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Ogana W, Ntiba MJ, Kudoja WM. "Assessment of the potential impact of climate change on fisheries in Lake Victoria using the predictor rule. ." Importance of Mathematical Modelling in Biological and Biomedical Processes. Luboobi, L.S., J.Y.T. Mugisha and J. Kasozi, Eds. Makerere University Press, Kampala. 2004;(African Society for Biomathematics Series No. 1):pp. 139-148.
Kamau JM;, Macharia JK;, Gitahi JN;, Kaburia HK;, Kitala PM;, Mbaria JM;, Njeruh, F. M., M; Gathura PB, Mbaka M. "An Assessment of the Presence of Escherichia coli in the roof-collected rainwater from some areas around Nairobi.". 2004. Abstract

One of the sources of feacal contamination of rainwater harvested from roofs is wind-blown dust containing particulate matter from animal faeces, or through direct defecation. Since the primary habitat for Escherichia coli (E.coli) is the gastro-intestinal tract of mammals and birds (Atlas 1984), it\'s a good indictor of feacal contamination (Hazen, 1988). This study aimed to investigate the presence of E.coli. In rainwater samples collected from roofs in some areas around Nairobi, which have different levels of livestock density. Forty four of the 89 samples collected tested positive for the presence of E.coli from Ngong Division, which had a cattle density of 1446 per square Kilometre was, 55%, but it was not significantly different from both Kikuyu Division: cattle density of 166; both of which had 34% of the samples testing positive to E.coli (p=0.3094). It was concluded that rain water harvested from roofs for human consumption in the study area should be treated before use.

Mbaka M, Gathura PB, Njeruh FM, Mbaria JM, Kitala PM, Kaburia HK, Gitahi JN, Macharia JK, Kamau JM. "An Assessment of the Presence of Escherichia coli in the roof-collected rainwater from some areas around Nairobi." Kenya Veterinarian. 2004;27:97-102. Abstract
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J. M’eruaki, Njeru L, Kiunga G. "An Assessment of the Roleof Internal Savings and LendingCommunities (SILC) in Community Empowerment in Igembe North SubCounty, Kenya." Scholars Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences (SJAHSS). 2017;5(8)(ISSN): 2347-5374.
Baden LR, Karita E, Mutua G, Bekker L-G, Glenda Gray, Hoosen M. Coovadia, Page-Shipp L, Walsh SR, Nyombayire J, Anzala O, Roux S, Laher F, Innes C, Seaman MS, Cohen YZ, Peter L, Frahm N, McElrath JM, Hayes P, Swann E, Grunenberg N, Grazia-Pau M, Weijtens M, Sadoff J, Dally L, Lombardo A, Gilmour J, Cox J, Dolin R, Fast P, Barouch DH, Laufer DS. "Assessment of the Safety and Immunogenicity of 2 Novel Vaccine Platforms for HIV-1 Prevention: A Randomized Trial." Ann. Intern. Med.. 2016;164(5):313-22. Abstract

A prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine is a global health priority.

Wesonga FD;, Kitala PM;, Gathuma JM;, Njenga MJ;, Ngumi PN. "An assessment of tick-borne diseases constraints to livestock production in a smallholder livestock production system in Machakos District, Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

The principle objective of the study was to determine the tick- borne diseases constraints to livestock production in Machakos District. The survey was carried out in eight randomly selected sub- locations spread across the district. Two hundred farmers were recruited into the study. All cattle from the selected farms were bled to determine the prevalence of tick- borne diseases. Clinical examination of sick animals was carried out during the survey. Questionnaires with questions designed to identify and rank various tick- borne disease production constraints, occurrence of tick- borne diseases, mortality and disease control strategies were administered. A total of 634 zebu and 15 cross- breed (Friesian-zebu crosses) cattle were sampled on the 200 farms for blood parasite infections (serology and direct parasite detection) and tick infestation. From the farmers’ perceptive, East Coast fever (ECF) and anaplasma were ranked as the main tick -borne diseases prevalent in the district. Although babesia was not ranked as one of the main tick-borne diseases in the district by the farmers, serological analysis did indicate a high prevalence of the disease. Tick challenge was high in seven of the eight sub-locations where the survey was carried out. The most common tick species were Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Amblyomma variegatum, Rhipicephalus evertsi, Rhipicephalus pulchellus and Boophilus decoloratus. Veterinary services in the district are inadequate with up to 92 % of the farmers in one of the sub-locations treating their sick animals without the assistance of qualified veterinary personnel.

 Liavoga BA, Kathumo VM, Onwonga RN, Karuku GN, Onyango CM. "Assessment of trends in land cover and crop type change over two decades in Yatta sub county, Kenya." International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2014;2(3):46-52.
Liavoga BA, Kathumo VM, Onwonga RN, Karuku GN, Onyango CM. "Assessment of trends in land cover and crop type change over two decades in Yatta sub county,Kenya." International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2014;Vol. 2(No. 3):46-52.
Otadoh JA, Okoth SA, Ochanda J, Kahindi JP. "Assessment of Trichoderma isolates for virulence efficacy on Fusarium oxysporum F. sp. Phaseoli.". 2011;(13):99-107. Abstract

Trichoderma has been widely studied for their biocontrol ability, but their use as biocontrol agents in agriculture is limited due to the unpredictable efficiency which is affected by biotic and abiotic factors in soil. Isolates of Trichoderma from Embu soils were evaluated for their ability to control Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli., in vitro and promote seedling growth in the greenhouse. Bioassays were run using dual cultures and diffusible compound production analysis. The Trichoderma isolates significantly (p < 0.01) reduced the mycelial growth of the pathogen. The principle mechanisms of niche competition, mycoparasitism, and antibiosis were observed in growth of the pathogen mycelium in the presence of Trichoderma spp., through development of inhibition zones. There was coiling of hyphae around the pathogen mycelium coupled by lysising of cell wall Trichoderma spp., where T. reesei and T. koningii were the most effective isolates. Studies were indicative of the synergistic ability of Trichoderma spp., being an effective biocontrol of bean seedlings against Fusarium wilt while also promoting plant growth.

Chebet EB, Kibet JK, Mbui D. "The assessment of water quality in river Molo water basin, Kenya." Applied Water Science. 2020;10(4):1-10. AbstractApplied Water Science

Description
The monitoring of water quality for both domestic and commercial use is absolutely essential for policy formulation that affects both public and environmental health. This study investigates the quality of water of river Molo system which lies in the Kenyan Rift Valley. The river is considered a vital source of water for the residents and industrial activities in Nakuru and Baringo Counties. Six water samples were collected during the dry season of December 2017. Various physicochemical parameters were determined in situ by use of a portable pH meter. These parameters included pH, temperature, electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids (TDS). Anions such as fluorides, sulfates, phosphates, nitrates, chlorides, carbonates and bicarbonates were determined using conventional methods such as titrimetry and (ultra-violet visible) UV–Vis techniques. The cations including sodium, potassium, calcium and …
Total citations
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Kavoo DM, Ali SH, Kihara AB, Kosgei RJ, Tweya H, Kizito W, Ogutu O, Tauta CN. "An assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene (wash) practices and quality of routinely collected data in Machakos County, Kenya ." East African Medical Journal. 2016;93(10).
Koech KJ, Kabui AC, Migosi J. "Assessment on the Influence of Top Leadership on Service Delivery in the Kenya Police Service in Kitui County." International Journal of Business and Commerce. 2016;5(8):40-46.
Moturi CA, Kahonge VW. "Association Analysis of Pharmaceutical Imports in Kenya." International Journal of Computer Applications Technology and Research. 2015;4(6):467-474. AbstractWebsite

The objective of this study was to apply Data Mining in the analysis of imports of pharmaceutical products in Kenya with the aim of discovering patterns of association and correlation among the various product groups. The RapidMiner Data Mining was used to analyze data obtained from the Pharmacy and Poison Board, the regulator of pharmaceutical products in the country, covering the period 2008 to 2010. The CRISP method was used to get a business understanding of the Board, understand the nature of the data held, prepare the data for analyze and actual analysis of the data. The results of the study discovered various patterns through correlation and association analysis of various product groups. The results were presented through various graphs and discussed with the domain experts.These patterns are similar to prescription patterns from studies in Ethiopia, Nigeria and India. The research will provide regulators of pharmaceutical products, not only in Kenya but other African countries, a better insight into the patterns of imports and exports of pharmaceutical products. This would result into better controls, not only in import and exports of the products, but also enforcement on their usage in order to avert negative effects to the citizens.

Folayan MO, Tantawi ME, Schroth R, Kemoli AM, Gaffar B, Amalia R, Feldens CA. "Association between environmental health, ecosystem vitality and early childhood caries." Front Pediatr. 2020;2020; 8:196.(2020; 8:196.):2020; 8:196.
Hori D, Tsujiguchi H, Kambayashi Y, Kitaoka M, et al. "The association between lifestyles and mental health using General Health Questionnaire 12-items are different dependently on age and sex: a population-based cross-sectional study." Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine. 2016;21(6):410-421.
McClelland SR, Richardson BA, Wanje GH, Graham SM, Mutunga E, Peshu N, Kiarie JN, Kurth AE, Jaoko W. "Association between participant self-report and biological outcomes used to measure sexual risk behavior in human immunodeficiency virus-1-seropositive female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya." Sex Transm Dis. 2011;38(5):429-33. Abstract

Few studies have examined the association between self-reported sexual risk behaviors and biologic outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-seropositive African adults.

