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KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "2004 Triaxial testing of a cemented agricultural soil . Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology.". In: Accepted for presentation in the 8th Conference on asphalt pavements for Southern Africa Sun City South Africa, 12th to 16th September 2004. Longhorn; 2004. Abstract
Kenya experienced extraordinarily heavy rainfall between May 1997 and February 1988 due to the El Nino weather phenomenon. This period of about 10 Months of heavy rainfall caused widespread landslides and floods in various parts of the country. An enormous number of landslides occurred in Central, Western and to the Coast Provinces. This triggered a nation-wide crusade to plant trees in an effort to counter future landslide phenomenon. However, little quantitative research has been conducted to assess the impact of plant roots on soil strength. As a result, planting of trees tend to be more empirical without consideration of the structural measures for reinforcing soil that combine the ecological benefits of vegetation. This paper describes the contribution of plant roots of various species to soil shear strength. Soil samples with roots of various plant species were tested in a large modified direct shear apparatus in a laboratory set-up. Shear stress results of rooted soils were compared with results of soil without roots of similar soil types. The contribution of roots to soil strength was estimated by comparing the difference between the maximum shear stress of the shear-displacement curves obtained for soils with and without roots for the different species tested. Results suggested that the rooted soils contributed more to soil strength than rootless soils. However there was varying degree of shear strength contribution for different root species suggesting that for each species, contribution of shear strength was governed by root density. The results suggested that a composite soil-root system consumes energy while resisting shear displacement. This feature could be included in stability analysis of vegetated hillslopes in terms of energy associated with shearing in a soil-root system.
KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "Effect of temperature on properties of bituminous mixtures.". In: Accepted for presentation in the 8th Conference on asphalt pavements for Southern Africa Sun City South Africa,. Longhorn; 2004. Abstract
Kenya experienced extraordinarily heavy rainfall between May 1997 and February 1988 due to the El Nino weather phenomenon. This period of about 10 Months of heavy rainfall caused widespread landslides and floods in various parts of the country. An enormous number of landslides occurred in Central, Western and to the Coast Provinces. This triggered a nation-wide crusade to plant trees in an effort to counter future landslide phenomenon. However, little quantitative research has been conducted to assess the impact of plant roots on soil strength. As a result, planting of trees tend to be more empirical without consideration of the structural measures for reinforcing soil that combine the ecological benefits of vegetation. This paper describes the contribution of plant roots of various species to soil shear strength. Soil samples with roots of various plant species were tested in a large modified direct shear apparatus in a laboratory set-up. Shear stress results of rooted soils were compared with results of soil without roots of similar soil types. The contribution of roots to soil strength was estimated by comparing the difference between the maximum shear stress of the shear-displacement curves obtained for soils with and without roots for the different species tested. Results suggested that the rooted soils contributed more to soil strength than rootless soils. However there was varying degree of shear strength contribution for different root species suggesting that for each species, contribution of shear strength was governed by root density. The results suggested that a composite soil-root system consumes energy while resisting shear displacement. This feature could be included in stability analysis of vegetated hillslopes in terms of energy associated with shearing in a soil-root system.
KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. ". (1990) Structural strength condition for some flexible road and aircraft pavements under tropical conditions. Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway.". In: Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway. Longhorn; 1990. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "Mwea, S. K (2008), The Way forward in Civil Engineering Training.". In: 1st International Symposium on RE-Orienting Civil Engineering Education and Training held in Mombasa between 25th and 26th September 2008. Longhorn; 2008. Abstract
The civil engineering teaching involves provision of sound professional education so that upon graduation the student is able to fit into the various disciplines of civil engineering. These disciplines can be broadly described as transportation, structural, water and waste water engineering. This paper suggests that besides instilling the core engineering knowledge, the teaching of civil engineering should include other subjects which have a big impact in the work of civil engineers. These areas include entrepreneurship, environmental, and social studies. Additionally a study abroad is recommended for those students who are likely to work outside their counties of birth.
KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "(992) Final Design report on the Kipwen River Dam Ministry of Water Development, Nairobi.". In: Discovery and Innovation Vol.8 Number 2 PP 11-131, African Academy of Sciences, Nairobi. Longhorn; 1992. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
Kinyua AM, MANGALA MJ, GATEBE CK, Kamau GN, Kinyua AM, Kwach R, Mugera WG, Njau LN. Suspended particulate matter in Nairobi and the impact on health.; 1998.
Kinyua AM, MANGALA MJ, Korir AK, Odhiambo GO,... "Analysis of river Kamiti water samples." Unpublished results. 1997. Abstract
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KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "Investigation Report into the course of failure of an earth dam in Limuru 3 months after commissioning. 2000.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP 1- 8,. Longhorn; 2000. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
Kinyua AM, GATEBE CK, MANGALA MJ. Environmental and industrial applications of XRF and related techniques at the Institute of Nuclear Science, University of Nairobi, Kenya. osti.gov; 1999. AbstractWebsite

ENVIRONMENTAL AND INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF XRF AND RELATED TECHNIQUES AT THE INSTITUTE OF NUCLEAR SCIENCE, UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI, KENYA AM KJNYUA1, CK GATEBE1, MJ MANGALA1, XA9953279" DM MAINA1, AK KORIR1, K …

KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "Preliminary and Final Design of irrigation dams for the Kimira and Oluch Irrigation Schemes in Nyanza Province- Kenya. 2003.". In: Accepted for presentation in the Conference for Sustainable Building 2004: Africa Stellenbosch, South Africa, 13th to 18th September 2004. Longhorn; 2003. Abstract
The development of transportation infrastructure in unplanned settlements is a major prerequisite to both economic growth and poverty alleviation. This is largely so because they promote livable environments and contribute to the reduction of adverse external effects and production costs. Transportation planning within Kibera Settlements is concerned with the design of transportation systems that will maximise accessibility for essential movements between linked activities, giving due consideration to safety, comfort, amenity, economy and hygiene. Given the many roles that such transportation systems play in the congested and unhygienic settlements, proper planning of these transportation systems will enable the households in the settlements better access to there daily livelihoods and promote service delivery. In the long run, the improvement of the transportation systems in the Kibera slum settlements will indirectly lead to improved housing conditions, minimising the frequent fire hazard costs and other related environmental losses. There is also an element of gender and human rights, as the poor and often neglected majority urban residents will receive some attention. This paper highlights some difficulties experienced in planning of transportation facilities in Kibera. In addition it makes some proposals on how to overcome some of the difficulties experienced
kinyua OH. QUELLING VIOLENCE. Nairobi: Supreme Cuoucil of Kenya Muslims; 2012.quelling_violence_in_mombasa_.doc
KINYUA DRNGUUEDWARD. "Nguu EK, Osir EO, Imbuga MO, Olembo NK.The effect of host blood in the in vitro transformation of bloodstream trypanosomes by tsetse midgut homogenates.Med Vet Entomol. 1996 Oct;10(4):317-22.". In: Med Vet Entomol. 1996 Oct;10(4):317-22. Kisipan, M.L.; 1996. Abstract
Midgut homogenates prepared from Glossina morsitans morsitans, that had previously been fed on different host blood samples, were tested for their abilities to transform bloodstream Trypanosoma brucei into procyclic (midgut) forms in vitro. Compared to rat and goat blood samples, eland blood had the least capacity to support trypanosome transformation, whereas buffalo blood showed intermediate capacity. Fractionation of rat blood showed the importance of the cellular portion since both rat and eland red blood cells (RBCs) supported the process. Virtually no transformation was observed in rat and eland plasma or serum fractions. Suspending rat blood cells in eland plasma led to a reduction in parasite transformation rates. Further experiments showed that the RBC membranes were also capable of supporting the process. These results clearly show the important role played by blood, especially the red blood cells, in the transformation of bloodstream trypanosomes. In addition, the low transformation rates observed in eland blood is due to an inhibitory factor(s) present in the plasma fraction.
Kinyua AM, GATEBE CK, MANGALA MJ,... "Monitoring of airborne particulate matter (APM), background radiation, analysis of trace metals and other parameters in some parts of Kenya." IAEA-TECDOC …. 2008. AbstractWebsite

This project undertook various studies monitoring workplace environments and assessing some occupational health status. The studies included monitoring levels of airborne particulate matter (APM), natural background radiation, emissions inventory, analysis of …

KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "2004 An Elasto plastic constitutive model for soil tillage Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology.". In: Accepted for presentation in the 8th Conference on asphalt pavements for Southern Africa Sun City South Africa, 12th to 16th September 2004. Longhorn; 2004. Abstract
Kenya experienced extraordinarily heavy rainfall between May 1997 and February 1988 due to the El Nino weather phenomenon. This period of about 10 Months of heavy rainfall caused widespread landslides and floods in various parts of the country. An enormous number of landslides occurred in Central, Western and to the Coast Provinces. This triggered a nation-wide crusade to plant trees in an effort to counter future landslide phenomenon. However, little quantitative research has been conducted to assess the impact of plant roots on soil strength. As a result, planting of trees tend to be more empirical without consideration of the structural measures for reinforcing soil that combine the ecological benefits of vegetation. This paper describes the contribution of plant roots of various species to soil shear strength. Soil samples with roots of various plant species were tested in a large modified direct shear apparatus in a laboratory set-up. Shear stress results of rooted soils were compared with results of soil without roots of similar soil types. The contribution of roots to soil strength was estimated by comparing the difference between the maximum shear stress of the shear-displacement curves obtained for soils with and without roots for the different species tested. Results suggested that the rooted soils contributed more to soil strength than rootless soils. However there was varying degree of shear strength contribution for different root species suggesting that for each species, contribution of shear strength was governed by root density. The results suggested that a composite soil-root system consumes energy while resisting shear displacement. This feature could be included in stability analysis of vegetated hillslopes in terms of energy associated with shearing in a soil-root system.
KINYUA DRNGUUEDWARD. "Mwaura J.G., Nguu E.K., Limo M. K. PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TRYPANOLYSIN FROM THE MIDGUT OF A NON-VECTOR INSECT; DESERT LOCUST (Schistocerca gregaria).". In: 5th International Congress of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS). Kisipan, M.L.; 2008.
Kinyua ZM;, Narla RD;, Waudo SW. "Pyrethrum wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum in Kenya."; 1998. Abstract

This article is about pyrethrum production in Kenya which is greatly constrained by a disease characterised by wilting and eventual death of pyrethrum plants. To date, Fusarium graminearum schwabe, F. solani (Mart.) Sacc., Rhizoctonia solani kuhn, Sclerotinia monor jagger, S. sclerotiorum (Lib) de Bary, and lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.) have been associated with the wilt disease of pyrethrum. The study was carried out to determine the primary casual agent of the disease. Disease plant samples were collected from five pyrethrum growing areas, namely Kisii, Molo, Mwongoris, Sotik and Limuru for isolation and identification of pathogens associated with the disease.

Kinyua AM, Maina DM, MANGALA MJ, GATARI MJ. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) in non-destructive testing of oil samples. erepository.uonbi.ac.ke; 2013. AbstractWebsite

A rapid non-destructive, multi-elemental and ultra-sensitive analytical technique of engine oil analysis is described. Using" an x-ray excitation source and Si (Li) detector for the1 measurements, the deterioration of an internal combustion engine) is evaluated from results …

Kinyua H. "AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE FACTORS HINDERING THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMMERCIAL PAPER MARKET IN KENYA .". 2010. Abstract

Commercial paper in Kenya is recent compared with major and developed economies like the USA and European countries. The principal advantage of commercial paper as a source of short-term financing is that it is generally cheaper than a short-term business loan from a commercial bank. Studies have concluded that firms that substituted short-term bank loan with a commercial paper experienced significant interest savings up to 5.85% on average.
The study comprised of all firms that met the CMA requirements with a sample of 100 firms being selected. Approval time by CMA and NSE, lack of adequate information and cost of issuance were found to have impacted on the development of commercial papers in Kenya

KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "Effect of voids on hardening of asphaltic concrete on flexible road and airport pavements .". In: East African Journal of Engineering. Longhorn; 2004. Abstract
Kenya experienced extraordinarily heavy rainfall between May 1997 and February 1988 due to the El Nino weather phenomenon. This period of about 10 Months of heavy rainfall caused widespread landslides and floods in various parts of the country. An enormous number of landslides occurred in Central, Western and to the Coast Provinces. This triggered a nation-wide crusade to plant trees in an effort to counter future landslide phenomenon. However, little quantitative research has been conducted to assess the impact of plant roots on soil strength. As a result, planting of trees tend to be more empirical without consideration of the structural measures for reinforcing soil that combine the ecological benefits of vegetation. This paper describes the contribution of plant roots of various species to soil shear strength. Soil samples with roots of various plant species were tested in a large modified direct shear apparatus in a laboratory set-up. Shear stress results of rooted soils were compared with results of soil without roots of similar soil types. The contribution of roots to soil strength was estimated by comparing the difference between the maximum shear stress of the shear-displacement curves obtained for soils with and without roots for the different species tested. Results suggested that the rooted soils contributed more to soil strength than rootless soils. However there was varying degree of shear strength contribution for different root species suggesting that for each species, contribution of shear strength was governed by root density. The results suggested that a composite soil-root system consumes energy while resisting shear displacement. This feature could be included in stability analysis of vegetated hillslopes in terms of energy associated with shearing in a soil-root system.
Kinyua AM, Owera-Atepo JB, Juma FD, MANGALA MJ,... Heavy Metal Analysis of Industrial Effluents in Nairobi City. 41.204.161.209; 1990. AbstractWebsite
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Kinyua MG;, Ayiecho PO;, Wanga H;, Akundabweni L. "Screening for Drought Tolerance in Kenyan Commercial Wheat Varieties and Introduced Lines."; 1993. Abstract

Twenty-five commercial wheat varieties and four introduced lines were tested for tolerance to drought in Kenya from 1989 to 1992 at Kajiado, Katumani and Naivasha. Performance varied significantly amongst these cultivars as well as across locations. K. Mbweha, K. Chririku and Mbuni performed best amongst the commercial varieties. Mbuni, for example, had a mean yield of 3.9 t.ha. R672 and R674 performed best amongst the introductions with average yields of 3.7 and 3.5 t/ha, respectively. Further comparative testing of these lines is needed to ascertain the stability of their agronomic performance in these marginal environments.

KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "Osano S N Mwea, S. K (2008), The effect of vegetation roots in slope stability, 2nd Civil Engineering International Conference on Civil Engineering and Sustainable Development held in Mombasa between 25h and 28th September 2008.". In: 1st International Symposium on RE-Orienting Civil Engineering Education and Training held in Mombasa between 25th and 26th September 2008. Longhorn; 2008. Abstract
Kenya experienced extraordinarily heavy rainfall between May 1997 and February 1988 due to the El Nino weather phenomenon. This period of about 10 Months of heavy rainfall caused widespread landslides and floods in various parts of the country. An enormous number of landslides occurred in Central, Western and to the Coast Provinces. This triggered a nation-wide crusade to plant trees in an effort to counter future landslide phenomenon. However, little quantitative research has been conducted to assess the impact of plant roots on soil strength. As a result, planting of trees tend to be more empirical without consideration of the structural measures for reinforcing soil that combine the ecological benefits of vegetation. This paper describes the contribution of plant roots of various species to soil shear strength. Soil samples with roots of various plant species were tested in a large modified direct shear apparatus in a laboratory set-up. Shear stress results of rooted soils were compared with results of soil without roots of similar soil types. The contribution of roots to soil strength was estimated by comparing the difference between the maximum shear stress of the shear-displacement curves obtained for soils with and without roots for the different species tested. Results suggested that the rooted soils contributed more to soil strength than rootless soils. However there was varying degree of shear strength contribution for different root species suggesting that for each species, contribution of shear strength was governed by root density. The results suggested that a composite soil-root system consumes energy while resisting shear displacement. This feature could be included in stability analysis of vegetated hillslopes in terms of energy associated with shearing in a soil-root system.
KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "(1992). Syllabus and regulations for diploma in Civil Engineering, Technical Education Programme Kenya Institute of Education, Nairobi.". In: Discovery and Innovation Vol.8 Number 2 PP 11-131, African Academy of Sciences, Nairobi. Longhorn; 1992. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
Kinyua AM, Maina DM, MAINA C, MANGALA MJ,... "Non-destructive analysis of mercury by the energy dispersive X ray fluorescence technique in beauty creams sold in Kenya." … of health related …. 1997. AbstractWebsite

[en] Analysis of mercury in 100 different beauty creams by the energy dispersive X ray fluorescence technique is described. Each sample was brought to a melt by warming on a water bath at 40-50 deg. C, and then poured onto a 2.5 cm diameter Mylar backed …

KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "Effect of Ageing of Bitumen of performance of Asphalt pavements in Tropical Environments,.". In: 6th conf. On Asphalt pavements for Southern Africa , Vol. 1 PP 77-95 Cape Townv. Longhorn; 1994. Abstract

Bovine foscioliosis coused by F. giganticais widespread in   There is a large collection of reports of fasciolosis in Kenya based on  abattoir data records from veterinary investigation laboratories (VILS) as well as reports on a few farm study was carried out to improve on the reports. 
Diagnosis of fasciola infection has traditionally been based on detection of typical eggs in the faeces.  A variety of other techniques are now available eg enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which has shown to be sensitive and useful.
Three agro-ecological zoned were defined depending on the reported prevalence; high risk, medium risk and low risk zones.  Two study districts were picked at random from each zone.  The study farms were selected using the two stage cluster sampling.
Faecal and blood samples were collected on the farm.  Serum was later harvested.  ELISA and faecal sedimatation tests (FST) were carried out.
A total of 2434 faecal and blood samples were screened.  ELISA achieved the highest (66%) positive rate of the samples from Kwale district and the lowest (23%) rate in Nakuru.  An overall positive prevalence of (43%) for fasciolosis was achieved.  The faecal sedimentation test showed prevalence of 19%.  In both tests high prevalence were observed in Kwale and Kilifi districts.  ELSA was always positive when FST was positive but not the converse.
The on-famr survey utilizing two reliable diagnostic tests was meant to improve on existing abattoir reports.  Both tests showed fair to good agreements.  The higher detection by ELISA might be due to deworming and other reasons.  It was concluded that on-farm surveys are better than retrogressive studies; thought the latter are cheaper and faster.,  the current prevalence of fasciolosis are different from past reports with coastal showing higher than expected prevalences.

KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "Suitability of the Kipwen River dam basin soils with respect to earth dam construction.". In: Discovery and Innovation Vol.8 Number 2 PP 11-131, African Academy of Sciences, Nairobi. Longhorn; 1996. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
Kinyua AM, MANGALA MJ, GATEBE CK, Kamau GN,... Suspended particulate matter in Nairobi and the impact on health.; 1998. Abstract
n/a
KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "Engineering properties of common sub grade soils below pavement structures in Kenya.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP 1- 8,. Longhorn; 2002. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
kinyua OH. "Mulslim guiding principles.". In: CoH:HIV and AIDS. Mombasa; 2011.2_guiding_principles-muslim_present.ppt
Kinyua AM, Maina DM, MANGALA MJ, GATARI MJ. "Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) in Non-Destructive Testing of Oil Samples.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

A rapid non-destructive, multi-elemental and ultra-sensitive analytical technique of engine oil analysis is described. Using" an x-ray excitation source and Si(Li) detector for the1 measurements, the deterioration of an internal combustion engine) is evaluated from results of concentration levels of Ti, Ca, Mn, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Br. Analysis of these elements from samples of new and used engine oil from a commercial brand showed significant increases in the levels of Fe(164%), Br(5022%) and Pb (65000%) after an engine had run a distance of 1103 km. No major increases were noticed for the other elements. The changes are due to the wear and tear of engine parts and subsequent contamination of the engine oil. The increase of Pb and Br is due to the leakage of exhaust fuel gases from the combustion chambers which indicate the need for new piston rings, for this particular motor car engine.

Kinyua AM, GATEBE CK, MANGALA MJ. Monitoring of air particulate matter (APM), background radiation, analysis of trace metals and other parameters in some parts of Kenya. inis.iaea.org; 2008. AbstractWebsite

[en] This project undertook various studies monitoring workplace environments and assessing some occupational health status. The studies included monitoring levels of airborne particulate matter (APM), natural background radiation, emissions inventory …

KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "(July 1991). A review of lectures conducted by Prof. Shamsher Prakash in the Department of Civil Engineering, Kenya Engineer, Nairobi.". In: Accepted for presentation in the 8th Conference on asphalt pavements for Southern Africa Sun City South Africa, 12th to 16th September 2004. Longhorn; 2004. Abstract
Kenya experienced extraordinarily heavy rainfall between May 1997 and February 1988 due to the El Nino weather phenomenon. This period of about 10 Months of heavy rainfall caused widespread landslides and floods in various parts of the country. An enormous number of landslides occurred in Central, Western and to the Coast Provinces. This triggered a nation-wide crusade to plant trees in an effort to counter future landslide phenomenon. However, little quantitative research has been conducted to assess the impact of plant roots on soil strength. As a result, planting of trees tend to be more empirical without consideration of the structural measures for reinforcing soil that combine the ecological benefits of vegetation. This paper describes the contribution of plant roots of various species to soil shear strength. Soil samples with roots of various plant species were tested in a large modified direct shear apparatus in a laboratory set-up. Shear stress results of rooted soils were compared with results of soil without roots of similar soil types. The contribution of roots to soil strength was estimated by comparing the difference between the maximum shear stress of the shear-displacement curves obtained for soils with and without roots for the different species tested. Results suggested that the rooted soils contributed more to soil strength than rootless soils. However there was varying degree of shear strength contribution for different root species suggesting that for each species, contribution of shear strength was governed by root density. The results suggested that a composite soil-root system consumes energy while resisting shear displacement. This feature could be included in stability analysis of vegetated hillslopes in terms of energy associated with shearing in a soil-root system.
kinyua OH, Murray E, Greyling C. "hild protection.". In: child protection. South Africa: World Vision International; 2012.cp_1_guiding_principle_reflection_full_set_edit_n_send_2_oct.doc
KINYUA DRNGUUEDWARD. "Ogoyi DO, Kadono-Okuda K, Eguchi R, Furuta Y, Hara W, Nguu EK, Nagayasu K.Linkage and mapping analysis of a non-susceptibility gene to densovirus (nsd-2) in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.Insect Mol Biol. 2003 Apr;12(2):117-24.". In: Insect Mol Biol. 2003 Apr;12(2):117-24. Kisipan, M.L.; 2003. Abstract
Nonsusceptibility to Bombyx mori densovirus type 2 (BmDNV-2) is controlled by a recessive non-susceptibility gene, nsd-2 (non-susceptibility to DNV-2) in B. mori. Taking advantage of a lack of crossing over in females, reciprocal backcrossed F1 (BF1) progeny were used for linkage analysis and mapping of nsd-2 using silkworm strains C124 and 902, which are classified as being highly susceptible and non-susceptible to DNV-2, respectively. BF1 larvae were inoculated twice with DNV-2 virus at the first and second instar stages. DNA was extracted from each of the surviving fifth instar larvae and analysed by RFLP inheritance patterns using probes specific to each of the 28 linkage groups of B. mori. Our results indicated that the non-susceptibility gene was linked to linkage group 17, since all surviving larvae showed the homozygous profile of strain 902 in their genotype. The other linkage groups showed mixtures of heterozygous and homozygous genotypes, indicating an independent assortment. A linkage map of 30.6 cM was constructed for linkage group 17 with nsd-2 mapped at 24.5 cM and three closely linked cDNA markers were identified.
Kinyua GK;, Mukunya DM;, Van Breukelen EM. "Studies on genetic resistance of beans to Pseudomonas phaseolicola in Kenya."; 1982.
KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "., 2004, Deflection characteristics for flexible road and airport pavements in Kenya.". In: Accepted for presentation in the 8th Conference on asphalt pavements for Southern Africa Sun City South Africa, 12th to 16th September 2004. Longhorn; 2004. Abstract
Kenya experienced extraordinarily heavy rainfall between May 1997 and February 1988 due to the El Nino weather phenomenon. This period of about 10 Months of heavy rainfall caused widespread landslides and floods in various parts of the country. An enormous number of landslides occurred in Central, Western and to the Coast Provinces. This triggered a nation-wide crusade to plant trees in an effort to counter future landslide phenomenon. However, little quantitative research has been conducted to assess the impact of plant roots on soil strength. As a result, planting of trees tend to be more empirical without consideration of the structural measures for reinforcing soil that combine the ecological benefits of vegetation. This paper describes the contribution of plant roots of various species to soil shear strength. Soil samples with roots of various plant species were tested in a large modified direct shear apparatus in a laboratory set-up. Shear stress results of rooted soils were compared with results of soil without roots of similar soil types. The contribution of roots to soil strength was estimated by comparing the difference between the maximum shear stress of the shear-displacement curves obtained for soils with and without roots for the different species tested. Results suggested that the rooted soils contributed more to soil strength than rootless soils. However there was varying degree of shear strength contribution for different root species suggesting that for each species, contribution of shear strength was governed by root density. The results suggested that a composite soil-root system consumes energy while resisting shear displacement. This feature could be included in stability analysis of vegetated hillslopes in terms of energy associated with shearing in a soil-root system.
KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "Gitau AN, Gumbe LO, Mwea SK, (2008) Mechanical Behavior of a Hard-Setting Luvisol Soil as Influenced by Soil Water and Effective Confining Stress. Agricultural Engineering International:.". In: CIGR Ejournal LW o7 021 Vol. X March 2008. Longhorn; 2008. Abstract
Kenya experienced extraordinarily heavy rainfall between May 1997 and February 1988 due to the El Nino weather phenomenon. This period of about 10 Months of heavy rainfall caused widespread landslides and floods in various parts of the country. An enormous number of landslides occurred in Central, Western and to the Coast Provinces. This triggered a nation-wide crusade to plant trees in an effort to counter future landslide phenomenon. However, little quantitative research has been conducted to assess the impact of plant roots on soil strength. As a result, planting of trees tend to be more empirical without consideration of the structural measures for reinforcing soil that combine the ecological benefits of vegetation. This paper describes the contribution of plant roots of various species to soil shear strength. Soil samples with roots of various plant species were tested in a large modified direct shear apparatus in a laboratory set-up. Shear stress results of rooted soils were compared with results of soil without roots of similar soil types. The contribution of roots to soil strength was estimated by comparing the difference between the maximum shear stress of the shear-displacement curves obtained for soils with and without roots for the different species tested. Results suggested that the rooted soils contributed more to soil strength than rootless soils. However there was varying degree of shear strength contribution for different root species suggesting that for each species, contribution of shear strength was governed by root density. The results suggested that a composite soil-root system consumes energy while resisting shear displacement. This feature could be included in stability analysis of vegetated hillslopes in terms of energy associated with shearing in a soil-root system.
KINYUA GLADYSWANJIRU. TEC 204: Art and Craft for Early Childhood Education. NAIROBI: CENTRE FOR OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING ; 2013.
KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "Structural strength condition for some flexible road and aircraft pavements under tropical conditions.". In: Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway. Longhorn; 1990. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
Kinyua AM, Maina DM, MAINA C, MANGALA MJ,... Non-destructive analysis of Mercury (Hg) by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Technique in Beauty Creams sold in Kenya. erepository.uonbi.ac.ke; 1996. AbstractWebsite

