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Kimani G.N., L.W. N, M.M. M. "Curriculum Development for Non formal Education. .". In: A Distance Learning Module for Master of Education Programme. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2011.kimani_1.pdf
Kimani G.N., A. N, N. G. "Inspiring a Shared Vision: Getting all the Teachers in the Bandwagon." Journal of Education and Practice . 2014;5(ISSN 2222 – 1735):1-7.kimani_2.pdf
Kimani G.N., N. W. "Factors Influencing School Drop-out in Primary Schools in Rongai Division, Nakuru District." African Journal of Educational and Social Science Research 2. 2014;1(ISSN 2304 – 2885):82-85.kimani_5.pdf
Kimani G.N., S. C. "Training Needs Assessment of Secondary School Headteachers in Financial Management in Nandi North District." Journal of Management University of Africa. 2012;(ISSN 2074 – 4730):318-321.kimani_12.pdf
Kimani G.N., N. W. "Job Satisfaction among Secondary School Headteachers in Mombasa County." African Journal of Educational and Social Science Research 2. 2014;1(ISSN 2276 – 6103):143-147.kimani_6.pdf
Kimani G.N. "A module for Adult Education Teachers, for Department of Adult Education and School of Distance Studies.". In: Meaning and Scope of Adult Education Curriculum. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1987.
Kimani G.N., S. C. "An assessment of Head Teachers Preparedness in School Management on First Appointment in Public Secondary Schools in Kenya." Kenya Journal of Educational Management. 2013;6(ISSN 2074 – 5400).kimani_9.pdf
Kimani G.N., A.M. K, Njagi L W, M.W. R. "Students’ experiences and Perceptions of Master of Business Administration Programme offered through Distance Education at Kenyatta University, Kenya." Journal of Continuing, Open and Distance Education. 2012;(ISSN 2074 – 4722):207-229.kimani_13.pdf
Kimani G.N., A.M. K, L.W. N. "Learners’ Perceptions of Support Services in Distance Education: A case of Bachelor of Education Students at Kenyatta University, Kenya." Journal of Continuing, Open and Distance Education. 2013;3(ISSN 2201 – 6333):1-4.kimani10.pdf
Kimani G.N. "1) A module for Adult Education Teachers, Department of Adult Education and School of Distance Studies.". In: Factors Influencing Curriculum Development. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1989.
Kimani G.N., Gachahi M.W, L.W. N, B. N. "Head teachers’ and Teachers Perceptions Towards SMASE Programme and Primary School Pupils’ Mathematics and Science Achievement in Murang’a County, Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research 2. 2014;8(ISSN 2201- 6333 ):209-220.kimani_3.pdf
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Serek, M. Waithaka, Kimani; Rodney B. Jones and Michael S. Reid, 1994. Senescence of florets in the Gladiolus Inflorescence. Physiologia Plantarum, 91(3): A1-A22.". In: Paper presented at XVII Congress of the Scandinavian Society for PlantPhysiology. Physiology Plantarum, 91 (3) A-A22. EAMJ; 1994. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Kimani MW, Njoroge BNK, Ndunge D. "Review of Municipal Solid Waste Management: A Case Study of Nairobi, Kenya." Research Inventory: International Journal Of Engineering And Science.. 2014;4(2):16-20. Abstract

ABSTRACT : Solid waste management (SWM) is a major public health and environmental concern in urban areas of many developing countries. Nairobi’s solid waste situation, which could be taken to generally represent Kenya’s status, is largely characterized by low coverage of solid waste collection, pollution from uncontrolled dumping of waste, inefficient public services, unregulated and uncoordinated private sector and lack of key solid waste management infrastructure. Solid waste generated on daily basis is 4,016 tonnes as predicted by Allison (2010). The collection rate is as low as 33% (JICA, 2010) which leaves about 2,690 tonnes uncollected (almost equal to the total daily waste generation as predicted by JICA (1998)). Apart from Nairobi City Council (NCC), the body that has the primary responsibility for the provision and regulation of SWM services in the city, other actors have come into play such as private companies and community based organizations among others. The models of operation of these actors are not well understood. Effective coordination among these actors is also absent and regulation of the private companies by the city council is only beginning to emerge. According to Mwangi, 2007, analysis of total costs incurred by various actors and amount of waste collected per month showed that CBOs had the least fixed cost of operation as compared to private companies. Further, the CBOs had the lowest cost per tonne of waste collected as compared to other operators who showed almost twice this amount. These suggest that solid waste management is very expensive and CBOs are the cheapest operators of solid waste. Therefore, CBOs should be left as the waste operators in the low income areas where the residents are unable to pay a lot of money for waste management due to their low operating costs. Due to their relatively high operation costs, the private companies are more suited to operate in the high income areas and CBD where the residents or the owners of building are able to afford for the services. However, private enterprises are primarily interested in earning a return on their investment and may not be efficient due to the complexity of their operations outlay especially when proper coordination and SWM models are lacking.

KEY WORDS: Actors, Efficiency, Models and Solid Waste Management

KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Reshid, Kedir, and Waithaka, Kimani, 1985. The influence of nutrient concentration in vines of sweet potato on dry matter accumulation in vines and tuberous roots. Acta Horticulturae, 218: 213-220.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1985. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Kimani M, Makoteku O. "Demographic Models Applied at the Population Studies and Research Institute .". In: Kenya's Population Growth and Development. Nairobi: Heinman; 1988.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Kahangi, E.M., and Waithaka, Kimani. 1981. Flowering of cabbage and kale in Kenya as influenced by altitude and GA3 application.Journal of Horticultural Science, 56:185-188.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1981. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Kimani S, Sinei K, Bukachi F, Tshala-Katumbay D, Maitai C. "Memory deficits associated with sublethal cyanide poisoning relative to cyanate toxicity in rodents." Metabolic Brain Disease. 2014;29(1):105-112. Abstract

Food (cassava) linamarin is metabolized into neurotoxicants cyanide and cyanate, metabolites of which we sought to elucidate the differential toxicity effects on memory. Young 6-8 weeks old male rats were treated intraperitoneally with either 2.5 mg/kg body weight (bw) cyanide (NaCN), or 50 mg/kg bw cyanate (NaOCN), or 1 μl/g bw saline, daily for 6 weeks. Short-term and long-term memories were assessed using a radial arm maze (RAM) testing paradigm. Toxic exposures had an influence on short-term working memory with fewer correct arm entries (F 2, 19 = 4.57 p < 0.05), higher working memory errors (WME) (F 2, 19 = 5.09, p < 0.05) and longer RAM navigation time (F 2, 19 = 3.91, p < 0.05) for NaOCN relative to NaCN and saline treatments. The long-term working memory was significantly impaired by cyanide with fewer correct arm entries (F 2, 19 = 7.45, p < 0.01) and increased working memory errors (F 2, 19 = 9.35 p < 0.05) in NaCN relative to NaOCN or vehicle treated animals. Reference memory was not affected by either cyanide or cyanate. Our study findings provide an experimental evidence for the biological plausibility that cassava cyanogens may induce cognition deficits. Differential patterns of memory deficits may reflect the differences in toxicity mechanisms of NaOCN relative to NaCN. Cognition deficits associated with cassava cyanogenesis may reflect a dual toxicity effect of cyanide and cyanate

Kimani PM, Mulanya MM, Narla RD, Ambuko J, Ouma L, Shibairo S, Hutchinson M, Owino WO, Njuguna J, Kosgei PK, others. "Breeding runner bean for grain yield, disease resistance and short-day adaptation in eastern Africa.". In: Proc. Fourth RUFORUM Biennial Conference.; 2014:. Abstract
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KIMANI DRMURUNGARU. "M. Kimani and K. Kirangu 2005 AIDS and Teachers in Kenya: Results of a Baseline Survey.". In: A Report Prepared for Population Council and UNICEF. James Murimi; 2005.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Esther W.N. Kimani, E.W. Mutitu, S.W. Waudo, Silas D. Obukosia, P.M. Kimani, J.M. Ikahu and Kimani Waithaka, 2001. Symptoms, causal agent and distribution of wilt disease of pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariafolium Vis) in Kenya. Pyrethrum Post, 21(1)35.". In: Paper presented in the International Conference on Integrated pest Management for Sub-saharan Africa, 8-12 Sept 2002, Kampala, Uganda. EAMJ; 2001. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Kimani EWN;, Mutitu EW;, Waudo SW;, Obukosia SD;, Kimani PM;, Ikahu JM;, Waithaka K. "Symptoms, causal agent and distribution of wilt disease of pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariafolium Vis) in Kenya."; 2001.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Waithaka, Kimani, 1986. Micropropagation of tuberose by in vitro somatic organogenesis of leaf friable callus. Intl. Congr. Plant-Tissue-Cell- Culture, 6 meet. 239.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1986. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Kimani MD, G.N K, R.N O, Muhammenda. "Simulating Maize (Zea Mays L.) performance using Aquacrop Model under Varying Irrigation Schedules and Water Depletion Levels in Bura Irrigation Scheme, Kenya.". In: AGRO 2019 Conference & Exhibition. College of Agriculture and Veterinary Science.; 2019.
Kimani MW. "University education for women in Kenya: a critical analysis of research carried out in this area.". In: AAWORD Workshop. Lenana Mount Hotel, Nairobi; 1995.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Waithaka, Kimani and Wanjao, L.W. 1982. The effect of duration of cold treatment on growth and flowering of Liatris. Scientia Horticulturae, 18:153-158.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1982. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Kimani GN, Lucy W Njagi. "Teachers' and students' perception of challenges of implementing HIV/AIDS education programme in secondary schools: A case study of Othaya Division, Nyeri District, Kenya." The Fountain, Journal of Faculty of Education, University of Nairobi . 2002;3(ISSN 2079-3383):96-102.kimani_17.pdf
Kimani D, Maina T. "Catastrophic Health Expenditures in Kenya.". In: Futures Group.; 2014.
Kimani PK´ethe, Mbuge D, Gitau AN. "Properties of Nonwoven Fabrics Containing Immobilized Superabsorbent Polymer Particles for Air Conditioning in Grain Dryers, Applied Engineering in Agriculture." American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers. 2022;38(2)(ISSN 0883-8542).
KIMANI DRMURUNGARU. "Re-estimation of the Natural Fertility (M) and the Fertility Control (m) Parameters in the Coale-Fertility Model.". In: Under review Demographic Research Journal. James Murimi; 2005. Abstract
According to the millennium assessment report, during the last century, global drylands have experienced anthropogenic induced climate changes that are predicted to continue and even to accelerate during the present century. The traditional pastoralist spatial domains are facing unprecedented changes due to population growth, urban sprawl and an appetite for land not anticipated by the planners who designated such lands as trust lands. A case in point is Kajiado district which has seen most community owned land blocks subdivided and tenure changed to private especially in areas surrounding It is therefore not only the pastoralists that are finding their roaming area constricted but also the wild animals. A recent court case to protect the migratory corridors of wild animals is a good example. In fact there are more wild animals among these communities than are confined in parks in Kenya. With the inevitable land use changes, and their impacts on livelihoods and environment, this paper explores the literature on the interaction of environmental conservation amid global warming and the potential role of biogas in mitigating the livelihood and vulnerability associated with it. Further, the technology helps manage green house gases and has potential for using the clean development mechanism to raise carbon credits which could be ploughed back in propping the livelihoods of rural communities. The paper highlights the preconditions of successful biogas interventions which include partial or complete confinement of animals in zero grazing units alongside improvement/change of animal breeds to more economically viable ones. However, this raises the greater question whether the radical change of livelihood approaches is at all viable? Key words: Global warming, livelihoods, conservation, biogas, carbon markets
and Kimani, P.C. GANMPKJ. "In vitro activity of selected medicinal plants in Kenya on Trypanosoma evansi." The Kenya Veterinarian . 2013;37:8-16. Abstract