Mumbi JN, Mulli TK, Kamundia R. Association between periodontal diseases and tobacco use among adult males in Nairobi. Macigo FG, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1996. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

Mwachaka P, Amayo A, Mwang’ombe N, Kitunguu P. "Association Between Serum Sodium Abnormalities and Clinicoradiologic Parameters in Se." Ann Afr Surg. 2021;18(3):155-162.
Lokken EM, Manguro GO, Abdallah A, Ngacha C, Shafi J, Kiarie J, Jaoko W, Srinivasan S, Fiedler TL, Munch MM, Fredricks DN, McClelland SR, Balkus JE. "Association between vaginal washing and detection of by culture and quantitative PCR in HIV-seronegative Kenyan women: a cross-sectional analysis." Sex Transm Infect. 2019. Abstract

Vaginal washing has been associated with reductions in cultivable and an increased risk of both bacterial vaginosis (BV) and HIV infection. The effect of vaginal washing on the quantity of individual species is not well characterised. This analysis tested the hypothesis that vaginal washing would be associated with a lower likelihood of spp. detected by both culture and quantitative PCR (qPCR).

Gron KL, Ornbjerg LM, Hetland ML, Aslam F, Khan NA, Jacobs JW, Oyoo O, Stropuviene S, et al. "The association of fatigue, comorbidity burden, disease activity, disability and gross domestic product in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Results from 34 countries participating in the Quest-RA program." Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology. 2014. Abstract

Abstract
OBJECTIVES:

The aim is to assess the prevalence of comorbidities and to further analyse to which degree fatigue can be explained by comorbidity burden, disease activity, disability and gross domestic product (GDP) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
METHODS:

Nine thousands eight hundred seventy-four patients from 34 countries, 16 with high GDP (>24.000 US dollars [USD] per capita) and 18 low-GDP countries (<24.000 USD) participated in the Quantitative Standard monitoring of Patients with RA (QUEST-RA) study. The prevalence of 31 comorbid conditions, fatigue (0-10 cm visual analogue scale [VAS] [10=worst]), disease activity in 28 joints (DAS28), and physical disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire score [HAQ]) were assessed. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to assess the association between fatigue and comorbidities, disease activity, disability and GDP.
RESULTS:

Overall, patients reported a median of 2 comorbid conditions of which hypertension (31.5%), osteoporosis (17.6%), osteoarthritis (15.5%) and hyperlipidaemia (14.2%) were the most prevalent. The majority of comorbidities were more common in high-GDP countries. The median fatigue score was 4.4 (4.8 in low-GDP countries and 3.8 in high-GDP countries, p<0.001). In low-GDP countries 25.4% of the patients had a high level of fatigue (>6.6) compared with 23.0% in high-GDP countries (p<0.001). In univariate analysis, fatigue increased with increasing number of comorbidities, disease activity and disability in both high- and low-GDP countries. In multivariate analysis of all countries, these 3 variables explained 29.4% of the variability, whereas GDP was not significant.
CONCLUSIONS:

Fatigue is a widespread problem associated with high comorbidity burden, disease activity and disability regardless of GDP.

James RM, Gathece LW, Kemoli AM. "Association of fever and diarrhea with infant teething among mothers attending two health centres in Nairobi." Journal of the Kenya Dental Association. 2015;6(2):265-272.
James RM, Gathece LW, Kemoli AM. "Association of fever and diarrhea with infant teething among mothers attending two health centres in Nairobi." Journal of the Kenya Dental Association. 2015;6. Abstract
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James RM, Gathece LW, Kemoli AM. "Association of fever and diarrhea with infant teething among mothers attending two health centres in Nairobi." Journal of the Kenya dental association. 2015;6. Abstract
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Hassan WM, Lavreys L, Chohan V, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kiarie J, Jaoko W, Holmes KK, McClelland SR. "Associations between intravaginal practices and bacterial vaginosis in Kenyan female sex workers without symptoms of vaginal infections." Sex Transm Dis. 2007;34(6):384-8. Abstract

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is highly prevalent among African women and has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV-1.

Anyenda EO, Higashi T, Kambayashi Y, Nguyen TTT, et al. "Associations of Cough Prevalence with Ambient Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Nitrogen and Sulphur Dioxide." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2016;13:800.
Richards S, Vanleeuwen J, Shepelo G, Gitau GK, Kamunde C, Uehlinger F, Wichtel J. "Associations of farm management practices with annual milk sales on smallholder dairy farms in Kenya." Veterinary World. 2015;8(1):88-96.
Yadav G, Saskin R, Ngugi E, Kimani J, Keli F, Fonck K, MacDonald KS, Bwayo JJ, Temmerman M, Moses S, others. "Associations of sexual risk taking among Kenyan female sex workers after enrollment in an HIV-1 prevention trial." JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2005;38:329-334. Abstract
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Maloba F, Kagira JM, Gitau G, Ombui JN, Hau J, Ngotho M. "Astrocytosis as a biomarker for late stage human African Trypanosomiasis in the vervet monkey model." Scientia Parasitologica . 2011;12(2):53-59.
KAMAU DRGACHIIMICHAEL, WINGA MRODHIAMBOJOHN. "Asymmetrical Single Replicate Designs.". In: South African Statistical Journal. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1998. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
Malonza I, Keli F, Kaul R, Kimani J, Bwayo JJ, Ngugi EN, Plummer FA, Temmerman M, Moses S. "Asymptomatic STDs and HIV Among Female Sex Workers in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2000. Abstract
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Falk E, Thim T, Kristensen IB. "Atherosclerotic plaque, adventitia, perivascular fat, and carotid imaging." JACC. Cardiovascular imaging. 2009;2:183-186. Abstract
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Virmani R, Kolodgie FD, Burke AP, Finn AV, Gold HK, Tulenko TN, Wrenn SP, Narula J. "Atherosclerotic {Plaque} {Progression} and {Vulnerability} to {Rupture} {Angiogenesis} as a {Source} of {Intraplaque} {Hemorrhage}." Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 2005;25:2054-2061. AbstractWebsite

Observational studies of necrotic core progression identify intraplaque hemorrhage as a critical factor in atherosclerotic plaque growth and destabilization. The rapid accumulation of erythrocyte membranes causes an abrupt change in plaque substrate characterized by increased free cholesterol within the lipid core and excessive macrophage infiltration. Neoangiogenesis is associated closely with plaque progression, and microvascular incompetence is a likely source of intraplaque hemorrhage. Intimal neovascularization is predominantly thought to arise from the adventitia, where there are a plethora of pre-existing vasa vasorum. In lesions that have early necrotic cores, the majority of vessels invading from the adventitia occur at specific sites of medial wall disruption. A breech in the medial wall likely facilitates the rapid in-growth of microvessels from the adventitia, and exposure to an atherosclerotic environment stimulates abnormal vascular development characterized by disorganized branching and immature endothelial tubes with “leaky” imperfect linings. This network of immature blood vessels is a viable source of intraplaque hemorrhage providing erythrocyte-derived phospholipids and free cholesterol. The rapid change in plaque substrate caused by the excessive accumulation of erythrocytes may promote the transition from a stable to an unstable lesion. This review discusses the potential role of intraplaque vasa vasorum in lesion instability as it relates to plaque rupture.

Virmani R, Kolodgie FD, Burke AP, Finn AV, Gold HK, Tulenko TN, Wrenn SP, Narula J. "Atherosclerotic {Plaque} {Progression} and {Vulnerability} to {Rupture} {Angiogenesis} as a {Source} of {Intraplaque} {Hemorrhage}." Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 2005;25:2054-2061. AbstractWebsite

Observational studies of necrotic core progression identify intraplaque hemorrhage as a critical factor in atherosclerotic plaque growth and destabilization. The rapid accumulation of erythrocyte membranes causes an abrupt change in plaque substrate characterized by increased free cholesterol within the lipid core and excessive macrophage infiltration. Neoangiogenesis is associated closely with plaque progression, and microvascular incompetence is a likely source of intraplaque hemorrhage. Intimal neovascularization is predominantly thought to arise from the adventitia, where there are a plethora of pre-existing vasa vasorum. In lesions that have early necrotic cores, the majority of vessels invading from the adventitia occur at specific sites of medial wall disruption. A breech in the medial wall likely facilitates the rapid in-growth of microvessels from the adventitia, and exposure to an atherosclerotic environment stimulates abnormal vascular development characterized by disorganized branching and immature endothelial tubes with “leaky” imperfect linings. This network of immature blood vessels is a viable source of intraplaque hemorrhage providing erythrocyte-derived phospholipids and free cholesterol. The rapid change in plaque substrate caused by the excessive accumulation of erythrocytes may promote the transition from a stable to an unstable lesion. This review discusses the potential role of intraplaque vasa vasorum in lesion instability as it relates to plaque rupture.

KYALO DN, RUTERE JW. "The attitude of Inmates and Adult Education Custodians Towards Post Literacy Programs in Government Prisons, Nairobi, Kenya’ .". In: ODL conference on Utilization of Open And Distance Learning in Addressing Educational Challenges in Kenya Towards Fulfillment of the Vision 2030. Kikuyu Campus, UoN; 2013.
Kipturgo MK, LK-BW, AKK, Muiva MM. "Attitudes of nursing staff towards computerisation: a case of two hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya." BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making . 2014;14(35):1-8.
Kipturgo MK, Kivuti-Bitok LW, Karani AK, Muiva MM. "Attitudes of nursing staff towards computerisation: a case of two hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya." BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2014;14:35. Abstract

The health sector is faced with constant changes as new approaches to tackle illnesses are unveiled through research. Information, communication and technology have greatly transformed healthcare practice the world over. Nursing is continually exposed to a variety of changes. Variables including age, educational level, years worked in nursing, computer knowledge and experience have been found to influence the attitudes of nurses towards computerisation. The purpose of the study was to determine the attitudes of nurses towards the use of computers and the factors that influence these attitudes.