Analysis of mercury (Hg) in 100 different beauty creams by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence technique is described. Each sample was brought to a melt by warming on a water bath at 40-50° C, and then poured onto a 2.5 cm diameter mylar-backed aluminium …

KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "Structural Strength Condition for Some Flexible Road and Airfield Pavements Under Tropical Environment.". In: Third International Conference on Bearing Capacity of Roads and Airfields, held in Trondheim, Norway,. Longhorn; 1990. Abstract

Bovine foscioliosis coused by F. giganticais widespread in   There is a large collection of reports of fasciolosis in Kenya based on  abattoir data records from veterinary investigation laboratories (VILS) as well as reports on a few farm study was carried out to improve on the reports. 
Diagnosis of fasciola infection has traditionally been based on detection of typical eggs in the faeces.  A variety of other techniques are now available eg enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which has shown to be sensitive and useful.
Three agro-ecological zoned were defined depending on the reported prevalence; high risk, medium risk and low risk zones.  Two study districts were picked at random from each zone.  The study farms were selected using the two stage cluster sampling.
Faecal and blood samples were collected on the farm.  Serum was later harvested.  ELISA and faecal sedimatation tests (FST) were carried out.
A total of 2434 faecal and blood samples were screened.  ELISA achieved the highest (66%) positive rate of the samples from Kwale district and the lowest (23%) rate in Nakuru.  An overall positive prevalence of (43%) for fasciolosis was achieved.  The faecal sedimentation test showed prevalence of 19%.  In both tests high prevalence were observed in Kwale and Kilifi districts.  ELSA was always positive when FST was positive but not the converse.
The on-famr survey utilizing two reliable diagnostic tests was meant to improve on existing abattoir reports.  Both tests showed fair to good agreements.  The higher detection by ELISA might be due to deworming and other reasons.  It was concluded that on-farm surveys are better than retrogressive studies; thought the latter are cheaper and faster.,  the current prevalence of fasciolosis are different from past reports with coastal showing higher than expected prevalences.

KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "(1996). Suitability of the Kipwen River dam basin soils with respect to earth dam construction. Discovery and Innovation Vol.8 Number 2 PP 11-131, African Academy of Sciences, Nairobi.". In: Discovery and Innovation Vol.8 Number 2 PP 11-131, African Academy of Sciences, Nairobi. Longhorn; 1996. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
Kinyua PID, Kooten GC, Bulte EH. "African wildlife policy: protecting wildlife herbivores on private game ranches.". 2000. Abstract

In large parts of Africa, wildlife herbivores spill over onto private lands, competing with domestic livestock for forage resources. To encourage private landowners to take into account the externality benefits of wildlife, game cropping is increasingly considered as an important component of conservation policies. In this paper, we employ a bioeconomic model of a private game ranch to examine five potential government policies concerning wildlife conservation, ranging from (strict) preservation to uncontrolled exploitation. 'Intermediate' policies appear to contribute most to wildlife conservation, with costs to landowners of such policies being modest. The model outcomes support recent wildlife policy shifts in Kenya.

Kinyua AM, GATEBE CK, MANGALA MJ. Heavy metal analysis of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and other samples from some workplaces in Kenya. inis.iaea.org; 1998. AbstractWebsite

Air pollution studies in Nairobi are indicating a rising trend in the particulate matter loading. The trend is mainly attributed to increased volume of motor vehicles, the physical change of the environment, agricultural and industrial activities. In this study, total suspended …

KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. ", 2002. Engineering properties of common sub grade soils below pavement structures in Kenya. Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP 1- 8, March 2002.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP 1- 8,. Longhorn; 2002. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
Kinyiha E, Matula PD, Kalai J, Njenga K. "Influence of Teachers Service Commission Human Resource Management Practices on Techers’ commitment in public secondary schools in Tetu sub County, Nyeri, Kenya." Internationl Journal of Social Sciences and Education. 2015;2(1):1-16.
Kinyari TN, White E, Sharma A, Morris M, Bukusi EA, Meier AS, Farqhuar C, Ngugi EN, Cohen CR. "The relationship between sexual partnerships characteristics and condom use among young female sex workers in Nairobi , Kenya (Manuscript under.". 1988.
Kinyanyi D, Obiero G, Amwayi P, Mwaniki S. "In silico structural and functional prediction of African swine fever virus protein-B263R reveals features of a TATA-binding protein." PeerJ Inc.. 2018;6(3):e4396. Abstract

African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the etiological agent of ASF, a fatal hemorrhagic fever that affects domestic pigs. There is currently no vaccine against ASFV, making it a significant threat to the pork industry. The ASFV genome sequence has been published; however, about half of ASFV open reading frames have not been characterized in terms of their structure and function despite being essential for our understanding of ASFV pathogenicity. The present study reports the three-dimensional structure and function of uncharacterized protein, pB263R (NP_042780. 1), an open reading frame found in all ASFV strains. Sequence-based profiling and hidden Markov model search methods were used to identify remote pB263R homologs. Iterative Threading ASSEmbly Refinement (I-TASSER) was used to model the three-dimensional structure of pB263R. The posterior probability of fold family assignment was calculated using TM-fold, and biological function was assigned using TM-site, RaptorXBinding, Gene Ontology, and TM-align. Our results suggests that pB263R has the features of a TATA-binding protein and is thus likely to be involved in viral gene transcription.

Kinyanyi, Amwayi, Wamalwa, M;, Obiero, G.O. "Comparative in silico study of congocidine congeners as potential inhibitors of African swine fever virus." Plos One. 2019;14(8).
Kinyanjui Sarah. "A Study on Community Service and Probation for Women in Kenya:." Towards Gender-Sensitive Alternatives to Imprisonment . 2016.
Kinyanjui Sarah. "Towards Achieving Penal Institutional Reforms." Best Practices in Prisons in Kenya . 2014.
Kinyanjui Sarah. "21st Century Slavery? Interrogating the Treatment of Kenyan Female Domestic Workers in Saudi Arabia.". In: Canadian Law and Society Association Annual Confrence.; 2015.
Kinyanjui Sarah, Akech M. "Towards Structured Sentencing in Kenya: A Case for Reform’." African Journal of Criminology and Justice Studies . 2016;9(1).
Kinyanjui W, Massimo C, Muchina MSJ, Goad AR, Joseph GM, Jackson ON, Eddy MM. "Commercialization of meat trade: the potential role of private sector and capacity building in quality assurance in meat export trade from regions of Somalia." International Research Journal of Microbiology. 2012;3(2141-5463):86-93.
Kinyanjui S. • Best Practices in the Administration of Criminal Justice. Muslim for Human Rights ; 2011.
Kinyanjui JN, Gakuu CM, Kidombo HK. "Monitoring and Evaluation Skills, Performance Contracting System and Organizational Performance in Government Ministries in Kenya." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2015;5(7).
Kinyanjui, B.K., N. GA, K M’oli.M. "Power development planning model in East Africa. Journal of strategic planning for energy and the environment." Taylor and Francis group. . 2011;Vol. 31:( ISSN: 1546-0126):43-55.
Kinyanjui MN;, McCormick D;, Ongile G. "Networks, Markets, and Growth in Nairobi's Garment Industry.". 1994.Website
Kinyanjui P, Bururia JM, Waiyaki PG, Kariuki SM, Karimi PN. "Plasmid Borne Resistance in Klebsiella Isolates from Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.". 2008. Abstractplasmid_borne_resistance_in_klebsiella_isolates_from_kenyatta_national_hospital.pdf

Eighty six Klebsiella isolates from Kenyatta National Hospital and the Centre for Microbiology, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi were screened for resistance to commonly prescribed antimicrobial agents and for their plasmid content. Plasmids were transferred into Esherichia coli K-12 and resulting transconjugants screened for resistance to the antimicrobial agents used on Klebsiella donors and for their plasmid content. Plasmids from the Klebsiella isolates were also transformed into Eschericia coli and transformants analyzed for resistance and plasmid content. Endonuclease restriction mapping was done to characterize the plasmids from Klebsiella isolates and their Eschericia coli transformants. Resistance was found to be plasmid borne and transmissible.

