Publications

Found 10843 results

Sort by: Author [ Title  (Asc)] Type Year
Filters: First Letter Of Last Name is K  [Clear All Filters]
A B C D E F G H I J [K] L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z   [Show ALL]
C
Sanchez JL, Johns MC, Burke RL, Vest KG, Fukuda MM, Yoon IK, Lon C, Quintana M, Schnabel DC, Pimentel G, Mansour M, Tobias S, Montgomery JM, Gray GC, Saylors K, Ndip LM, Lewis S, Blair PJ, Sjoberg PA, Kuschner RA, Russell KL, Blazes DL, Witt CJ, Money NN, Gaydos JC, Pavlin JA, Gibbons RV, Jarman RG, Stoner M, Shrestha SK, Owens AB, Iioshi N, Osuna MA, Martin SK, Gordon SW, Bulimo WD, Waitumbi DJ, Assefa B, Tjaden JA, Earhart KC, Kasper MR, Brice GT, Rogers WO, Kochel T, Laguna-Torres VA, Garcia J, Baker W, Wolfe N, Tamoufe U, Djoko CF, Fair JN, Akoachere JF, Feighner B, Hawksworth A, Myers CA, Courtney WG, Macintosh VA, Gibbons T, Macias EA, Grogl M, O'Neil MT, Lyons AG, Houng HS, Rueda L, Mattero A, Sekonde E, Sang R, Sang W, Palys TJ, Jerke KH, Millard M, Erima B, Mimbe D, Byarugaba D, Wabwire-Mangen F, Shiau D, Wells N, Bacon D, Misinzo G, Kulanga C, Haverkamp G, Kohi YM, Brown ML, Klein TA, Meyers M, Schoepp RJ, Norwood DA, Cooper MJ, Maza JP, Reeves WE, Guan J. "Capacity-building efforts by the AFHSC-GEIS program." BMC Public Health. 2011;11 Suppl 2:S4. AbstractWebsite

Capacity-building initiatives related to public health are defined as developing laboratory infrastructure, strengthening host-country disease surveillance initiatives, transferring technical expertise and training personnel. These initiatives represented a major piece of the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) contributions to worldwide emerging infectious disease (EID) surveillance and response. Capacity-building initiatives were undertaken with over 80 local and regional Ministries of Health, Agriculture and Defense, as well as other government entities and institutions worldwide. The efforts supported at least 52 national influenza centers and other country-specific influenza, regional and U.S.-based EID reference laboratories (44 civilian, eight military) in 46 countries worldwide. Equally important, reference testing, laboratory infrastructure and equipment support was provided to over 500 field sites in 74 countries worldwide from October 2008 to September 2009. These activities allowed countries to better meet the milestones of implementation of the 2005 International Health Regulations and complemented many initiatives undertaken by other U.S. government agencies, such as the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the U.S. Agency for International Development and the U.S. Department of State.

Bulimo W, JL S, MC J, RL B, KG V, MM F, IK Y, C L, M Q, DC S, G P, M M, S T, JM M, GC G, K S, LM N, S L, PJ B, PA S, RA K, KL R, DL B, Group AFHSC-GEISCBW, CJ W, NN M, JC G, JA P, RV G, RG J, M S, SK S, AB O, N I, MA O, SK M, SW G, WD B, DJ W, B A, JA T, KC E, MR K, GT B, WO R, T K, VA L-T, J G, W B, N W, U T, CF D, JN F, JF A, B F, A H, CA M, WG C, VA M, T G, EA M, M G, ' O, AG L, HS H, L R, A M, E S, R S, W S, TJ P, KH J, M M, B E, D M, D B, F W-M, D S, N W, D B, G M, C K, G H, YM K, ML B, TA K, M M, RJ S, DA N, MJ C, JP M, WE R, J G. "Capacity-building efforts by the AFHSC-GEIS program.". 2011. AbstractWebsite
n/a
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Capturing Space. Barrack Muluka and Tobias Otieno (Eds). The Doomed Conspiracy and Other Stories. 82-94.". In: John Wiley & Sons. Publishers Chichester. Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers; 2011. Abstract

PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Kimani S, Moterroso V, Lasarev M, Sinei K, Bukachi F, Maitai CK, David L, Tshala-Katumbay D. "Carbamoylation correlates of cyanate neuropathy and cyanide poisoning: relevance to the biomarkers of cassava cyanogenesis and motor system toxicity." SpringerPlus. 2013;2:647.
Kimani S, Moterroso V, Lasarev M, Sinei K, Bukachi F, Maitai C, David L, Tshala-Katumbay D. "Carbamoylation correlates of cyanate neuropathy and cyanide poisoning: relevance to the biomarkers of cassava cyanogenesis and motor system toxicity." Springerplus. 2013;2:647. Abstract

We sought to elucidate the protein carbamoylation patterns associated with cyanate neuropathy relative to cyanide poisoning. We hypothesized that under a diet deficient in sulfur amino acids (SAA), the carbamoylation pattern associated with cyanide poisoning is similar to that of cyanate neuropathy. Male rats (6-8 weeks old) were fed a diet with all amino acids (AAA) or 75%-deficiency in SAA and treated with 2.5 mg/kg/body weight (bw) NaCN, or 50 mg/kg/bw NaOCN, or 1 μl/g/bw saline, for up to 6 weeks. Albumin and spinal cord proteins were analyzed using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Only NaOCN induced motor deficits with significant levels of carbamoylation. At Day 14, we found a diet-treatment interaction effect on albumin carbamoylation (p = 0.07). At Day 28, no effect was attributed to diet (p = 0.71). Mean number of NaCN-carbamoylated sites on albumin was 47.4% higher relative to vehicle (95% CI:16.7-86.4%). Only NaOCN carbamoylated spinal cord proteins, prominently, under SAA-restricted diet. Proteins targets included myelin basic and proteolipid proteins, neurofilament light and glial fibrillary acidic proteins, and 2', 3' cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase. Under SAA deficiency, chronic but not acute cyanide toxicity may share biomarkers and pathogenetic similarities with cyanate neuropathy. Prevention of carbamoylation may protect against the neuropathic effects of cyanate.

Jumba IO, Wandiga SO, MARUFU L, KITUYI E, HUBER B, ANDREAE MO, HELAS G. "Carbon Monoxide and nitric oxide from biofuel fires in Kenya." Energy Conversion and Management 42, 1517-1542.. 2001. Abstract

Emission ratios (ER) of CO and NO relative to CO2 are reported from real time emission measurements on biofuel fires in Kenya. The experiments were based on available fuels burning in local popular traditional and improved stoves. The mean dCO/dCO2 ratios were 71, 79 and 74 mmol molt-1for firewood, charcoal and agricultural residues, respectively, while the corresponding mean d/NO/d/CO2 ratios for these fuels, in the same order, were 1.8, 2 and 2.2 mmol molt-1, respectively. Whereas stove design characteristics largely influenced the dCO/dCO2 ratios, the fuel nitrogen content was the major factor determining the dCO/dCO2 ratios. The dCO/dCO2 ratio for fuel derived NO is not affected by fire temperature but linearly depend on the fuel nitrogen content. Other important fuel parameters that influenced the observed emission ratio patterns include fuel moisture content, size and volatile matter content in the case of charcoal. In comparison to savanna and forest fires, biofuel fires tend to favour formation of reduced or partially oxidised compounds. It is clear that a change in energy preference up the "energy ladder" leads to a reduction in the CO ER, an important result for emission mitigation policy design.
© 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Etd.
Keywords: Trace gases: Emission ratios; Biofuels; Stoves; Biomass burning

Nyunja J, M. Ntiba, J. Onyari, K. Mavuti, Bouillon S. "Carbon sources supporting a diverse fish community in a tropical coastal ecosystem (Gazi Bay, Kenya)." Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 2009;83(3):265-378 .
Otieno CF, Vaghela V, Mwendwa FW, KAYIMA JK, OGOLA EN. "Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Kenya: levels of control attained at the outpatient diabetic clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East African Medical Journal Vol. . 2005;82(12):S184-S190. AbstractWebsite

Objectives: To determine the proportion of specific cardiovascular risk factors in ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes and the levels of control achieved in them.

Design: Prospective, cross-sectional study over a six month period.

Setting: Out-patient diabetic clinic of the Kenyatta National Hospital.

Subjects: Two hundred and eleven patients with type 2 diabetes.

Main outcome measures: Sociodemographic attributes, duration of diabetes, levels of glycaemia, body weight, blood pressure, fasting lipids and modes of treatment.

Results: A total of 211 patients were enrolled, 57.3% were females. The mean (SD) age for women was 54.45 (9.44) and that of men was 55.8 (9.02) years. About 77% of the study population were on oral glucose-lowering agents with or without insulin but less than 30% achieved HbA1c <7%; 15% were active cigarette smokers; about 50% were hypertensive with female predominance but 65% of them did not achieve desired blood pressure level inspite of treatment. Just over 50% had raised LDL-cholesterol and over 75% had raised total cholesterol but only three men were on statins without achieving desired targets. Body mass index above 30kg/m2 as a measure obesity was found in 32% of females and 16% males. Most of the study patients admitted use of Aspirin at certain times in the course of their diabetes.

Conclusion: The study showed that specific cardiovascular risk factors of hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and obesity were prevalent although not adequately controlled to targets. Statin use was extremely low in people who already needed them. Regular Aspirin use was infrequent because many patients did not quite understand its role in their diabetes treatment. It is recommended that a more pro-active approach in multifactorial address of cardiovascular risk factors be used in high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes to forestall future cardiovascular events.

Kailemia M, Kariuki N, Laving A, Agweyu A, Wamalwa. D. "Caregiver oral rehydration solution fluid monitoring charts versus standard care for the management of some dehydration among Kenyan children: a randomized controlled trial." International Health. 2018;10(6):442-450. Abstract

Diarrhoea is a major cause of child mortality. Although oral rehydration solution (ORS) is an efficacious intervention for correcting dehydration, inadequate monitoring may limit its effectiveness in routine settings. We evaluated the effect of using a caregiver-administered chart to monitor oral fluid therapy on hydration status among children with some dehydration.

KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Carine Dortua,b, Amenan A. Yaoa, Cristina Pintoc, Vinodh A. Edwardc, Melanie Kostinekd, Charles M.A.P. Franzd, Willhelm Holzapfeld, Moutairou Egounletye, Samuel Mbuguaf, Moses Mengug, Philippe Thonarta, b 2008; Use of Lactobacillus strains to start cassav.". In: International J of Food Microbiology vol 128: (2) 258 . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2008. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
Geere JL, Gona J, Omondi FO, Kifalu MK, Newton CR, Hartley S. "Caring for children with physical disability in Kenya: potential links between caregiving and carers' physical health.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

The health of a carer is a key factor which can affect the well-being of the child with disabilities for whom they care. In low-income countries, many carers of children with disabilities contend with poverty, limited public services and lack assistive devices. In these situations caregiving may require more physical work than in high-income countries and so carry greater risk of physical injury or health problems. There is some evidence that poverty and limited access to health care and equipment may affect the physical health of those who care for children with disabilities. This study seeks to understand this relationship more clearly. Methods  A mixed methods study design was used to identify the potential physical health effects of caring for a child with moderate-severe motor impairments in Kilifi, Kenya. Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were thematically analysed and triangulated with data collected during structured physiotherapy assessment. Results  Carers commonly reported chronic spinal pain of moderate to severe intensity, which affected essential activities. However, carers differed in how they perceived their physical health to be affected by caregiving, also reporting positive benefits or denying detrimental effects. Carers focussed on support in two key areas; the provision of simple equipment and support for their children to physically access and attend school. Conclusions  Carers of children with moderate-severe motor impairments live with their own physical health challenges. While routine assessments lead to diagnosis of simple musculoskeletal pain syndromes, the overall health status and situation of carers may be more complex. As a consequence, the role of rehabilitation therapists may need to be expanded to effectively evaluate and support carers' health needs. The provision of equipment to improve their child's mobility, respite care or transport to enable school attendance is likely to be helpful to carers and children alike.