Trypanosomiasis, a protozoan disease causes morbidity and death to humans and severely limits livestock production in endemic areas. It occurs predominantly in Africa, South America and Asia. Although chemotherapy has been used to control the disease, cases of drug resistance by trypanosomes are a major problem and prospects of vaccine development are remote. Herbal medicines have been claimed to be effective in the control of the disease in endemic areas. This study evaluated the in vitro activity of plant extracts of selected indigenous Kenyan plants on T. evansi. Test extracts included Azadirachta indica (neem), Prunus africana, Bidens pilosa, Physalis peruviana, Senna didymobotyra and Croton megalocarpus. 96- Well micro titer plates were used and trypanocidal activity was evaluated in vitro by calculating minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of respective extracts. Of the 27 extracts evaluated, chloroform extracts of Azadirachta indica leaves had the highest activity (minimum inhibitory concentration of 18.75 μg/ml). Other extracts showed activity on the parasite in vitro at concentrations that were much higher than chloroformic extract of A. indica. This study has confirmed the hypothesis that some plants used in Kenya to control trypanosomiasis have trypanocidal potential.

Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya." East African Journal of Ophthalmology. 2008;14(2):55-61. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

and Kimani LNG. "Integrating HIV and AIDS Programme in the School Curriculum: ." The Dawn of New Realities. 2011.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Waithaka, Kimani, Reid, M.S. and Dodge, L.L. 2001. Cold storage and flower keeping quality of cut tuberose. Journal of Horticultural Science &Biotechnology, 76(3):271-275.". In: Paper presented in the International Conference on Integrated pest Management for Sub-saharan Africa, 8-12 Sept 2002, Kampala, Uganda. EAMJ; 2001. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Waithaka, Kimani and S.D. Obukosia, 1988, In vitro ovule culture of Citrus sinensis L. Recent Advances in Biotechnology and Applied Biology 683-689.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1988. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Kimani GN. "Characteristics of PI in-service student teachers in Kenya." The Fountain: Journal of Faculty of Education, University of Nairobi, . 2005;2(ISSN 2079 3383).
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Reshid, Kedir and Waithaka, Kimani, 1983. The effect of phosphorus fertilizer levels on growth of tuberous roots and vines of sweet potato. Acta Horticulturae, 153: 345-353.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1983. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
KIMANI DRWANJERIJOSEPH. "A massive abdominal wall desmoid tumor occurring in a laparotomy scar: A case report Joseph K Wanjeri* and Collins JO Opeya.". In: World Journal of Surgical Oncology. BioMed Central; 2011. Abstract
  Abstract Introduction Desmoid tumors are benign but locally aggressive tumors of mesenchymal origin which are poorly circumscribed, infiltrate the surrounding tissue, lack a true capsule and are composed of abundant collagen. History of trauma to the site of tumor origin is elicited in up to 1 in 4 cases and they most commonly develop in the anterior abdominal wall and shoulder girdle but they can arise in any skeletal muscle. The clinical behavior and natural history of desmoid tumors are unpredictable and management is difficult with many issues remaining controversial, mainly regarding early detection, the role, type and timing of surgery and the value of non-operative therapies. Case presentation We report a case of a 23 year old male referred from a district hospital to a national referral hospital in Kenya, after developing a huge abdominal wall desmoid tumor following laparotomy for a blunt abdominal injury fourteen months earlier. The tumor was successfully excised and the abdominal wall defect reconstructed using a vicryl/prolene mesh and a unilateral groin flap. The patient had a non-eventful recovery and was discharged through radiotherapy clinic. Conclusion Wide margin tumor excision alone is a reasonable option in the management of desmoid tumors.  
Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi, S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Project." East Afr J Opthalmol. 2008;14(1):55-61. Abstract

Objective: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi.
Design: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007
Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City
Subjects: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years.
Results: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary’s Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities.
Conclusion: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty).
Recommendations: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

KIMANI DRJOHNMUTURI. "Comparative Skin Histology and Wound Healing of African Mole Rats: Heterocephalus glaber and Tachyoryctes ibeanus.". In: Biovision Alexandria. BiovisionAlexandria 2012 Conference; 2012. Abstract

The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.

KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Waithaka Kimani, 1991. Challenges of plant biotechnology application and capacity building in Africa .". In: Paper presented at the African Regional Symposium on Biotechnology for Development. Nairobi, Kenya. EAMJ; 1991. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Magambo, M.J.S. and Waithaka, Kimani, 1984. The effect of pruning at different heights on yield and dry matter production and partitioning in clonal tea, Camellia sinensis L. in Kenya. Experimental Agriculture, 21: 67-72.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1984. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Kimani S, Kainga S, Chege M, Wagoro M. "PCNA Annual Symposium Abstracts.". 2012. Abstract

Cardiovascular diseases are a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In a sub Saharan Africa cardiovascular and other metabolic diseases including diabetes are increasingly causing significant socio-economic and health burden. The increase has severely affected our health care systems already struggling with the burden of tropical and communicable diseases. Patients with diabetes are 2-4 times likely to develop cardiovascular disease and/or stroke. Although the risk factors for cardiovascular disease among type 2 diabetes may be known, there is inadequate information concerning diabetic patients attending Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).

KIMANI DRMURUNGARU. "K'Oyugi and Kimani M. Demographic and Reproductive Health Situation in North East and North West Somalia.". In: In Health Line Vol. 5 No. 3. James Murimi; 2001. Abstract
According to the millennium assessment report, during the last century, global drylands have experienced anthropogenic induced climate changes that are predicted to continue and even to accelerate during the present century. The traditional pastoralist spatial domains are facing unprecedented changes due to population growth, urban sprawl and an appetite for land not anticipated by the planners who designated such lands as trust lands. A case in point is Kajiado district which has seen most community owned land blocks subdivided and tenure changed to private especially in areas surrounding It is therefore not only the pastoralists that are finding their roaming area constricted but also the wild animals. A recent court case to protect the migratory corridors of wild animals is a good example. In fact there are more wild animals among these communities than are confined in parks in Kenya. With the inevitable land use changes, and their impacts on livelihoods and environment, this paper explores the literature on the interaction of environmental conservation amid global warming and the potential role of biogas in mitigating the livelihood and vulnerability associated with it. Further, the technology helps manage green house gases and has potential for using the clean development mechanism to raise carbon credits which could be ploughed back in propping the livelihoods of rural communities. The paper highlights the preconditions of successful biogas interventions which include partial or complete confinement of animals in zero grazing units alongside improvement/change of animal breeds to more economically viable ones. However, this raises the greater question whether the radical change of livelihood approaches is at all viable? Key words: Global warming, livelihoods, conservation, biogas, carbon markets
Kimani SK, Ng’ang’a JK, DW Kariuki, Kinyua J, Kimani FT, Kiboi DM. "Plasmodium Berghei ANKA: Selection of Pyronaridine Resistance in Mouse Model." African Journal of Biochemistry Research. 2014;8(6):111-117.plasmodium_berghei_anka-selection_of_pyronaridine_resistance_in_mouse_model.pdfacademicjournals
Kimani M, K'Oyugi BO. "Regional Variations in the Use of Contraceptives in Kenya." Genus. 2004;Volume LX(No. 2):33-54.29788812.pdf
Kimani E, Kigamwa J, Chege F, Muthomi J. "Bridging phytosanitary capacity through the Centre of Phytosanitary Excellence (COPE).". In: aGRO 2011 Inaugural Biennial Conference, Faculty of Agriculture. Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2011.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Waithaka, Kimani, 1992. Biotechnology in Agriculture and Food: Problems, needs and priorities in developing countries - East African position. Paper presented at a Biotechnology Seminar on Impacts of Biotechnology in Agriculture and Food in Developing Cou.". In: Paper presented at a Biotechnology Seminar on Impacts of Biotechnology in Agriculture and Food in Developing Countries.Madras, India. EAMJ; 1992. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Kimani NM. Pattern of female pelvic disease as shown at ultrasonography at Kenyatta National Hospital. IKUNDU GK, ed. NAIROBI: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2000.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Waithaka, Kimani. 1984. Growth and flowering pattern of Liatris corms in Kenya. Acta Horticulturae, 158:249-253.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1984. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Kimani V;, Lawry JM;, Good CM. "The Initiation of a Kikuyu Medicine Man.". 1980. Abstract

The field research for this paper was part of a broader project on urban and rural traditional medicine conducted in Kenya in ,1977-1978, supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation, Washington, D. C. We wish to thank Professor F. J. BENNETT of the Department of Community Health, University of Nairobi, for providing us with office space and valuable advice. We also wish to express our appreciation to RICHARD MUTHEE and PENINAH MAKOBU for their good work as research assistants. Pronounciation: u as 0 in English word who; i as English a

KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Waithaka, Kimani and Dana, M.N. 1978. Effects of growth substances on strawberry growth. Journal of American Society for Horticultural Science, 103: 627-628.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1978. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Kimani EK, Ayah R, Jama HH. "Prototyping Process at the University of Nairobi Maker-Space: A Case Study of Medical Devices for Maternal Newborn Health.". In: 1 st Annual Architecture and Engineering Conference 2018. Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Kimani S, Sinei K, Bukachi F, Tshala-Katumbay D, Maitai CK. "Memory deficits associated with sublethal cyanide poisoning relative to cyanate toxicity in rodents." Metabolic Brain Disease. 2014;29:105-112.
KIMANI DRMURUNGARU. "Fertility Preferences in Kenya Demographic and Health Survey.". In: Columbia, MD: CBS, NCPD and IRD/Macro International.2.4:. James Murimi; 2004. Abstract
According to the millennium assessment report, during the last century, global drylands have experienced anthropogenic induced climate changes that are predicted to continue and even to accelerate during the present century. The traditional pastoralist spatial domains are facing unprecedented changes due to population growth, urban sprawl and an appetite for land not anticipated by the planners who designated such lands as trust lands. A case in point is Kajiado district which has seen most community owned land blocks subdivided and tenure changed to private especially in areas surrounding It is therefore not only the pastoralists that are finding their roaming area constricted but also the wild animals. A recent court case to protect the migratory corridors of wild animals is a good example. In fact there are more wild animals among these communities than are confined in parks in Kenya. With the inevitable land use changes, and their impacts on livelihoods and environment, this paper explores the literature on the interaction of environmental conservation amid global warming and the potential role of biogas in mitigating the livelihood and vulnerability associated with it. Further, the technology helps manage green house gases and has potential for using the clean development mechanism to raise carbon credits which could be ploughed back in propping the livelihoods of rural communities. The paper highlights the preconditions of successful biogas interventions which include partial or complete confinement of animals in zero grazing units alongside improvement/change of animal breeds to more economically viable ones. However, this raises the greater question whether the radical change of livelihood approaches is at all viable? Key words: Global warming, livelihoods, conservation, biogas, carbon markets
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Machuka, J.S., Waithaka, Kimani and H.N.B. Gopalan. 1993. Embryo culture and gel electrophoretic identification of nucellar and zygotic seedlings of Citrus lemon L. and Citrus sinensis L. Discovery and Innovation, 5(1): 75-80.". In: Paper presented at XVII Congress of the Scandinavian Society for PlantPhysiology. Physiology Plantarum, 91 (3) A-A22. EAMJ; 1993. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Kimani M, B.O.K'Oyugi. "Regional Variations in contraceptive use in Kenya." Genus. 2004;Vol. LX (2):33-54.
Kimani SM, Alexander OJ, Hassan S, Bernard MN. "Variations in the branching pattern of the celiac trunk in a Kenyan population." Intenational Journal of Morphology 2010. 2010;28(1):199-204 .
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Chepkairor, M.J. and Waithaka, Kimani, 1985. Growth and flowering of Alstroemeria. Acta Horticulturae, 218: 115-120.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1985. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Kimani M, Makoteku O. " The Effect of Socio-economic and Proximate Determinants on birth Intervals in Kenya .". In: Fertility in Africa (editors) I. Diamond and D. Holmes, International Statistical Institute. Voorburg: International Statistical Institute; 1991.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Waithaka, Kimani, Hildebrandt, A.C. and Dana, M.N. 1980. Hormonal control of strawberry bud development in vitro. Journal of American Society for Horticultural Science, 105: 428-430.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1980. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Kimani S, Moterroso V, Morales P, Wagner J, Sinei K, Bukachi F, Maitai C, Tshala-Katumbay D. "Cross-species and tissue variations in cyanide detoxification rates in rodents and non human primates on protein-restricted diet." Food and Chemical Toxicology . 2014;66:203-209. Abstract

We sought to elucidate the impact of diet, cyanide or cyanate exposure on mammalian cyanide detoxification capabilities (CDC). Male rats (∼8weeks old) (N=52) on 75% sulfur amino acid (SAA)-deficient diet were treated with NaCN (2.5mg/kg bw) or NaOCN (50mg/kg bw) for 6weeks. Macaca fascicularis monkeys (∼12years old) (N=12) were exclusively fed cassava for 5weeks. CDC was assessed in plasma, or spinal cord, or brain. In rats, NaCN induced seizures under SAA-restricted diet whereas NaOCN induced motor deficits. No deficits were observed in non-human primates. Under normal diet, the CDC were up to ∼80× faster in the nervous system (14ms to produce one μmol of thiocyanate from the detoxification of cyanide) relative to plasma. Spinal cord CDC was impaired by NaCN, NaOCN, or SAA deficiency. In M. fascicularis, plasma CDC changed proportionally to total proteins (r=0.43; p<0.001). The plasma CDC was ∼2× relative to that of rodents. The nervous system susceptibility to cyanide may result from a “multiple hit” by the toxicity of cyanide or its cyanate metabolite, the influences of dietary deficiencies, and the tissue variations in CDC. Chronic dietary reliance on cassava may cause metabolic derangement including poor CDC

Kimani PM. "Construction of pedigrees.".; 2005.
KIMANI DRMURUNGARU. "Regional Variations in Contraceptive use in Kenya.". In: A Report Prepared for Population Council and UNICEF. James Murimi; 2004. Abstract
According to the millennium assessment report, during the last century, global drylands have experienced anthropogenic induced climate changes that are predicted to continue and even to accelerate during the present century. The traditional pastoralist spatial domains are facing unprecedented changes due to population growth, urban sprawl and an appetite for land not anticipated by the planners who designated such lands as trust lands. A case in point is Kajiado district which has seen most community owned land blocks subdivided and tenure changed to private especially in areas surrounding It is therefore not only the pastoralists that are finding their roaming area constricted but also the wild animals. A recent court case to protect the migratory corridors of wild animals is a good example. In fact there are more wild animals among these communities than are confined in parks in Kenya. With the inevitable land use changes, and their impacts on livelihoods and environment, this paper explores the literature on the interaction of environmental conservation amid global warming and the potential role of biogas in mitigating the livelihood and vulnerability associated with it. Further, the technology helps manage green house gases and has potential for using the clean development mechanism to raise carbon credits which could be ploughed back in propping the livelihoods of rural communities. The paper highlights the preconditions of successful biogas interventions which include partial or complete confinement of animals in zero grazing units alongside improvement/change of animal breeds to more economically viable ones. However, this raises the greater question whether the radical change of livelihood approaches is at all viable? Key words: Global warming, livelihoods, conservation, biogas, carbon markets
Kimani K, Lindfield R, Senyonjo L, Mwaniki A, Schmidt E. "Prevalence and Causes of Ocular Morbidity in Mbeere District, Kenya. Results of a Population-Based Survey.". 2013. Abstract

Ocular morbidity (OM) describes any eye disease regardless of resultant visual loss. Ocular morbidity may affect large numbers of people in low income countries and could lead to many episodes of care. However there is limited evidence about the prevalence of ocular morbidity or resulting health-seeking behavior. This study in Mbeere District, Kenya, set out to explore both these issues. Methods: A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in 2011. Trained teams moved from house to house examining and questioning residents on ocular morbidity and health-seeking behavior. Data were collected on standardized proformas and entered into a database for analysis. Results: 3,691 people were examined (response rate 91.7%). 15.52% (95% CI 13.86–16.92) had at least one ocular morbidity in at least one eye. The leading cause was presbyopia which affected 25.11% (95% CI 22.05–28.45) of participants over 35 and increased with age. Other leading causes of OM were conditions that affected the lens (32.58%) and the conjunctiva (31.31%). No association was found between educational attainment or employment and OM. 9.63% (7.87–11.74) self-reported an ocular morbidity in the previous six months and 45.94% (95% CI 37.1–55.04) stated that they had sought treatment for the condition. Conclusion: A large number of people were affected by an ocular morbidity in this survey. Most of these people could potentially be managed in their own communities through primary care services (e.g. those with presbyopia). Further work is required to understand the best way of providing an effective, equitable service for ocular morbidity.

KIMANI M, Mwangi W, Syagga P, Museleku E. "Drivers of Agricultural Land Subdivision in Dryland of Kenya: A Case of Kajiado County, Kenya." International journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge. 2018;3(6).
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Itulya, F.M., Mwamba, D.K. and Waithaka, Kimani 1995. The influence of spacing and phosphorus fertilization on fresh yields of sweet peppers. East African Agricultural & Forestry Journal, 61(2):191-197.". In: Paper presented in the International Conference on Integrated pest Management for Sub-saharan Africa, 8-12 Sept 2002, Kampala, Uganda. EAMJ; 1995. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Kimani EWN;, Mutitu EW;, Waudo SW;, Obukosia SD;, Kimani PM;, Ikahu JM;, Waithaka K. "Symptoms, causal agent and distribution of wilt disease of pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariafolium Vis) in Kenya."; 2001.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Mwamba, D.K. and Waithaka, Kimani, 1985. The influence of phosphorus fertilization and spacing on growth and fruiting of bell peppers (Capsicum annum L.) (Abstract). Acta Horticulturae, 152: 161.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1985. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Kimani M.  Effect of Infant and Child Mortality on Fertility in Kenya. Hill K, Makoteku O, eds. Nairobi: Nairobi; 1992.
Kimani, S.T. PKNBPG. "Effect of single and repeated khat (Catha edulis) extract on locomotor behaviour in CBA mice." Scientific Research and Essays. 2008;3(5):187-196.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Wanjao, L.W. and Waithaka, Kimani. 1982. The effect of GA3 application on growth and flowering of Liatris. Scientia Horticulturae, 19: 343-348.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1982. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Kimani JM. "Comparative Analysis of Wound Healing and Regenerative Ability in Different Mammals. .". In: Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine. South Africa; 2016.
KIMANI DRMURUNGARU. "Trends in contraceptive use in Kenya, 1989-1998: The role of socio-economic, cultural and family planning factors.". In: Under review, African Population Studies. James Murimi; 2005. Abstract
According to the millennium assessment report, during the last century, global drylands have experienced anthropogenic induced climate changes that are predicted to continue and even to accelerate during the present century. The traditional pastoralist spatial domains are facing unprecedented changes due to population growth, urban sprawl and an appetite for land not anticipated by the planners who designated such lands as trust lands. A case in point is Kajiado district which has seen most community owned land blocks subdivided and tenure changed to private especially in areas surrounding It is therefore not only the pastoralists that are finding their roaming area constricted but also the wild animals. A recent court case to protect the migratory corridors of wild animals is a good example. In fact there are more wild animals among these communities than are confined in parks in Kenya. With the inevitable land use changes, and their impacts on livelihoods and environment, this paper explores the literature on the interaction of environmental conservation amid global warming and the potential role of biogas in mitigating the livelihood and vulnerability associated with it. Further, the technology helps manage green house gases and has potential for using the clean development mechanism to raise carbon credits which could be ploughed back in propping the livelihoods of rural communities. The paper highlights the preconditions of successful biogas interventions which include partial or complete confinement of animals in zero grazing units alongside improvement/change of animal breeds to more economically viable ones. However, this raises the greater question whether the radical change of livelihood approaches is at all viable? Key words: Global warming, livelihoods, conservation, biogas, carbon markets
Kimani DN, Kariuki PC, Machio PM, Murigi MN, KABUBO-MARIARA J. "YOUTH EMPLOYMENT AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN MURANG’A COUNTY, KENYA.". 2016.
Kimani, P.C. GNANMPKK. "In vitro activity of selected medicinal plants in Kenya on Trypanosoma evansi." The Kenya Veterinarian . 2013;37:17-25. Abstract

Chloroform extracts from two Kenyan medicinal plants (Azadirachta indica/ neem leaves, 500 mg/ kg, 250mg/kg and 125mg/kg and Physalis peruviana 1000mg/kg, 500mg /kg and 250mg/kg body weights) were analysed in vivo for trypanocidal activity against Trypanosoma evansi. Experimental mice were injected with T. evansi KETRI 2450 and the drugs administered intraperitoneally at the onset of parasitaemia. Treated animals were then monitored for parasitaemia starting the following day after treatment. In comparison to suramin, the standard drug, extract of both A. indica leaves and P. peruviana were observed to express trypanocidal activity better than standard drug. High activity was found for extract of A. indica leaves (500mg/kg body weight) which completely cleared the parasites from infected mice by 24 days post treatment. Following this observation, it is recommended that future studies should address purification, structure eluci dation and biochemical characteristic of active components of Azadirachta indica leaves. This study has confirmed the hypothesis that some plants used in control of trypanosomiasis in Kenya have trypnocidal potential.

KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Kirwa, F.K.S., D. Obukosia and Kimani Waithaka, 2001. Effects of genotype and in vitro media composition on micropropagation of sugar cane (Saccharums.p.). East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal volume 67:59-67.". In: Paper presented in the International Conference on Integrated pest Management for Sub-saharan Africa, 8-12 Sept 2002, Kampala, Uganda. EAMJ; 2001. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Chepkairor, M.J. and Waithaka, Kimani, 1988. The effect of floral preservatives on the vase-life of Alstroemeria cut flowers. East African Agricultural & Forestry Journal, 53:229-231.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1988. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Kimani ST;, Patel NB;, Kioy PG. "Effect of single and daily khat (Catha edulis) extract on locomotor behaviour in CBA mice." Scientific Research and Essay. 2008;3(5):187-196.
Kimani, S. MT-KVD. "Neurotoxicity behavior of cassava cyanogens analogs in sulfur amino acid (SAA) deficiency diet.". In: The 10th International Society Of Neuroscientists Of Africa (SONA) Conference, Basic to Clinic. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2011.
KIMANI M, Milton N, Dr. Ndirangu G. "Regional Variations in contraceptive use in Kenya: comparison of Nyanza, Coast and Central Provinces.". In: African Population Studies. Vol. 27.; 2013:. Abstract

This paper analyses the regional variations in contraceptive use between Central, Nyanza and Coast Provinces in Kenya among currently married, fecund women drawn from the 2008-09 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) data. Specifically the study examined the role of socio-economic, cultural and demographic factors in explaining these variations using both bivariate and logistic regression. The analysis confirmed the higher use of contraception in Central compared to Nyanza and Coast. Current use of modern contraceptive methods in Central is 70 percent compared with 39 percent and 37 percent for Nyanza and Coast respectively. The higher contraceptive use in Central is attributed to the better socio-economic and cultural environment compared with the other two provinces. Central Province has very few cases of women with no education, a much lower percentage in the poorest wealth (9.6) category and the highest proportion in monogamous unions (97.1). The higher socio-economic status and better cultural environment has in turn created a favourable environment for the use of contraception through the intervening variables of knowledge
on family planning and fertility preferences. The logistic regression results suggest that differences in contraceptive use between the three provinces could be narrowed by increasing the level of education in Coast and overcoming traditional practices such as polygyny in both Nyanza and Coast. Although mortality is still important, its effect has declined. However, the unexpected finding that contraceptive use is higher in rural areas of Central and Nyanza Provinces suggests further research to understand what could be responsible for the reversal.

KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Magambo, M.J.S. and Waithaka, Kimani, 1983. The effect of conventional methods of growing tea on yields. Acta Horticulturae, 153: 275-285.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1983. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
KIMANI DRWANJERIJOSEPH. "A massive abdominal wall desmoid tumor occurring in a laparotomy scar: A case report.". In: 1st International Scientific Conference of UoN CHS. UoN College of Health Sciences; 2011.
Kimani S, Kipruto S, Bukachi F, Monterroso V, Maitai C, Tshala-Katumbay D. "Neurotoxicity of Cassava Cyanogens: Relevance to the Pathogenesis of Konzo, a Motor Neuron Disease Prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa." Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. 2016;36(1 S975):975.
Kimani JM, Kimani PM, Githiri MS, Kimenju JW. "Mode of inheritance of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) traits for tolerance to low soil phosphorus (P).". 2007. Abstract

Low soil phosphorus (P) has been singled out as a major constraint leading to perpetually low bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grain yield far below the expected yield potential. In developing countries beans are mainly produced by small-scale farmers who have little capacity to use inorganic fertilizers to replenish their soils. Yet bean production contributes significantly to their income and provides a cheap source of protein to rural and urban populations. The genetics of inheritance of the traits conferring low soil P tolerance is not well understood. The identification and understanding of the mode of inheritance of the traits for P-efficiency in bean will go along way in boosting bean yields through development of varieties adapted to low soil P. The objective of this study was to determine the inheritance of the traits conferring adaptation to low soil P, for the important large seeded red mottled bean market class. Three parents with known tolerance to low soil P were crossed with five adapted but non-tolerant genotypes in an 8 × 8 half diallel mating scheme. The resulting F1 seeds were evaluated under medium and low soil P conditions at two locations. Both general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) variances were highly significant (P ≤ 0.01) for all five characters studied except SCA variance for root dry weight at one location. The magnitude of GCA variance was up to twelve times higher than the SCA variance. The GCA:SCA ratio varied from 0.62 to 0.96 for the characters studied. The additive genetic variance was more important than the dominance variance for tolerance to low soil P.

KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Obukosia, S. D., E. Kimani, Kimani Waithaka, E. Mutitu and P. M. Kimani, 2005. Effects of growth regulators and genotypes on calli induction and regeneration of pyrethrum clones (Chrysanthenum cinerariefolium Vis.) In vitro cell Development Biology-Plant .". In: Paper presented in the International Conference on Integrated pest Management for Sub-saharan Africa, 8-12 Sept 2002, Kampala, Uganda. EAMJ; 2005. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
KIMANI DRJOHNMUTURI. "Biology of Acomys percivali and Acomys Kempi (African spiny mice) of Eastern Africa.". Rodentia; 2012. Abstract

The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.

Kimani PM;, Chirwa RM;, Kirkby R. "Bean Breeding For Africa: Strategy And Plan."; 2001. Abstract

The common bean is the principal grain legume grown by small-scale, resource-poor farmers for food and sale in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. However, its productivity is severely constrained by many biotic and abiotic constraints, resulting in low production despite rising demand. The International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), in partnership with national programmes, regional networks, and NGOs, has released several improved bean varieties in the last decade. However, most of these varieties originated from the CIAT breeding programme at its global headquarters in Cali, Colombia. To strengthen the capacity of bean researchers in Africa to respond better to the changing needs of farmers and consumers, the Pan African Bean Research Alliance (PABRA), consisting of CIAT-Africa, the East and Central Africa Bean Research Network (ECABREN), and the Southern Africa Bean Research Network (SABRN), has developed a collaborative strategic plan for breeding high-yielding bean varieties with improved tolerance to major biotic and abiotic stresses, which also meet requirements for domestic, regional, and international markets. Following participatory approaches, breeding programmes for the seven most important market classes have been developed and are being implemented by collaborating NARS, selected on the basis of the importance of a particular market class in their country. Test sites were selected to represent the major bean-growing environments and constraints for each market class. The main priorities for the breeding programmes are (1) yield improvement, (2) identification, characterisation, and utilisation of sources of resistance to major biotic and abiotic constraints, (3) assessment of advanced lines for productivity in intercropped and sole cropping systems, and (4) cooking and nutritional quality.

KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Waithaka, Kimani, 1990. Infrastructure for planning, training and popularization of biotechnology. Paper presented at the African Regional Workshop on Biotechnology for Food Production in Dry Areas, Dakar, Senegal.". In: Paper presented at the African Regional Workshop on Biotechnology for Food Production in Dry Areas, Dakar, Senegal. EAMJ; 1990. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Waithaka, Kimani. 1983. Liatris forcing in Kenya. Acta Horticulturae, 153: 447-51.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1983. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
KIMANI DRWANJERIJOSEPH. "Article title: Risk factors for kerosene stove explosion burns seen at Kenyatta National Hospital in Kenya Journal title: Burns Dr. Alex N Dr.Ombati, Dr.P.L.W.Ndaguatha, Dr.J.K.Wanjeri (Correspnding author) Online publication complete: 19-SEP-2012.". In: BURNS. ELSEVIER; 2012. Abstract
Malaria is a major public health problem that is presently complicated by the development of resistance by Plasmodium falciparum to the mainstay drugs. Thus, new drugs with unique structures and mechanism of action are required to treat drug-resistant strains of malaria. Historically, compounds containing a novel structure from natural origin represent a major source for the discovery and development of new drugs for several diseases. This paper presents ethnophytotherapeutic remedies, ethnodiagnostic skills, and related traditional knowledge utilized by the Digo community of the Kenyan Coast to diagnose malaria as a lead to traditional bioprospecting. The current study was carried out in three Digo villages of Diani sub-location between May 2009 and December 2009. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, and open and close-ended questionnaires. A total of 60 respondents (34 men and 26 women) provided the targeted information. The results show that the indigenous knowledge of Digo community on malaria encompasses not only the symptoms of malaria but also the factors that are responsible for causing malaria, attributes favoring the breeding of mosquitoes and practices employed to guard against mosquito bites or to protect households against malaria. This knowledge is closely in harmony with scientific approaches to the treatment and control of the disease. The Digo community uses 60 medicinal plants distributed in 52 genera and 27 families to treat malaria. The most frequently mentioned symptoms were fever, joint pains, and vomiting while the most frequently mentioned practices employed to guard against mosquito bites and/or to protect households against malaria was burning of herbal plants such as Ocimum suave and ingestion of herbal decoctions and concoctions. The Digo community has abundant ethnodiagnostic skills for malaria which forms the basis of their traditional bioprospecting techniques. Keywords: malaria, antimalarials, ethnopharmacology, ethnodiagnostic skills, Digo community, bioprospecting
KIMANI DRMURUNGARU. "Kimani M. and B.O.K'Oyugi 2001 Infant/Child Mortality and Birth Intervals in Kenya.". In: Health Line Vol. 5 No. 2. James Murimi; 2001. Abstract
According to the millennium assessment report, during the last century, global drylands have experienced anthropogenic induced climate changes that are predicted to continue and even to accelerate during the present century. The traditional pastoralist spatial domains are facing unprecedented changes due to population growth, urban sprawl and an appetite for land not anticipated by the planners who designated such lands as trust lands. A case in point is Kajiado district which has seen most community owned land blocks subdivided and tenure changed to private especially in areas surrounding It is therefore not only the pastoralists that are finding their roaming area constricted but also the wild animals. A recent court case to protect the migratory corridors of wild animals is a good example. In fact there are more wild animals among these communities than are confined in parks in Kenya. With the inevitable land use changes, and their impacts on livelihoods and environment, this paper explores the literature on the interaction of environmental conservation amid global warming and the potential role of biogas in mitigating the livelihood and vulnerability associated with it. Further, the technology helps manage green house gases and has potential for using the clean development mechanism to raise carbon credits which could be ploughed back in propping the livelihoods of rural communities. The paper highlights the preconditions of successful biogas interventions which include partial or complete confinement of animals in zero grazing units alongside improvement/change of animal breeds to more economically viable ones. However, this raises the greater question whether the radical change of livelihood approaches is at all viable? Key words: Global warming, livelihoods, conservation, biogas, carbon markets
Kimani SM, Ogeng'o JA, Saidi H, Ndung'u B. "Comparative intimal-media morphology of the human splenic and common hepatic arteries." J. Morphol. Sci. 2011;28(1):52-56.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Waithaka, Kimani, 1992. Development of Biotechnology Infrastructure and Capacity Building for Research and Development in Africa. Paper presented at the African Regional Symposium on Biotechnology for Development. Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Paper presented at the African Regional Symposium on Biotechnology for Development. Nairobi, Kenya. EAMJ; 1992. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Waithaka, Kimani, 1984. Growth and runner production of everbearing strawberries in Kenya. Acta Horticulturae, 158: 151-156.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1984. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Kimani MW. "Utilization of Meteorological Information in the Horticultural Industry: The Missing Link.". In: Fourth Kenya Meterological Society Workshop on the Challenges of Meteorology in Sustainable Industrial Development. Mombasa; 1998.
Kimani S, Moterroso V, Morales P, Wagner J, Sinei K, Bukachi F, Maitai CK, Tshala-Katumbay D. "Cross-species and tissue variations in cyanide detoxification rates in rodents and non-human primates on protein-restricted diet." Food Chem Toxicol.. 2014;66:203-209.
Kimani K, Onsomu E, Onyango O, Sheila M, Nyaga G. "Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) in Kericho district.". 2005.
KIMANI DRMURUNGARU. "Behavioural Effects of Infant and Child Mortality on Fertility in Kenya.". In: African Journal of Reproductive Health, Vol. 5 No. 3 (Dec) 2001. James Murimi; 2001. Abstract
According to the millennium assessment report, during the last century, global drylands have experienced anthropogenic induced climate changes that are predicted to continue and even to accelerate during the present century. The traditional pastoralist spatial domains are facing unprecedented changes due to population growth, urban sprawl and an appetite for land not anticipated by the planners who designated such lands as trust lands. A case in point is Kajiado district which has seen most community owned land blocks subdivided and tenure changed to private especially in areas surrounding It is therefore not only the pastoralists that are finding their roaming area constricted but also the wild animals. A recent court case to protect the migratory corridors of wild animals is a good example. In fact there are more wild animals among these communities than are confined in parks in Kenya. With the inevitable land use changes, and their impacts on livelihoods and environment, this paper explores the literature on the interaction of environmental conservation amid global warming and the potential role of biogas in mitigating the livelihood and vulnerability associated with it. Further, the technology helps manage green house gases and has potential for using the clean development mechanism to raise carbon credits which could be ploughed back in propping the livelihoods of rural communities. The paper highlights the preconditions of successful biogas interventions which include partial or complete confinement of animals in zero grazing units alongside improvement/change of animal breeds to more economically viable ones. However, this raises the greater question whether the radical change of livelihood approaches is at all viable? Key words: Global warming, livelihoods, conservation, biogas, carbon markets
Kimani ST, Patel NB, Kioy PG. "Memory deficits associated with khat (Catha edulis) use in rodents." Metab Brain Dis. 2016;31(1):45-52.kimani2015.pdf
Kimani L, Opanga S, Karimi P, Bosire K. "Treatment of chronic heart failure in adults at a referral hospital in Kenya: adverse drug reactions and determinants of adherence." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2016;5(1).
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Njoroge, J.M., Waithaka, Kimani and Chweya, J.A. 1993. Effects of intercropping young compact Arabica coffee hybrid cv. .". In: Paper presented at XVII Congress of the Scandinavian Society for PlantPhysiology. Physiology Plantarum, 91 (3) A-A22. EAMJ; 1993. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Kimani PM;, Buruchara R;, Ampofo K;, Pyndji M;, Chirwa RM;, Kirkby R. "Breeding beans for smallholder farmers in Eastern, Central, and Southern Africa: Constraints, achievements, and potential."; 2001. Abstract