Nzuve SNM, K. SC. "Attitudes of Shop Floor Employees Toward Women Managers In Fuel Depots: A Case Of The Fuel Depots In Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic Of The Congo." Problems of Management in the 21st Century [PMC]. . 2014;9(3):206-212. Abstract

The International Labour Organization and all organizations of human rights advocate against any form of negative attitude in employment based on gender, its terms, promotion and relations. Shop floor employees play a very important role in the daily advancement and profitability of an organisation. The purpose of this study was to establish the attitude of shop floor employees toward women managers in fuel depots in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with the population consisting of one hundred and ninety three (193) shop floor employees. A semi structured questionnaire was used to collect primary data. In total one hundred and twenty one (121) shop floor employees responded yielding a response rate of sixty three percent (63%). The findings of this study indicate that a negative attitude toward woman managers is prevalent in the Fuel Depots of Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo. At the fuel depots, the number of women working was less than a third of the males. In spite of this, women managers are rated higher in management qualities and are considered to be more honest, diligent, compassionate, creative and intelligent when compared to their male counterparts. The study recommends a culture change among employees in fuel depots in Lubumbashi in order to enable them perceive women as equal partners at the work place.

Ndetei DM;, Khasakhala L;, Ongecha-Owuor F;, Kuria M;, Mutiso V;, Syanda J;, Kokonya D. Attitudes toward Psychiatry: A Survey of Medical Students at the University of Nairobi, Kenya.; 2008. Abstract

A dissonance between a positive attitude toward psy- chiatry as a specialty and the choice of psychiatryas acareerhasbeennotedinanumberofstudies(1–5).Various explanations have been proposed for this phenomenon. According to one of the studies, the teaching of psychiatry at the undergraduatelevelwasdisorganizedornot done properly (1). Other studies have reported that compared to other specialists, psychiatrists are perceived to earnlessmoney,tobelessrespected,andtohavelessprestige (1, 6). Notwithstanding, psychiatry has been rated higher than any other discipline on intellectual challenge (5). Although the studies mentioned so far (1–5) generally reported that disparity between a positive attitude and choice as a career exists, the actual levels of dissonance varybetweenstudiesandbetweencountries.Oneprobable explanationforthiswidevariationcouldbethedifferences

MARANGA, R.O., HASSANALI, A., KAAYA GP, MUEKE JM. "Attraction of Amblyomma variegatum (ticks) to the attraction-aggregation- attachment pheromone with or without carbon dioxide in the field." Experimental and Applied Acarology . 2003;29:121-130.
MARANGA, R.O., HASSANALI A, KAAYA GP, MUEKE JM. "The attraction of Amblyomma variegatum to the aggregation-attachment pheromone with/without CO2 in the field.". In: 2nd African Acarology Symposium. ICIPE, Nairobi, Kenya; 2001.
Olanga, EA., Okal, M., Mbadi, PA., Kokwaro, ED, Mukabana WR. "Attraction of Anopheles gambiae to odour baits augmented with heat and moisture." Malaria Journal. 2010;9:6.
Kimutai B, Kihara EN, Mutave R, Chindia ML. "Audit of imaging request forms at a teaching dental hospital." African Journal of oral Health Sciences. 2015;2. Abstract
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Kimutai B, Kihara EN, Mutave R, Chindia ML. "Audit of imaging request forms at a teaching dental hospital." African Journal of oral Health Sciences. 2015;2. Abstract
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Chindia M, Butt FM, Kenyanya T, Rana F, Gathece LW. "An audit of ranulae occurring with the human immunodeficiency virus infecton.". 2010.
KYALO PROFKIEMAJOHNBOSCO. "Auditing the Equity and Prioritizing Infrastructure Development Using GIS: Case Study of Gatanga Constituency Development Fund in Kenya.". In: International Journal of Rural Management. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2009. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} This article demonstrates the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in auditing the equity as well as evaluating the priority of infrastructure development. A GIS database is created for the study area integrating different infrastructure types and detailing the budgetary allocation to the different infrastructural projects. Stratified priority weight matrices are developed for each infrastructure type. These are then combined to develop the overall infrastructure priority weight matrix. The analyses performed indicate that the security sector should receive the highest priority, while the roads sector should be granted the least priority in the next financial disbursement. The approach proposed in this study will allow governments, donor agencies and the general citizenry to objectively identify the most deserving projects for funding and rank these accordingly in every fiscal year for a defined area.
K. DRNJOROGEPETER. "Audo MO, Ferguson A, Njoroge PK.Quality of health care and its effects in the utilisation of maternal and child health services in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 2005 Nov;82(11):547-53.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Nov;82(11):547-53. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2005. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of care provided by the Kisumu Municipal health facilities, with special reference to Maternal and Child health services (MCH). DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Kisumu Municipal Health facilities. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and eighty two mothers were interviewed in a household survey. RESULTS: A total of 482 mothers were interviewed in the household survey. Out of these, only 40.4%, 53.7% and 45.7% had respectively used Municipal facilities for antenatal services (ANC), immunisation and treatment of their children the last time they required such a service. This translates to by-pass rates for Municipal health facilities of 59.5%, 46.3% and 54.3% respectively for the three services. By-pass was higher for the more central urban catchment areas than the more peripheral ones, a finding that was associated with the socio-economic status of the respondents and the relative location of the municipal facilities vis-a-vis competing facilities, mainly the District and Provincial hospitals. The main reasons cited for by-pass were poor care (21%), lack of drugs and supplies (17%) and lack of/poor laboratory services (12%). From the facility audit, most of the clinics had a reasonable capacity to offer basic health care with only three scoring less than 50% in the scale used. The worst areas were in availability of drugs, equipment and management issues. There was a strong relationship between the perceived quality of care and utilisation of MCH services as well as by-pass. The capacity of the facilities to offer care was however not associated with utilisation of MCH services or by-pass. CONCLUSION: There is under-utilisation of Municipal health facilities for MCH services. This is related to the perceived poor quality of care in the facilities. Perception of quality is influenced by a person's socio-economic status especially education.

Kaul R, Cohen CR AKOJ. "Author's reply: most HIV Transmission in sub-Saharan Africa occurs through sex." Am J Reprod Immunol. . 2011;66(4):250-1.
Karimurio J. "Authors guidelines.". 2013. Abstractauthor_guidelines.pdfWebsite

The East African Journal of Ophthalmology (EAJO) is the offi cial Journal of the Ophthalmological Society of East
Africa (OSEA). It was established in 1976 and aims to improve all aspects of ophthalmology and community eye
health. To achieve these objectives, the journal publishes original scientifi c articles, reviews, clinical case reports
and letters dealing with any factor impacting eye health. From 2007, the EAJO will be published quarterly on
line.

Memeu DM, Kaduki KA, Mjomba ACK. "Automatic Classification of Plasmodium Parasites Using Stained RGB Images.". In: African Spectral Imaging Network (AFSIN) International Workshop on Spectral Imaging in Remote Sensing. Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
K G, E. M. "Automatic construction of a Kiswahili corpus from the World Wide Web.". In: SPECIAL TOPICS IN COMPUTING AND ICT RESEARCH: Measuring Computing Research Excellence and Vitality. Kampala: Fountain Publishers; 2005.automatic_creation_of_a_kiswahili_corpus.pdf
Shem Otoi Sam, Pokhariyal GP, hir Moses M Manene, Kipchirc IC. "Autoregressive distributed lag cointegration analysis of youth unemployment in Kenya." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2019;4(1):29-41. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we consider cointegration analysis in an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) structure. First, logarithmic transformation is performed on the series to reduce outlier effects and have elasticity interpreted in terms of percentage. Second, the variables are tested for stationarity using Augmented Dickey-Fuller test. Third, the Johansen Cointegration test is carried out to examine cointegration of the series. Fourth, cointegrated dynamic ARDL model is estimated using ordinary least squares (OLS) and effects of variables and their lags interpreted. The results indicate that Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and its two-year lag are the only ones having negative effect on youth unemployment, that is, one unit increase in GDP and GDP two-year lag reduce youth unemployment by 0.207922% and 0.2052705% respectively. Also, one unit increase in External Debt (ED) and ED two-year lag reduce youth unemployment by 0.07303% and 0.009116% respectively. Furthermore, unit increase in one-year lag of youth literacy rate is the only one which reduces youth unemployment by 0.0892691%; one-year and three-year lag of population (POP) reduce youth unemployment by 0.2590455% and 4.3093119% respectively. The Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and Private Investment (PI) do not have significant effects on youth unemployment. In the long run, increase in GDP causes increase in youth unemployment by 0.09148447%. The long run result explains that GDP growth in the country is “jobless growth” mainly in less labour intensive sectors

Ndwigah S, Stergachis A, Abuga K, Mugo H, Kibwage I. "Availability and Prices of Antimalarials and Staffing Levels in Health Facilities in Embu County, Kenya." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2019;22(1):26-34. Abstract

Effective treatment of malaria relies on the availability of quality medicines while pricing is a major determinant of affordability. In addition, adequate numbers of competent staff of different cadres is essential for a well-functioning health system and effective health service delivery. The aim of the study was to determine the availability and prices of antimalarial medicines as well as staffing levels in healthcare facilities located in Embu County, Kenya. Antimalarials were sampled from 11 public (government owned) facilities, 29 private pharmacies, 5 private-for-profit and 3 not-for-profit mission health facilities in May-June 2014. The majority of public facilities (91%) had artemether-lumefantrine (AL) tablets in stock. Government and mission facilities did not stock second line antimalarials or sulfonamide-pyrimethamine (SP). All public facilities provided antimalarials free-of-charge to patients. Private pharmacies stocked a wider variety of antimalarials. The facilities studied were stocked with recommended antimalarials both in the private and public domains. No oral artemisinin monotherapies were encountered during the study. Only 45% percent of public facilities employed pharmacists. Of the remaining facilities, 27% employed pharmaceutical technologists while in the rest of the facilities pharmaceuticals were in the custody of nurses. Notably, none of the private-for-profit or mission facilities had pharmacists employed in their establishments; one facility employed a pharmaceutical technologist, while the rest were staffed by nurses. The number of private pharmacies superintended by pharmacists and pharmaceutical technologists were 7 (24%) and 22 (76%), respectively.