K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Carles, A.B., Gachuiri, C.K. and Schwartz, H.J., 1988. A comparison of goat mortality in two pastoral herds in northern Kenya. In: P. Singh, V. Shankar and A.K. Srivastava (Eds), Abstracts of the 3rd International Rangeland Congress, Range Management Soci.". In: In: P. Singh, V. Shankar and A.K. Srivastava (Eds), Abstracts of the 3rd International Rangeland Congress, Range Management Society of India, Jhansi, pp. 440-. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1988. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Carles, A.B., Gachuiri,C.K. and Schwartz, H.J. 1987. A comparison of goat mortality of two herds at Rendille and Isiolo.". In: Proceedings of the KVA/ SR-CRSP Kenya workshop, Nairobi. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1987. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Carles, A.B., Gachuiri,C.K. and Schwartz, H.J. 1987. Mortality levels and causes in a herd of Small East African goats on a semi-arid thornbush savannah.". In: Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on goats, Brasilia, Brazil. International Goat Association. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1987. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
Kimeli P, Kipyegon AN, Mwangi WE, Mande JD. "A case of Trypanosoma congolense savannah type infection and its management in a dog." Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research. 2014;1(4):232-234.kimeli_et_al_2014_tryps.pdf
Kimeli P, Kipyegon AN, Mwangi WE, MANDE JOHNDEMESI. "A case of Trypanosoma congolense savannah type infection and its management in a dog." Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research. 2014;1:232-234. Abstract
n/a
Kimeli P, Kipyegon AN, Mwangi WE, MANDE JOHNDEMESI. "A case of Trypanosoma congolense savannah type infection and its management in a dog." Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research. 2014;1:232-234. Abstract
n/a
Kimeli P, Kipyegon AN, Mwangi WE, Mande JD. "A case of Trypanosoma congolense savannah type infection and its management in a dog." Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research. 2014;1(4):232-234.
Buruchara R;, Otsyula R;, Opiyo F;, Musoni A;, Kantengwa S;, Nderitu J;, Nekesa P;, Wortman C. "A case study on developing and disseminating Integrated Pest Management technologies for bean root rots in Eastern and Central Africa.".; 2000.
Sobry A, Kizito W, Van den Bergh R, Tayler-Smith K, Isaakidis P, Cheti E, Kosgei RJ, Vandenbulcke A, Ndegwa Z, Reid T. "Caseload, management and treatment outcomes of patients with hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus in a primary health care programme in an informal setting." Trop. Med. Int. Health. 2014;19(1):47-57. Abstractcaseload_management_and_treatment_outcomes_of_patients_with_hypertension_andor_diabetes_mellitus_in_a_primary_health_care_programme_in_an_informal_setting_.pdf

In three primary health care clinics run by Médecins Sans Frontières in the informal settlement of Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya, we describe the caseload, management and treatment outcomes of patients with hypertension (HT) and/or diabetes mellitus (DM) receiving care from January 2010 to June 2012.

KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "CASEOUS LYMPHADENITIS IN GOATS: THE DOSE OF INFECTION AND SEROLOGICAL RESPONSE.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1998. Abstract
Goats were infected intradermally with caseous pus containing between 1x105 and 5x101 colony forming units (CFU) of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. Animals infected with doses of equal and above 1x105 CFU of the organism developed caseous lesions in the regional draining lymph nodes. On serological examination, 3/6 animals infected with equal or less than 1x101 CFU and 2/4 infected with equal or less than 1x102 CFU had no positive bacterial agglutination and antitoxin antibody titres respectively. These results indicated that caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is a highly contagious disease since relatively low doses (1x102 CFU) of C.pseudotuberculosis injected intradermally could induce CLA lesions in draining lymph nodes. The serological response in terms of rate and extent appeared to depend on the dose of infection.
Kuria JKN, Wahome RG, Kang'ethe EK. "Caseous lymphadenitis in goats: the dose of infection and the serological response." Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 1998;68:601-604.
Kuria JKN, Mbuthia PG, Kang'ethe EK, Wahome RG. "Caseous lymphadenitis in goats: The pathogenesis, Incubation Period and Serological Response after Experimental Infection." Veterinary Research communications. 2001;25:89-97.
Kuria JKN, Ngatia TA. "Caseous Lymphadenitis of sheep and goats in Kenya." Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 1990;38:15-18.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "CASEOUS LYPMHADENITIS IN GOATS: THE PTHOGENESIS,INCUBATION PERIOD AND SEROLOGICAL RESPONSE AFTER EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract
Twenty goats in two groups of 10 were injected intradermally, with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. The doses of infection were 1x105 and 5x104 colony forming units for groups 1 and 2 respectively. Thereafter, a goat from each group was killed every 2-3 days and examined for gross and microscopic caseous lesions in the draining lymph nodes. Bands or zones of macrophages and polymorphonuclear granulocytes were observed on the second day of infection in both groups. Gross caseous lesions were observed from day 8 and 9 of infection respectively. Positive bacterial agglutination test and haemolysin inhibition test titres were detected after 15-17days and 20 -25 days of infection respectively. These results indicated that caseous lymphadenitis is a subacute disease with an incubation period of 8-9 days but it is not detectable serologically until after 15 days of infection.
K DRMUSAMBAYICHRISANTHUSIKALIKHA. "Cash management, communication and conflict resolution.". In: (IFRA) Nairobi. uon press; 1994. Abstract
{ The Blantyre coma scale (BCS) is used to assess children with severe falciparum malaria, particularly as a criterion for cerebral malaria, but it has not been formally validated. We compared the BCS to the Adelaide coma scale (ACS), for Kenyan children with severe malaria. We examined the inter-observer agreement between 3 observers in the assessment of coma scales on 17 children by measuring the proportion of agreement (PA), disagreement rate (DR) and fixed sample size kappa (kappa n). We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the scales in detecting events (seizures and hypoglycaemia) in 240 children during admission and the usefulness of the scales in predicting outcome. There was considerable disagreement between observers in the assessment of both scales (BCS: PA = 0.55
Kimani S, Sinei K BT-KMFD. "Cassava cyanogenesis and neurotoxicity: experimental modeling. Part I. Memory deficits associated with sublethal cyanide poisoning relative to cyanate toxicity in rodents.". In: Brain Disorders in the Developing World Tenth Anniversary Symposium. NIH, Bethsda, Maryland USA ; 2014.
Korir BK, Wanyoike MMM, KURIA JOSEPHKN, Mwangi DM, Muge EE. "Cassava leaves and azolla as crude protein supplement feed to east african short horned Zebu Heifers." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2020;16:1457-1462. Abstract
n/a
Mutisya DL, Khamala CPM, El Banhawy EM, Kariuki CW, Ragwa S. "Cassava Variety Tolerance to Spider Mite Attack in Relation to Leaf Cyanide Level.". 2013.Website
Mutisya DL, Khamala CPM, El Banhawy EM, Kariuki CW, Ragwa S. "Cassava Variety Tolerance to Spider Mite Attack in Relation to Leaf Cyanide Level.". 2013.Website
Olembo NK, Obungu VH, Kiaira JK, Njogu RM. "Catabolism of proline by procyclic culture forms of Trypanosoma congolense.". 1999. AbstractWebsite

The effect of various metabolic inhibitors on the rate of oxygen consumption by procyclic culture forms of Trypanosoma congolense utilizing proline as substrate was investigated. Cyanide inhibited the rate of oxygen consumption by 81.0 +/- 6.7%, malonate inhibited the rate by 51.6 +/- 1.6% and Antimycin A by 73.1 +/- 5.9%. A combination of cyanide and malonate inhibited the rate of oxygen consumption by 84.9 +/- 6.7% while a combination of antimycin A and malonate inhibited the rate by 81.6 +/- 7.6%. Rotenone had no effect on the rate of respiration except when the intact cells were first permeabilized by digitonin after which rotenone decreased the rate of respiration by 20-30%. Salicylhydroxamate (SHAM) did not have any effect on the rate of oxygen consumption. Enzymes involved in the catabolism of proline with high activities were: proline dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, fumarase, NADP-linked malic enzyme, alanine aminotransferase and malate dehydrogenase. Activities of 1-pyrroline-5 carboxylate dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and NAD-linked malic enzyme were detectable but lower. The end products of proline catabolism were alanine and glutamate. Unlike the case in Trypanosoma brucei brucei aspartate was not detected. Possible pathways of proline catabolism in procyclic culture forms of T. congolense and of electron transfer are proposed

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Catalogue without Cards: Kenyan Literary Texts on the World Wide Web.". In: Journal of the Korean Association of African Studies 23 (June 2006): 117-32. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2006. Abstract

This paper presents a case for the need to build a virtual bibliography of Kenyan literature on the World Wide Web; this catalogue without cards will present to the wide audience with access to the internet basic and correct information on this literature. In the course of discussing the place of modern information technology in the world, the paper discusses the Kenyan literary heritage as a form of higher culture reflecting social experiences, capturing the souls of the nation and encapsulating the high ideals of humanism and progress. Further, the paper calls for honesty and sensitivity in the preservation of information on the literary texts, lest this information is laid open to possible distortion, even manipulation, by those who post it on the World Wide Web. Implicitly, the paper makes a case for the need of the developing world

Njogu REN, Njenga LW, Kariuki DK, Amir O. Yusuf, Wendt OF. "Catalytic Properties of Luminescent Tris-Homoleptic Cyclometalated Iridium(III) Complexes in the Oxidation of Morin in Visible Light. ." Journal of Physical Sciences. 2020;5. AbstractJournal of Physical Sciences

The photo-oxidation of Morin, 2′,3,4′,5,7-pentahydroxyflavone by six luminescent homoleptic tris-cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes was investigated with the aim of evaluating the catalytic properties of the complexes. The Iridium complexes were synthesized using 2-(1-naphthyl)-pyridine (npy) ligand and its derivatives such as npy-OMe, npy-CF3 and npy-Me to form Tris-homoleptic cyclometalated complexes; Ir(npy)3, Ir(npy-OMe)3, Ir(npy-CF3)3, Ir(npy-Me)3, Ir(Me-npy-Me)3, and Ir(Me-npy)3 with substitution at para position relative to nitrogen. The ligand substitution positions were found to influence the excited state lifetimes, where the complexes exhibited long lifetimes, τ, 1.4 – 3.6 μs, ensuring time for substrates to react before relaxation to ground state. All the six complexes displayed reversible or pseudo reversible redox processes with ground state oxidation potential range of 0.57 to 0.93V compared to Standard Calomel Electrode in CH2Cl2. The complexes degraded morin with rate constants kobs between 0.023-0.036 s -1 within a timescale of 12 minutes. The Ir(npy-Me)3 complex was found to have a high degradation with a rate constant of kobs = 0.036 s -1. Degradation reactions using all the six Iridium (III) complexes photoredox catalysts were found to follow first order kinetics and ca. 10-fold faster compared to similar oxidative reaction

M S, K K, M C. "Cataract Surgical Services, Outcome and Barriers in Kericho, Bureti and Bomet Districts, Kenya." East African journal of ophthalmology. 2008;14(1). AbstractWebsite

Objective: To assess the cataract surgical coverage, outcome of cataract surgeryand barriers to uptake of cataract surgical services.
Setting: Kericho, Bureti and Bomet districts CES Project.
Design: Cross-sectional population based survey using rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) method.
Participants: Fifty one clusters of 50 people aged 50 years or older were selected by probability proportionate to size sampling of clusters. Compact segment sampling was used to select households within the clusters. Two thousand five hundred and forty six people were eligible for the survey of which 2419 (95%)
were examined.
Methods: Participants underwent a comprehensive ocular examination in their homes by an ophthalmologist. The visual acuity was measured using a tumbling E chart. The cause of visual impairment was established. Those who had
undergone cataract surgery were questioned about the details of the operation and their satisfaction with the surgery. Those who were visually impaired from cataract were asked why they had not gone for surgery.
Results: Cataract was found to be the main cause of blindness (42.9%) and visual impairment (42.7%) in those aged 50 years and older. The cataract surgical coverage was high, with 87.2% of those with bilateral cataract who needed surgery having had surgery at V/A<3/60. The quality of surgery was of concern with 20.7% of the 222 eyes that had undergone cataract surgery
having a best corrected vision of <6/60. The main barriers to cataract surgery were cost and lack of awareness.
Conclusions: The cataract surgical coverage in Kericho, Bureti and Bomet districts is high. The outcome of surgery is below the WHO standard and needs improvement.