Serious declines in food security and income in sub-Saharan Africa over the past two decades have resulted in widespread poverty and malnutrition, especially among resource-poor smallholders and the urban poor. The common bean is a major part of their food requirements and source of income, but there have been declines in bean productivity, attributable to a number of factors and estimated at nearly 3,000,000 t per year. In the last 16 years, the Pan-African Bean Research Alliance (PABRA) together with NARS partners, farmers, NGOs, and other stakeholders have sought to overcome these constraints by breeding highyielding, disease- and pest-resistant cultivars adapted to poor soils, with characteristics acceptable for domestic and export markets, and seed production and delivery systems for smallholder producers, among other things. A record 188 distinct varieties have been released and have contributed significantly to improvements in the livelihoods of resource-poor rural communities through increased availability of food and household income, savings in cooking time, reduced wood fuel consumption, gender equity, and empowerment of women and other vulnerable groups. Adoption rates of up to 100% indicate that accelerated dissemination and adoption of improved bean cultivars can significantly contribute to improving food security, household income, and poverty alleviation, especially for the most vulnerable group

Kimani MM, Kiiru JN, Matu MM, Chokwe T, Saidi H. "Evaluation of POSSUM and P-POSSUM as predictors of mortality and morbidity in patients undergoing laparotomy at a referral hospital in Nairobi, Kenya." Annals of African Surgery. 2010;5:28-32. AbstractWebsite

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Variant anatomy of the superior thyroid artery is important during surgical procedures, interpretation of angiograms, and interventional radiography in the neck. Pattern of the variations shows population differences but there is no data from the Kenyan population. This study therefore investigated the variations in origin of the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population. Forty six necks (36 males and 10 females) from 46 cadavers of black Kenyans in Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya were bilaterally dissected to expose the origin of the superior thyroid artery. Pattern of origin of the vessel was determined on both sides in males and females. It originated from the external carotid artery common carotid artery and linguo-facial trunk in 80%, 13% and 6.5% of the cadavers respectively on the right side. All but one of the superior thyroid arteries were ventral branches. There was asymmetric origin in 6.5% of cases. Origin from the common carotid artery was associated with high carotid bifurcation. Nearly 20% of superior thyroid arteries showed variant origin. Of these, 6.5% arose from the linguo-facial trunk, much higher than in the Caucasian and Oriental populations. Origin from common carotid artery is substantially lower than prevailing figures from other populations. These findings support ethnic variations. Preoperative angiographic evaluation is recommended.

KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Waithaka, Kimani, 1985. Application of tissue culture biotechnology in horticultural production. Acta Horticulturae, 218: 131-140.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1985. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Kimani M, Kiragu K, Mannathoko C. HIV/AIDS and Teachers in Kenya. Nairobi: UNICEF; 2006.
Kimani ST, Patel NB, Kioy PG. "Memory deficits associated with khat (Catha edulis) use in rodents." Metab Brain Dis. 2016;31(1):45-52. Abstract

Khat products and chewing practices are common in East Africa, Middle East for centuries with concomitant socio-economic and public health repercussions. We assessed memory deficits associated with khat use in rodents. Young male CBA mice, 5-7 weeks old (n = 20), weighing 25-35 g were used. Mice were treated with either 40, 120 or 360 mg/kg body weight (bw) methanolic khat extract, or 0.5 ml saline for 10 days. Spatial acquisition, reversal and reference memory were assessed using modified Morris Water maze (MMWM). Mice treated with 40 mg/kg khat extract had longer (t4 = 4.12 p = 0.015) and t4 = 2.28 p = 0.065) escape latency on first and second day during reversal relative to the baseline. Under 120 mg/kg khat dose, the escape latency was shorter (t4 = -2.49 p = 0.05) vs (t3 = -2.5 p = 0.05) on third and fourth day. Further, treatment with 360 mg/kg khat extract resulted in significantly longer time (49.13, 33.5, 40.2 and 35.75) vs. (23.5 s), compared to baseline. Mice treated with khat or control preferred the target quadrant post acquisition while differential pattern was seen during reversal phase. Mice treated with 40 or 120 mg/kg khat showed significant preference for target quadrant. Substantial time (19.9) was spent in the old target compared to the new (16.9 s) by animals treated with highest dose however, the difference was not significant. There is a biological plausibility that chronic khat use may induce memory deficits and impair cognitive flexibility. The differential patterns of memory deficits may reflect the differences in dose effect as well as time dependent impairment.

KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Waithaka, Kimani, and Dana, M.N. 1978. Effects of growth substances on strawberry growth. Journal of American Society for Horticultural Science. 103:627-628.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1978. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Kimani S, Moterroso V, Lasarev M, Sinei K, Bukachi F, Maitai C, David L, Tshala-Katumbay D. "Carbamoylation correlates of cyanate neuropathy and cyanide poisoning: relevance to the biomarkers of cassava cyanogenesis and motor system toxicity." Springerplus. 2013;2:647. Abstract

We sought to elucidate the protein carbamoylation patterns associated with cyanate neuropathy relative to cyanide poisoning. We hypothesized that under a diet deficient in sulfur amino acids (SAA), the carbamoylation pattern associated with cyanide poisoning is similar to that of cyanate neuropathy. Male rats (6-8 weeks old) were fed a diet with all amino acids (AAA) or 75%-deficiency in SAA and treated with 2.5 mg/kg/body weight (bw) NaCN, or 50 mg/kg/bw NaOCN, or 1 μl/g/bw saline, for up to 6 weeks. Albumin and spinal cord proteins were analyzed using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Only NaOCN induced motor deficits with significant levels of carbamoylation. At Day 14, we found a diet-treatment interaction effect on albumin carbamoylation (p = 0.07). At Day 28, no effect was attributed to diet (p = 0.71). Mean number of NaCN-carbamoylated sites on albumin was 47.4% higher relative to vehicle (95% CI:16.7-86.4%). Only NaOCN carbamoylated spinal cord proteins, prominently, under SAA-restricted diet. Proteins targets included myelin basic and proteolipid proteins, neurofilament light and glial fibrillary acidic proteins, and 2', 3' cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase. Under SAA deficiency, chronic but not acute cyanide toxicity may share biomarkers and pathogenetic similarities with cyanate neuropathy. Prevention of carbamoylation may protect against the neuropathic effects of cyanate.

