [95% CI 0.4-1.7]) or infection-related complications (1.0 [0.5-2.3]), adjusted for marital status, study site, previous IUD use, ethnic origin, and frequency of sexual intercourse, but a slight increase cannot be ruled out. INTERPRETATION: Our data suggest that IUDs may be a safe contraceptive method for appropriately selected HIV-1-infected women with continuing access to medical services. PIP: Both the International Planned Parenthood Federation and the World Health Organization have warned against use of IUDs in HIV-infected women due to theoretical concerns about pelvic infection and increased blood loss. No published studies have investigated this concern, however. The validity of this recommendation was investigated in a comparative study of 156 HIV-1-infected and 493 non-infected women from two public family planning clinics (Kenyatta National Hospital and Riruta City Clinic) in Nairobi, Kenya, who requested and met local eligibility criteria for IUD insertion. At 1 and 4 months after insertion, information was collected from physicians–blinded as to the patient's HIV status–on IUD-related complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), removals, expulsions, and pregnancies. Complications were identified in 11 (7.6%) HIV-positive and 37 (7.9%) HIV-negative women. There were only 3 incident cases of PID, 2 of which occurred in HIV-infected women. IUD removal due to pain or infection occurred in 10 (6.9%) HIV-infected and 27 (5.7%) noninfected women. There were no differences in overall IUD complications in HIV-1-infected women by CD4 status (severely, moderately, or mildly immunocompromised). After adjustment for marital status, study site, previous IUD use, ethnic origin, and frequency of sexual intercourse, multivariate analysis suggested no association between HIV-1 infection and increased risks for overall IUD-related complications (odds ratio (OR), 0.8; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.4-1.7) or infection-related complications (OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.5-2.3). These findings suggest that the IUD may be a safe contraceptive method for appropriately selected HIV-infected women with continuing access to medical

Masu SM, Gichunge H, K'AKUMU OA. "Component ratios of new building costs in Nairobi: a contractors' perspective.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Abstract Purpose - The aim of this paper is to use the case study of Nairobi in Kenya in order to fill the gap of knowledge on the component ratios of new building costs that has been missing from international literature. Design/methodology/approach - Using survey methodology that considered firms of contractors registered and operating in Nairobi Kenya, the paper compares its findings rendered in terms of percentage ratios: with theoretical propositions (e.g. Wood), with past studies (e.g. Knowles) and with practice guidelines in Kenya. Findings - Overall it finds that there is no significant change in percentage component ratios considered from past studies and practice guidelines in Kenya leading to the conclusion that the building industry has not undergone any significant technical change during the periods under study, i.e. 1980·2006. " Research limitations/implications - The study is limited by the fact that it only manages to capture the contractors' views of the component ratios. Contractors may be inclined to hide their profits which can be a sensitive issue in the Kenyan market, which as a developing economy, may be riddled with corrupt practices such as tax evasion and imperfect business competition. However, the issues raised here can be used as base information for further studies on the topic. Additionally an analysis of variance was performed on the data to ascertain its credibility. Second, the data used to argue the paper's case is partially dated but remains usefuL The trend shows that there has been no significant change in the composition of component ratios hence the data remains relevant to date. Practical implications - The paper's findings would be useful to international readers especially now that international contractors are bidding for work in Kenya. The data would give these contractors a glimpse into the structural composition of building cost components in Nairobi. Originality/value - The paper's original contribution concerns the component ratios of building costs that has been neglected in the existing literature. In Kenya some work had been done by Knowles, but this was restricted to officeblock buildings only, while this paper considers all buildings as shown in Table V.