Ndwigah S, Stergachis A, Abuga K, Mugo H, Kibwage I. "Availability and prices of antimalarials and staffing levels in health facilities in Embu County, Kenya." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. . 2019;22:26-34.
Kanyinga K. "Avert tendency of ending up with battered economy after every poll." Sunday Nation, November 18, 2017.
Isaac MM, Muya SM, Kiiru W, Muchai M, others. "Avian Abundance, Diversity and Conservation Status in Etago Sub-County Kisii County Kenya." Open Journal of Ecology. 2019;9:157. Abstract
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Mwangi J, Ndithia HK, Kentie R, Muchai M, Tieleman IB. "AVIAN BIOLOGY.". 2018. Abstract
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Njoroge P, Muchane M, Wamiti W, Kamau KD, Githiru M. "Avifauna of Ishaqbini Community Conservancy in Ijara District, NE Kenya." Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology. 2008;28:15-24. Abstract
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Rwakatema DS, Ng’ang’a P, Kemoli AM. "Awareness and concerns about malocclusion amongst 12-15 year-old children in Moshi, Tanzania." E Afr Med J. 2006;83:92-97.
Kimeli P, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EM. "Awareness and Practice of Claw Trimming in Cows within Smallholder Zero-Grazing Dairy Units in Kikuyu District, Kenya: A Survey Study." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2014;3(3):139-141.
Kirui OK;, Okello JJ;, Nyikal RA. "Awareness and use of m-banking services in agriculture: The case of smallholder farmers in Kenya."; 2010. Abstract

Smallholder farmer access to agricultural finance has been a major constraint to agricultural commercialization in developing countries. The ICT revolution in Africa has however brought an opportunity to ease this constraint. The mobile phone-based banking services that started in Kenya urban centers have spread to rural areas and even other countries. Using these services farmers could receive funds invest in agriculture finance transactions. This study examines the awareness and use of m-banking services among rural farmers in Kenya. It also assesses the factors conditioning the use of such services. The study finds high awareness of m-banking services among the smallholder farmers. It also finds that education, distance to a commercial bank, membership to farmer organizations, distance to the m-banking agents, and endowment with physical and financial assets affect the use of m-banking services. It discusses the implications of these findings for policy and practice.

Kirui OK;, Okello JJ;, Nyikal RA. "Awareness and use of m-banking services in agriculture: The case of smallholder farmers in Kenya."; 2010. Abstract

Smallholder farmer access to agricultural finance has been a major constraint to agricultural commercialization in developing countries. The ICT revolution in Africa has however brought an opportunity to ease this constraint. The mobile phone-based banking services that started in Kenya urban centers have spread to rural areas and even other countries. Using these services farmers could receive funds invest in agriculture finance transactions. This study examines the awareness and use of m-banking services among rural farmers in Kenya. It also assesses the factors conditioning the use of such services. The study finds high awareness of m-banking services among the smallholder farmers. It also finds that education, distance to a commercial bank, membership to farmer organizations, distance to the m-banking agents, and endowment with physical and financial assets affect the use of m-banking services. It discusses the implications of these findings for policy and practice.

Kirui OK, Okello JJ, Nyikal RA. "Awareness of Mobile Phone-Based Money Transfer Services in Agriculture by Smallholder Farmers in Kenya." International Journal of ICT Research and Development in Africa. 2012;3(1):1-13. AbstractWebsite

Smallholder farmer access to agricultural finance has been a major constraint to agricultural commercialization in developing countries. The ICT revolution in Africa has however brought an opportunity to ease this constraint. The mobile phone-based money transfer services that started in Kenya urban centres have spread to rural areas and even other countries. Using these services farmers could receive funds to invest in agricultural financial transactions. This study examines the awareness of mobile phone-based money transfer services (MMT) among rural farmers in Kenya and examines the various uses of money transferred through such services. The study employs descriptive analysis and found a very high awareness of mobile phone-based money transfer services among the smallholder farmers and found predominant use of remitted funds for agricultural related purposes (purchase of seed, fertilizer for planting and topdressing, farm equipment/implements, leasing of land for farming, wages for labour). The study concludes that there is need to expand the coverage of MMT services in rural areas since it resolves an idiosyncratic market failure that farmers face namely access to financial services. It discusses the implications of these findings for policy and practice.

Kirui OK;, Okello, J. J; Nyikal RA, Okello, J. J; Nyikal RA. "Awareness, use and effect of mobile phone-based money transfer in Kenyan agriculture."; 2010.
KIRSTEEN DRAWORI. "Awori KO, Atinga JE.Lower limb amputations at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2007 Mar;84(3):121-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 Mar;84(3):121-6. Folio Morphol; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the causes and pattern of lower limb amputations at the Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Descriptive prospective study. SETTING: The Kenyatta National Hospital between July 2003 and June 2004. RESULTS: A total of 77 lower limb amputations (LLA) were performed on 74 patients. The age ranged from seven months to 96 years (mean 44.8 +/- 22.5). Forty six patients (62.1%) were male. Majority of the patients (89.1%) had primary or no formal education, forty one (55.4%) were unemployed, with 39% self employed in the informal sector. Peripheral vascular diseases were the main indication for LLA (55.3%), 13 patients (17.5%) due to diabetes-related gangrene. Eighteen patients (24.3%) had tumours, mainly osteogenic sarcoma (16.2%), while trauma accounted for 18.9%. Forty two (55%) of the amputations were above-the-knee, 24 (31%) below-the-knee, four (5%) hip disarticulations and seven (9%) were foot amputations. CONCLUSION: This study found peripheral vascular diseases unrelated to diabetes to be the main indication for lower limb amputations at Kenyatta National Hospital contrary to previous institutional and loco-regional studies which report trauma as the leading cause. Further investigation into vascular causes is therefore recommended.
Ayuke FO, Brussaard L, Vanlauwe B, Six J, Lelei DK, Kibunja C, Pulleman MM. "Ayuke, F.O., Brussaard, L., Vanlauwe, B., Six, J., Lelei, D.K., Kibunja, C., Pulleman, M.M. (2011). Soil fertility management: impacts on soil macrofauna, soil aggregation and soil organic matter allocation." Applied Soil Ecology. 2011;48:53-62. Abstract

Maintenance of soil organic matter through integrated soil fertility management is important for soil
quality and agricultural productivity, and for the persistence of soil faunal diversity and biomass. Little
is known about the interactive effects of soil fertility management and soil macrofauna diversity on
soil aggregation and SOM dynamics in tropical arable cropping systems. A study was conducted in a
long-term trial at Kabete, Central Kenya, to investigate the effects of organic inputs (maize stover or
manure) and inorganic fertilizers on soil macrofauna abundance, biomass and taxonomic diversity, water
stable aggregation, whole soil and aggregate-associated organic C and N, as well as the relations between
these variables. Differently managed arable systems were compared to a long-term green fallow system
representing a relatively undisturbed reference.
Fallowing, and application of farm yard manure (FYM) in combination with fertilizer, significantly
enhanced earthworm diversity and biomass as well as aggregate stability and C and N pools in the top
15cm of the soil. Earthworm abundance significantly negatively correlated with the percentage of total
macroaggregates and microaggregates within macroaggregates, but all earthworm parameters positively
correlated with whole soil and aggregate associated C and N, unlike termite parameters. Factor analysis
showed that 35.3% of the total sample variation in aggregation and C and N in total soil and aggregate
fractions was explained by earthworm parameters, and 25.5% by termite parameters. Multiple regression
analysis confirmed this outcome.
The negative correlation between earthworm abundance and total macroaggregates and microaggregates
within macroaggregate could be linked to the presence of high numbers of Nematogenia lacuum
in the arable treatments without organic amendments, an endogeic species that feeds on excrements of
other larger epigeic worms and produces small excrements. Under the conditions studied, differences
in earthworm abundance, biomass and diversity were more important drivers of management-induced
changes in aggregate stability and soil C and N pools than differences in termite populations.
Keywords: Earthworm, Termite, Taxonomic richness, Soil organic matter, Carbon, Nitrogen, Soil aggregate fraction

B
E L, A O, M C, V C, G C, S M, R C, J N, W M, R I, K S, C B, Leoncini L. "B cell differentiation in EBV-positive Burkitt Lymphoma is impaired at post-transcriptional level by miRNA altered expression. ." Int J. Cancer.. 2010;126(6):1316-26.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "B Nganda, J Wang.". In: The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 7(9), 2003, pp 14 - 20. SITE; 2003. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and S.K. Moindi, A note on A-self-adjoint and A-skew-adjoint operators and their extensions, Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences, accepted January, 2012, to appear.". In: Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PJMMS). Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences; Submitted. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and S.K. Moindi, A note on A-self-adjoint and A-skew-adjoint operators and their extensions, Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences, accepted January, 2012, to appear.". In: Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PJMMS). Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences; Submitted.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and S.K. Moindi, A note on metric equivalence of operators, Far East Math Jourmal (FMJS), accepted March 2012, to appear.". In: Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS). Far East Math Science Journal; Submitted. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and S.K. Moindi, A note on metric equivalence of operators, Far East Math Jourmal (FMJS), accepted March 2012, to appear.". In: Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM),2012, to appear. Far East Math Science Journal; Submitted.
KIMANI DRMURUNGARU. "B.O K'Oyugi and Kimani M. 2001Breastfeeding, Nutrition, Immunization and Childhood Mortality in Rural Kenya.". In: Health Line Vol. 5 No. 1 March. 2.3:. James Murimi; 2001. Abstract
According to the millennium assessment report, during the last century, global drylands have experienced anthropogenic induced climate changes that are predicted to continue and even to accelerate during the present century. The traditional pastoralist spatial domains are facing unprecedented changes due to population growth, urban sprawl and an appetite for land not anticipated by the planners who designated such lands as trust lands. A case in point is Kajiado district which has seen most community owned land blocks subdivided and tenure changed to private especially in areas surrounding It is therefore not only the pastoralists that are finding their roaming area constricted but also the wild animals. A recent court case to protect the migratory corridors of wild animals is a good example. In fact there are more wild animals among these communities than are confined in parks in Kenya. With the inevitable land use changes, and their impacts on livelihoods and environment, this paper explores the literature on the interaction of environmental conservation amid global warming and the potential role of biogas in mitigating the livelihood and vulnerability associated with it. Further, the technology helps manage green house gases and has potential for using the clean development mechanism to raise carbon credits which could be ploughed back in propping the livelihoods of rural communities. The paper highlights the preconditions of successful biogas interventions which include partial or complete confinement of animals in zero grazing units alongside improvement/change of animal breeds to more economically viable ones. However, this raises the greater question whether the radical change of livelihood approaches is at all viable? Key words: Global warming, livelihoods, conservation, biogas, carbon markets
Hall PJ, Levin AG, Entwistle CC, Knight SC, Wasunna A, Brubaker G. "B15 heterogeneity in East African Blacks." Tissue Antigens. 1980;16(4):326-32. Abstract