KIMANI DRMURUNGARU. "Fertility Preferences in Kenya.". In: Chapter 7, Demographic and Health Survey.Columbia, MD: CBS, NCPD and IRD/Macro International. James Murimi; 2004. Abstract
According to the millennium assessment report, during the last century, global drylands have experienced anthropogenic induced climate changes that are predicted to continue and even to accelerate during the present century. The traditional pastoralist spatial domains are facing unprecedented changes due to population growth, urban sprawl and an appetite for land not anticipated by the planners who designated such lands as trust lands. A case in point is Kajiado district which has seen most community owned land blocks subdivided and tenure changed to private especially in areas surrounding It is therefore not only the pastoralists that are finding their roaming area constricted but also the wild animals. A recent court case to protect the migratory corridors of wild animals is a good example. In fact there are more wild animals among these communities than are confined in parks in Kenya. With the inevitable land use changes, and their impacts on livelihoods and environment, this paper explores the literature on the interaction of environmental conservation amid global warming and the potential role of biogas in mitigating the livelihood and vulnerability associated with it. Further, the technology helps manage green house gases and has potential for using the clean development mechanism to raise carbon credits which could be ploughed back in propping the livelihoods of rural communities. The paper highlights the preconditions of successful biogas interventions which include partial or complete confinement of animals in zero grazing units alongside improvement/change of animal breeds to more economically viable ones. However, this raises the greater question whether the radical change of livelihood approaches is at all viable? Key words: Global warming, livelihoods, conservation, biogas, carbon markets
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Margrethe Serek, Kimani Waithaka, Rodney B. Jones and Michael S. Reid, 1994. Senescence of florets in the gladiolus inflorescence.". In: Paper presented at XVII Congress of the Scandinavian Society for PlantPhysiology. Physiology Plantarum, 91 (3) A-A22. EAMJ; 1994. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Kimani PM;, Githiri SM;, Kamau JK. "Breeding bean for resistance to diseases."; 1990. Abstract

Seven bean (Phaseoulus vulgaris L.) lines contrasting in disease resistance and agronomic characters were crossed in a diallel. The parents, F(1s), F(2s) and F(3s) were evaluated and selected in glasshouse and field for resistance to rust, Uromyces phaseoli (Reben) Wint, anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum), angular leaf spot (Phaeoisariopsis griseola), halo blight (Pseudomonas phaeolicola) and bean common mosaic virus (BCMV). F(4s) and F(5s) were evaluated in the field only. Several F4 and F5 lines combining resistance to three or more diseases, acceptable seed characteristics and good yield potential were selected from nine crosses.

Kimani VN, Mitoko G, McDermott B, Grace D, Ambia J, Kiragu MW, Njehu AN, Sinja J. "Social and gender determinants of risk of cryptosporidiosis, an emerging zoonosis, in Dagoretti, Nairobi, Kenya.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

The aim of the study was to investigate the social and gender determinants of the risk of exposure to Cryptosporidium fromurban dairying in Dagoretti, Nairobi. Focus group discussions were held in six locations to obtain qualitative information on risk of exposure. A repeated cross-sectional descriptive study included participatory assessment and household questionnaires (300 randomly selected urban dairy farming households and 100 non-dairying neighbours). One hundred dairy households randomly selected from the 300 dairy households participated in an additional economic survey along with 40 neighbouring non-dairy households. We found that exposure to Cryptosporidium was influenced by gender, age and role in the household. Farm workers and people aged 50 to 65 years had most contact with cattle, and women had greater contact with raw milk. However, children had relatively higher consumption of raw milk than other age groups. Adult women had more daily contact with cattle faeces than adult men, and older women had more contact than older men. Employees had greater contact with cattle than other groups and cattle faeces, and most (77 %) were male. Women took more care of sick people and were more at risk from exposure by this route. Poverty did not affect the level of exposure to cattle but did decrease consumption of milk. There was no significant difference between men and women as regards levels of knowledge on symptoms of cryptosporidiosis infections or other zoonotic diseases associated with dairy farming. Awareness of cryptosporidiosis and its transmission increased significantly with rising levels of education. Members of nondairy households and children under the age of 12 years had significantly higher odds of reporting diarrhoea: gender, season and contact with cattle or cattle dung were not significantly linked with diarrhoea. In conclusion, social and gender factors are important determinants of exposure to zoonotic disease in Nairobi.

KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Waithaka, Kimani, 1985. Flower bulb forcing in Kenya. Acta Horticulturae,177:255-259.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1985. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Kimani M.  Effect of Infant and Child Mortality on Fertility in Kenya. Mosley H, Oyuke C, eds. Nairobi: Nairobi; 1982.
and Kimani NSTAW. "Effect of single daily khat (Catha edulis) extract on spatial learning and memory in CBA mice." Behavioral Brain Research. 2008;(195):192-197.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Waithaka, Kimani and Wanjao, L.W. 1982. The influence of corm source, age and size on growth and flowering of Liatris spicata L. Acta Horticulturae, 134:95-100.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1982. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Kimani JM, Kiama SG, Philemon K. Towett, Seifert AW. Cutaneous Wound healing in a Long-Living rodent (Heterocephalus Glaber)..; 2015.
KIMANI DRMURUNGARU. "(with B.O K'Oyugi)Re-estimation of the Natural Fertility (M) and the Fertility Control (m) Parameters in the Coale-Fertility Model.". In: (Under review Demographic Research Journal). James Murimi; 2005.
Kimani MW, Okonkwo O. "Delivering Affordable housing in Africa: Challenges, Opportunities and Strategies.". 2005. AbstractWebsite

Low-cost housing provision has been a major focus of government in post-apartheid urban South Africa. While successes can be noted, there is growing concern regarding the social and environmental sustainability of housing programs and the impacts upon both the surrounding environment and human health. Utilizing key informant interviews, survey research, Census data and documentary review, this essay identifies the major impediments to a sustainable low-cost housing provision in urban South Africa. The essay also points to hopeful signs in new policy directions, particularly attention to health issues and informal settlement upgrade programs. However, the major obstacles to a sustainable low-cost housing process, including macro-economic conditions, enduring historical legacies of race and class, the scale and rapidity of urban growth and institutional challenges show little indication of abating

Kimani DN, Kariuki PC, Machio PM, Murigi MN, KABUBO-MARIARA J. "YOUTH EMPLOYMENT AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN MURANG’A COUNTY, KENYA.". 2016.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Esther W.N. Kimani, S.W. Waudo, E.W. Mutitu, S.D. Obukosia, P.M. Kimani, J.M. Ikahu and Kimani Waithaka, 2001. The relationship between Meloidogyne hapla and Fusarium species on the development of wilt disease in pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariafolium V.". In: Paper presented in the International Conference on Integrated pest Management for Sub-saharan Africa, 8-12 Sept 2002, Kampala, Uganda. EAMJ; 2001. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Waithaka, Kimani 1986. Micropropagation of tuberose by in vitro somatic organogenesis of leaf friable callus. Intl. Congr. Plant-Tissue-Culture.6 Meet. 239.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1986. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Kimani MW. "Utilization of Meteorological Information in the Horticultural Industry: The Missing Link.". In: Fourth Kenya Meterological Society Workshop on the Challenges of Meteorology in Sustainable Industrial Development. Mombasa; 1998.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Magambo, M.J.S. and Waithaka, Kimani, 1983. Clonal differences in dry matter production and partitioning in young tea plants. East African Agricultural & Forestry Journal, 49: 57-61.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1983. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
KIMANI DRWANJERIJOSEPH. "Cleft Lip and Palate: A Descriptive Comparative, Retrospective, and Prospective Study of Patients With Cleft Deformities Managed at 2 Hospitals in Kenya. pg. 1352-1355 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0b013e3181ae41fe Wanjeri, Joseph Kimani MB ChB, MMed (Surg); Wachira,.". In: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery. UoN College of Health Sciences; 2008. Abstract

This was a combined retrospective and prospective study in which 2 sets of results from 2 hospitals in Nairobi were analyzed and compared. The retrospective study was conducted at Kenyatta National Hospital, whereas the prospective study was conducted at Metropolitan Hospital.The main objective of the study was to establish the presentation and pattern of patients with cleft lip and palate and complications of repair at the 2 hospitals.In the retrospective arm of the study, files of all patients presenting with clefts at Kenyatta National Hospital between January 1998 and December 2007 were retrieved, and a questionnaire was filled out for each of them, whereas all patients seen and operated on for clefts at the Metropolitan Hospital from January 2007 to October 2008 were recruited into the prospective study.There was a predominance of male participants in both studies, and most clefts were on the left side. The retrospective and prospective studies had positive family history in 3.5% and 30.9%, respectively. Associated congenital malformations were 8.2% for the retrospective study and 25% for the prospective study. In both studies, the central province had the largest number of clefts, whereas the coast province had very few.Cleft lip and palate is a significant congenital malformation in Kenya, and there seems to be a higher incidence of familial tendency and associated congenital malformations than that reported elsewhere

KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Waithaka, Kimani, Dodge, L.L. and Reid, M.S. 2001. Carbohydrate traffic during opening of gladiolus florets. Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology, 76(1):120-124.". In: Paper presented in the International Conference on Integrated pest Management for Sub-saharan Africa, 8-12 Sept 2002, Kampala, Uganda. EAMJ; 2001. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Waithaka, Kimani, 1990. Micropropagation and production of pathogen-free plants.Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on .". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1990. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Kimani, J; Oyugi NEWKR-JNBJJ; PFA; LJ; N; J;. "Influence of HLA supertypes on susceptibility and resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.". 2000. Abstract

Certain human leukocyte antigens, by presenting conserved immunogenic epitopes for T cell recognition, may, in part, account for the observed differences in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) susceptibility. To determine whether HLA polymorphism influences HIV-1 susceptibility, a longitudinal cohort of highly HIV-1-exposed female sex workers based in Nairobi, Kenya, was prospectively analyzed. Decreased HIV-1 infection risk was strongly associated with possession of a cluster of closely related HLA alleles (A2/6802 supertype; incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27-0.72; P=.0003). The alleles in this supertype are known in some cases to present the same peptide epitopes for T cell recognition. In addition, resistance to HIV-1 infection was independently associated with HLA DRB1*01 (IRR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.06-0.60; P=.0003), which suggests that anti-HIV-1 class II restricted CD4 effector mechanisms may play an important role in protecting against viral challenge. These data provide further evidence that resistance to HIV-1 infection in this cohort of sex workers is immunologically mediate

Kimani PM;, Mergeai G;, Silim SN;, Baudoin JP;, Rubaihayo PR;, Janssens M. "New Regional Initiatives in Pigeonpea Improvement."; 2000.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Waithaka, Kimani and Ngugi Wachira. 1983. Growth performances of everbearing strawberries in Kenya. Acta Horticulturae, 153: 85-91.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1983. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
KIMANI DRWANJERIJOSEPH. "Reconstruction of a large sacral decubitus ulcer using bilateral gluteal rotational flaps: A case presentation.". In: 2nd annual International Scientific Conference of the Kenya Society of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgeons. ELSEVIER; 2012. Abstract
Malaria is a major public health problem that is presently complicated by the development of resistance by Plasmodium falciparum to the mainstay drugs. Thus, new drugs with unique structures and mechanism of action are required to treat drug-resistant strains of malaria. Historically, compounds containing a novel structure from natural origin represent a major source for the discovery and development of new drugs for several diseases. This paper presents ethnophytotherapeutic remedies, ethnodiagnostic skills, and related traditional knowledge utilized by the Digo community of the Kenyan Coast to diagnose malaria as a lead to traditional bioprospecting. The current study was carried out in three Digo villages of Diani sub-location between May 2009 and December 2009. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, and open and close-ended questionnaires. A total of 60 respondents (34 men and 26 women) provided the targeted information. The results show that the indigenous knowledge of Digo community on malaria encompasses not only the symptoms of malaria but also the factors that are responsible for causing malaria, attributes favoring the breeding of mosquitoes and practices employed to guard against mosquito bites or to protect households against malaria. This knowledge is closely in harmony with scientific approaches to the treatment and control of the disease. The Digo community uses 60 medicinal plants distributed in 52 genera and 27 families to treat malaria. The most frequently mentioned symptoms were fever, joint pains, and vomiting while the most frequently mentioned practices employed to guard against mosquito bites and/or to protect households against malaria was burning of herbal plants such as Ocimum suave and ingestion of herbal decoctions and concoctions. The Digo community has abundant ethnodiagnostic skills for malaria which forms the basis of their traditional bioprospecting techniques. Keywords: malaria, antimalarials, ethnopharmacology, ethnodiagnostic skills, Digo community, bioprospecting
Kimani E, Muhula S, Kiptai T, Orwa J, Odero T, Gachuno O. "Factors influencing TB treatment interruption and treatment outcomes among patients in Kiambu County, 2016-2019." PLoS One. 2021;16(4):e0248820. AbstractWebsite

Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of mortality as a single infectious agent globally with increasing numbers of case notification in developing countries. This study seeks to investigate the clinical and socio-demographic factors of time to TB treatment interruption among Tuberculosis patients in Kiambu County, 2016-2019. We retrospectively analyzed data for all treatment outcomes patients obtained from TB tracing form linked with the Tuberculosis Information Basic Unit (TIBU) of patients in Kiambu County health facilities using time to treatment interruption as the main outcome. Categorical variables were presented using frequency and percentages. Kaplan-Meir curve was used to analyze probabilities of time to treatment interruptions between intensive and continuation phases. Log-rank test statistics was used to compare the equality of the curves. Cox proportion model was used to determine determinants of treatment interruption. A total of 292 participants were included in this study. Males were 68%, with majority (35%) of the participants were aged 24-35 years; 5.8% were aged 0-14 years and 5.1% aged above 55 years. The overall treatment success rate was 66.8% (cured, 34.6%; completed 32.2%), 60.3% were on intensive phase of treatment. Lack of knowledge and relocation were the major reasons of treatment interruptions. Patients on intensive phase were 1.58 times likely to interrupt treatment compared to those on continuation phase (aHR: 1.581; 95%CI: 1.232-2.031). There is need to develop TB interventions that target men and middle aged population in order to reduce treatment interruption and increase the treatment success rates in the County and Country.

KIMANI DRMURUNGARU. "B.O K'Oyugi and Kimani M. 2001Breastfeeding, Nutrition, Immunization and Childhood Mortality in Rural Kenya.". In: Health Line Vol. 5 No. 1 March. 2.3:. James Murimi; 2001. Abstract
According to the millennium assessment report, during the last century, global drylands have experienced anthropogenic induced climate changes that are predicted to continue and even to accelerate during the present century. The traditional pastoralist spatial domains are facing unprecedented changes due to population growth, urban sprawl and an appetite for land not anticipated by the planners who designated such lands as trust lands. A case in point is Kajiado district which has seen most community owned land blocks subdivided and tenure changed to private especially in areas surrounding It is therefore not only the pastoralists that are finding their roaming area constricted but also the wild animals. A recent court case to protect the migratory corridors of wild animals is a good example. In fact there are more wild animals among these communities than are confined in parks in Kenya. With the inevitable land use changes, and their impacts on livelihoods and environment, this paper explores the literature on the interaction of environmental conservation amid global warming and the potential role of biogas in mitigating the livelihood and vulnerability associated with it. Further, the technology helps manage green house gases and has potential for using the clean development mechanism to raise carbon credits which could be ploughed back in propping the livelihoods of rural communities. The paper highlights the preconditions of successful biogas interventions which include partial or complete confinement of animals in zero grazing units alongside improvement/change of animal breeds to more economically viable ones. However, this raises the greater question whether the radical change of livelihood approaches is at all viable? Key words: Global warming, livelihoods, conservation, biogas, carbon markets
Kimani JK, Opole IO, Ogeng'o JA. "Structure and sympathetic innervation of the intracranial arteries in the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis)." J. Morphol.. 1991;208(2):193-203. Abstract

Fluorescence histochemistry discloses that the carotid rete mirabile in the giraffe has a poor sympathetic innervation. In contrast, the efferent artery of the rete (internal carotid artery) and the cerebral arteries show moderate sympathetic innervation. A certain degree of regional variability was noted in which the rostral arteries (anterior and middle cerebral) receive more sympathetic nerves than the caudal (posterior communicating and basilar) arteries. The sympathetic nerves on the giraffe cerebral vessels may constitute part of a host of mechanisms by which regional blood flow to the brain is regulated. Conversely, the paucity of sympathetic innervation of the carotid rete mirabile may indicate that this structure does not play an active role in vasoconstrictor responses during postural changes of the head.

KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Njoroge, J.M., Waithaka, Kimani, and Chweya, J.A. 1992. The influence of tree training and plant density on growth, yield components and yield of Arabica coffee cv. .". In: Paper presented at the African Regional Symposium on Biotechnology for Development. Nairobi, Kenya. EAMJ; 1992. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Kimani, S.T. PKNBPG. "Effect of single and repeated khat (Catha edulis) extract on locomotor behaviour in CBA mice." Scientific Research and Essays . 2008;3(5):187-196.
Kimani NM, Muia JM, Amakabane DM, Onyambu CK. Spontaneous infected biloma: case report.; 2016. Abstract

Biloma is defined as any collection of bile outside the biliary tree. It mainly results from surgical complications and abdominal trauma. Spontaneous biloma is extremely rare and is occasionally associated with choledocholithiasis. This report describes a case of spontaneous biloma diagnosed radiologically and confirmed at laparotomy. An intraperitonial biloma and a large common bile duct calculus were observed. The biloma was drained and the patient progressed well and was discharged in good condition

KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Magambo, M.J.S. and Waithaka, Kimani, 1984. The influence of plant density on dry matter production and partitioning and yield in young clonal tea in Kenya. Acta Horticulturae, 158: 157-162.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1984. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Kimani MW. "University education for women in Kenya: a critical analysis of research carried out in this area.". In: AAWORD Workshop. Lenana Mount Hotel, Nairobi; 1995.
Kimani S, Kainga S, Chege M, Wagoro M. "PCNA Annual Symposium Abstracts.". 2012. Abstract

Cardiovascular diseases are a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In a sub Saharan Africa cardiovascular and other metabolic diseases including diabetes are increasingly causing significant socio-economic and health burden. The increase has severely affected our health care systems already struggling with the burden of tropical and communicable diseases. Patients with diabetes are 2-4 times likely to develop cardiovascular disease and/or stroke. Although the risk factors for cardiovascular disease among type 2 diabetes may be known, there is inadequate information concerning diabetic patients attending Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).

Kimani J, Osanjo GO, Sang R, Ochieng J, Mulaa F. "Development of Dromedary Antibody-based Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detecting Chikungunya virus Infections." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2017;6(2).
Kimani K, Onsomu E, Onyango O, Sheila M, Nyaga G. "Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) in Kericho district.". 2005.
KIMANI DRMURUNGARU. "Infant/Child Mortality and Birth Intervals in Kenya.". In: Health Line Vol. 5 No. 2 June 2001. James Murimi; 2001. Abstract
According to the millennium assessment report, during the last century, global drylands have experienced anthropogenic induced climate changes that are predicted to continue and even to accelerate during the present century. The traditional pastoralist spatial domains are facing unprecedented changes due to population growth, urban sprawl and an appetite for land not anticipated by the planners who designated such lands as trust lands. A case in point is Kajiado district which has seen most community owned land blocks subdivided and tenure changed to private especially in areas surrounding It is therefore not only the pastoralists that are finding their roaming area constricted but also the wild animals. A recent court case to protect the migratory corridors of wild animals is a good example. In fact there are more wild animals among these communities than are confined in parks in Kenya. With the inevitable land use changes, and their impacts on livelihoods and environment, this paper explores the literature on the interaction of environmental conservation amid global warming and the potential role of biogas in mitigating the livelihood and vulnerability associated with it. Further, the technology helps manage green house gases and has potential for using the clean development mechanism to raise carbon credits which could be ploughed back in propping the livelihoods of rural communities. The paper highlights the preconditions of successful biogas interventions which include partial or complete confinement of animals in zero grazing units alongside improvement/change of animal breeds to more economically viable ones. However, this raises the greater question whether the radical change of livelihood approaches is at all viable? Key words: Global warming, livelihoods, conservation, biogas, carbon markets
Kimani MM,, J.N Kiiru, Matu MM, Chokwe T, Saidi H. "Evaluation of POSSUM and P-POSSUM as predictors of mortality and morbidity in patients undergoing laparotomy at a referral hospital in Nairobi, Kenya." Annals of African Surgery. 2010;5(10). Abstract

Background The Physiological and Operative Severity Score for enUmeration of Morbidity and Mortality (POSSUM) and its Portsmouth modification (P-POSSUM) were developed for comparative audit in surgical patients. This study evaluated applicability of these systems in estimating mortality and morbidity risks in a cohort of patients undergoing laparotomy at the national referral hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods Data of 166 patients undergoing laparotomy was subjected to POSSUM and P-POSSUM scoring systems and analyzed using linear and exponential methods. The discrimination power of POSSUM and P-POSSUM as predictors of surgical outcome was measured using the receiver–operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results The overall observed to expected (O:E) ratio using linear analysis was 0.29:1 (POSSUM) and 0.67:1 (P-POSSUM) while exponential analysis gave an O:E of 0.2:1 (POSSUM) and 0.4:1 (P-POSSUM). The predicted morbidity using POSSUM was 1.09:1 (linear analysis) and 1:1 (exponential analysis). Hosmer–Lemeshow analysis did not show a significant lack of fit with the observed mortality when applied to POSSUM and P-POSSUM. The area under ROC curve was 0.74 (POSSUM) and 0.78 (P-POSSUM). Conclusion Our results support the suitability of P-POSSUM and POSSUM scoring systems to stratify morbidity and mortality risk in our study population

KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Njoroge, J.M., Waithaka, Kimani and Chweya, J.A. 1993. Evaluation of replacement methods of established traditional coffee cv. .". In: Paper presented at XVII Congress of the Scandinavian Society for PlantPhysiology. Physiology Plantarum, 91 (3) A-A22. EAMJ; 1993. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Obukosia, S.D., Gupta, V.K. and Waithaka, Kimani, 1985. In vitro interspecific hybridization between the Kenyan Phaseolus vulgaris L. and P. acutifolia. L. Acta Horticulturae, 218: 221-230.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1985. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Waithaka, Kimani, Struckmayer, B.E. and Dana, M.N. 1978. Growth substances and growth of strawberry stolon and leaves. Journal of American Society for Horticultural Science, 103: 480-482.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1978. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Kimani JN, Aduda BO. "Temperature Dependence of the Thermal conductivity of Grog Modified Kenyan Kaolite Refractory." Africa Journal of Science and Technology. 2004;1(5):6-14. Abstract

Thermal conductivity values, in the temperature range 300 – 1200 K, have been measured in air and at
atmospheric pressure for a Kenyan kaolinite refractory with 0% - 50% grog proportions. The experimental
thermal conductivity values were then compared with those calculated using the Zumbrunnen et al [1] and the
Litovsky and Shapiro [2] theoretical models. The experimental values for samples prepared without or low
percentages of grog increased with temperature as predicted by both the theoretical models. On the contrary,
the conductivity values for the sample containing ³ 40% decreased with increase in temperature in a manner
consistent with the Eucken law.