KINYANJUI DRMURIITHIMOSES. "Labour Economics: Text for Distance learners. University of nairobi.". In: A study of Nyeri. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1996. Abstract
This paper develops an improved real and reactive power control technique using linear programming (LP) for an integrated power system. The problem is decomposed into two subproblems comprising real (P) and reactive power (Q) modules, and, using a unified approach, the real power generation, voltage magnitude, and transformer tap settings are optimized. The objective function is the fuel cost which is minimized in both the P and Q modules, subject to the operating constraints. The P-Q decomposition combined with the LP formulation improve the computation speed. The paper has another advantage of using the same cost objective function for both modules, unlike other conventional methods which use the power loss function for the Q module. The LP formulation is used for both the P and Q optimization modules, utilizing the revised simplex method which is normally available in a mainframe computer.
Kinyanjui S. "• Sentencing in Kenya: Trends, Practices and Perceptions ." Legal Resources Foundation. 2011.
KINYANJUI DRMURIITHIMOSES. "Tax Reforms and Tax Mobilization in Kenya. Refined final report to AERC ( African Economics Research Consortium).". In: A study of Nyeri. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1997. Abstract
This paper develops an improved real and reactive power control technique using linear programming (LP) for an integrated power system. The problem is decomposed into two subproblems comprising real (P) and reactive power (Q) modules, and, using a unified approach, the real power generation, voltage magnitude, and transformer tap settings are optimized. The objective function is the fuel cost which is minimized in both the P and Q modules, subject to the operating constraints. The P-Q decomposition combined with the LP formulation improve the computation speed. The paper has another advantage of using the same cost objective function for both modules, unlike other conventional methods which use the power loss function for the Q module. The LP formulation is used for both the P and Q optimization modules, utilizing the revised simplex method which is normally available in a mainframe computer.
Kinyanjui SM;, Mureithi JG, Saha HM, Lynam J, Mugah JO, Ndun'gu J, Maina FJ. "Soil fertility management handbook for extension staff and farmers in Kenya.". 2000. AbstractWebsite

This manual was developed by the Legume Research Network Project of the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute to provide basic, simple information about soils and their management in order to maintain or improve their fertility. The subjects addressed by the manual are: composition and formation of soils, soil fertility, inorganic ferlitilizers, organic manures, soil erosion and conservation, and cropping systems

KINYANJUI DRMURIITHIMOSES. "The impact of macroeconomics policy to tax productivity in Kenya.". In: Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 26, pp. 1-10, 1993. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1998. Abstract
This paper develops an improved real and reactive power control technique using linear programming (LP) for an integrated power system. The problem is decomposed into two subproblems comprising real (P) and reactive power (Q) modules, and, using a unified approach, the real power generation, voltage magnitude, and transformer tap settings are optimized. The objective function is the fuel cost which is minimized in both the P and Q modules, subject to the operating constraints. The P-Q decomposition combined with the LP formulation improve the computation speed. The paper has another advantage of using the same cost objective function for both modules, unlike other conventional methods which use the power loss function for the Q module. The LP formulation is used for both the P and Q optimization modules, utilizing the revised simplex method which is normally available in a mainframe computer.
Kinyanjui S. • Pre-Trial Detention in Kenya . Open Society Initiative for East Africa; 2011.
Kinyanjui PN, Bururia JM, Waiyaki PG, Kariuki SM, Karimi PN. "Plasmid Borne Resistance in Klebsiella Isolates from Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.". 2008. Abstractplasmid_borne_resistance_in_klebsiella_isolates_from_kenyatta_national_hospital.pdf

Eighty six Klebsiella isolates from Kenyatta National Hospital and the Centre for Microbiology, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi were screened for resistance to commonly prescribed antimicrobial agents and for their plasmid content. Plasmids were transferred into Esherichia coli K-12 and resulting transconjugants screened for resistance to the antimicrobial agents used on Klebsiella donors and for their plasmid content. Plasmids from the Klebsiella isolates were also transformed into Eschericia coli and transformants analyzed for resistance and plasmid content. Endonuclease restriction mapping was done to characterize the plasmids from Klebsiella isolates and their Eschericia coli transformants. Resistance was found to be plasmid borne and transmissible.

KINYANJUI DRMURIITHIMOSES. "Money and Banking: Text for Distance learners. University of Nairobi Publication.". In: A study of Nyeri. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1995. Abstract
This paper develops an improved real and reactive power control technique using linear programming (LP) for an integrated power system. The problem is decomposed into two subproblems comprising real (P) and reactive power (Q) modules, and, using a unified approach, the real power generation, voltage magnitude, and transformer tap settings are optimized. The objective function is the fuel cost which is minimized in both the P and Q modules, subject to the operating constraints. The P-Q decomposition combined with the LP formulation improve the computation speed. The paper has another advantage of using the same cost objective function for both modules, unlike other conventional methods which use the power loss function for the Q module. The LP formulation is used for both the P and Q optimization modules, utilizing the revised simplex method which is normally available in a mainframe computer.
KINYANJUI DRMURIITHIMOSES. "The revenue impact and elements of tax reforms in Kenya.". In: A study of Nyeri. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1997. Abstract
This paper develops an improved real and reactive power control technique using linear programming (LP) for an integrated power system. The problem is decomposed into two subproblems comprising real (P) and reactive power (Q) modules, and, using a unified approach, the real power generation, voltage magnitude, and transformer tap settings are optimized. The objective function is the fuel cost which is minimized in both the P and Q modules, subject to the operating constraints. The P-Q decomposition combined with the LP formulation improve the computation speed. The paper has another advantage of using the same cost objective function for both modules, unlike other conventional methods which use the power loss function for the Q module. The LP formulation is used for both the P and Q optimization modules, utilizing the revised simplex method which is normally available in a mainframe computer.
KINYANJUI DRMURIITHIMOSES. "Adoption of Radio-based agricultural innovation among small scale farmers in The revenue impact and elements of tax reforms in Kenya.". In: A study of Nyeri. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1998. Abstract
This paper develops an improved real and reactive power control technique using linear programming (LP) for an integrated power system. The problem is decomposed into two subproblems comprising real (P) and reactive power (Q) modules, and, using a unified approach, the real power generation, voltage magnitude, and transformer tap settings are optimized. The objective function is the fuel cost which is minimized in both the P and Q modules, subject to the operating constraints. The P-Q decomposition combined with the LP formulation improve the computation speed. The paper has another advantage of using the same cost objective function for both modules, unlike other conventional methods which use the power loss function for the Q module. The LP formulation is used for both the P and Q optimization modules, utilizing the revised simplex method which is normally available in a mainframe computer.
Kinyanjui E, Ochieng DE. "Effect of Remittances from Diaspora on Financial Sector Deepening in the East African Community ." African development finance journal. 2017;1(1):82-10. Abstract

Abstract
Purpose – This paper investigated the effect of diaspora remittances on financial sector deepening in the East African Community. Personal diaspora remittances were used as a measure of remittances from diaspora. The three proxies for financial deepening that were employed in the study were domestic credit as a ratio of GDP, total credit provided by the financial sector as a percentage of GDP and degree of monetization, M2 as a percentage of GDP.
Methodology – The study adopted an explanatory research design. It employed panel data analysis - fixed effects method, to model the linear regression equation. The population of the study was the five East African Community member countries and covered a 20-year period (1997 to 2016). The data for this study was obtained from the World Bank statistics website.
Findings – This study established that there exists a positive relationship between remittances from diaspora and financial sector deepening in the EAC but this relationship is not significant. The three models analyzed in this study, show that a 0.31, 0.08 and 0.28 change respectively, in remittances in the respective models, leads to a unit change in the level of financial sector deepening in the EAC.
Implications – The results of this study show that an increase in the level of remittances leads to increased financial deepening in the EAC economies. There is therefore need for the government in liaison with the private sector, to provide a conducive environment for development of financially innovative products that ease and reduce the cost of sending remittances as this will foster further financial deepening, which has the positive effect of financial inclusion, access to credit and economic growth.
Value – This study recommended the fostering of activities that are geared towards the ease of sending remittances and cost reduction of sending the remittances through employment of new financial technologies. Further studies have also been recommended to increase the frontiers of the study especially on developed countries in order to gain more conclusive understanding and generalizability of the remittances-financial sector deepening nexus.