One-hundred-forty-one Blacks (135 unrelated) from Kenya and Tanzania have been tissue-typed (HLA-A, B and C loci) as part of a study of host factors involved in Burkitt's lymphoma and naso-pharyngeal carcinoma. Evidence is presented for the existence in this population of several B15-related antigens which together occur with a relatively high frequency of 30% in unrelated individuals. It is likely that these variants may include the antigens SV and perhaps Bu recently defined with population frequencies of under 1% in Caucasians. In the absence of monospecific typing sera, identification of these variants may be helped by their apparently strong association with C-locus antigens in Blacks. Recognition of these B15 variants has been largely responsible for reducing the proportion of unidentified or "blank" B-locus antigens in this population to only 6%. These findings substantiate and amplify previous reports suspecting the presence of such antigens in Blacks, and should facilitate studies of possible associations of disease with HLA in these populations.

Ombui JN, Schmieger H, Kagiko MM, Arimi SM. "Bacillus cereus may produce two or more diarrhoeal enterotoxins." FEMS Microbiology. Letter. 1997;149:245-248.
BIRIR JK, Kairu W, Gatari, M.J; Boman J, RAJAGOPAL P. "Back to Basics: Scattering of Ultrasonic Guided Waves." ISNT Journal of Nondestructive Testing & Evaluation. 2019;(December).
Kairu WM, GATARI MJ, BIRIR JK. "Back to Basics: Scattering of Ultrasonic Guided Waves." ISNT Journal of Nondestructive Testing & Evaluation. 2019.
Keter L, Too R, Mutai C, Mwikwabe N, Ndwigah S, Orwa J, Mwamburi E. "Bacteria contaminants and their antibiotic sensitivity from selected herbal medicinal products from Eldoret and Mombasa, Kenya." American Journal of Microbiology. 2016;7(1):18-28.
Kutto EK, MW N, Njagi L W. "Bacterial contamination of kale (Brassica oleracea acephala) along the supply chains in Nairobi and its environment." East African Medical Journal. 2011;88:46-53. Abstract

46 East African Medical Journal February 2011
East Africa Medical Journal Vol. 88 No. 2 February 2011
BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION OF KALE (Brassica oleracea Acephala) ALONG THE SUPPLY CHAIN IN
NAIROBI AND ITS ENVIRONMENT
E. Kutto, BSc, MSc, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, M. W. Ngigi, MSc, Department of Agricultural economics, N. Karanja, BSc, MSc, PhD, Department of Land Resource Management and Agricultural Technology, E. Kange’the, Bvm, MSc, PhD, Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, L. C. Bebora, Bvm, MSc, PhD, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Nairobi P. O. Box 29052-00625, Kabete Campus, Nairobi, Kenya, C. J. Lagerkvist, BAECON, MAECON, PhD, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences P.O. Box 7013-75007, Uppsala, Sweden, P. G. Mbuthia, Bvm, MSc, FRVCS(Dip. Path), PhD, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, L. W. Njagi, Bvm, MSc, PhD, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology and J. J. Okello, PhD, Department of Agricultural economics, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 29052-00625, Kabete Campus, Nairobi, Kenya Request for reprints to: K. E. Kutto, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Kabete Campus, University of Nairobi, P. O. Box 29057-00625, Nairobi, Kenya

BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION OF KALE (Brassica oleracea Acephala)
ALONG THE SUPPLY CHAIN IN NAIROBI AND ITS ENVIRONMENT
E. K. KUTTO, M. W. NGIGI, N. KARANJA, E. KANGE’THE, L. C. BEBORA, C. J. LAGERKVIST, P. G. MBUTHIA, L. W. NJAGI and J. J. OKELLO
ABSTRACT
Objective: To assess the microbiological safety of kale (Brassica oleracea Acephala)
produced from farms and those sold at the markets with special focus on coliforms,
E.coli and Salmonella.
Design: A cross sectional study.
Setting: Peri-Urban farms (in Athi River, Ngong and Wangige), wet markets (in
Kawangware, Kangemi and Githurai), supermarkets and high-end specialty store
both within Nairobi city.
Results: Mean coliform count on vegetables from farms were 2.6x105 ±5.0x105 cfu/g
while those from the wet markets were 4.6x106 ±9.1x106 cfu/g, supermarkets, 2.6x106
±2.7x106 and high-end specialty store 4.7x105 ±8.9x105. Coliform numbers obtained
on kales from the wet markets and supermarkets were significantly higher (p<0.05)
compared to those from farms, while kale samples purchased from high- end specialty
store had similar levels of coliform loads as those from the farms. E. coli prevalence
in the wet markets, supermarkets and high-end specialty store were: 40, 20 and 20%,
respectively. Salmonella was detected on 4.5 and 6.3% of samples collected from the
farms in Wangige and wet market in Kawangware, respectively. Fecal coliforms in
water used on farms (for irrigation) and in the markets (for washing the vegetables)
exceeded levels recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) of 103 organisms
per 100 milliliter while Salmonella was detected in 12.5% of washing water samples
collected from Kangemi market.
Conclusion: Poor cultivation practices and poor handling of vegetables along the
supply chain could increase the risk of pathogen contamination thus puting the health
of the public at risk, therefore good agricultural and handling practices should be
observed.

KIGERA DRJENIFFERNJERI. "Bacterial vaginosis: risk factors among Kenyan women and their male partners.Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Meier AS, Waiyaki PG, Nguti R, Njeri JN, Holmes KK. Sex Transm Dis. 2006 Jun;33(6):361-7.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 2006 Jun;33(6):361-7.; 2006. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To simultaneously examine associations of bacterial vaginosis (BV) with potential risk factors in both the female and her male partner. STUDY DESIGN: We recruited women 18-45 years of age and their male partners from clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. All underwent face-to-face standardized interview physical examination, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and syphilis serologic testing, endocervical cultures for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and vaginal swabs for diagnosis of BV by Gram stain and trichomoniasis by culture. RESULTS: Of 219 women, 97 (44%) had BV. BV was significantly associated by univariate analyses with women's own risk factors (young age, being unmarried, early sexual debut, more than 1 sexual partner, lifetime, rectal sex, trichomoniasis, HIV infection, and by principal components analysis, with low socioeconomic status [SES]) and also with male partners' characteristics (HIV infection, and by principal components analysis, low SES, and poor hygiene). In multivariate analysis including risk factors from both genders, the odds of having BV was 5.7 times higher if either partner was HIV seropositive, 13.2 times higher if the female had trichomoniasis, 2.5 times higher if the female had more than 1 sex partner ever, and decreased with increasing age of the female. CONCLUSION: In this population, characteristics of males and of females were independently associated with BV. Close association of male hygiene and male HIV status precluded distinguishing the influence of male hygiene on partner's BV.

Gosling RD, Uiso LO, Sam NE, Bongard E, Kanduma EG, Nyindo M, Morris RW, Gillespie SH. "The bactericidal activity of moxifloxacin in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis." American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2003;168:1342-1345. Abstract
n/a
OdongoMahacla, BeboraLillyCaroline, KagunyaDavid, KarabaW, MbuthisPG. Bacteriology and Mycology Handbook for Veterinary students.. Mauritius: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing; 2020.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Bal C, Longkumer T, Patel C, Gupta SD, Acharya SK.Renal function and structure in subacute hepatic failure.J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2000 Nov;15(11):1318-24.". In: J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2000 Nov;15(11):1318-24. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2000. Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Subacute hepatic failure (SHF) is a fatal complicaton of acute viral hepatitis. Renal failure has been implicated as the main cause of death in this disease. However, renal functional and structural evaluation in such patients have not been performed. The present prospective study evaluated the renal functional and structural abnormalities in patients with subacute hepatic failure. METHODS: Fourteen consecutive patients with SHF, 11 with acute liver failure (ALF) and 15 with cirrhosis of the liver (Child's B or C) were included in the present study. All 40 patients had liver disease caused by hepatitis viruses. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) estimations were measured in all patients by the use of technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and [131I]-labeled ortho-iodohippuric acid, respectively. Ante-mortem or post-mortem liver biopsies were performed in all patients. In three patients with SHF, post-mortem kidney biopsies were also performed. RESULTS: Thirty six percent (5/14) of patients with SHF, 18% (2/11) of patients with ALF and 20% (3/15) of patients with cirrhosis had renal failure. Seven patients with SHF, seven with ALF and nine with cirrhosis died. All the patients with renal failure in each of the three groups were among the deceased patients. Glomerular function was markedly affected among patients with SHF, which was shown by significantly higher (P < 0.05) proteinuria levels (0.367 +/- 0.38 g/24 h) compared to levels in patients with ALF (0.178 +/- 0.11 g/24 h) and cirrhosis (0.212 +/- 0.133 g/24 h). The GFR in SHF (56 +/- 27 mL/min per 1.73 m2) and cirrhotic patients (58 +/- 36 mL/min per 1.73 m2) was significantly lower compared to those in ALF patients (102 +/- 51 mL/min per 1.73 m2; P < 0.05). A significantly higher proportion (P < 0.05) of patients with SHF and cirrhosis (64 and 73%, respectively) had a GFR below 80 mL/min per 1.73 m2 compared to patients with ALF (18%). The GFR value among the deceased SHF patients (46 +/- 26 mL/min per 1.73 m2) was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those SHF patients who survived (65 +/- 25 mL/min per 1.73 m2). However, similar features could not be documented among patients with ALF or cirrhosis. Subtle structural changes in the glomerulus were also noted in patients with SHF. These included mesangial proliferation and thickening, basal membrane thickening and increased cellularity with interstitial edema. The ERPF was markedly reduced (P = 0.058) among patients with SHF (347 +/- 131 mL/min per 1.73 m2) and cirrhosis (395 +/- 137 mL/min per 1.73 m2) in comparison to ERPF documented among patients with ALF (436 +/- 217 mL/min per 1.73 m2). Such a reduction in renal tubular blood flow, along with histologic documentation of hyaline presence, bile and grannular cast in the tubule, indicated a possible tubular dysfunction in patients with SHF. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that glomerular and tubular dysfunction with subtle structural abnormalities does occur in patients with SHF. These are similar to renal changes in cirrhosis and may have similar pathogenetic mechanisms that require further evaluation.