OA O, K KD, LW G. "Composition and particle size of mineral trioxide aggregate. Portland cement and synthetic geopolymers." East African Medical Journal. 2018;2018:95(5):1522-1534.
Wambugu SN;, Towett, P.K.;, Kiama SG;, Abelson KSP;, Kanui TI. "Composition Of Nociceptive Afferents In The Trigeminal Nerve In The Marsh Terrapin (pelomedusa Subrufa).".; 2008.
Wambugu SN;, Towett, P.K.;, Kiama SG;, Abelson KSP;, Kanui TI. "Composition Of Nociceptive Afferents In The Trigeminal Nerve In The Marsh Terrapin (pelomedusa Subrufa).".; 2008.
Kambura C, Tanga CM, Kilalo D, Muthomi J, Salifu D, Rwomushana I, Mohamed SA, Ekesi S. "Composition, Host Range and Host Suitability of Vegetable-Infesting Tephritids on Cucurbits Cultivated in Kenya." African Entomology. 2018;26(2):379-397.
Osiro OA, Kariuki DK, Gathece LW. "Composition, Particle Size, Setting Time of Clinker and Geopolymer Cements.". In: IADR. London, UK; 2018.
Wafula HB, Musembi RJ, Juma AO, Patrick Tonui, Simiyu J, Sakwa T, Prakash D, K.D.Verma. "Compositional analysis and optical properties of Co doped TiO2 thin films fabricated by spray pyrolysis method for dielectric and photocatalytic applications." Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics. 2017;128:212-217.
omari HK, Kayeli E. "Comprehensive sex education in Kenya: Islamic perspective.". In: THE 2ND ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE MACHAKOS UNIVERSITY, KENYA. machakos university; 2019.
Mulaku GC, Kamau J. "Computer Assisted analysis of the impact of location on real property value: A case study of Nairobi, Kenya." The Appraisal Journal (USA)[ISSN 0003-7087]. 2009;78(3):270-282.
K.C C, P.W W, E.T O. "Computer based Medical Diagnostic decision assistant.". In: Workshop on Application of ICT in enhancing Higher learning education . Tanzania; 2004.
Kivuti L, Chepchirchir A. "Computerization readiness." Online Journal of Nursing Informatics. 2011;15. Abstract
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Kariuki, D.N. "The concept of Hybridisation.". 2001.
Karani PF. "Conceptual Understanding and Current Policies and practice in Open Learning and Distance Education.". In: Education Consultative Forum on Open Learning and Distance Education (OL & DE). Windsor Country Club ; 2004.
KURIA JOSEPHN, GATHOGO STEPHENM. "Concomitant dimorphic yeast fungi and Mycobacteria infections in beef cattle in Kenya." Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research . 2013;80(1):Art. #585 .
Othieno-Abinya NA, Nyong'o AO, Gikonyo DK, Wanyoike MN, Ogutu EO, Kanyi SM. "Concurrent renal cell adenocarcinoma and colonic.". 1999.Website
Kimuyu PK. "Conditionalities and Market Reforms: What Kenya’s Fertilizer Market Reveals. Occasional Paper Number OP/03/98.". In: Institute of Policy Analysis and Research, Nairiobi.; 1998.
Oluoch-Kosura W, Karugia JT;, Wambugu SK;. Conditions for achieving sustained agricultural intensification in Africa: evidence from Kenya.; 2011. AbstractWebsite

This chapter examines the conditions for achieving sustained agricultural intensification using evidence from micro- and macro-data from Kenya, as well as the six 'I's that represent significant proximate variables influencing agricultural performance, namely Incentives, Inputs, Infrastructure, Institutions, Initiatives and Innovations. The chapter further demonstrates how a change in these 'I's affects agricultural productivity. Furthermore, the authors discuss agricultural intensification and a number of public interventions to promote it, and spell out their implications for the realization of Millennium Development Goal of halving, by 2015, the share of people suffering from extreme poverty and hunger. Emphasis is laid on maize production, since the lack of maize signals famine and poverty in Kenya, even when other food crops may be available. The chapter examines the conditions that led to a revitalization of increased agricultural productivity in the period 2003 to 2007, after an enabling policy environment that favoured the six 'I's was put in place. The authors also present scenarios likely to emerge after the skirmishes that rocked the country soon after the December 2007 general elections.

Cherutich P, Brentlinger P, Ruth Nduati, Kiarie JN, Farquhar C. "Condom use among sexually active Kenyan female adolescents at risk for HIV-1 infection." AIDS Behav. 2008;12(6):923-9. Abstract

High rates of unintended pregnancy and HIV infection occur in sub-Saharan Africa yet few Kenyan studies have defined correlates of condom use in sexually active female adolescents. Female adolescents receiving reproductive health care and aged 15-19 were interviewed. The prevalence of ever-use of condom was 21.4% and 52 (7.3%) subjects were infected with HIV-1. Older age, higher levels of education, ever-use of hormonal contraceptives and higher numbers of sexual partners, non-consensual sex and exchange of sex for favours, were independent correlates of condom use. Condom use should be promoted in this population. Further exploration is needed on the developmental and contextual factors predisposing female adolescents to increased risk of HIV.