Kahaki K, Ciku M, Sheila M, Onyango O, Wachira W, Elkana O, Kagondu F, Karimurio J, Hans L. "Cataract Surgical Services, Outcome and Barriers in Kericho, Bureti and Bomet Districts, Kenya.". 2008. AbstractWebsite

Objective: To assess the cataract surgical coverage, outcome of cataract surgery and barriers to uptake of cataract surgical services. Setting: Kericho, Bureti and Bomet districts CES Project. Design: Cross-sectional population based survey using rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) method. Participants: Fifty one clusters of 50 people aged 50 years or older were selected by probability proportionate to size sampling of clusters. Compact segment sampling was used to select households within the clusters. Two thousand fi ve hundred and forty six people were eligible for the survey of which 2419 (95%) were examined. Methods: Participants underwent a comprehensive ocular examination in their homes by an ophthalmologist. The visual acuity was measured using a tumbling E chart. The cause of visual impairment was established. Those who had undergone cataract surgery were questioned about the details of the operation and their satisfaction with the surgery. Those who were visually impaired from cataract were asked why they had not gone for surgery. Results: Cataract was found to be the main cause of blindness (42.9%) and visual impairment (42.7%) in those aged 50 years and older. The cataract surgical coverage was high, with 87.2% of those with bilateral cataract who needed surgery having had surgery at V/A<3/60. The quality of surgery was of concern with 20.7% of the 222 eyes that had undergone cataract surgery having a best corrected vision of <6/60. The main barriers to cataract surgery were cost and lack of awareness. Conclusions: The cataract surgical coverage in Kericho, Bureti and Bomet districts is high. The outcome of surgery is below the WHO standard and needs improvement.

Kimani D, Maina T. "Catastrophic Health Expenditures in Kenya.". In: Futures Group.; 2014.
Osiro OA, Kisumbi BK, Simila HO. "Categories of direct restorative materials and their selection by dentists in Kenya.". In: IADR ESAD. Eldoret Kenya; 2015.
Kilekwang L, Patel NB. "Catha edulis Forsk (khat) induces conditioned place preference in mice.". In: Society of Neuroscientists of Africa.; 2017.cpp_poster.pdf
KISAKA ES, MWASARU A. "The Causal Relationship between Exchange Rates and Stock Prices in Kenya." Research of Finance and Accounting, Vol 3, N0. 7, 2012. 2012;3(7):121-130. AbstractWebsite

This study examined the causal relationship between foreign exchange rates and stock prices in Kenya from November 1993 to May 1999. The data set consisted of monthly observations of the NSE stock price index and the nominal Kenya shillings per US dollar exchange rates. The objective was to establish the causal linkages between leading prices in the foreign exchange market and the Nairobi Securities Exchange (NSE). The empirical results show that foreign exchange rates and stock prices are non-stationary both in first differences and level forms, and the two variables are integrated of order one, in Kenya. Secondly, we tested for co-integration between exchange rates and stock prices. The results show that the two variables are co-integrated. Thirdly, we used error-correction models instead of the classical Granger-causality tests since the two variables are co-integrated. The empirical results indicate that exchange rates Granger-causes stock prices in Kenya.

Kaimenyi JT. "Cause of tooth mortality at the dental unit at Kenyatta National Hospital Nairobi, Kenya.". 1996. AbstractWebsite

The purpose of Dentistry is to make the mouth healthy and preserve teeth in good function for what they are worth, namely a beautiful smile, better phonetics, a youthful look and ease of chewing all sorts of food without having to make uncalled for choices.(3) In the past, most people didn't value teeth at all. Loss of teeth was considered as an inevitable consequence 01 old age. The contemporary society however values teeth in a big way. Many people today will go along way to preserve their teeth notwithstanding the high expense to be incurred and the many man hours spent in attending dental clinic. Demand to preserve teeth by a patient whatever the cost doesn't necessarily have to be met by the dental surgeon. The decision to preserve teeth or not must be considered in the light of the pathology of dental disease in question regarding its onset, course, termination and the like hood of its response to treatment. Any attempt to preserve teeth with very poor prognosis is not only heroic but eventuates into frustrating the patient and the dental surgeon when the desired results are not met.

Kaisha WO, Khainga S. "Causes and pattern of unilateral hand injuries." East Afr Med J. 2008;85(3):123-8. Abstract

To assess the causes and pattern of hand injuries in patients with isolated unilateral acute hand injuries managed at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).

Wekesa V, Mwang'ombe NJM, Musau CK, Kiboi JG. "Causes and Risk Factors of Non-traumatic Sub-arachnoid Haemorrhage among Patients at Kenyatta National Referral Hospital, Kenya ;." East and Central African Journal of Surgery.. 2011;16(3):75-79. Abstract

Background: Subarachnoid Haemorrhage (SAH) has been shown to have a global incidence of 2-49 cases per 100 000 population, and it is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. There is a scarcity of data regarding this condition in Kenya. This paper presents the causes and risk factors for this condition in patients presenting to our hospital.
Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in Kenyatta National Hospital in Kenya. All patients admitted between December 2010 and March 2011 with a diagnosis of SAH, were included in the study. A total of 55 patients with SAH were recruited in the study.
Results: Slightly more females suffered from SAH than men, with a male: female ratio of 1: 1.1. The mean age was 47.6 years with a modal age group being 41-50 years. Intracranial aneurysms were seen in 29% of patients, the commonest location being in the anterior communicating artery (31%). Arterio-venous malformations were seen in 4% of patients. 51% of the patients had poorly controlled hypertension. Other risk factors included alcohol intake (31%), cigarette smoking (15%), and use of hormonal contraceptives was reported in 22% female study subjects.
Conclusion: In our population, the commonest cause of spontaneous SAH is aneurysmal bleeds mainly in the anterior circulation. Further, most of the risks involved in causation of SAH are modifiable therefore interventions such as proper blood pressure control should be put in place so as to reduce the burden of this disease.

Wekesa V, Mwang'ombe NJM, Musau CK, Kiboi JG. "Causes and Risk Factors of Non-traumatic Sub-arachnoid Haemorrhage among Patients at Kenyatta National Referral Hospital, Kenya Wekesa, V.; Mwang'ombe, N.J.M.; Musau, C.K. & Kiboi, J.G." East and Central African Journal of Surgery. 2011;16(3):75-79. Abstract

Background: Subarachnoid Haemorrhage (SAH) has been shown to have a global incidence of 2-49 cases per 100 000 population, and it is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. There is a scarcity of data regarding this condition in Kenya. This paper presents the causes and risk factors for this condition in patients presenting to our hospital.
Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in Kenyatta National Hospital in Kenya. All patients admitted between December 2010 and March 2011 with a diagnosis of SAH, were included in the study. A total of 55 patients with SAH were recruited in the study.
Results: Slightly more females suffered from SAH than men, with a male: female ratio of 1: 1.1. The mean age was 47.6 years with a modal age group being 41-50 years. Intracranial aneurysms were seen in 29% of patients, the commonest location being in the anterior communicating artery (31%). Arterio-venous malformations were seen in 4% of patients. 51% of the patients had poorly controlled hypertension. Other risk factors included alcohol intake (31%), cigarette smoking (15%), and use of hormonal contraceptives was reported in 22% female study subjects.
Conclusion: In our population, the commonest cause of spontaneous SAH is aneurysmal bleeds mainly in the anterior circulation. Further, most of the risks involved in causation of SAH are modifiable therefore interventions such as proper blood pressure control should be put in place so as to reduce the burden of this disease.

MURERAMANZI S, KAMBANDA D, KAMBANDA D, RULINDA JB, MUDAHERANWA G, A. GAHONDOGO. "Causes du Desinteret des Etudiants pour les Sciences pures au Rwanda.". In: Etudes Rwandaises. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2002.
Chibeu DM;, Karioki DI;, Munyua SJM;, Olaho-Mukani W. "Causes Of Abortion And Stillbirths In Doesin Arid And Semi-arid Areas In Kenya.".; 1996.
Mudemb EV, Gaklunga DK, K'Odhiambo AK. "Causes of Dropouts Among Boys and Gilrs From Secondary School: The Case of Ugenya District, Kenya." Mauritious: Lamert Academic Publishing; 2013.
Mudemb EV, Gaklunga DK, K’Odhiambo AK. "Causes of Dropouts Among Boys and Gilrs From Secondary School: The Case of Ugenya District, Kenya." Mauritious: Lamert Academic Publishing; 2013. Abstract
n/a
Achollah AM, Karanja DN, Ng’ang’a CJ, Bebora LC. "Causes of organ condemnations in cattle at slaughter and associated financial losses in Siaya County, Kenya." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health . 2020;12(2):27-35.
Achollah AM, Karanja DN, Ng’ang’a CJ, Bebora LC. "Causes of organ condemnations in cattle at slaughter and associated financial losses in Siaya County, Kenya." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health. 2020;12:27-35.
Karioki DI;, Munyua SJM;, Chibeu DM;, Olaho-Mukani W. "Causes Of Postnatal Mortality In Goats In Arid And Semi-arid Areas In Kenya.".; 1996.
Munyua SJM;, Agumbah, G.J.O; Njenga KKMN; KJ, Njenga MN;, Njenga MN;, Kuria KJ;, Kamau JA. "Causes Of Pre-Weaning Mortality In Small And Medium Scale Intensive Piggeries In Central Kenya."; 1987.
Munyua SJM;, Agumbah GJO;, Njenga MN;, Kuria KJ;, Kamau JA. "Causes Of Pre-Weaning Mortality In Small And Medium Scale Intensive Piggeries In Central Kenya."; 1987.
Munyua SJM;, Agumbah GJO;, Njenga MN;, Kuria KJ;, Kamau JA. "Causes Of Pre-Weaning Mortality In Small And Medium Scale Intensive Piggeries In Central Kenya."; 1987.
John GC, Bird T, Overbaugh J, R W Nduati, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Rostron T, Dong T, Kostrikis L, Richardson B, Rowland-Jones SL. "CCR5 Promoter Polymorphisms in a Kenyan Perinatal Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Cohort: Association with Increased 2-Year Maternal Mortality.". 2001. AbstractWebsite

The CCR5 chemokine receptor acts as a coreceptor with CD4 to permit infection by primary macrophage-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains. The CCR5Δ32 mutation, which is associated with resistance to infection in homozygous individuals and delayed disease progression in heterozygous individuals, is rare in Africa, where the HIV-1 epidemic is growing rapidly. Several polymorphisms in the promoter region of CCR5 have been identified, the clinical and functional relevance of which remain poorly defined. We evaluated the effect of 4 CCR5 promoter mutations on systemic and mucosal HIV-1 replication, disease progression, and perinatal transmission in a cohort of 276 HIV-1–seropositive women in Nairobi, Kenya. Mutations at positions 59353, 59402, and 59029 were not associated with effects on mortality, virus load, genital shedding, or transmission in this cohort. However, women with the 59356 C/T genotype had a 3.1-fold increased risk of death during the 2-year follow-up period (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0–9.5) and a significant increase in vaginal shedding of HIV-1–infected cells (odds ratio, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.0–4.3), compared with women with the 59356 C/C genotype.

Alimonti JB, Koesters SA, Kimani J, Matu L, Wachihi C, Plummer FA, Fowke KR. "Cd4+ T Cell Responses In Hiv-exposed Seronegative Women Are Qualitatively Distinct From Those In Hiv-infected Women.". 2005. AbstractWebsite

The immune response of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed seronegative (ESN) women may be qualitatively different from that in those infected with HIV (HIV(+)). In a cohort of female commercial sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya, we found significantly lower (P< or =.01) levels of CD4(+)-specific immune activation and apoptosis in the ESN women compared with those in the HIV(+) women. Compared with the HIV(+) women, a lower proportion of the ESN women showed p24 peptide pool responses by the short-term, CD4(+)-specific, interferon (IFN)- gamma intracellular cytokine staining assay, whereas the proportion showing responses by the long-term, CD8(+)-depleted T cell proliferation assay was similar. Interestingly, the ESN responders had a 4.5-fold stronger proliferation response (P=.002) than the HIV(+) group. These data suggest that, compared with those in HIV(+) women, CD4(+) T cells in ESN women have a much greater ability to proliferate in response to p24 peptides.