Key Words; Diaspora remittances, Financial sector deepening, East Africa Community

Kinyanjui S. • Best Practices in the Administration of Criminal Justice. Muslim for Human Rights (MUHURI); 2012.
Kinyanjui P, Bururia JM, Waiyaki PG, Kariuki SM, Karimi PN. "Plasmid Borne Resistance in Klebsiella Isolates from Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.". 2008. Abstractplasmid_borne_resistance_in_klebsiella_isolates_from_kenyatta_national_hospital.pdf

Eighty six Klebsiella isolates from Kenyatta National Hospital and the Centre for Microbiology, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi were screened for resistance to commonly prescribed antimicrobial agents and for their plasmid content. Plasmids were transferred into Esherichia coli K-12 and resulting transconjugants screened for resistance to the antimicrobial agents used on Klebsiella donors and for their plasmid content. Plasmids from the Klebsiella isolates were also transformed into Eschericia coli and transformants analyzed for resistance and plasmid content. Endonuclease restriction mapping was done to characterize the plasmids from Klebsiella isolates and their Eschericia coli transformants. Resistance was found to be plasmid borne and transmissible.

KINYANJUI DRMURIITHIMOSES. "Monetary Theory and Policy: Text for distance learners. University of Nairobi Publication.". In: A study of Nyeri. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1996. Abstract
This paper develops an improved real and reactive power control technique using linear programming (LP) for an integrated power system. The problem is decomposed into two subproblems comprising real (P) and reactive power (Q) modules, and, using a unified approach, the real power generation, voltage magnitude, and transformer tap settings are optimized. The objective function is the fuel cost which is minimized in both the P and Q modules, subject to the operating constraints. The P-Q decomposition combined with the LP formulation improve the computation speed. The paper has another advantage of using the same cost objective function for both modules, unlike other conventional methods which use the power loss function for the Q module. The LP formulation is used for both the P and Q optimization modules, utilizing the revised simplex method which is normally available in a mainframe computer.
KINYANJUI DRMURIITHIMOSES. "Introduction to Microeconomics: Text for distance learners. University of Nairobi.". In: A study of Nyeri. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1997. Abstract
This paper develops an improved real and reactive power control technique using linear programming (LP) for an integrated power system. The problem is decomposed into two subproblems comprising real (P) and reactive power (Q) modules, and, using a unified approach, the real power generation, voltage magnitude, and transformer tap settings are optimized. The objective function is the fuel cost which is minimized in both the P and Q modules, subject to the operating constraints. The P-Q decomposition combined with the LP formulation improve the computation speed. The paper has another advantage of using the same cost objective function for both modules, unlike other conventional methods which use the power loss function for the Q module. The LP formulation is used for both the P and Q optimization modules, utilizing the revised simplex method which is normally available in a mainframe computer.
Kinyamario JI, Mworia JK. "Traditional strategies used by pastoralists to cope with la nina induced drought in Kajiado, Kenya.". 2008. Abstract

Pastoralists traditionally relied on herd mobility to cope with drought. In the pastoral areas of Kajiado, Kenya this strategy is now threatened by increased individual land ownership as compared to communal access. Drought frequency as related to El-Nino and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is predicated to increase with climate change. The aim of the study was investigate the use of herd mobility strategy in the ENSO related 1999/2000 la Nina induced drought under different land tenure types and varying household cattle wealth. The study found that despite changes in land tenure, herd mobility was used as a coping strategy. Households rich in livestock applied the herd mobility strategy more than the poorer ones by moving a larger proportion of their herds. Poorer households applied the strategy of keeping drought resistant animals more than richer ones by having a higher proportion of goats and sheep than cattle. Institutional land units of Kiboko Range Research Station and Chyulu National Reserve which had higher herbaceous biomass were the most favored refuge areas for livestock during the drought. In conclusion poorer families are likely to be impacted more from increased incidents of ENSO droughts due inability to use the herd mobility option.

Kinyamario JI, Imbamba SK. "Savanna at Nairobi National Park, Nairobi.". 1992.Website
Kinyamario JI, Akunda E, Amugune NO, Wepukhulu DK, Adero MO, Mulanda ES. "Thidiazuron-induced somatic embryogenesis and shoot regeneration in cotyledon explants Of melia volkensii gürke.". 2014.
Kinyamario JI, Imbamba SK. "Dry savanna, Kenya.". 1992.Website
Kinyamario JI, Squires VR. Rangeland Ecophysiology.; 2013.
Kinyamario, J.I and Mwangi E. Principles of Environmental Biology and Conservation in Eastern Africa. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing GmbH & Co; 2012.
Kinyalil SM;, Karuku GN;, Tirop SK. "Impact of siltation problems on production of fish in lake Baringo, Kenya."; 2000. Abstract

Influence of soil type, vegetation, landuse and environmental problems on infiltration rate into the two soils on the semi-arid Sibilo/Loruk watersheds (water catchment) in Baringo District was investigated. Infiltration was assessed during the dry and wet seasons by a double cylinder, infil¬trometer. Infiltration rates significantly dif¬fered among soils and site conditions (treatment) in both areas after 10 minutes and 180 minutes. Among site conditions in both seasons, intake rates were highest under Tree/Bush (TB), followed by culti¬ vated soils, intermediate on Open Grass (OG) and lowest on Bare Ground (BG). Cultivation temporarily increased infiltra¬tion rates. Bulk density (Pb), saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) and organic carbon (Oe) sign.ificantly influenced infil¬tration in both areas during the dry and wet seasons in 1991/92. It was observed that water soil-erosion rates was higher in Loruk than Sibilo and this could be the rea¬son for high siltation of Lake Baringo and significant drop in the recorded fish output in the lake. This has not only resulted in less nutritional food for the people of the district but has meant loss of re~enue to the local fishermen. The siltation creates envi¬ronmental problems in the lake for produc¬tion of fish for child survival and develop-. ment in future. Fish is another cheap source of protein which could be more fully exploited. In Baringo area, water and sanitation are a big problem. The Baringo community in particular, has identified the need for water as its top priority. Water and sanitation is an important component for child survival and development in both areas

Kinyalil SM;, Karuku GN;, Tirop SK. "Impact of siltation problems on production of fish in lake Baringo, Kenya."; 2000. Abstract

Influence of soil type, vegetation, landuse and environmental problems on infiltration rate into the two soils on the semi-arid Sibilo/Loruk watersheds (water catchment) in Baringo District was investigated. Infiltration was assessed during the dry and wet seasons by a double cylinder, infil¬trometer. Infiltration rates significantly dif¬fered among soils and site conditions (treatment) in both areas after 10 minutes and 180 minutes. Among site conditions in both seasons, intake rates were highest under Tree/Bush (TB), followed by culti¬ vated soils, intermediate on Open Grass (OG) and lowest on Bare Ground (BG). Cultivation temporarily increased infiltra¬tion rates. Bulk density (Pb), saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) and organic carbon (Oe) sign.ificantly influenced infil¬tration in both areas during the dry and wet seasons in 1991/92. It was observed that water soil-erosion rates was higher in Loruk than Sibilo and this could be the rea¬son for high siltation of Lake Baringo and significant drop in the recorded fish output in the lake. This has not only resulted in less nutritional food for the people of the district but has meant loss of re~enue to the local fishermen. The siltation creates envi¬ronmental problems in the lake for produc¬tion of fish for child survival and develop-. ment in future. Fish is another cheap source of protein which could be more fully exploited. In Baringo area, water and sanitation are a big problem. The Baringo community in particular, has identified the need for water as its top priority. Water and sanitation is an important component for child survival and development in both areas

Kinyali SM, Karuku GN, Mainga PM, Tirop SK. "Rainwater harvesting by run- off inducement for irrigation for maize production in a semi-arid climate, Baringo District, Kenya.". In: Soil Science Society of East Africa Conference and the Annual General Meeting. Sportsman’s Arms Hotel, Nanyuki; 1996.
Kinyali SM, Karuku GN, Tirop SK. Impact of siltation problems on fish production in Lake Baringo, Baringo District, Kenya. Sportsman’s Arms Hotel, Nanyuki.; 1996.
Kinyali SM;, Karuku GN;, Maina PM;, Tirop SK. "Rainwater - harvesting by run-off inducement for irrigation of maize production in semi-arid climate, Baringo district, Kenya."; 1996. Abstract

This article is about the programmes aimed at improving food production for greater self sufficiency at the household level based on clear identification of existing qualities of soil and water resources. Baringo district has varied soil types, ranging from high potential soils to low potential soils (60-70% land area) which require a bit of reinforcement, irrigation and improvement before any crops can be grown. Lack of rainfall in a good part of the district confines rain-fed agriculture to only a few parts. For most parts of the district only irrigation can facilitate production of any food and cash crops.