Kiai W, Muhoro N. Conference On Regional Security Issues In The Age Of Globalisation. Nairobi: Heinrich Boll Foundation &Institute for Diplomacy and International Studies; 2004.
T
N.M.Monyonko, Kumar M, L.G.Wori. "THE CONFIGURATION QUASI-PROBABILITY FORMULATION OF QUANTUM MECHANICS.". 2007. Abstract

We apply a dynamical correspondence principle between ordinary functions of classical and quantum mechanical distribution function and derive its operator equation.We further examine one of the methods of finding the particular solutions to this equation in the algebra of coordinate-momentum ordered pair.

C
Kimata DM, Mwangi RW, Mathiu PM. "Confinement lowers fertility rate of helmeted guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) eggs.". 2014;49(1):153-156 .
Kimata MD, Mwangi RW, Mathiu P. "Confinement Lowers Fertility Rate of Helmeted Guinea Fowl (Numida meleagris) Eggs." African Zoology . 2014;49(1):153-156.
KORINGURA, J., MACHARIA D, MUNGAI JC, KYALO DN. Conflict Analysis and Resolution . Master in Project Planning and management, Distance learning Study module. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2010.
Kameri-Mbote P. Conflict and Cooperation: Making the Case for Environmental Pathways to Peacebuilding in the Great Lakes Region.; 2006. AbstractWebsite

Authoritarian regimes, genocides, and civil wars have plagued countries in the Great Lakes Region in recent years. The region’s nations rely heavily on natural resources—water, minerals, land—for their economic development, as well as for the livelihoods of their people, and many of the region’s conflicts are connected to these resources or other environmental factors. Opportunities for environmental peacemaking in the Great Lakes Region have not yet been isolated, even though there are many examples of cooperation at the national, regional, sub-regional, and local levels. This brief examines the possibility of using environmental management as a pathway to peace in the region.With its prevalence of conflict and transboundary ecosystems, the Great Lakes Region could be a potential model for a future worldwide initiative in environmental peacemaking

Kibui AW, Bradshaw G, Kibera L. "Conflict Management as a Tool for Restoring Discipline in Kenyan Public Secondary Schools." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2014;Vol. 1 (3):1-10 .
SO N, GA M, K MMO, KB W. "Conflict minimizing strategies on natural resource management and use: the case of managing and coping with conflicts between wildlife and agro-pastoral production resources in Transmara District, Kenya.". 2007:ECAPAPA report http://www.ilri.org/Link/Publications /Publications/Theme%201/Pastoral%20conference/Papers/NRMU.
Kibui AW. "Conflict mitigation as a mechanism of promoting religious tolerance for peaceful social cohesion in Africa." International Journal for Management, Information Technology and Engineering . 2016;4(5):41-48.
Kibui AW, Gavin B, Kibera L. "Conflict Mitigation in Enhancing Discipline in Kenya’s Secondary Schools." DBA Africa Management Review. 2014;4(2):1-13.
Karanja J, Muganyizi P, Rwamushaja E, Hodoglugil N, Nesper E. "Confronting Maternal Mortality due to Postpartum Haemorrhge And Unsafe Abortion: A call for commitment." African Journal of Reproductive Health. 2013;17(2):18.
Kitonyi G W, Duncan A GRNIJAEAJ. "Congenital Afibrinogenaemia in a Kenyan child." EAMJ. 2010;87(2). AbstractWebsite