Tang J, Li X, Price MA, Sanders EJ, Anzala O, Karita E, Kamali A, Lakhi S, Allen S, Hunter E, Kaslow RA, Gilmour J. "CD4:CD8 lymphocyte ratio as a quantitative measure of immunologic health in HIV-1 infection: findings from an African cohort with prospective data." Front Microbiol. 2015;6:670. Abstract

In individuals with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, CD4:CD8 lymphocyte ratio is often recognized as a quantitative outcome that reflects the critical role of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells in HIV-1 pathogenesis or disease progression. Our work aimed to first establish the dynamics and clinical relevance of CD4:CD8 ratio in a cohort of native Africans and then to examine its association with viral and host factors, including: (i) length of infection, (ii) demographics, (iii) HIV-1 viral load (VL), (iv) change in CD4(+) T-lymphocyte count (CD4 slope), (v) HIV-1 subtype, and (vi) host genetics, especially human leukocyte antigen (HLA) variants. Data from 499 HIV-1 seroconverters with frequent (monthly to quarterly) follow-up revealed that CD4:CD8 ratio was stable in the first 3 years of infection, with a modest correlation with VL and CD4 slope. A relatively normal CD4:CD8 ratio (>1.0) in early infection was associated with a substantial delay in disease progression to severe immunodeficiency (<350 CD4 cells/μl), regardless of other correlates of HIV-1 pathogenesis (adjusted hazards ratio (HR) = 0.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.29-0.63, P < 0.0001). Low VL (<10,000 copies/ml) and HLA-A*74:01 were the main predictors of CD4:CD8 ratio >1.0, but HLA variants (e.g., HLA-B*57 and HLA-B*81) previously associated with VL and/or CD4 trajectories in eastern and southern Africans had no obvious impact on CD4:CD8 ratio. Collectively, these findings suggest that CD4:CD8 ratio is a robust measure of immunologic health with both clinical and epidemiological implications.

K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Cecilia M. Onyango1 and Jasper K. Imungi. 2008. Post harvest handling and characteristics of fresh-cut traditional vegetables sold in Nairobi .". In: Journal of Agricultural Science. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2008. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
Lewis P, Nduati R, Kreiss JK, John GC, Richardson BA, Mbori-Ngacha D, Ndinya-Achola J, Overbaugh J. "Cell-free human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in breast milk." J Infect Dis. Jan;177. 1998;(1)::34-9.Website
Kurtzhals JA, Hey AS, Theander TG, Odera E, Christensen CB, Githure JI, Koech DK, Schaefer KU, Handman E, Kharazmi A. "Cellular and humoral immune responses in a population from the Baringo District, Kenya to Leishmania promastigote lipophosphoglycan.". 1992.Website
KAAYA, G.P. OTIENOANDDARJILHN. "Cellular and humoral immunity in Glossina.". In: Proceedings of ISDCI invertebrate immunology conference. Montpellier, France; 1985.
Nyambok IO, Konoti HW, Nzioki NM. "Center For Urban Research Print Series Presents.". 1991.Website
Ogeng'o JA, Cohen DL, Sayi JG, Matuja WB, Chande HM, Kitinya JN, Kimani JK, Friedland RP, Mori H, Kalaria RN. "Cerebral amyloid beta protein deposits and other Alzheimer lesions in non-demented elderly east Africans." Brain Pathol.. 1996;6(2):101-7. Abstract

There is little knowledge of the existence of Alzheimer disease (AD) or Alzheimer type of dementia in indigenous populations of developing countries. In an effort to evaluate this, we assessed the deposition of amyloid beta (A beta) protein and other lesions associated with AD in brains of elderly East Africans. Brain tissues were examined from 32 subjects, aged 45 to 83 years with no apparent neurological disease, who came to autopsy at two medical Institutions in Nairobi and Dar es Salaam. An age-matched sample from subjects who had died from similar causes in Cleveland was assessed in parallel. Of the 20 samples from Nairobi, 3 (15%) brains exhibited neocortical A beta deposits that varied from numerous diffuse to highly localized compact or neuritic plaques, many of which were also thioflavin S positive. Two of the cases had profound A beta deposition in the prefrontal and temporal cortices and one of these also exhibited moderate to severe cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Similarly, 2 of the 12 samples from Dar es Salaam exhibited diffuse and compact A beta deposits that were also predominantly reactive for the longer A beta 42 species compared to A beta 40. We also noted that A beta plaques were variably immunoreactive for amyloid associated proteins, apolipoprotein E, serum amyloid P and complement C3. Tau protein reactive neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) were also evident in the hippocampus of 4 subjects. By comparison, 4 (20%) of the 20 samples from randomly selected autopsies performed in Cleveland showed A beta deposits within diffuse and compact parenchymal plaques and the vasculature. These observations suggest A beta deposition and some NFT in brains of non-demented East Africans are qualitatively and quantitatively similar to that in age-matched elderly controls from Cleveland. While our small scale study does not document similar prevalence rates of preclinical AD, it suggests that elderly East Africans are unlikely to escape AD as it is known in developed countries.

Choi RY, Levinson P, Guthrie BL, Lohman-Payne B, Bosire R, Liu AY, Hirbod T, Kiarie J, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart G, Broliden K, Farquhar C. "Cervicovaginal HIV-1-neutralizing immunoglobulin A detected among HIV-1-exposed seronegative female partners in HIV-1-discordant couples." AIDS. 2012;26(17):2155-63. Abstract

Cervicovaginal HIV-1-neutralizing immunoglobulin A (IgA) was associated with reduced HIV-1 acquisition in a cohort of commercial sex workers. We aimed to define the prevalence and correlates of HIV-1-neutralizing IgA from HIV-1-exposed seronegative (HESN) women in HIV-1-serodiscordant relationships.

Choi RY, Levinson P, Guthrie BL, Lohman-Payne B, Bosire R, Liu AY, Hirbod T, Kiarie J, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart G, Broliden K, Farquhar C. "Cervicovaginal HIV-1-neutralizing immunoglobulin A detected among HIV-1-exposed seronegative female partners in HIV-1-discordant couples." AIDS. 2012;26(17):2155-63. Abstract

Cervicovaginal HIV-1-neutralizing immunoglobulin A (IgA) was associated with reduced HIV-1 acquisition in a cohort of commercial sex workers. We aimed to define the prevalence and correlates of HIV-1-neutralizing IgA from HIV-1-exposed seronegative (HESN) women in HIV-1-serodiscordant relationships.

Odera S, Julius Oyugi, Kirui A, Aballa A, Noel Onyango, others. "Challenges Faced by House-Hold Contacts of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in an Urban Setting in Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of Infectious Diseases & Case Reports. SRC/JIDSCR-165. DOI: doi. org/10.47363/JIDSCR/2021 (2). 2021;146:2-4. Abstract
n/a
NAFUNA TERESAM, Waweru PW, Kimathi BM, Njiru LN, Osuala TM, Osiemo MR, Orucho MN, Koimur S, Mwenje SN, Njeru FM, Okoola RE, Ininda JM, Mugo RM, Ombaka EO, Muthama NJ, Manene MM, Mutai BK, Ang’u C, Opere AO, Nzioka JM, Ouma JO, Andang’o HA, Kimani, P.M; Kimani JM, Kimani NM. Challenges Faced By Kenya Sugar Board In Implementing Strategy On Service Delivery To Sugar Cane Millers In Kenya.; 2012. AbstractUniversity of Nairobi

A company's strategy is management's action plan for running the business and conducting its operations. Strategy on service delivery is thus an important element of this management process. For global business market acceleration, business must respond to customers faster than ever with value added products and services, while they struggle to maintain temporary competitive advantage. The study was guided by the main objective which was to identify the challenges of implementation of strategy on service delivery by Kenya Sugar Board to Sugar Millers and to determine possible solutions to these Challenges. It utilized a case study on the Kenya Sugar Board. The target population was the managerial personnel at KSB and a total of eight representatives (one from eight sugar factories). Primary data was collected by the use of interview guide.

K. MS, G. MM. "CHALLENGES FACED IN SUCCESSION PLANNING IN THE HOTEL INDUSTRY IN KENYA." International Journal of Arts and Commerce. 2018;7(6):25-39.succession_planning_challenges.pdf
Mira GK, Kennedy O. "CHALLENGES FACING ACCESSIBILITY OF CREDIT FACILITIES AMONG WOMEN OWNED ENTERPRISES IN NAIROBI CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT IN KENYA." International Journal of Social Sciences and Entrepreneurship . 2013;1(7):377-396.mira_and_ogollah_2013.pdf
Serem 1 JK, Wanyoike MM, Gachuiri CK, Mailu SK, Gathumbi PK, Mwanza RN, Kiarie N, Borter DK. Challenges facing small holder rabbit production in Kenya. Entebbe Uganda: ACSS; 2013.
K'Obonyo PP, Bolo AZ, W WR, Isaiah I. "Challenges facing the implementation of differentiation strategy at the mumias sugar company limited." Business Administration and Management. 2011;Volume 1(Issue 5):pp. 149-153. Abstract

Many organizations today are focusing on becoming more competitive, by launching competitive strategies that give them an edge over others. To do this, they need to craft differentiation strategies (Micheal, E. Porter 1985). However, most sugar firms have not been able to formulate these strategies required to gain competitive advantage. This calls for a strategic fit of an organization’s core competence levels, technology, leadership styles, markets, culture, people, and environmental influences, which is an emerging paradigm in the study of strategic management. This paper focuses on the challenges facing the implementation of differentiation strategies in the sugar industry in Kenya. To guide this study, two specific objectives were used: (1) To find out the differentiation strategies used by the sugar industry in Kenya, (2) To establish the challenges faced by the sugar industry in Kenya in implementing differentiation strategies. Two research questions were tested. A sample of Mumias Sugar Company limited was purposely selected, as the largest sugar manufacturing company in Kenya was used.

K MRGAKERIJACOB. ""Challenges Facing the Legal Profession .Role of Young Lawyers" (1996) University of Nairobi Law Journal Page 16.". In: Paper presented at the Animal Production Society of Kenya symposium. Nairobi, Kenya. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1996. Abstract
Effects of calcium supplementation in patient at risk of pregnancy induced Hypertension. (This was an experimental double blind randomized clinical trial.) J. Obset. Gynaecol. East Cent.Afr 2005, 18:49-59
Kagure KA. "Challenges in Accessing HIV-related Healthcare in Resource Limited Communities: Lessons from HIV-infected Women in Kenya.". 2008. AbstractWebsite

Background: Increasing access to HIV-related health care is very important in access resource limited countries. In Kenya HIV prevalence increased in 2008 to 7.8 from 6.7 in 2003. Women are mostly affected with infection rates 2-3 times more than men. Challenges women face attempting to access HIV care is urgent.Purpose: Study sought to identify health needs of HIV infected women in Kenya grapple with.Method: Forty Urban (Nairobi) and rural (Eastern Province) infected women participated in the study. A cross sectional qualitative narrative study elicited life stories of health needs. Unstructured in-depth interviews,tape recorded, transcribed and translated to English. Data analysis used N-vivo qualitative analysis soft ware. Multistage narrative analysis was used to explore emergent themes.Findings: Women of mean age 37 years and 3 years since diagnosis described prolonged illnesses suffered by spouses, themselves and children burdened by inadequate HIV care.Conclusion: Early diagnosis and treatment Interventions are necessary for well being and long life.

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Challenges in Accessing HIV-related Healthcare in Resource Limited Communities: Lessons from HIV-infected Women in Kenya.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, 38(1) 24-31. Dr. Peninnah M. Kako,Univ.W1; Prof. Anna K. Karani,UoN & Prof. Patricia E. Stevens, Univ.W1; Submitted. Abstract

 Background: Increasing access to HIV-related health care is very important in access resource limited countries. In Kenya HIV prevalence increased in 2008 to 7.8 from 6.7 in 2003. Women are mostly affected with infection rates 2-3 times more than men. Challenges women face attempting to access HIV care is urgent.Purpose: Study sought to identify health needs of HIV infected women in Kenya grapple with.Method: Forty Urban (Nairobi) and rural (Eastern Province) infected women participated in the study. A cross sectional qualitative narrative study eilicited life stories of health needs. Unstructured in-depth interviews,tape recorded, transcribed and translated to English. Data analysis used N-vivo qualitative analysis soft ware. Multistage narrative analysis was used to explore emergent themes.Findings: Women of mean age 37 years and 3 years since diagnosis described prolonged illnesses sufferred by spouses, themselves and children burdened by inadequate HIV care.Conclusion: Early diagnosis and treatment Interventions are necessary for wellbeing and long life.