Kakoi, Kaluli NT’o. "Banana pith as a natural coagulant for polluted river wate." Ecological Engineering. 2016;95:699-705.
Kanyinga K. "Bananas and Oranges: Ethnicity and Failed Constitutional Reform in Kenya.". In: Debating Form and Substance in Africa's New Governance Models . Kampala: Fountain Publishers ; 2007.
Iminza NW, L GW, Kiragu ND. "BANK SIZE AND OCCUPATIONAL FRAUD RISK: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM COMMERCIAL BANKS IN KENYA.". 2015;1(1):1-10. Abstract

Association of Certified Fraud Examiners report that a typical organization loses at least 5% its annual revenue loss through occupational fraud. Further statistics indicate In a list of 22 industry categories, occupational fraud risk is highest in commercial banks than any other industry globally. Occupational fraud risk is therefore a global problem. The problem is that Kenya has the highest incidences of fraud is East Africa and that this vice continue to erode investors and the overall financial intermediation role of commercial banks. In Kenya, fraud contributes to 31.5% of the deterrents of global competitiveness. The study set to determine the effect of bank size on occupational fraud risk in commercial banks in Kenya. A representative sample of 30 banks out of the 43 commercial banks licensed by Central Bank of Kenya by June 30, 2012 was used in this study. Bivariate linear regression was used to test the null hypothesis; there is no relationship between bank size and occupational fraud risk in commercial banks in Kenya. The findings from this study are, a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.97 for the stimulus variable, a positive correlation of r=0.518 between bank size and occupational fraud risk. In addition the study reports a significant 26.8% influence of bank size on occupational fraud risk in commercial banks in Kenya. These results provide insights into the deterrent and management of occupational frauds in Kenya and similar developing countries.

Kithinji AM. "BANK SIZE AS A MODERATING FACTOR ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BANK RESTRUCTURING AND FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN KENYA ." International Journal of Business Management and Economic Review. 2018;5(1):298-307. Abstractdr._angela_kithinji_publications_2018_to_2019_1.pdf

ABSTRACT
The main goal of this research was to examine how bank size moderates the relationship between
bank restructuring and financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya. This study
employed descriptive research design. The study was a census of all the 44 commercial banks in
Kenya which were in operation as at 31st December 2014. This research collected secondary
data gotten from banks annual report for the period of ranging from 2002 to 2014. The regression
analysis model was used to estimate the moderating effect of size on the relationship between
bank restructuring and profitability. The study established that moderation of the relationship
between bank restructuring and financial performance using bank size was not significantly
influenced by financial restructuring, operational restructuring and asset restructuring on
financial performance of commercial banks. However, when bank restructuring variables were
interacted with bank size the findings are that only capital restructuring had a significant
interaction. It was therefore, concluded that bank size therefore moderates the relationship
between bank restructuring and financial performance. The study recommends that there is need
to institute policy reforms geared towards increasing the size of banks either internally by
increasing their asset size or through mergers to expand their size. The regulator can also embark
on setting a minimum size threshold with a view to significantly reducing the number of banks
which would translate into the remaining ones becoming larger. Furthermore, there is need for
commercial banks to strike a balance between enhancing their operations through operational
restructuring or improving profits by focusing on aspects that have a direct positive effect on
profits.

Keyword: Bank Size, Bank Restructuring, Financial Performance, Commercial Banks

Kanyinga K. "Barack Obama visit was not by accident; China is just but an illusion." Daily Nation, August 15, 2015.
Guthrie BL, Choi RY, Liu AY, Mackelprang RD, Rositch AF, Bosire R, Manyara L, Gatuguta A, Kiarie JN, Farquhar C. "Barriers to antiretroviral initiation in HIV-1-discordant couples." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2011;58(3):e87-93. Abstract

In Kenya and much of sub-Saharan Africa, nearly half of all couples affected by HIV are discordant. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) slows disease progression in HIV-1-infected individuals and reduces transmission to uninfected partners. We examined time to ART initiation and factors associated with delayed initiation in HIV-1-discordant couples in Nairobi.

Ndegwa L, Karimurio J, Okelo R, Adala H. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services among slum dwellers of Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya East Afr. Med." East Afr Med J. 2005;82:506-508. Abstract

Objectives: To identify the main barriers to utilisation of eye care services among the slum population of Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya.
Design: Community based survey
Setting: Kibera Slums, Nairobi City, Kenya
Subjects: Randomly selected 1,438 Kibera slum dwellers aged over 2 years.
Results: Majority of subjects 83.3% do not utilise the nearby well-established eye clinics. Twenty one percent of those with poor vision do not seek treatment at all. The main barriers to seeking eye care services were lack of money, ignorance, and the problem not causing much discomfort to warrant medical attention. There was significant, association between the level of education and health seeking behaviour (P = 0.008).
Conclusions: Majority of Kibera slum dwellers have no access to eye care.
Recommendation: There is need to establish a comprehensive Primary Eye Care project to provide low cost but quality services affordable to Kibera slum dwellers.

Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya." East African Journal of Ophthalmology. 2008;14(2):55-61. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 55-61. 2. Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D.". In: PMID: 20164797. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 55-61. 2. Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D.". In: PMID: 19838712. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 55-61. 2. Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 55-61. 2. Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D.". In: PMID: 20164797. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 55-61. 2. Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi, S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Project." East Afr J Opthalmol. 2008;14(1):55-61. Abstract

Objective: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi.
Design: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007
Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City
Subjects: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years.
Results: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary’s Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities.
Conclusion: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty).
Recommendations: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

Lutta HO, Odongo D, Mather A, Perez-Casal J, Potter A, Gerdts V, Berberov EM, Prysliak T, Martina Kyallo, Kipronoh A, Olum M, Pelle R, Naessens J. "Baseline analysis of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides antigens as targets for a DIVA assay for use with a subunit vaccine for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia." BMC Vet Res. 2020;16(1):236. Abstract

Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in cattle. A prototype subunit vaccine is being developed, however, there is currently no diagnostic test that can differentiate between infected cattle and those vaccinated with the prototype subunit vaccine. This study characterized Mmm proteins to identify potential antigens for use in differentiating infected from vaccinated animals.

Baker T, Kiptala J, Olaka L, Oates N, Hussain A, McCartney M. "Baseline review and ecosystem services assessment of the Tana River Basin, Kenya.". In: Baseline review and ecosystem services assessment of the Tana River Basin, Kenya. International Water Management Institute (IWMI); 2015. Abstract

The 'WISE-UP to climate'project aims to demonstrate the value of natural infrastructure as a
'nature-based solution'for climate change adaptation and sustainable development. Within
the Tana River Basin, both natural and built infrastructure provide livelihood benefits for
people. Understanding the interrelationships between the two types of infrastructure is a
prerequisite for sustainable water resources development and management. This is
particularly true as pressures on water resources intensify and the impacts of climate change
increase. This report provides an overview of the biophysical characteristics, ecosystem
services and links to livelihoods within the basin.

Kwach JK, Onyango MA, Muthomi JW, Nderitu JH. "Baseline survey for status of Banana Xanthomonas Wilt in Kenya.". In: 13th KARI Biennial Scientific Conference. KARI Headquarters; 2012.
Kwach JK;, Onyango MA;, Muthomi JW;, Nderitu JH. "Baseline survey for status of Banana Xanthomonas Wilt in Kenya."; 2011.
Kwach JK;, Onyango MA;, Muthomi JW;, Nderitu JH. "Baseline survey for status of Banana Xanthomonas Wilt in Kenya."; 2010.
STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI. "Baseline trachoma survey in ELCK-Arsim integrated development project area of Samburu North, Kenya.E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 49-54. 3. Karimurio J, Kimani K, Gichuhi S, Kollmann KHM.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2008.
STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI. "Baseline trachoma survey in ELCK-Arsim integrated development project area of Samburu North, Kenya.E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 49-54. 3. Karimurio J, Kimani K, Gichuhi S, Kollmann KHM.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2008.
STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI. "Baseline trachoma survey in ELCK-Arsim integrated development project area of Samburu North, Kenya.E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 49-54. 3. Karimurio J, Kimani K, Gichuhi S, Kollmann KHM.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; 2008.
STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI. "Baseline trachoma survey in ELCK-Arsim integrated development project area of Samburu North, Kenya.E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 49-54. 3. Karimurio J, Kimani K, Gichuhi S, Kollmann KHM.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; 2008.
Karimurio J, Kimani K, Gichuhi S, Kollmann M. "Baseline trachoma survey in the ELCK-Arsim integrated development project of Samburu District, Kenya." East Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008;14(1):49-54. Abstract