Congenital afibrinogenaemia (CA), is a rare inherited bleeding disorder characterised by complete deficiency of fibrinogen in the plasma. Blood clotting tests are indefinitely prolonged in patients. Themode of inheritance is autosomal recessive. Typically patients present with excessive cord bleeding after birth with intracerebral haemorrhages reported in childhood. Other manifestations include musculoskeletal haemorrhages, mucocutaneous bleeds with poor wound healing reported occasionally. In females, menorrhagia, repeated early pregnancy loss and post-partum haemorrhages are common. We present a four year old female who initially presented with severe cord bleeding after birth, warranting a blood transfusion. Currently she experiences recurrent epistaxis, easy bruising and excessive post -traumatic haemorrhages. All her clotting times are markedly prolonged. Her plasma fibrinogen and fibrinogen antigen are undetectable. An older sibling died from excessive cord haemorrhage after birth. Bleeds in CA respond very favourably to fibrinogen concentrates, cryoprecipitate and fresh plasma. To date, 242 cases of CA have been reported worldwide, none of them in Kenya. Our aim in reporting this case is to document the disorder, and also to raise the index of suspicion of the condition

Kitonyi GW, Duncan A RJAG'a JW. "Congenital Afibrinogenaemia in a Kenyan female Child: Case report." EAMJ. 2010;2(87):81-83.
Kitonyi GW, Duncan A G'a JNRJANEAIJ. "Congenital afibrogenaemia in a Kenyan child: case report." East Afr Med J.. 2010;87(2):81-3.
Gichangi P, Renterghem LV, Karanja J, Bwayo J, Kiragu D, Temmerman M. "Congenital syphilis in a Nairobi maternity hospital." East Afr Med J. 2004;81(11):589-93. Abstract

To assess adverse pregnancy outcome associated with maternal syphilis and congenital syphilis rate based on FTA-ABS-19s-IgM.

Hashim I, Onyari JM, Omosa LK, Maru SM, Nchiozem-Ngnitedem V-A, Karpoormath R. "Conglomeratin: A new antibacterial flavonol derivative from Macaranga conglomerata Brenan (Euphorbiaceae)." Natural Products Research. 2022:https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2022.2061481.hashim_et_al_2022_natural_products_research.pdf
Chisi S, Kollmann M, Karimurio J. "Conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection seen at two hospitals in Kenya." East Afr Med J. 2006;83:267-270. Abstract

Objectives: This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and pattern of CSCC in patients with HIV infection.
Design: A hospital based cross sectional study conducted from the 3rd of November, 2003 to 30th May, 2004
Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU)
Subjects: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients (409)
Results Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients (409) aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three (103) had conjunctival growths. Thirty two (32) had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6mm. 22 (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while 10 (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: 15 (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; 9 (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; 5 patients (15.6%) had CIN; 2 patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and 1 patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma.
Conclusions: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients is 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis.
Recommendations: Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.

Ayuke FO, Kihara J, Ayaga G, Micheni AN. "Conservation agriculture enhances soil fauna richness and abundance in low input systems: examples from Kenya." Frontiers in Environmental Science. 2019;7 :97.
Wachira PM, Kimenju JW, Okoth SA, Kiarie JW. "Conservation and Sustainable Management of Soil Biodiversity for Agricultural Productivity .". In: Sustainable Living with Environmental Risks. Japan: Springer; 2014.
Kokwaro JO. "Conservation of Medicinal Plants in Kenya.". In: Conservation of Medicinal Plants. London: Cambridge; 1991.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Conservation Planning and management of agricultural watersheds; in semi arid Kenya: Strategies and Technological options. Accepted by Engineering in Agriculture and Environmental. Journal of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