Kirui G, Gakuya DW, Abuom TO. "Challenges in food animal practice in the urban areas- Nairobi City and its environs.". In: The Kenya Veterinary Association, Commonwealth Veterinary Association and university Nairobi, Faculty of Veterianry Medicine Joint Scientific Conference. Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2017.
Angeyo KH, Kaniu MI. "Challenges in rapid soil quality assessment and opportunities presented by multivariate chemometric energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering spectroscopy." Geoderma. 2015;241–242:32-40. Abstract

There is, especially in precision agriculture, an increasing demand world over for affordable sensors for in situ (field deployable) soil quality assessment (SQA) applicable at an ecological scale due to the interplay between soil quality and environmental degradation. Although spectrometric (particularly optical) techniques offer the opportunity to meet this demand due to their high analytical versatility, their utility in rapid SQA is limited by the complexity of the soil matrix, and the interpretation of the resulting spectra and (usually) multivariate quality assurance (i.e. SQA) data. In this paper, we examine the utility of spectrometric techniques for soil analysis and critique their applicability to rapid SQA; in particular, we appraise their potential for development towards intelligent portable SQA systems for in situ application. We then evaluate in this perspective the applicability of a new method we have recently developed namely chemometrics energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering spectrometry (EDXRFS) for SQA, emphasizing its potential for realizing rapid intelligent sensor architecture for in situ SQA. We conclude that a point of care soil sensor that infers soil properties, and intelligently modulates precision agriculture may be realized by integrating the EDXRFS spectroscopy method to a portable XRF spectrometer.

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. ""Challenges in the Use of Information Technology in Preserving Oral Literature in Kenya,.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1995. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

Akaranga SI, I.O.Otieno, Kayeli EC. "The Challenges of Christian Marriage in Africa." Impact Journal of Transformation. 2021;4(1):46-55.impact_journal_of_transforrmation_vol_4_no_1_46_55.pdf
Kiai Wambui, Kiiru Samuel MNUW. The Challenges of Media Training and Practice in East Africa.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi & Ford Foundation; 2009.
MWANGI CM, Kiptoon D, NABULINDO S, Chokwe T. "Challenges of Parathyroidectomy in a Patient with Primary Hyperparathyroidism and End Stage Renal Disease- Case Report ." African Journal of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. 2013;13(2):57-61.
Mganga KZ, Nyangito MM, Musimba NKR, Nyariki DM, Mwangombe AW, Ekaya WN, Muiru WM, Daniele Clavel4, Francis J, von Kaufmann R, Verhagen J. "The challenges of rehabilitating denuded patches of a semi-arid environment in Kenya." African Journal of Environmental Science & Technology . 2010;4(7):430-466. Abstract

Land degradation is a major problem in the semi-arid environments of Sub-Saharan Africa. Fighting land degradation is essential to ensure the sustainable and long-term productivity of the habited semi-arid lands. In Kenya, grass reseeding technology has been used to combat land degradation. However, despite the use of locally adapted perennial grass species namely Cenchrus ciliaris (African foxtail grass), Eragrostis superba (Maasai love grass) and Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye) failure still abound. Therefore, more land is still being degraded. The aim of this study was to determine the main factors which contribute to failures in rehabilitating denuded patches in semi-arid lands of Kenya. A questionnaire was administered to capture farmer perceptions on failures on rangeland rehabilitation using grass reseeding technology. Rainfall data was collected during the study period. Moreover, rehabilitation trials using the three grasses were done under natural rainfall. Results from this study show that climatic factors mainly low amounts of rainfall to be the main contributor to rehabilitation failures. 92% of the respondents asserted that reseeding fails because of low rainfall amounts received in the area. The study area received a total of 324 mm of rainfall which was low compared to the average annual mean of 600mm. Reseeded trial plots also failed to establish due to the low amounts of rainfall received. This showed how low rainfall is unreliable for reseeding. Other factors namely destruction by the grazing animals, pests and rodents, flush floods, poor sowing time, poor seed quality, lack of enough seed and weeds also contribute to rehabilitation failures in semi-arid lands of Kenya.

Key words: Land degradation, grass reseeding, rehabilitation failures, low rainfall.

Kating'i F, Kibui AW. "Challenges that affect Academic performance of children with special Needs in inclusive setting in Umoja zone, Embakasi District, Nairobi County, Kenya. BEST." International Journal of Humanities, Arts, Medicine and Sciences. 2015;3(12):57-64.
Kameri-Mbote P. "Challenges to Sustainability in Africa.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

Sustainability as defined in the Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development (1987) denotes development that meets the needs of current generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. It has elements of equity among current generations and across successive generations (Brown Weiss,1989). The challenges to sustainability in African states are multi - faceted, cross-sectoral and multidisciplinary in nature. These challenges range from social, economic, political and environmental challenges.They cut across the different sectors in the countries with a few of them being unique to a specific sector

K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Changes in ascorbic acid, beta-carotene and sensory properties in sundried and stored amaranthus hybridus vegetables. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 39: 459.". In: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute Newsletter for Sub-Saharan Africa, Issue 17Rome, Italy. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2000. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
Wagacha JM, Mutegi CK, Christie ME, Karanja LW, Kimani J. "Changes in Fungal Population and Aflatoxin Levels and Assessment of Major Aflatoxin Types in Stored Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea Linnaeus)." Journal of Food Research. 2013;2(5):10-23.
K, wa Gachigi. "Changes in Phytochemical content during different growth stages in tubers of five varieties of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science. 2018;6(1):1-11. Abstractgeoffrey_kipkoech_kirui.pdfWebsite

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) synthesizes a variety of bioactive metabolites including phenolic compounds and glycoalkaloids that protects against insects and diseases, and may influence its nutritional quality. Phenolics provide valuable health promoting antioxidants, whereas glycoalkaloid concentrations exceeding the upper safety limit of 20 mg/100 g fresh weight (Fwt) are potential neurotoxins. Therefore, efficient selection for tuber nutritional quality is dependent upon safe and reliable analytical methods. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in the concentration of glycoalkaloids and phenolic compounds during different growth stages in tubers of five selected potato varieties grown in Kenya. α-chaconine and α-solanine were separated and identified by HPLC. Total glycoalkaloids (TGA) and phenolics were determined by UV spectrophotometry. Recovery efficiencies for validation of analytical methods ranged from 85.9-93.5%. Significant differences in TGA and phenolic contents were detected among potato varieties. Tuber TGA content ranged from 6.80 to 10.56 mg/100g Fwt in vars. Dutch Robijn and Tigoni, respectively, and were within the upper safety limit. The corresponding values for chlorogenic acid contents in the examined varieties ranged from 46.39 to 58.04 mg/100 g Fwt. Total phenolic concentration in the examined tuber extracts varied ranged from 129.24 to 192.52 mg CGA/g Fwt. Glycoalkaloid and phenolic production were significantly reduced from time of initiation to maturity at 55 and 125 days, respectively, after planting (DAP). These results demonstrate that tuber phytochemicals were strongly influenced by variety and level of maturity. For nutritional safety and quality purposes, harvesting of mature potato tubers after 125 DAP is recommended

Kirui GK, Saifuddin Fidahussein Dossaji, Amugune NO. "Changes in Phytochemical Content During Different Growth Stages in Tubers of Five Varieties of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.)." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science Journal. 2018;6(1):12-22.
Irungu E, Chersich MF, Sanon C, Chege R, Gaillard P, Temmerman M, Read JS, Luchters S. "Changes in sexual behaviour among HIV-infected women in west and east Africa in the first 24 months after delivery." AIDS. 2012;26(8):997-1007. Abstract

Describe changes in sexual behaviour and determinants of unsafe sex among HIV-infected women in the 24 months after delivery.

Omondi PAO, Awange JL, Forootan E, Ogallo LA, Barakiza R, Girmaw GB, Komutunga E. "Changes in temperature and precipitation extremes over the Greater Horn of Africa region from 1961 to 2010.". 2013.Website
Roxby AC, Fredricks DN, Odem-Davis K, Ásbjörnsdóttir K, Masese L, Fiedler TL, De Rosa S, Jaoko W, Kiarie JN, Overbaugh J, McClelland SR. "Changes in Vaginal Microbiota and Immune Mediators in HIV-1-Seronegative Kenyan Women Initiating Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2016;71(4):359-66. Abstractchanges_in_vaginal_microbiota_and_immune_mediators_in_hiv-1-seronegative_kenyan_women_initiating_depot_medroxyprogesterone_acetate.pdfPUBMED

Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is associated with HIV acquisition. We studied changes in vaginal microbiota and inflammatory milieu after DMPA initiation.

Parnavelas JG, Globus A, Kaups P. "Changes in {Lateral} {Geniculate} {Neurones} of {Rats} as a {Result} of {Continuous} {Exposure} to {Light}." Nature. 1973;245:287-288. AbstractWebsite

THE results of several investigators demonstrate that environmental manipulations can affect the structure of the brain. Environmental conditions studied most often have been deprivation and enrichment. In the visual system different forms of light deprivation have been found to induce a decrease in spine density1–3, dendritic branching4,5 and in cell areas6. A number of studies have described changes resulting from enriched environmental conditions, including an increase in cortical weight and depth7,8, ratio of glial cells to neurones9, spine density10, and dendritic branching11. The effects of excess light stimulation in the visual system have also been studied. Continuous exposure to light has been found to cause irreversible damage to photoreceptors12,13 and an increase in spine density in the visual cortex of albino rats14. Under these conditions, investigators have reported a decrease or absence of evoked potentials in adult albino rats15. Black-white discrimination and two pattern discrimination tests did not indicate any difference between these animals and control rats16. We have been able to show significant quantitative morphological changes in the dendritic field of neurones in the dorsal lateral geniculate of rats reared under continuous illumination from birth to 35 d.

Kariuki P.W. GKP & CON. "The Changing concept of Adolescence in Kenya." Psychological Thought. 2014;7(1):55-65.
Kariuki, D.N., Ginsberg P, Kimamo C. "The Changing Concepts of Adolescence in Kenya." Psychological Thought. 2014;7(9).
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "The Changing Development Space in Kenya: Socio-political Change and Voluntary Development Activities, in Gibbon, P., (ed)., Markets, Civil Society and Democracy in Kenya. Uppsala: Nordic African Institute, 1995.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1995.
Kariuki, P.W. Kimamo GCONP. "The Changing Phases of Entry into and Exit from Adolescence in Kenya." Psychological Thought. 2012;1(2).
Kariuki, P.W. Kimamo GCONP 20. "The Changing Phases of Entry into and Exit from Adolescence in Kenya.". 2012;(2).
Kabira WM. "Changing the Mainstream Celebrating Women’s Resilience.". In: Changing the Mainstream Celebrating Women’s Resilience.; 2018.
Ombongi FO, Absaloms HO, Kibet PL. "Channel and Power Allocation for mm-wave Device-to-Device Enabled Vehicular Network." International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research (IJSTR). 2020;9(9):294-300.
Kanoti J, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dulo SI, Taylor R. "Characterisation of geogenic controls on groundwater quality in a volcano-sedimentary aquifer in Kenya using graphical and statistical methods.". In: 46th IAH Congress. Malaga, Spain; 2019. Abstractcontribution.pdf

Geogenic controls on groundwater quality are often dominant but remain inadequately characterized for many aquifer systems. The volcano-sedimentary aquifer of Kisumu (Kenya) is used widely to provide safe water to the informal settlements and acts as a strategic, supplementary supply to the city during interruptions in service from the main piped water supply network drawing from Lake Victoria. Little is known, however, of the geogenic controls on groundwater quality in the Kisumu aquifer. We characterize the origin and composition of solutes in groundwaters sampled from the Kisumu aquifer using a range of techniques. Classical graphical methods (i.e. Durov, Piper, Schoeller, Stiff and Ternary plots) were used as interpretative tools of the main hydrogeochemical processes whereas principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) methods were used to assess hydrochemical variations and water types. An agglomeration schedule with five cluster solutions and between-groups linkage method of clustering using the squared Euclidian distance was employed. Variables were standardized to z-scores so that each variable contributed equally to the clusters. The study identifies three main groundwater geochemical signatures in the Kisumu study area: cation exchange (Ca-Na, Ca-Mg) between aqueous and solid phases, the chemistry of recharge water, and groundwater mixing. The concentration of major ions in groundwater varies with geology and also seasonally. The dominant water facies is Na-Ca-HCO3 type; other hydrochemical facies include Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Na-HCO3. Hydrochemical plots suggest that dissolution of carbonates and halite are the other major chemical processes, in addition to cation exchange, that control the groundwater chemistry in the Kisumu aquifer. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the main cations and anions discriminated satisfactorily the various water types in the study area.