Objectives: To establish the prevalence of active trachoma (TF) in childrenaged 1-9 years; potentially blinding trachoma (TT) in adults >15 years and to document the magnitude of selected known trachoma risk factors.
Design: Baseline community based survey conducted in March 2008 using the standardized WHO protocol.
Setting: Evangelical Lutheran Church of Kenya (ELCK)-Arsim Integrated Development Project area, Samburu District, Lift Valley Province, Kenya.
Subjects: A total of 47 villages and 71 households were visited. 862 children aged 1-9 years and 1,044 adults aged ≥15 yrs were examined. 427 (49.5%) of the children were boys and 435 (50.5%) were girls. 330 (31.6%) of the adults were males and 714 (68.4%) were females. 97.6% of adults and 90.0% of children over 5 years had never gone to school.
Results: The prevalence of active trachoma (TF) in children was 31.3% (95% CI: 28.2 – 34.4). Boys and girls were equally affected. Children 1-5 years of age were most affected. The prevalence of potentially blinding trachoma (TT) in adults >15 years was 2.2% (95% CI: 1.5–2.9). Of those with TT, 5 (22%) were males and 18 (78%) females. The prevalence of TT increased with age. Eight (34.8%) of those with TT had coexisting corneal opacity meaning that they were either blind or going blind. Of he 1044 adults examined during the survey, 371 (35.5%) had TS giving a TT to TS ratio of 1:16. This implies that it will take time before potentially blinding trachoma (TT) is eliminated. Known trachoma risk factors were documented. During the dry season, most households take about 3 hours to fetch water. During the wet season, they take about 1 hour. A total of 460 (53.4%) children examined had dirty faces. No household had a leaky tin. No household has a leaky tin. Ten of the 47 villages visited did not have any communal water point. In most households (97.4%) animals were kept no more than 20 meters of the house. Most (57.4%) households had animals kept inside the house at times. Only 7 (11%) of the 155 households had latrines (built as part of a demonstration project). 58 households (37.4%) had uncovered human faeces in/around the compound. In 125 (80.6%) of the households, garbage was scattered all over the compound.
Conclusions: It was concluded that both, active and potentially blinding trachoma are a public health problem in the ELCK-Arisim integrated development project area.
Recommendations: The whole population (23,607 people) living in the project area need mass antibiotic treatment. About 312 adults living in the project area have potentially blinding TT and need of immediate surgery.

KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Batra Y, Acharya SK.Acute liver failure: prognostic markers.Indian J Gastroenterol. 2003 Dec;22 Suppl 2:S66-8.". In: Indian J Gastroenterol. 2003 Dec;22 Suppl 2:S66-8. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2003. Abstract

Acute liver failure (ALF) is defined as liver failure occurring within one month of the occurrence of jaundice. The disease has a grim prognosis, with a mortality of 65% to 85%. The management of ALF has till recently been conservative, and newer therapeutic modalities like bioartificial liver, hepatocyte transplant, and extracorporeal liver assist devices have not yet been proven to be successful. Liver transplant has changed the gloomy outlook of the disease, and post-transplant survival rates of 60%-70% have been reported from most centers. However liver transplant is expensive, necessitates life-long immunosupression, and is limited by a global shortage of available organs. It is thus necessary to select patients who are at greatest risk of death for liver transplantation. Prognostic criteria are based primarily either on clinical and laboratory (coagulation tests, serum bilirubin) parameters, or on other parameters like liver volume. Prognostic criteria have been developed both from the East and the West; these are essentially similar except that the Western criteria take into account etiology (drug overdose being the main cause of ALF there) as well as jaundice-encephalopathy interval as factors for prognostication. The King's College criteria were one of the first prognostic systems; it has two parts for both paracetamol as well as non paracetamol ALF. The criteria from our institute found prothrombin time >25 s, serum bilirubin >15 mg/dL, age >40 years, and cerebral edema to be bad prognostic markers. Criteria from the PGIMER, Chandigarh found age >50 years, raised intracranial pressure, prothrombin time >100 s, and onset of HE more than seven days after the jaundice as poor prognostic markers. All these clinical criteria have similar sensitivity and specificity.

KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Batra Y, Bhatkal B, Ojha B, Kaur K, Saraya A, Panda SK, Acharya SK.Vaccination against hepatitis A virus may not be required for schoolchildren in northern India: results of a seroepidemiological survey.Bull World Health Organ. 2002;80(9):728-31.". In: Bull World Health Organ. 2002;80(9):728-31. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the current seroprevalence of antibodies against hepatitis A virus (HAV) in a sample of schoolchildren above 10 years of age and to determine the prevalence of HAV-induced hepatitis in adults at a tertiary care hospital in northern India between January 1992 and December 2000. METHODS: Sera from 276 male and 224 female schoolchildren aged 10-17 years were tested for anti-HAV antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Consecutive patients with a diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis who attended a liver clinic were tested for the serological markers of HAV, hepatitis B Virus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus, and hepatitis E virus. FINDINGS: Of the male and female children, 96.3% and 98.2%, respectively had anti-HAV antibodies in their sera. The prevalence of these antibodies in the age groups 10-12, 13- 14, and 15-17 years were 98.6%, 94.8%, and 98.3% respectively. The frequency of HAV- induced acute viral hepatitis (69/870, 8%) in adults did not show an increasing trend. CONCLUSION: Mass HAV vaccination may be unnecessary in northern India because the seroprevalence of protective antibodies against HAV in schoolchildren aged over 10 years remains above 95% and there has been no apparent increase in HAV-induced acute viral hepatitis in adults.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Batra Y, Dutta AK, Acharya SK.Molecular adsorbent and re-circulating system.Trop Gastroenterol. 2004 Apr-Jun;25(2):60-4.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 2004 Apr-Jun;25(2):60-4. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004. Abstract
The molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS) is a non-biological artificial liver support system. Used for almost a decade, there are only two randomized controlled trials on the efficacy of MARS till date. A number of uncontrolled studies have documented a marked improvement in the biochemical parameters of patients after MARS. Although MARS seems to be an effective and promising tool in the management of liver failure, its cost needs to be reduced to enable it use in a member of indications.
Kimani PM;, Chirwa RM;, Kirkby R. "Bean Breeding For Africa: Strategy And Plan."; 2001. Abstract

The common bean is the principal grain legume grown by small-scale, resource-poor farmers for food and sale in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. However, its productivity is severely constrained by many biotic and abiotic constraints, resulting in low production despite rising demand. The International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), in partnership with national programmes, regional networks, and NGOs, has released several improved bean varieties in the last decade. However, most of these varieties originated from the CIAT breeding programme at its global headquarters in Cali, Colombia. To strengthen the capacity of bean researchers in Africa to respond better to the changing needs of farmers and consumers, the Pan African Bean Research Alliance (PABRA), consisting of CIAT-Africa, the East and Central Africa Bean Research Network (ECABREN), and the Southern Africa Bean Research Network (SABRN), has developed a collaborative strategic plan for breeding high-yielding bean varieties with improved tolerance to major biotic and abiotic stresses, which also meet requirements for domestic, regional, and international markets. Following participatory approaches, breeding programmes for the seven most important market classes have been developed and are being implemented by collaborating NARS, selected on the basis of the importance of a particular market class in their country. Test sites were selected to represent the major bean-growing environments and constraints for each market class. The main priorities for the breeding programmes are (1) yield improvement, (2) identification, characterisation, and utilisation of sources of resistance to major biotic and abiotic constraints, (3) assessment of advanced lines for productivity in intercropped and sole cropping systems, and (4) cooking and nutritional quality.

K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI. "Bean canopy response to irrigation, nitrogen fertilizer and planting density under temperate and tropical conditions. East Africa Agriculture and Forestry Journal. 65:7-20.". In: Paper submitted in the 3rd International Weed Science Congress in June 2000 at Foz du Iguasu, Brazil. University of Nairobi; 1999. Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.
K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI. "Bean growth and yield response to irrigation, nitrogen fertilizer and planting density under temperate and tropical conditions. East Africa Agriculture and Forestry Journal. 65:21-36.". In: Paper submitted in the 3rd International Weed Science Congress in June 2000 at Foz du Iguasu, Brazil. University of Nairobi; 1999. Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.
Nderitu JH;, Kayumbo HY;, MUEKE JM. "Beanfly Infestation on Common Bean."; 1990. Abstract

The population patterns of eggs, larvae and puparia on bean plants and leaf punctures made by adults were investigated during cropping (March-July; October-January) and noncropping (July-October) seasons at two sites in Kenya. Bean grown in noncropping seasons had more leaf punctures, eggs, larvae and puparia than bean grown in cropping seasons. Bean sown in noncropping seasons attracted unusually high beanfly populations from surrounding weeds as well as previous crops. Under field conditions, the Onhiomyi beanfly species, sencerella Greathead and 0. phasepli Tryon, bean infested plants in all seasons. Both species normally oviposited in punctures on the leavesbut 0. spencerella also oviposited in the stems of bean seedlings.