Kinuu D, Maalu J, AOSA E. "Factors influencing change management process at Tamoil Kenya Limited." Prime Journal of business Administration and Management. ISSN 2251-1261. 2012;2(8):655-662. AbstractWebsite

ABSTRACT

This study set out to establish change management practices within Tamoil Kenya and evaluated the change management process in light of the models of change management and factors that affected the change management process. Towards this end both primary and secondary data were collected and analyzed using conceptual content analysis. The results show organizational change at Tamoil was characterized by a lack of clarity on the future state of the organization, an overemphasis on changes to structures and simultaneous introduction of relatively many change programs. Both planned and emergent approaches to change management models were evident in management of the change process. The performance of the change management process was influenced by a number of factors namely, inadequate communication, leadership, change in culture and mild resistance by organizational members. A major success of the change management program was the improved profitability of the business while loss of experienced human resource to competition was cited as a significant failure of the change management process.

Key words: Management process, organizations, Tamoil, Kenya

Kinuthia DG, Muriithi AW, Mwangi PW. "Freeze dried extracts of Bidens biternata (Lour.) Merr. and Sheriff. show significant antidiarrheal activity in in-vivo models of diarrhea.". 2016;193:416-422. AbstractWebsite

Ethnopharmacological relevance of the studyDiarrhea remains one of the main killers of children aged below five years. Traditional antidiarrheal remedies form a potentially viable source of novel low cost efficacious treatments in low resource settings. There is therefore a pressing need to scientifically evaluate these remedies.
Aim of the study
This study aimed to investigate the in vivo and in vitro antidiarrheal activity of freeze dried Bidens biternata, a herb used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine in the management of diarrhea.
Materials and methods
In the castor oil test, twenty (20) adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to a negative control (normal saline, n=5), a positive control (5mg/kg loperamide, n=5), and two test groups. The low dose test group received 200mg/kg Bidens biternata extract (n=5) while the high dose test group received 400mg/kg B. biternata extract (n=5). Castor oil (4ml/kg) was then administered to the animals one hour after administration of the respective treatments after which the total mass of fecal output excreted after four (4) hours was determined. In the charcoal meal test fifteen (15) Sprague Dawley rats were randomized to a control group (normal saline 5ml/kg orally, n=5), a positive control group (atropine sulfate 0.1mg/kg i.p., n=5) and a test group (400mg/kg B. biternata extract, n=5). Charcoal meal was then administered via oral gavage to each rat thirty (30) minutes after the administration of the various treatments. The distance covered by the charcoal meal from the pylorus was then determined after sacrifice of the animals thirty minutes after the meal. In the enteropooling test twenty (20) Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to a control group (5% v/v ethanol in normal saline, n=5), a positive control group (5mg/kg loperamide, n=5) and a test group (400mg/kg B. biternata extract, n=5). For each group prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) (100μg/kg) was administered immediately after the treatments. The animals were then sacrificed half an hour later and the volume of the small intestine contents determined. The effects of different concentrations of B. biternata extract (0.5. 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 5.0mg/ml) on jejunal contraction were investigated and a dose-response curve constructed using the experimental data after which The ED50 dose was determined. The effect of tamsulosin (α1 adrenergic blocker), yohimbine (α2 adrenergic blocker), propranolol (β adrenergic blocker) and naloxone (μ opioid blocker) on the contractile activity of the extract were also investigated. The experimental data were expressed as mean±standard error of mean (SEM) and then analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test in cases of significance (set at p<0.05).
Results
The freeze dried extracts of B. biternata had significant antidiarrheal effects in the castor oil induced diarrhea model (p<0.01) with the highest activity being observed at the 400mg/kg dosage level (1.66±0.81g vs. 4.54±0.51g control, p=0.01). B. biternata extract had significant effects on intestinal motility in the charcoal meal test compared to the control group (43.61±4.42% vs. 60.54±3.33%: p<0.05). B. biternata extract had a significant effect on PGE2 induced enteropooling (3.06±0.07ml vs. 4.74±0.10ml; p<0.001). The freeze dried extracts of B. biternata had a significant negative effect on the contractility of the isolated rabbit jejunum (p<0.001). The effects of the extract were significantly attenuated by tamsulosin (53.94±4.20% vs. 80.57±4.09%; p<0.01) and naloxone (53.94±4.20% vs. 73.89±7.26%; p<0.05). Yohimbine (p>0.05) and propranolol (p>0.05) however did not have any significant effect on the contractile activity of the extract.
Conclusions
The freeze dried extract of B. biternata possess significant antidiarrheal activity in both in vitro and in vivo models which appears to be mediated by modulating both the intestinal motility as well as the secretory activity. The results of this study also validate its traditional use as an antidiarrheal remedy.

Kinuthia J, Waweru-Mathu JM, Wanyoike G, Gichangi P. "Prevalence of HIV and knowledge and perception about HIV among patients with abortion at Kenyatta national hospital." J. Obstet. Gynaecol. East. Cent. Afr. 2006;19:25-32.
Kinuthia BK, Murshed SM. "Foreign Direct Investment in Kenya and Malaysia." Asian Tigers, African Lions: Comparing the Development Performance of Southeast Asia and Africa. 2013.
KINUTHIA DRNGUGIROBINSON. "Mengistu, R.A., Ngugi, K.R. Musimba, N.K.R. & Nyariki, D.M. (2002). Feeding value of Acacia tortilis pods in goats. Indian Journal of Animal. Science. 73(7):826-828.". In: Kenya Agricultural Research Institute: 585-591. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 2002.
Kinuthia BK, Murshed SM. "FDI determinants: Kenya and Malaysia compared." / Journal of Policy Modeling. 2015;37:388-400.
Kinuthia JW, Odiemo L. "ADULT EDUCATION AND SELF-EFFICACY: A TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING PERSPECTIVE ." INTERNATIONAL OF CURRENT RESEARCH. 2018;10(07).joyce_kinuthia_31164-_2018.pdf
Kinuthia RK, Mureithi SM, Young TP, Njoka TJ, Otieno SG. "Aboveground Net Primary Productivity in Grazed and Ungrazed pastures: Grazing Optimisation Hypothesis or Local Extinction of Vegetation Species.". 2009. Abstract

The controversy that has surrounded herbivory studi es in the last few decades prompted our investigati on to establish the extent to which herbivore optimisatio n hypothesis or compensatory growth evidence is rea l. We used the traditional movable cage method to collect primary productivity data on herbage, functional g roups and key individual grass species in various controlled large herbivore treatments in an east African savan na. The herbivore treatments in triplicate blocks included cattle, wild herbivores with and without mega herbi vores and combinations of cattle and wild herbivores also wit h and without mega herbivores. The findings reveale d that at herbage level, most grazed treatments (four out of five) had higher productivity than the ungrazed con trol and three showed grazing optimisation curve at sixth po lynomial degree between monthly productivity and gr azing intensity (1-g/ng). At functional group level forbs productivity was higher in the ungrazed control th an in any of the grazed treatments while at individual grass spe cies level Themeda triandra productivity was higher in all grazed treatments than in ungrazed control. We conc lude against presence of herbivore optimisation hyp othesis at herbage, functional group and species level beca use of lack of attributable grazing effect in graze d treatments that matches complex ecological effects in the ungr azed treatment.