Mutala TM, Tole NM, Kimani NM. "Characterisation of hepatobiliary lesions in an African referral hospital: initial MDCT dose challenges." Cancer Imaging 2015. 2015;15(Suppl 1):7.
Mutala TM, Tole NM, Kimani NM. "Characterisation of hepatobiliary lesions in an African referral hospital: initial MDCT dose challenges." Cancer Imaging . 2015;2015(15):7.
Kiama TN, Rita Verhelst, Mbugua PM, Mario Vaneechoutte, Hans Verstraelen, Estambale B, Temmerman M. Characterisation of the vaginal microflora during the menstrual cycle of HIV positive and negative women in a sub-urban population of Kenya.; 2011.
Nakanwagi-Mukwaya A, Reid AJ, Fujiwara PI, Mugabe F, Kosgei RJ, Tayler-Smith K. "Characteristics and treatment outcomes of tuberculosis retreatment cases in three regional hospitals, Uganda." Public Health Action . 2013;3(2):149-155.characteristics_and_treatment_outcomes_of_tuberculosis_3_regions_uganda.pdf
KAAYA, G.P. BOMANFLYGANDOTIENOHGCL. "Characteristics of acquired humoral immunity in tsetse flies, Glossina morsitans morsitans.". In: Proceedings of the 4th International colloquium of Invertebrate pathology. Veldhoven, The Netherlands; 1986.
Abong' GO, Okoth MW, Kabira JN. "Characteristics of fresh (ware) potato traders in Nairobi and Nakuru towns, Kenya.". In: Contribution of agriculture to achieving MDGs. Nairobi: IeCAB2010-eBook; 2010.fresh_potato_traders_characteristics.pdf
Abong' GO, Okoth MW, Kabira JN. "Characteristics of fresh (ware) potato traders in Nairobi and Nakuru towns, Kenya.". In: Contribution of Agricultural Sciences towards achieving the Millenium Development Goals. Nairobi: FaCT Publishing, Kenya.; 2010.2010_-_potato_traders_e-book_publication.pdf
Lingappa JR, Kahle E, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Magaret A, Baeten J, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, Stewart GJ, Makhema J, Essex M, Were E, Fife K, de Bruyn G, Glenda Gray, Hoosen M. Coovadia, McIntyre J, Manongi R, Kapiga S, Coetzee D, Allen S, Inambao M, Kayitenkore K, Karita E, Kanweka W, Delany S, Rees H, Vwalika B, Coombs RW, Morrow R, Whittington W, Corey L, Wald A, Celum C. "Characteristics of HIV-1 discordant couples enrolled in a trial of HSV-2 suppression to reduce HIV-1 transmission: the partners study." PLoS ONE. 2009;4(4):e5272. Abstract

The Partners HSV-2/HIV-1 Transmission Study (Partners Study) is a phase III, placebo-controlled trial of daily acyclovir for genital herpes (HSV-2) suppression among HIV-1/HSV-2 co-infected persons to reduce HIV-1 transmission to their HIV-1 susceptible partners, which requires recruitment of HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples. We describe the baseline characteristics of this cohort.

Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, Mugo NR, Barnes L, Campbell JD, Wangisi J, Tappero JW, Bukusi E, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Tumwesigye E, Were E, Fife KH, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G, Kidoguchi L, Panteleeff D, Krows M, Shah H, Revall J, Morrison S, Ondrejcek L, Ingram C, Coombs RW, Lingappa JR, Celum C. "Characteristics of HIV-1 serodiscordant couples enrolled in a clinical trial of antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 prevention." PLoS ONE. 2011;6(10):e25828. Abstract

Stable heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Africa have high HIV-1 transmission rates and are a critical population for evaluation of new HIV-1 prevention strategies. The Partners PrEP Study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of tenofovir and emtricitabine-tenofovir pre-exposure prophylaxis to decrease HIV-1 acquisition within heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. We describe the trial design and characteristics of the study cohort.

Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, Mugo NR, Barnes L, Campbell JD, Wangisi J, Tappero JW, Bukusi E, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Tumwesigye E, Were E, Fife KH, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G, Kidoguchi L, Panteleeff D, Krows M, Shah H, Revall J, Morrison S, Ondrejcek L, Ingram C, Coombs RW, Lingappa JR, Celum C. "Characteristics of HIV-1 serodiscordant couples enrolled in a clinical trial of antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 prevention." PLoS ONE. 2011;6(10):e25828. Abstract

Stable heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Africa have high HIV-1 transmission rates and are a critical population for evaluation of new HIV-1 prevention strategies. The Partners PrEP Study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of tenofovir and emtricitabine-tenofovir pre-exposure prophylaxis to decrease HIV-1 acquisition within heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. We describe the trial design and characteristics of the study cohort.

Kimani GN. "Characteristics of PI in-service student teachers in Kenya." The Fountain: Journal of Faculty of Education, University of Nairobi, . 2005;2(ISSN 2079 3383).
Kagira J.M., Maingi, N., Kanyari. P.W.N., Githigia, S.M., Ng’ang’a JC, Gachohi JM. "Characteristics of pig trade in low income settings in Busia District, Kenya." Tanzanian Veterinary Journal. 2009;27:27-36.2010_charateristics_of_pig_trade_in_low_income_settings_in_busia_district.pdf
Kagira JM, Maingi N, Kanyari PWN, Githigia SM, Nganga JC, Gachohi JM. "Characteristics of pig trade in low income settings in Busia District, Kenya." Tanzanian Veterinary Journal. 2010;27:27-36.10_kagira_et_al_2010_3.pdf
Kagira J.M, Maingi, N., Kanyari. P.W.N, Githigia, S.M., Ng’ang’a, J.C., Gachohi JM. "Characteristics of pig trade in low income settings in Busia District, Kenya." Tanzanian Veterinary Journal. 2009;27:27-36.
Elijah Njuguna, Gathara M, Nadir S, Mwalusepo S, Williamson D, Mathé P-E, Kimani J, Landmann T, Juma G, Ong’amo G, Gatebe E, Ru BL, Calatayud P-A, Calatayud P-A. "Characteristics of soils in selected maize growing sites along altitudinal gradients in East African highlands." Data in brief. 2015:138-144.
Abong' GO, Okoth MW, Imungi JK, Kabira JN. "Characteristics of the industry, constraints in processing, and marketing of potato crisps in Kenya." Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences. 2010;8(1):936-943.
Kagira J.M., Kanyari P.W.N., Maingi N., Githigia S.M., Ng’ang’a J.C., J.W. K. "Characteristics of the smallholder free-range pig production system in western Kenya." Tropical Animal Health and Production . 2009;42(5):865-873.2009_charateristics_of_smallholder_free-range_pig_production_system_in_western_kenya4-pdf.pdf
Kagira JM, Kanyari PWN, Maingi N, Githigia SM, Nganga JC, Karuga JW. "Characteristics of the smallholder free-range pig production system in western Kenya." Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2010;42:865-873.9_kagira_et_al_2010_2.pdf
Kagira JM, Kanyari PWN, Maingi N, Githigia SM, JC N’ang’a, Karuga JC. "Characteristics of the smallholder free-range pig production system in western Kenya." Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2001;42(5):865-873.
L Z, ME E, G K, S R, P M, B C, K M, S I, A J, R D, V F, S O, B G, C M, E O, P L, MM A-K, C H-H, SS S, A H, W D, DY G, SG A, AG D, BA S, DM B, A ES, AS I, J M, F B-T, BN O, O I, C S, R M, A AF, N K, A D, M S, OS O, T O, HH E, AO M, AM A, P M, D O, J M, S Y, BM M. "Characteristics, complications, and gaps in evidence-based interventions in rheumatic heart disease: the Global Rheumatic Heart Disease Registry (the REMEDY study)." Eur Heart J. . 2014.
Buard V, den Berg VR, Tayler-Smith K, Godhia P, Sorby A, Kosgei RJ, Szumilin E, Harries AD, Pujades-Rodriguez M. "Characteristics, medical management and outcomes of survivors of sexual gender-based violence, Nairobi, Kenya." Public Health Action . 2013;3(2):109-112.characteristics_medical_management_and_outcomes_of_survivors_of_gender_based_violence.pdf
Ngugi HN, Mutuku FM, Ndenga BA, Musunzaji PS, Mbakaya JO, Aswani P, IRUNGU LUCYW, Mukoko D, Vulule J, Kitron U, LaBeaud AD. "Characterization and productivity profiles of Aedes aegypti (L.) breeding habitats across rural and urban landscapes in western and coastal Kenya." Parasites & vectors. 2017;10(1):331.
Mutuku FM, Ngugi HN, Ndenga BA, Musunzaji PS, Mbakaya JO, Aswani P, IRUNGU LUCYW, Mukoko D, Vulule J, Kitron U, LaBeaud AD. "Characterization and productivity profiles of Aedes aegypti (L.) breeding habitats across rural and urban landscapes in western and coastal Kenya.". 2017.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Characterization and Technological Properties of predominant Lactic acid bacterial from fermentation cassava for selection as starter cultures. Submitted to the International Journal of Food Microbiology.". In: Current Microbiology vol 56: (4), 315 . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2006. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
Abubakar LU, Mutie AM, Kenya EU, Muhoho A. "Characterization of algae oil (oilgae) and its potential as biofuel in Kenya." Journal of Applied Phytotechnology in Environmental Sanitation . 2012;1 (4):147-153.abstract-apes.pdf
DOSSA, S. C., ESSUMAN S, KAAYA GP. "Characterization of Amblyomma variegatum tick saliva and salivary gland antigens inducing anti-tick immunity in Boran cattle. ." International Journal of Acarology. 1998;24:149-157.
Habimana V, Bett RC, Amimo JO, Kibegwa FM, Githae DK, Jung'a JO, IshagAJour HZA. "Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Detected from Dairy Cow Feces and Rumen Fluid bacterial pathogens." Africa Journal of Microbial Research. 2019.
Kiringe, J.W., Mwaura F, Warinwa F&. "Characterization of Chyulu Hills Watershed Ecosystem Services in South-Eastern Kenya." Environment and Natural Resources Research. 2016;6(3):65-76.
Ngugi HN, Mutuku F, Ndenga B, Siema P, Maleka H, IRUNGU LUCY, Mukoko D, Vulule J, Kitron U. "CHARACTERIZATION OF LARVAL HABITATS OF AEDES AEGYPTI IN KENYA.". 2017;95(5):56-57.
Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2019;9(4):38-45. Abstract47529-51080-1-pb.pdfWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." of Environment and Earth Science. 2019;9(4). Abstract47529-51080-1-pb1.pdfWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." Journal of Environmental Earth Science.. 2019;9(4). Abstract47529-51080-1-pb2.pdfWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2019;9(4):38-45. AbstractWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2019;9(4):38-45. AbstractWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

Nyirakanani C, Chibvongodze R, Kariuki L, Habtu M, Masika M, Mukoko D, Njunwa KJ. "Characterization of malaria vectors in Huye District, Southern Rwanda." Tanzania Journal of Health Research. 2017;19(3). AbstractWebsite

Background: Effective control of malaria requires knowledge of vector species, their feeding and resting behaviour as well as breeding habitats. The objective of this study was to determine malaria vector species abundance and identify their larval habitats in Huye district, southern Rwanda.

Methods: Adult mosquitoes were collected indoors using light trap and pyrethrum spray catch techniques, and outdoors using light traps. Female Anopheles mosquitoes were identified to species level by morphological characteristics. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was used to screen for Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein and host blood meal sources. Anopheles larvae were sampled using dippers and raised into adult mosquitoes which were identified morphologically.

Results: Anopheles gambiae sensu lato comprised of 70% of the 567 Anopheles collected. Other Anopheles species identified were An. funestus 4%, An. squamosus 16.5%, An. maculipalpis 6.5%, An. ziemanni 1.7%, An. pharoensis 1.2 % and An. coustani 0.1%. The majority, 63.5% of the collected mosquitoes were from indoors collections. The overall human blood index was 0.509. The P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein was found in 11 mosquitos including 8 Anopheles gambiae s.l. and 3 secondary vectors out of the 567 tested. The overall sporozoite rate was 1.9%. A total of 661 Anopheline larvae from 22 larval habitats were collected. They comprised of An. gambiae s.l. (89%) and An. ziemanni (11%). The absolute breeding index was 86.4%. The most common larval habitats were in full sunlight with still water like rice paddies and pools of stagnant water.