Kimani S, Moterroso V, Lasarev M, Sinei K, Bukachi F, Maitai CK, David L, Tshala-Katumbay D. "Carbamoylation correlates of cyanate neuropathy and cyanide poisoning: relevance to the biomarkers of cassava cyanogenesis and motor system toxicity." SpringerPlus. 2013;2:647.
KIMANI DRMURUNGARU. "ICPD +10 Kenya.". In: Chapter 7, Demographic and Health Survey.Columbia, MD: CBS, NCPD and IRD/Macro International. James Murimi; 2004. Abstract
According to the millennium assessment report, during the last century, global drylands have experienced anthropogenic induced climate changes that are predicted to continue and even to accelerate during the present century. The traditional pastoralist spatial domains are facing unprecedented changes due to population growth, urban sprawl and an appetite for land not anticipated by the planners who designated such lands as trust lands. A case in point is Kajiado district which has seen most community owned land blocks subdivided and tenure changed to private especially in areas surrounding It is therefore not only the pastoralists that are finding their roaming area constricted but also the wild animals. A recent court case to protect the migratory corridors of wild animals is a good example. In fact there are more wild animals among these communities than are confined in parks in Kenya. With the inevitable land use changes, and their impacts on livelihoods and environment, this paper explores the literature on the interaction of environmental conservation amid global warming and the potential role of biogas in mitigating the livelihood and vulnerability associated with it. Further, the technology helps manage green house gases and has potential for using the clean development mechanism to raise carbon credits which could be ploughed back in propping the livelihoods of rural communities. The paper highlights the preconditions of successful biogas interventions which include partial or complete confinement of animals in zero grazing units alongside improvement/change of animal breeds to more economically viable ones. However, this raises the greater question whether the radical change of livelihood approaches is at all viable? Key words: Global warming, livelihoods, conservation, biogas, carbon markets
Kimani VN, Mitoko G, McDermott B;, Grace D, Ambia J, Kiragu MW, Njehu AN, Sinja J, Monda JG, Kang’ethe EK. "Social and gender determinants of risk of cryptosporidiosis, an emerging zoonosis, in Dagoretti, Nairobi, Kenya.". 2012. Abstract

The aim of the study was to investigate the social and gender determinants of the risk of exposure to Cryptosporidium fromurban dairying in Dagoretti, Nairobi. Focus group discussions were held in six locations to obtain qualitative information on risk of exposure. A repeated cross-sectional descriptive study included participatory assessment and household questionnaires (300 randomly selected urban dairy farming households and 100 non-dairying neighbours). One hundred dairy households randomly selected from the 300 dairy households participated in an additional economic survey along with 40 neighbouring non-dairy households. We found that exposure to Cryptosporidium was influenced by gender, age and role in the household. Farm workers and people aged 50 to 65 years had most contact with cattle, and women had greater contact with raw milk. However, children had relatively higher consumption of raw milk than other age groups. Adult women had more daily contact with cattle faeces than adult men, and older women had more contact than older men. Employees had greater contact with cattle than other groups and cattle faeces, and most (77 %) were male. Women took more care of sick people and were more at risk from exposure by this route. Poverty did not affect the level of exposure to cattle but did decrease consumption of milk. There was no significant difference between men and women as regards levels of knowledge on symptoms of cryptosporidiosis infections or other zoonotic diseases associated with dairy farming. Awareness of cryptosporidiosis and its transmission increased significantly with rising levels of education. Members of nondairy households and children under the age of 12 years had significantly higher odds of reporting diarrhoea: gender, season and contact with cattle or cattle dung were not significantly linked with diarrhoea. In conclusion, social and gender factors are important determinants of exposure to zoonotic disease in Nairobi.

Kimalu PK, Nafula NN, Manda DK, Bedi A, Mwabu G. "A Review of the Health Sector in Kenya, KIPPRA Working Paper No. 11.". 2004.
Kimalu PK, Nafula NN, Manda DK, Mwabu G, Kimenyi MS. "Education Indicators in Kenya. ” Working Paper No 4." KIPPRA. Nairobi, Kenya. 2001.
Kimalu PK, Nafula NN, Manda DK, Mwabu G, Kimenyi MS. "A Situational Anal ysis of Poverty in Kenya” Working Paper No. 6." KIPPRA, Nairobi Kenya. 2002.
Kimalu, PK; Nafula NN; MDK; MKMSG;. "A Situational Analysis of Poverty in Kenya."; 2002.
Kim S, Williams R, Cinque L, Shiundu PM. Size Determination of Nanoparticles Used in Coatings.; 2009. AbstractSize Determination of Nanoparticles Used in Coatings

This chapter begins with a description of some commonly used particle sizing techniques, their applicability to nanoparticles, and their advantages and disadvantages. A special emphasis is given to fractionation techniques and their ability to simultaneously characterize nanoparticles and isolate monodispersed fractions from polydispersed samples. The latter part of this chapter provides an in-depth discussion of sedimentation field-flow fractionation (SdFFF) size analysis of nanoparticles used in coatings

Kim HN, Scott J, Cent A, Cook L, Morrow RA, Richardson B, Tapia K, Jerome KR, Lule G, John-Stewart G, Chung MH. "HBV lamivudine resistance among hepatitis B and HIV coinfected patients starting lamivudine, stavudine and nevirapine in Kenya." J. Viral Hepat.. 2011;18(10):e447-52. Abstract

Widespread use of lamivudine in antiretroviral therapy may lead to hepatitis B virus resistance in HIV-HBV coinfected patients from endemic settings where tenofovir is not readily available. We evaluated 389 Kenyan HIV-infected adults before and for 18 months after starting highly active antiretroviral therapy with stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine. Twenty-seven (6.9%) were HBsAg positive and anti-HBs negative, 24 were HBeAg negative, and 18 had HBV DNA levels ≤ 10,000 IU/mL. Sustained HBV suppression to <100 IU/mL occurred in 89% of 19 evaluable patients. Resistance occurred in only two subjects, both with high baseline HBV DNA levels. Lamivudine resistance can emerge in the setting of incomplete HBV suppression but was infrequently observed among HIV-HBV coinfected patients with low baseline HBV DNA levels.

Kim HN, Scott J, Cent A, Cook L, Morrow RA, Richardson B, Tapia K, Jerome KR, Lule G, John-Stewart G, Chung MH. "HBV lamivudine resistance among hepatitis B and HIV coinfected patients starting lamivudine, stavudine and nevirapine in Kenya." J. Viral Hepat.. 2011;18(10):e447-52. Abstract

Widespread use of lamivudine in antiretroviral therapy may lead to hepatitis B virus resistance in HIV-HBV coinfected patients from endemic settings where tenofovir is not readily available. We evaluated 389 Kenyan HIV-infected adults before and for 18 months after starting highly active antiretroviral therapy with stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine. Twenty-seven (6.9%) were HBsAg positive and anti-HBs negative, 24 were HBeAg negative, and 18 had HBV DNA levels ≤ 10,000 IU/mL. Sustained HBV suppression to <100 IU/mL occurred in 89% of 19 evaluable patients. Resistance occurred in only two subjects, both with high baseline HBV DNA levels. Lamivudine resistance can emerge in the setting of incomplete HBV suppression but was infrequently observed among HIV-HBV coinfected patients with low baseline HBV DNA levels.

Kim, Nina H; Scott J; CA; CL; MRA;, et al. "HBV Lamivudine Resistance among Hepatitis B and HIV Co-infected Patients Starting Lamivudine, Stavudine and Nevirapine in Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

Widespread use of lamivudine in antiretroviral therapy may lead to hepatitis B virus resistance in HIV-HBV co-infected patients from endemic settings where tenofovir is not readily available. We evaluated 389 Kenyan HIV-infected adults before and for 18 months after starting highly-active antiretroviral therapy with stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine. Twenty-seven (6.9%) were HBsAg(+) and anti-HBs negative: 24 were HBeAg-negative, 18 had HBV DNA ≤10,000 IU/ml. Sustained HBV suppression to <100 IU/ml occurred in 89% of 19 evaluable patients. Resistance occurred in only 2 subjects, both with high baseline HBV DNA levels. Lamivudine resistance can emerge in the setting of incomplete HBV suppression but was infrequently observed among HIV-HBV co-infected patients with low baseline HBV DNA levels.

Kiluva VM, Mutua F, Makhanu SK, Ong’or BTI. "Rainfall Runoff Modeling in Yala River Basin of Kenya." Journal of Meteorology and Related Sciences (ISSN:1995-9834). . 2011;Special Issue Vol 5(1). AbstractUoN Digital Repository

When rainfall is received on a watershed, depending on the ini al soil moisture content some of the water seeps underground while the excess forms surface water response. The nature of the runoff and its effects in the watershed can be represented by the applica on of hydrologic models to predict streamfl ow. In this study, the Geological Streamfl ow Model (GeoSFM) and the Muskingum Cunge (M-C) model were used to model the hydrologic processes of the Yala river network. The objec ve of the study was to develop a flood early warning system to mi gate poten al fl ood hazard risk exposed to the downstream inhabitants. Historical hydro-metric datasets of 1975-2005 were used for calibra on, verifi ca on and streamfl ow rou ng based on a split record analysis. For the runoff genera on, rainfall and evapora on datasets were provided by the Kenya Meteorological Department (KMD) while for model calibra on and verifi ca on, streamfl ow was obtained from Water Resources Management Authority (WRMA). To determine the hydrologic connec vity, the 30 meters by 30 meters Digital Eleva on Model was obtained from the Interna onal Centre for Research in Agro-Forestry (ICRAF). The Digital Soil Map of the World developed by Food and Agricultural Organiza on (FAO) and the Global Land Cover data of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) were used for model pa- rameteriza on. The soil moisture accoun ng and rou ng method transferred water through the subsurface, overland and river phases. The percentage of the square of the correla on coeffi cient (R2% value) was used to determine model performance. The GeoSFM modeled streamfl ow at the Bondo streamflow gauging sta on, coded 1FG02 where during the calibra on and verifi ca on phases, streamfl ow was modeled at R2 value of 80.6% and 87.3% respec vely. The M-C model routed streamfl ow from 1FG02 to the Kadenge streamflow gauging sta on, coded 1FG03 at R2 value of 90.8%, Muskingum K value of 2.76 hours and Muskingum X value of 0.4609. The error in predicted peak streamfl ow was 2.3% with a posi ve 1.5% error in predicted speed. This ensured a forecast of the me of peak streamfl ow on the safe side before the actual fl ood peak arrival at 1FG03 sta on. It was concluded that the GeoSFM and M-C models were hence useful tools for flood mi ga- on by issuing fl ood early warning messages defi ned by peak streamfl ow and fl ood wave travel me.

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