Kokwaro JO. "Conservation status of the Kakamega forest in Kenya." Monogr. Sys. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard.. 1988;25:471-489.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Conservation tillage for dryland farming. Proceedings of a Regional/Wor kshop on Conservation Tillage for Eastern and Southern Africa. Supported by RELMA/Sida. Gitau. A.N. and E.K. Biamah (2000). Influence of selected tillage operations on draft power and.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 2000. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Conservation tillage for dryland farming: Promotion of conservation tillage techniques for improving household food security in semi arid Kenya. Paper presented at a Regional Workshop on Conservation Tillage, Arusha. Tanzania.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "Consolidation of Democracy in a Divided Society: Rethinking the Role of Civil Society Institutions and Donor Agencies in Kenya (Paper Presented in a Workshop between Human Rights NGOs and Donor Agencies, Organized by Centre for Governance and Development,.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1996.
J.W. M, Thoithi, G.N., Kibwage IO, et al. "Constituents of essential oil of Cymbopogon afronardus Staff. ." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2001;4:43-47.
Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO, Zygadlo JA, Lopez ML, Olivia MM, Demo MS, and TM, Chalchat J-C. "Constituents of the essential oil of Cymbopogon afronardus Stapf." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sc.. 2001;4:43-47.
Addae-Mensah, Muriuki G, Thoithi GN, Karanja C, Wandera C, Waibel R, Achenbach H. "Constituents of the stem bark and twigs of Croton macrostachy(u)s." Fitoterapia. 1992;LXIII:81-82.
Ndwigah SN, Thoithi, G.N., J.W. M, Kibwage IO. "Constituents of the stem bark of Dombeya rotudifolia Hochst ." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2005;8(2):40-42.
Ndwigah SN, Thoithi GN, Mwangi JW, Kibwage IO. "Constituents of the stem bark of Dombeya rotundifolia." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sc.. 2005;8:40-42.
Ndwigah SN, Thoithi GN, Mwangi JW, Kibwage IO. "The constituents of the stem bark of Dombeya rotundifolia, Hochst." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. . 2005;8(2):40-42.
Kanyinga K. "Constitution gave new life to Judiciary - so man up!" Daily Nation, August 29, 2015.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "construction of Bacterium to convert cellulose to ethanol. Report No. 84 -5. 1984. N.Y. State Energy Research and Development Authority, Postdoctoral Research, Cornell University, N.Y. U.S.A.". In: AFS/UNU workshop on Development of Indigenous Fermented foods and food technology in Africa, 14 18 Octobe3r 1985. Douala Cameroon. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1984. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
Kimani PM. "Construction of pedigrees.".; 2005.
K'AKUMU OA. "Construction statistics review for Kenya.". 2007. AbstractWebsite

Construction is a strategic industry in developing economies like Kenya. In order for construction to ably perform this role, there is a need to provide information on its various economic aspects including raw materials, products, processes, finance and labour. Construction statistics of Kenya have been evaluated in order to ascertain their adequacy in terms of scope, portrait, reliability and responsiveness in their coverage of the construction industry. Official statistics published in the annual Statistical Abstract were reviewed according to these adequacy criteria. The findings are that: the scope of construction statistics is narrowly defined making the statistical portrait of the sector incomplete; the statistics are also unreliable in terms of quality and unresponsive to economical challenges of inflation, structural adjustment policies and the decline of the public sector's role in the construction industry. A participatory statistical governance framework is recommended in order to improve the scope of statistics and alleviate the attendant problems, such as the incomplete portrait, that come with the narrow scope.

Kunyanga Catherine. N., Amimo JKLC'wa GN. "Consumer Risk Exposure to Chemical and Microbial Hazards through Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables in Kenya. ." Journal of Food Science and Quality Management. 2018;78:59-69.
H. NGUETTIJ, K. IJ, W. OM, S. MITEMAE, F. MBACHAMW, J. WANG’OMBE. "Consumer’s Awareness of the presence of pathogenic bacteria and pesticide Residues on tomatoes sold in Nairobi." African Journal of Agricultural Research . 2019;14(35):2146-2158.
Kiplagat AK;, Mburu J;, Mugendi DN. "Consumption of non timber forest products (NTFPs) in Kakamega forest, Western Kenya: accessibility, role and value to resident rural households."; 2008. Abstract

Dependency on natural resources in the ‘commons’ still ranks very high among rural communities in many developing countries. Kakamega forest in Kenya is one example of a local ‘common’ that supports a huge rural population. The forest is a high biodiversity area and for generations has been an important source of local people’s livelihoods. The forest is managed by three distinct organizations. The objective of this paper is to investigate the importance of Kakamega forest as a ‘common resource’ to surrounding households for nontimber products (NTFPs) such as firewood, herbal medicines, pastures and thatch grass for construction and maintenance of shelters by estimating economic value accruing to each household using direct pricing (DPM) and cost of collection (CoC) methods. Results are derived from a survey of 201 randomly selected households that was conducted in October-December 2006. Findings showed existence of a variety of NTFPs that are of great importance to local households’ livelihoods. Extraction challenges emanating from the different management approaches of the forest were also evident. The study makes a number of conclusions that can inform policy geared to fostering of collaborative management arrangements that can optimize conservation and sustainable use of Kakamega forest.

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