KINUTHIA DRNGUGIROBINSON. "Nyariki, D.M. Kironchi, G. & Ngugi, R.K. (2002). Dryland farming economies in Kenya: Environmental, technical and policy aspects. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics.". In: Kenya Agricultural Research Institute: 585-591. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 2002.
Kinuthia BK, Murshed SM. "Foreign Direct Investment in Kenya and Malaysia.". In: Asian Tigers, African Lions. Brill; 2013.
Kinuthia JW, Odiemo L. "RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ADULT EDUCATION AND SELF-ESTEEM OF WOMEN IN NAIROBI COUNTY, KENYA." International Journal of Social Science and Technology . 2018;3(3):39-53.joyce_kinuthia-adult_education_and_self-esteem4._may_2018.pdf
Kinuthia BK, Dietz T. "A Comparison of the Industrial Policies and Outcomes in Kenya and Malaysia.". In: Asian Tigers, African Lions: Comparing the Development Performance of Southeast Asia and Africa. Brill; 2013.
KINUTHIA DRNGUGIROBINSON. "Nyariki, D.M. & Ngugi, R.K. (2002). A review of African pastoral production systems: Approaches to their understanding and development. Journal of Human Ecology. 13(6):237-250.". In: Kenya Agricultural Research Institute: 585-591. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 2002.
Kinuthia BK. "Technology spillovers: Kenya and Malaysia Compared.". In: INSTITUTE OF RESEARCH AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT LIMITED (IRED).; 2015.
Kinoti MW. Market segmentation, profiling and targeting customers. University of Nairobi; 2015.
Kinoti M. "Green Marketing and Sustainable Development a Kenyan perspective." PhD independent study paper - UoN; 2003. Abstract
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Kinoti MW, Meru AK. "Competencies for Green Marketing Success in Emerging Markets.". In: Green Marketing and Management in Emerging Markets. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham; 2021. Abstract

This chapter addresses the critical competencies that provide the requisite skills and knowledge for championing the development and growth of green marketing in emerging markets. The link between environmental responsibility, social change and sustainable business practices has been the concern for practitioners and environmentalist for the past couple of decades in developed countries, and multi-agency teams have been deployed to address emerging issues if any. Besides, deployment of highly focused and committed environmental conscious personnel, there has been a tremendous improvement of innovative manufacturing processes and efficient technologies, leading to successful green marketing systems and programmes. Though, efforts are bearing fruits in emerging markets, on account of countries affiliation to global agencies, such as United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) and many others, more need to be done to isolate key soft and hard competencies required to cascade global green marketing solutions to local firms. The chapter illustrates that green competencies, green thinking and rightful employee engagement foster green marketing activities in emerging markets.

Kinoti, G.K., Maingi N, Coles GC. "Anthelmintics usage in Kenya and its implications." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 1994;42:71-73.1994._anthelmintics_usage_in_kenya_and_its_implications.pdf
Kinoti MW. Ethics in Marketing. University of Nairobi; 2014.
Kinoti SN, Maggwa AB, Turkish J, Wasunna A. "Management of acute childhood diarrhoea with oral rehydration therapy at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." East Afr Med J. 1985;62(1):5-11.
Kinoti M. "Sales management distance learning manual." Nairobi publishers; 2009. Abstract
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Kinoti MW, Kihiko MK, Cooney TM. "Women empowerment through Government Loaned Entrepreneurship Teams (GLETs) in Kenya.". In: Research Handbook on Entrepreneurial Teams. Edward Elgar Publishing; 2017.
Kinoti M. "Principles of marketing distance learning teaching manual." University of Nairobi publishers; 2006. Abstract
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Kinney, Patrick L; Gichuru MG; V-CN; NN; NPLA; GA;K; G. "Traffic Impacts on PM2.5 Air Quality in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2012.
Kinney PL, Gichuru MG, Volavka-Close N,... "Traffic impacts on PM2. 5 air quality in Nairobi, Kenya." Environmental science & …. 2011. AbstractWebsite

Motor vehicle traffic is an important source of particulate pollution in cities of the developing world, where rapid growth, coupled with a lack of effective transport and land use planning, may result in harmful levels of fine particles (PM 2.5) in the air. However, a lack of air …

Kinney, Patrick L; Gichuru MG; V-CN; NN; NPLA; GA;K; G. "Traffic Impacts on PM2.5 Air Quality in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2012.
King’iri AN;, Kimani PM;, Narla RD;, Mibey RK. "Transmission and control of purple blotch in onions."; 1994.
King’iri AN;, Kimani PM;, Narla RD;, Mibey RK. "Transmission and control of purple blotch in onions."; 1994.
King’iri AN;, Kimani PM;, Narla RD;, Mibey RK. "Transmission and control of purple blotch in onions."; 1994.
Kingsford R. A STUDY OF EMPTY CONTAINERS MANAGEMENT BY LOGISTICS FIRMS IN MOMBASA. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2007. Abstract

The study had two major objectives. The first objective sought to investigate the current empty container logistics management practices by logistics firms in Mombasa. The second objective was geared to investigate and determine the challenges facing empty container logistics firms in Mombasa. Data was gathered mainly through semi-structured questionnaires and interviews. Content analysis as a method of data analysis was widely used in the analysis of the data collected. Charts and Tables were also used in the presentation and analysis of the data. The findings of this study have brought out pertinent issues. Through the analysis of the data collected it was noted that there is a short fall in practices by logistics firms logistics firms in Mombasa compared to practices found elsewhere in the world and therefore the potential for improvements largely untapped. It was also found that the customers always bear the bulk of the costs, even those associated with the logistics firm's inefficiencies. Several challenges and remedies were identified. The empty containers turnaround time was identified as a key impediment because of poor infrastructural and poor management and workmanship. Management of empty container fleet was cited as a big challenge in many empty container logistics firms by many of the respondents. Other challenges identified include poor handling equipment, Shortage of storage within the port and at the empty container logistics centers, Long distance between the port and container depots, High tariffs and fees charged on empty container storage, Lack of a standardized tracking and security systems, Poor container stacking procedures at the port among others. The findings and the recommendations of this study will be of great use to the empty containers logistics players and the policy makers in the future development and enhancement of the logistics sector in Mombasa. The experiences can also be used in other regions

Kingori J, Nguku L, Gakuu LN. "MELORHEOSTOSIS." MELORHEOSTOSIS. 2009;3(1):10-11. Abstractmelorheostosis.pdf

This case study is a report on the rare mesodermal disorder typically characterized by abnormalities of the skeleton and soft tissues. We present a 56 years old woman who was diagnosed with melorheostosis affecting the left arm. Chronic pain odema and cosmetic deformities were her presenting problems. Melorheostosis is a bony dysplasia with characteristic X-ray appearance resembling wax dripping down one side of the candle. Soft tissue calcification and even ossification may rarely be seen. In some rare and complicated cases corrective surgery or amputation may be done in very painful and ischemic limbs (1). Until very recently the aetiology of melorheostosis was unknown but now it has been established that melorheostosis is due to a loss-of-function mutation in LEMD 3 gene (also called MAN 1), which encodes an inner nuclear membrane protein (2). This is the first reported case in this region. The purpose of this case report is to describe the presentation and course of the disease. A comprehensive review of literature describing etiology, clinical aspects, diagnosis and treatment is included. Patients symptoms vary considerable in melorheostosis and consequently their treatment should be individualized.

Kingori J, Sitati C. "Outcome of Management of Humerus Diaphysis Non-union." East and Central African Journal of Surgery. 2009;14(2):15-16. Abstract

Background: The majority of diaphyseal humerus fractures heal uneventfully when treated nonoperatively,
however, nonunion is not a rare event. Nonunion after conservative treatment can
be successfully treated by open reduction and internal fixation. A nonunion of a diaphyseal
fracture of the humerus can present a major functional problem. The main of our study was to
document the outcome of management of non-united diaphyseal humerus fractures with plate
or plate and rush pin fixation. Methods: A 4 year retrospective study was undertaken at
Presbyterian Church of East Africa (PCEA) Kikuyu Hospital, Orthopedic Unit in Kenya from April
2004 to April 2008. Records of consecutive patients with nonunion of the humeral diaphysis were
reviewed. Four cases were lost to follow up. The rest were treated with a single posterior,
anterior or anterolateral plate while four with a plate and rush pin construct. Autogenous iliac
crest bone graft was utilised in most of the cases. A clinical evaluation for union, range of motion
and complications. Radiological assessment for union was also done. Results: A total of 46
patients with humerus diaphysis non-union met the inclusion criteria. Their ages ranged from 23
to 95 years with a mean of 43.6 years. The overall healing rate was 92.8 % (39/42 cases) at 6
months follow up. 3 failures occurred of whom one was a smoker and diabetic, another had a
loose plate and screws following replating. The third case went to nonunion. Three cases of
postoperative radial nerve palsy all of which resolved within six weeks were documented. All four
treated with a plate and rush pin construct healed uneventfully. Conclusion: The results of this
study indicate that our standard surgical procedure for treatment of nonunion of the humeral
shaft is reliable with a 92.8% union rate in our study with few complications. The plate and rush
pin construct is useful in dealing with nonunion involving osteoporotic bone.
East

Kingori GM, Njiraine D, Maina S. "Implementation of information literacy programmes in public libraries." Library Hi Tech News. 2016;33(2):17-22.
Kingori J, Sitati FC. "Chronic bilateral heel pain in a child with Sever disease: case report and review of literature." Cases Journal. 2009;2:10-11. Abstractchronic_bilateral_heel_pain_in_a_child_with_sever_disease.pdf

We are presenting a case report of a 10-year-old male with a 1 year history of bilateral heel pain. Sever disease is self limiting condition of calcaneal apophysis. It is the most common cause of heel pain in the growing child. There is no documented case of this condition in this region. This case highlights the clinical features of this self limiting disorder as seen in this patient and reviews the current literature.

Kingi PM. "Teachers’ Participation in Management of Financial resources and Motivation." International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 2018;7(4):1331-1338.

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