Conclusion: These findings show that Anopheles gambiae s.l. is the dominant malaria vector in the area with other vectors playing a secondary role in malaria transmission. Malaria interventions need to be strengthened to reduce even further the malaria transmission in the area.

Wadegu M, Bulimo W, Achilla R, Mukunzi S, Majanja J, Opot B, Osuna F, Muthoni J, Njiri J, Mwangi J, Kibet K, Ocholla S, Wurapa E. "Characterization of neuraminidase inhibitor susceptibility of influenza A isolates obtained in Kenya, 2008-2011.". In: Options for the Control of Influenza VII. Cape Town, South Africa; 2013:. Abstract

Background: Vaccines and antivirals are the mainstay for mitigation and clinical management of influenza infections. However, due to the ever-changing antigenic profile, vaccine formulations are revised every year to make them efficacious. Neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors, mainly oseltamivir and zanamivir, function both as prophylactic and as treatment agents. In NA inhibition by antivirals, inhibitor molecules mimic NA’s natural substrate and bind to the active site, preventing NA from cleaving host cell receptors and releasing new virus. Currently, there exist no data on antiviral susceptibility profiles of influenza A isolates circulating within the Eastern African region. Here we characterised the antiviral susceptibility of the 2008-2011 influenza A viruses circulating in Kenya by combining both the genotypic data involving known molecular markers in NA protein responsible for drug resistance and IC50 data generated from NA inhibition assays. Materials and Methods: Nasopharyngeal swab specimens from consenting outpatients aged ≥ 2 months were obtained and transported to the National Influenza Centre and screened by real-time RT-PCR using primers targeted at the matrix and haemagglutinin genes of influenza A subtypes. Positive specimens were inoculated onto MDCK monolayers to isolate virus. RNA was extracted from virus isolates followed by PCR amplification of NA gene segments. Nucleotide sequencing was performed using the BigDye chemistry prior to analyses using a suite of bioinformatics tools. Drug susceptibility was determined by enzyme inhibition assay using fluorescent substrate with known NA inhibitor–resistant and –sensitive viruses as controls. IC50 values were determined using curve-fitting software (Grafit 7.0), which is based on 50% of fitted upper asymptote. Results: Of 836 influenza A virus isolates obtained (2008- 2011), 108 (13%) were analysed for markers of resistance to NA inhibitors: 64% (7/11) of the 2008 seasonal influenza A/H1N1 isolates analysed showed oseltamivir-resistant marker H275Y, while all 33 (100%) influenza A/H3N2 isolates obtained showed sensitivity to oseltamivir. Genetic analyses of the A (H1N1) pdm09 isolates obtained in 2009-2010 showed that all were sensitive to oseltamivir. All 14 influenza A/H3N2 isolates obtained in 2011 were also shown to be sensitive to oseltamivir. A total of 28 isolates were further subjected to phenotypic susceptibility assay. The mean zanamivir IC50 values were 1.75, 2.53 and 1.84 nM for the subtypes H1N1, pH1N1 and H3N2, respectively. Two of the 2008 sH1N1 and one of the sH1N1 obtained in 2009 showed normal sensitivity to oseltamivir in the NA inhibitor susceptibility assay (mean IC50 of 1.28 nM). The rest of the 2008-2009 sH1N1 analysed (n = 8) showed highly reduced sensitivity to oseltamivir. The IC50 values in the fluorescent assay ranged from 73 to 984 nM. Pandemic A/H1N1 strains obtained between 2009 and 2011 indicated oseltamivir IC50 values of 1.60 to 6.32 nM—categorised as normal sensitivity. All 8 candidate influenza A/H3N2 isolates obtained between 2008 and 2011 were sensitive to oseltamivir, with IC50 values ranging from 0.16 to 0.94 nM. The 2011 WHO ranges and median IC50 values for oseltamivir carboxylate were 0.4 to 10 nM and 0.5 nM, 0.1 to 5 nM and 0.2 nM, and 0.2 to 10 nM and 0.6 nM for wild-type sH1N1, sH3N2 and pH1N1, respectively. The 2011 WHO ranges and median IC50 values for oseltamivir carboxylate were 257 to 3455 nM and 458.2 nM and 132 to 2179 nM and 191.3 nM for mutant types sH1N1 and pH1N1, respectively. The WHO IC50 values for zanamivir, both for mutant and wild-type strains, ranged from 0.2 to 3 nM for all subtypes, with no significant differences between the mutant and wild-type strains for each subtype. Conclusion: Overall, our genotypic data demonstrate that there was oseltamivir resistance in seasonal influenza A (H1N1) viruses isolated in Kenya in 2008-2009. Most of the 2008-2009 sH1N1 isolates depicted highly reduced sensitivity to oseltamivir. This was due to the presence of the H275Y mutation in the NA protein sequence. H275Y mutation increased the IC50 value by 50- to 100-fold. Resistance to NA inhibitors was found to be specific to both drug and virus subtype. The drug susceptibility profile will be best informed using both elevated IC50 vales and known molecular markers of resistance.

Odelola HA, Koza J. "Characterization of Nigerian strains of West Nile virus by plaque formation." Acta Virol.. 1975;19(6):489-92. Abstract

Seven strains of West nile virus isolated in Nigeria were investigated for their ability to form plaques in monkey kidney cell monolayers. Five strains antigenically related to one another produced plaques of about the same size 3 to 4 days after the addition of the overlay medium. The two other strains closely related to each other produced no plaques. Their inability to produce plaques was regarded as a significant characteristic of the intratypic group to which the two strains belong.

Serem JK, Wanyoike MM, Gachuiri CK, Mailu SK, Gathumbi PK, Mwanza RN, Kiarie N, Borter DK. "Characterization of Rabbit Production Systems in Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Science and Applications. 2013;2(3):155-159.
Serem 1 JK, Wanyoike MM, Gachuiri CK, Mailu SK, Gathumbi PK, Mwanza RN, Kiarie N, Borter DK. Characterization of Rabbit Production Systems in Kenya. Nyeri, Kenya: APSK; 2012.
Maina AN, Mwaura FB, Julius Oyugi, Goulding D, Toribio AL, Kariuki S. "Characterization of Vibrio cholerae bacteriophages isolated from the environmental waters of the Lake Victoria region of Kenya." Curr. Microbiol.. 2014;68(1):64-70. Abstract

Over the last decade, cholera outbreaks have become common in some parts of Kenya. The most recent cholera outbreak occurred in Coastal and Lake Victoria region during January 2009 and May 2010, where a total of 11,769 cases and 274 deaths were reported by the Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation. The objective of this study is to isolate Vibrio cholerae bacteriophages from the environmental waters of the Lake Victoria region of Kenya with potential for use as a biocontrol for cholera outbreaks. Water samples from wells, ponds, sewage effluent, boreholes, rivers, and lakes of the Lake Victoria region of Kenya were enriched for 48 h at 37 °C in broth containing a an environmental strain of V. cholerae. Bacteriophages were isolated from 5 out of the 42 environmental water samples taken. Isolated phages produced tiny, round, and clear plaques suggesting that these phages were lytic to V. cholerae. Transmission electron microscope examination revealed that all the nine phages belonged to the family Myoviridae, with typical icosahedral heads, long contractile tails, and fibers. Head had an average diameter of 88.3 nm and tail of length and width 84.9 and 16.1 nm, respectively. Vibriophages isolated from the Lake Victoria region of Kenya have been characterized and the isolated phages may have a potential to be used as antibacterial agents to control pathogenic V. cholerae bacteria in water reservoirs.

Kamau JM, Mbui DM, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "Characterization of Voltage from Food Market Waste: Microbial Fuel Cells." International Journal of Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 2018;4(3):37-43. Abstract

Waste management and energy supply are among the most pressing problems facing the world today. In the current study, microbial fuel cells technology was employed to convert market waste to electricity using a two chamber fuel cell. Fruit wastes were collected, blended and minced before loading to the anodic chamber. Cow dung was used as bio catalysts. Distilled water was used in the cathodic chamber while salt bridges were made using 3% agarose in sodium chloride solution. The results obtained shows that voltage from fruits increase with time for the first 16 -18 days. The average voltage obtained was highest in avocado waste at 0.357V and lowest in water melon waste at 0.009V. The power and current density for all the fruits were in the range of 0.060856 to 2.53043µW/M2 and 0.751315 to 63.11044 mA/m2 respectively. In conclusion, microbial fuel cells technology employed to generate clean energy from market wastes can provide the Kenyan population with clean and relatively cheap electricity, and also address the problem of solid waste management especially in vegetable markets

Rop K, Mbui D, Karuku GN, Michira I, Njomo N. "Characterization of water hyacinth cellulose-g-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite polymer hydrogel composite for potential agricultural application." Results in Chemistry. 2020;2:100020. AbstractResults in Chemistry

Description
Polymer nano-composite was prepared by grafting partially neutralized acrylic acid onto swollen cellulose isolated from water hyacinth in the presence of nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the free radical initiator. Water absorption tests showed an increase in swelling ratio of the copolymer with increased nano-HA content to value of 120 g/g at 2.5% w/v above which it declined. FTIR spectrum of nano-composite revealed grafting of the monomer (acrylic acid/ammonium acrylate) onto cellulose and nano-HA. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of nano-HA synthesized in the presence of Triton X-100 (non-ionic surfactant) displayed rod-shaped agglomerates and nano-particle dispersion within the copolymer matrix. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra revealed the constituents of nano-composite to be …

Rop K, Mbui D, Karuku GN, Michira I, Njomo N. "Characterization of water hyacinth cellulose-g-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite polymer hydrogel composite for potential agricultural application." Results in Chemistry. 2020;2:100020. AbstractResults in Chemistry

Description
Polymer nano-composite was prepared by grafting partially neutralized acrylic acid onto swollen cellulose isolated from water hyacinth in the presence of nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the free radical initiator. Water absorption tests showed an increase in swelling ratio of the copolymer with increased nano-HA content to value of 120 g/g at 2.5% w/v above which it declined. FTIR spectrum of nano-composite revealed grafting of the monomer (acrylic acid/ammonium acrylate) onto cellulose and nano-HA. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of nano-HA synthesized in the presence of Triton X-100 (non-ionic surfactant) displayed rod-shaped agglomerates and nano-particle dispersion within the copolymer matrix. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra revealed the constituents of nano-composite to be …

Rop K, Mbui D, Karuku GN, Michira I, Njomo N. "Characterization of water hyacinth cellulose-g-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite polymer hydrogel composite for potential agricultural application." Results in Chemistry. 2020;2:100020. AbstractResults in Chemistry

Description
Polymer nano-composite was prepared by grafting partially neutralized acrylic acid onto swollen cellulose isolated from water hyacinth in the presence of nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the free radical initiator. Water absorption tests showed an increase in swelling ratio of the copolymer with increased nano-HA content to value of 120 g/g at 2.5% w/v above which it declined. FTIR spectrum of nano-composite revealed grafting of the monomer (acrylic acid/ammonium acrylate) onto cellulose and nano-HA. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of nano-HA synthesized in the presence of Triton X-100 (non-ionic surfactant) displayed rod-shaped agglomerates and nano-particle dispersion within the copolymer matrix. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra revealed the constituents of nano-composite to be …

Rop K, Mbui D, Karuku GN, Michira I, Njomo N. "Characterization of water hyacinth cellulose-g-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite polymer hydrogel composite for potential agricultural application." Results in Chemistry. 2020;2:100020. AbstractResults in Chemistry

Description
Polymer nano-composite was prepared by grafting partially neutralized acrylic acid onto swollen cellulose isolated from water hyacinth in the presence of nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the free radical initiator. Water absorption tests showed an increase in swelling ratio of the copolymer with increased nano-HA content to value of 120 g/g at 2.5% w/v above which it declined. FTIR spectrum of nano-composite revealed grafting of the monomer (acrylic acid/ammonium acrylate) onto cellulose and nano-HA. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of nano-HA synthesized in the presence of Triton X-100 (non-ionic surfactant) displayed rod-shaped agglomerates and nano-particle dispersion within the copolymer matrix. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra revealed the constituents of nano-composite to be …

Kiringe, J.W., Mwaura F, Warinwa F&. "Characterization of Water Source Types and Uses in Kirisia Forest Watershed, Samburu County, Kenya." Environment and Natural Resources Research. 2016;6(3):77-90.
Fualal J, Moses W, Jayaraman S, Nalugo M, Ozgediz D, Duh Q-Y, Kebebew E. "Characterizing thyroid disease and identifying barriers to care and treatment in {Uganda}." World J Endoc Surg. 2012;4:47-53. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Njenga M, Karanja N, Munster C, Iiyama M, Neufeldt H, Kithinji J, Jamnadass R. "Charcoal production and strategies to enhance its sustainability in Kenya." Development in Practice. 2013;23(3):359-371.
Njenga M, Karanja N, Munster C, Iiyama M, Neufeldt H, Kithinji J, Jamnadass R. "Charcoal production and strategies to enhance its sustainability in Kenya." Development in Practice. 2013;23(3):359-371. AbstractDevelopment in Practice

Description
In sub-Saharan Africa, 72 per cent of urban and 98 per cent of rural households use fuelwood for energy. In Kenya use of charcoal in urban areas has risen by 64 per cent in two decades. Despite the charcoal industry providing employment to 500,000 people and generating over US $427 million that benefits grassroots communities, it has been kept out of the formal economies of this country. This review presents the status of the charcoal industry in Kenya, highlighting its contribution to livelihoods, production, utilisation, and implications for the environment; policy issues; and stakeholders' involvement. The review also proposes strategies to improve the sustainability of this sector.

KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Chaudhuri V, Tayal R, Nayak B, Acharya SK, Panda SK.Occult hepatitis B virus infection in chronic liver disease: full-length genome and analysis of mutant surface promoter.Gastroenterology. 2004 Nov;127(5):1356-71.". In: Gastroenterology. 2004 Nov;127(5):1356-71. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004. Abstract
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Genome sequence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) from occult chronic infection is scarce. Fifty-six (9.4%) of 591 patients seronegative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) with chronic liver disease were positive for HBV DNA. The complete HBV genome from 9 of these patients (S1-S9) and 5 controls positive for HBsAg (SWT.1-SWT.5) were analyzed. METHODS: Overlapping genome fragment amplification, cloning, and sequencing was performed on these cases. Functional analysis of surface promoter was conducted using fusion construct. RESULTS: All patients with occult infection except one (S8) had a low viral titer. Eight patients had infection with genotype A (S1-S5, SWT.1-2, SWT.5) and 6 had infection with genotype D (S6-S9, SWT.3-4). S4 and S5.1 of genotype A had the characteristic nucleotide deletions in core and pre-S1 region seen in genotype D. The major observations in patients with occult HBV infection were as follows: frequent quasispecies variation, deletions in pre-S2/S region affecting the surface promoters (nt 3025-54) and pre-S protein (S3, S5, S6, S8), truncated precore (S6, S8, S7.1) and core (S9) owing to stop signal, alternate start codon for the Polymerase gene (S3, S9), and YMDD mutation (S1, S4, S9) in patients not on antiviral therapy. HBsAg and core proteins could be shown immunohistochemically in 3 of 5 liver biopsy specimens available. The mutant surface promoters (pre-S2 and S) on functional analysis showed alterations in HBsAg expression. CONCLUSIONS: These changes in the regulatory region with possible alterations in the ratio of large and small surface proteins along with other mutations in the genome may decrease the circulating HBsAg level synergistically, making the immunodetection in serum negative.
Kokwaro JO, Herlocker DJ. A check-list of Botanical, Samburu and Rendile names of plants of the IPAL (UNESCO) study area, Marsabit District, Kenya,. Nairobi, Kenya: IPAL (UNESCO) Technical Paper No. D-4; 1982.
Kiai W. "A Checklist for Environmental Writers in Kenya.". In: ACCE-Kenya Chapter training workshop on Environmental Writing. Nairobi; 1997.
Chalo DM, Kakudidi E, Origa-Oryem H, Namukobe J, Franke K, Yenesew A, Wessjohann LA. "Chemical constituents of the roots of Ormocarpum sennoides subsp. zanzibaricum." Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 2020;93:104142. AbstractBiochemical Systematics and Ecology

Description
Phytochemical investigation of the roots of O. sennoides subsp. zanzibaricum Brenan & J.B. Gillett resulted in the isolation of three biflavonoids (trime-chamaejasmin, (+)- chamaejasmin, (+)-liquiritigeninyl-(I-3,II-3)-naringenin), one bi-4-phenyldihydrocoumarin (diphysin), one isoflavan (glabridin), one triterpenoid (3-O-acetyloleanoic acid) and a phytosterol (β-sitosterol). Compounds were identified by detailed MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses. Their absolute configurations were elucidated based on ECD spectra. The previously undescribed trime-chamaejasmin represents a bis-epi-chamaejasmenin C diastereomer. The chemophenetic significance is discussed in detail. The results contribute to the phytochemical characterization of the genus Ormocarpum and suggest a close chemophenetic relationship with other genera within the subfamily Papilionoideae. Furthermore, this report provides baseline …

Kiprop EK;, Narla RD;, Mibey RK;, Akundabweni LMS. "Chemical Control Of Septoria Leaf Spot On Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp,) In Kenya."; 2007. Abstract

Three foliar fungicides namely, Antracol, Kocide 101 and Folicur were evaluated for the control of Septoria leaf spot caused by S. vignicola V.G. Rao on cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] at two field sites in Kenya: Kabete and Katumani. The cowpea variety used was the high yielding Machakos 66 that was also susceptible to Septoria leaf spot. Reduction in disease incidence and severity of Septoria leaf spot on cowpea was obtained with the three fungicides. However, significant (P≤0.05) increase in seed yields was obtained when Kocide 101 and Antracol were applied to cowpea plants with the disease at Katumani. Folicur was found to be phytotoxic to cowpea plants and hence reduced plant dry weight and seed yield at both sites. Based on the cost-benefit analysis of the fungicides in the present study, Antracol and Kocide 101 are recommended for the control of Septoria leaf spot on high yielding cowpea varieties in arid and semi-arid areas. The Pearson correlation (r) between the disease incidence and seed yield was 0.75 (P=0.46), while that between disease severity and seed yield was 1.00 (P=0.01).

Kiprop EK;, Narla, R. D.; Mibey ARK; LM, Mibey RK;, Akundabweni LMS. "Chemical Control Of Septoria Leaf Spot On Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp,) In Kenya."; 2007. Abstract

Three foliar fungicides namely, Antracol, Kocide 101 and Folicur were evaluated for the control of Septoria leaf spot caused by S. vignicola V.G. Rao on cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] at two field sites in Kenya: Kabete and Katumani. The cowpea variety used was the high yielding Machakos 66 that was also susceptible to Septoria leaf spot. Reduction in disease incidence and severity of Septoria leaf spot on cowpea was obtained with the three fungicides. However, significant (P≤0.05) increase in seed yields was obtained when Kocide 101 and Antracol were applied to cowpea plants with the disease at Katumani. Folicur was found to be phytotoxic to cowpea plants and hence reduced plant dry weight and seed yield at both sites. Based on the cost-benefit analysis of the fungicides in the present study, Antracol and Kocide 101 are recommended for the control of Septoria leaf spot on high yielding cowpea varieties in arid and semi-arid areas. The Pearson correlation (r) between the disease incidence and seed yield was 0.75 (P=0.46), while that between disease severity and seed yield was 1.00 (P=0.01).

Mukhono PM, Angeyo HK, Dehayem-Massop A, Kaduki KA. "Chemometrics -Assisted Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of High Background Radiation Areas Geothermal Field Matrices.". In: African Spectral Imaging Network (AFSIN) International Workshop on Spectral Imaging in Remote Sensing. Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
Dehayem-Massop A, Angeyo HK, Kaduki KA. "Chemometrics and Machine Learning Approaches for Direct and Rapid Quantitative and Exploratory Analysis of Trace Elements by LIBS.". In: LAM 10 International Workshop: Optics Photonics and Lasers in Science and Technology for Sustainable Development. 13-18 January 2014, Dakar, Senegal; 2014. Abstract
n/a
Githaiga JI, Angeyo HK, Kaduki KA, Bulimo WD. "Chemometrics-Enabled Raman Spectrometric Qualitative Determination and Assessment of Biochemical Alterations during Early Prostate Cancer Proliferation in Model Tissue." Journal of Spectroscopy. 2020;2020:8879985. AbstractWebsite

The use of Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate chemometrics for disease diagnosis has attracted great attention from researchers in recent years. This is because it is a noninvasive and nondestructive detection approach with enhanced sensitivity. However, a major challenge when analyzing spectra from biological samples has been the detection of subtle biochemical alterations buried in background and fluorescence noise. This work reports a qualitative chemometrics-assisted investigation of subtle biochemical alterations associated with prostate malignancy in model biological tissue (metastatic androgen insensitive (PC3) and immortalized normal (PNT1a) prostate cell lines). Raman spectra were acquired from PC3 and PNT1a cells at various stages of growth, and their biochemical alterations were determined from difference spectra between the two cell lines (for prominent alterations) and principal component analysis (PCA) (for subtle alterations). The Raman difference spectra were computed by subtracting the normalized mean spectral intensities of PNT1a cells from the normalized mean spectral intensities of PC3 cells. These difference spectra revealed prominent biochemical alterations associated with the malignant PC3 cells at 566 ± 0.70 cm−1, 630 cm−1, 1370 ± 0.86 cm−1, and 1618 ± 1.73 cm−1 bands. The band intensity ratios at 566 ± 0.70 cm−1 and 630 cm−1 suggested that prostate malignancy can be associated with an increase in relative amounts of nucleic acids and lipids, respectively, whereas those at 1370 ± 0.86 cm−1 and 1618 ± 1.73 cm−1 suggested that prostate malignancy can be associated with a decrease in relative amounts of saccharides and tryptophan, respectively. In the analysis using PCA, intermediate-order and high-order principal components (PCs) were used to extract the subtle biochemical fingerprints associated with the cell lines. This revealed subtle biochemical differences at 1076 cm−1, (1232, 1234 cm−1), (1276, 1278 cm−1), (1330, 1333 cm−1), (1434, 1442 cm−1), and (1471, 1479 cm−1). The band intensity ratios at 1076 cm−1 and 1232 cm−1 suggested that prostate malignancy can be associated with an increase in subtle amounts of nucleic acids and amide III components, respectively. The method reported here has demonstrated that subtle biochemical alterations can be extracted from Raman spectra of normal and malignant cell lines. The identified subtle bands could play an important role in quantitative monitoring of early biomarker alterations associated with prostate cancer proliferation.

Kaigongi MM, Lukhoba CW. "The chemosystematics of the genus Zanthoxylum L.(Rutaceae) in Kenya." Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 2021; 98, :104319.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Chepkairor, M.J. and Waithaka, Kimani, 1985. Growth and flowering of Alstroemeria. Acta Horticulturae, 218: 115-120.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1985. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Chepkairor, M.J. and Waithaka, Kimani, 1988. The effect of floral preservatives on the vase-life of Alstroemeria cut flowers. East African Agricultural & Forestry Journal, 53:229-231.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1988. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Nyamweya NN, Kimani SN, Abuga KO. "Chewable Antacid Tablets: Are Disintegration Tests Relevant?" AAPS PharmSciTech . 2020;21:139. Abstract

A recently published FDA guidance on chewable tablets has addressed the quality attributes of this class of dosage forms. This study evaluated disintegration as a quality attribute for a number of commercially available chewable antacid tablets. Additionally, acid-neutralizing-capacity values were evaluated. A number of the products exhibited prolonged disintegration times—which were far longer than those of conventional immediate-release tablets. The mean disintegration times ranged from 6 to more than 60 min in distilled water and from 9 to over 60 min in 0.1 N HCl. The products with longer disintegration times had higher breaking force and tensile strength values. Despite the range in disintegration times, all products met the criteria for acid-neutralizing capacity. These results indicate a need for patients to be aware of the need to thoroughly chew antacid tablets upon administration. Given these considerations, disintegration testing would be a useful quality control test in evaluating these dosage forms as the implicit assumption by the manufacturer that patients will chew the product sufficiently may not be met in every case.

Kemboi. DC, Bebora. LC, Maingi. N, Nyaga. PN, Mbuthia. PG, Chege. HW, Njagi. LW, J.Githinji. "Chicken parasites and local treatments used against them in Mbeere District, Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2014;vol 26(1).

UoN Websites Search