Nderitu JH, Kayumbo HY, MUEKE JM. "Beanfly infestation on common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya." International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 1990;11(1):34-41.
Nderitu JH, Kayumbo HY, MUEKE JM. "Beanfly infestation on common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya." International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 1990;11(1):34-41.
Ombui JN, Arimi SM, Kayihura M. "Beef and dressed chickens as sources of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in Nairobi." East African Medical Journal. 1992;69(11):606-608.
and Kasina JM(2007, Nderitu JH. "Bees in horticultural crop production; Revisiting the sale of pollination in crop productivity." sustainable agric production in the tropics. 2007.
N A, NM A, MO F, Y K, JI V, OB A-B, SZ M, S A, H H, S B, DA M, A R, I K, M M, M R, V P, S C, Y C, E J, JL C, K N, A S, G G, A P, P P, D M, J K, MM A, A A, MA D, M N, I H, MM A, AP V, A I, AM K, ME T. "Behavior change due to COVID-19 among dental academics - The theory of planned behavior: stresses, worries, training, and pandemic severity." PLoS ONE. 2020;15(9): e0239961(15(9): e0239961):15(9): e0239961.
Mwero JN, Abuodha SO, O. RG, Mumenya SW, Kavishe FP. "The Behavior of Sugarcane Waste Fiber Ash as a Cementing Material.". In: 1st African Material Science and Engineering Network (AMSEN) Conference. Windhoek, Namibia); 2010.
Mwero JN, Abuodha SO, O. RG, Mumenya SW, Kavishe FP. "Behavior of Sugarcane Waste Fiber Ash as a Cementing Material.". In: International Symposium on: Modernizing Local Sustainable Technologies as the Engine for Sustainable Development. Nairobi, Kenya; 2010.
KIMANI DRMURUNGARU. "Behavioural Effects of Infant and Child Mortality on Fertility in Kenya.". In: African Journal of Reproductive Health, Vol. 5 No. 3 (Dec) 2001. James Murimi; 2001. Abstract
According to the millennium assessment report, during the last century, global drylands have experienced anthropogenic induced climate changes that are predicted to continue and even to accelerate during the present century. The traditional pastoralist spatial domains are facing unprecedented changes due to population growth, urban sprawl and an appetite for land not anticipated by the planners who designated such lands as trust lands. A case in point is Kajiado district which has seen most community owned land blocks subdivided and tenure changed to private especially in areas surrounding It is therefore not only the pastoralists that are finding their roaming area constricted but also the wild animals. A recent court case to protect the migratory corridors of wild animals is a good example. In fact there are more wild animals among these communities than are confined in parks in Kenya. With the inevitable land use changes, and their impacts on livelihoods and environment, this paper explores the literature on the interaction of environmental conservation amid global warming and the potential role of biogas in mitigating the livelihood and vulnerability associated with it. Further, the technology helps manage green house gases and has potential for using the clean development mechanism to raise carbon credits which could be ploughed back in propping the livelihoods of rural communities. The paper highlights the preconditions of successful biogas interventions which include partial or complete confinement of animals in zero grazing units alongside improvement/change of animal breeds to more economically viable ones. However, this raises the greater question whether the radical change of livelihood approaches is at all viable? Key words: Global warming, livelihoods, conservation, biogas, carbon markets
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Bell DR, Plant NJ, Rider CG, Na L, Brown S, Ateitalla I, Acharya SK, Davies MH, Elias E, Jenkins NA, et al.Species-specific induction of cytochrome P-450 4A RNAs: PCR cloning of partial guinea-pig, human and mouse CYP4A cDNAs.Biochem J. 1993 Aug 15;294 ( .". In: Biochem J. 1993 Aug 15;294 ( Pt 1):173-80. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1993. Abstract
PCR was used to demonstrate the presence of a conserved region and to clone novel members of the cytochrome P-450 4A gene family from guinea pig, human and mouse cDNAs. This strategy is based on the sequences at nucleotides 925-959 and at the haem binding domain (nucleotides 1381-1410) of the rat CYP4A1 gene. Murine Cyp4a clones showed high sequence identity with members of the rat gene family, but CYP4A clones from human and guinea pig were equally similar to the rat/mouse genes, suggesting that the rat/mouse line had undergone gene duplication events after divergence from human and guinea-pig lines. The mouse Cyp4a-12 clone was localized to chromosome 4 using interspecific backcross mapping, in a region of synteny with human chromosome 1. The assignment of the human CYP4A11 gene to chromosome 1 was confirmed by somatic cell hybridization. An RNAase protection assay was shown to discriminate between the murine Cyp4a-10 and Cyp4a-12 cDNAs. Treatment of mice with the potent peroxisome proliferator methylclofenapate (25 mg/kg) induced Cyp4a-10 RNA in liver, and to a lesser extent in kidney; there was no sex difference in this response. Cyp4a-12 RNA was present at high levels in male control liver and kidney samples, and was not induced by treatment with methylclofenapate. However, Cyp4a-12 RNA was present at low levels in control female liver and kidney RNA, and was greatly induced in both organs by methylclofenapate. Guinea pigs were exposed to methylclofenapate (50 mg/kg), but there was no significant induction of the guinea-pig CYP4A13 RNA. These findings are consistent with a species difference in response to peroxisome proliferators between the rat/mouse and the guinea pig.
A.P S, K.C C. "Benchmarking Quality of Experience (QoE) offered by Mobile Network Operators in Kenya: A User-Centric Approach,." International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering. 2015;5(1).
Khoda A, Moturi CA. "Benefits of Adopting Knowledge Management in the Key Contributor to the Kenyan Economy." African Journal of Business and Management (AJBUMA). 2012;2. AbstractWebsite

This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.

Gakuu LN, Kanyi SM. "Bennett's fracture: a direct volar surgical approach ." East and Central African Journal of Surgery.. 1999;4(2):21-24. Abstract

From cadaver dissections of the recurrent motor branch of the median nerve, we determined the exact relationship of its terminal branches at the base of the thumb. This enabled us to surgically approach the first carpometacarpal joint directly on the volar aspect for management of Bennett's fractures in 18 consecutive patients.

As compared with the different surgical approaches advocated and commonly used, the direct volar approach affords clear direct exposure of the intra-articular fracture at the base of the thumb so aiding appropriate reduction and fixation of the fracture. The proposed approach is safe and requires minimal dissection or soft tissue resection. The results were excellent and no case of nerve injury was encountered.

Faris AA, Akuon PO, Kalecha VO. "BER Performance of SSK Sequence Modulation.". In: IEEE AFRICON 2021. Arusha, Tanzania; 2021.
Kathurima I. "Berger-Shaw inequality for n-Power quasinormal and w-hyponormal operators, ." Far East Jnr of Appld. Maths.. 2014. Abstract

Every reducible operator can be decomposed into normal and completely non-normal operators.
Unfortunately, there are several non normal operators which are irreducible. However, every operator
whose self-commutator is bounded, is reducible. Berger-Shaw inequality implies boundedness
of the trace of the self-commutator for hyponormal operators. In this paper, the Berger-Shaw
inequality is studied for n-Power normal, n-power quasinormal and w-hyponormal operators.

Rudebjer P, Chakeredza S, Dansi A, Ekaya W, Ghezae N, Aboagye LM, Kwapata M, Njoroge K, Padulosi S. "Beyond commodity crops: Strengthening young scientists’ capacity for research on underutilized species in Sub-Saharan Africa.". In: 2nd International Symposium on Underutilised Plant Species. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2011.
joshua Kivuva. "Beyond Constitutional Politics: Kenya's new constitution and the restructuring of the state.". In: Public Lecture Series, Honors College. Cathedral of Learning Rm 2810, University of Pittsburgh; 2011.
Kiti KR. "Beyond Gender Analysis: An Entrepreneurial Approach to Economic Empowerment for Women: ." A joint WIDE/CEEWAK publication (Aug. 1996). 1996.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. ""Beyond the Colonial Legacy: the land question, politics and constitutionalism in Kenya", in Wanjala, Smokin (ed.,). Essays on Land Law: the Reform Debate in Kenya. Nairobi: Faculty of Law, University of Nairobi, 2000.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2000.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Bhardwaj P, Garg PK, Maulik SK, Saraya A, Tandon RK, Acharya SK.A Randomized Controlled Trial of Antioxidant Supplementation for Pain Relief in Patients with Chronic Pancreatitis.Gastroenterology. 2008 Sep 25. [Epub ahead of print].". In: Gastroenterology. 2008 Sep 25. [Epub ahead of print]. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2008. Abstract
{ BACKGROUND & AIMS: Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic pancreatitis (CP). We evaluated the effects of antioxidant supplementation on pain relief, oxidative stress and antioxidant status in patients with CP. METHODS: In a placebo-controlled double blind trial, consecutive patients with CP were randomized to groups that were given placebo or antioxidants for 6 months. The primary outcome measure was pain relief, and secondary outcome measures were analgesic requirements, hospitalization, and markers of oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances [TBARS]) and antioxidant status (ferric-reducing ability of plasma [FRAP]). RESULTS: Patients (age 30.5 +/- 10.5 years, 86 male, 35 alcoholic and 92 with idiopathic CP) were assigned to the placebo (n = 56) or antioxidant groups (n = 71). After 6 months, the reduction in the number of painful days per month was significantly higher in the antioxidant group compared with the placebo group (7.4 +/- 6.8 vs 3.2 +/- 4, respectively; P < .001; 95% CI, 2.07, 6.23). The reduction in the number of analgesic tablets per month was also higher in the antioxidant group (10.5 +/- 11.8 vs 4.4 +/- 5.8 respectively; P = .001; 95% CI, 2.65, 9.65). Furthermore, 32% and 13% of patients became pain free in the antioxidant and placebo groups, respectively (P = .009). The reduction in the level of TBARS and increase in FRAP were significantly higher in the antioxidant group compared with the placebo group (TBARS: placebo 1.2 +/- 2.7 vs antioxidant 3.5 +/- 3.4 nmol/mL; P = .001; 95% CI 0.96, 3.55; FRAP: placebo -5.6 +/- 154.9 vs antioxidant 97.8 +/- 134.9 muMFe(+2) liberated
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Bhargava DK, Acharya SK, Tandon BN, Nundy S.Endoscopic sclerotherapy for active variceal haemorrhage in patients not responding to balloon tamponade & vasopressin.Indian J Med Res. 1985 Feb;81:175-9.". In: Indian J Med Res. 1985 Feb;81:175-9. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1985. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Bhargava DK, Acharya SK.Endoscopic sclerotherapy (EST) in acute variceal bleeding.J Assoc Physicians India. 1985 Nov;33(11):704-6.". In: J Assoc Physicians India. 1985 Nov;33(11):704-6. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1985. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Bhargava DK, Dwivedi M, Acharya SK, Sundaram KR.Effect of low dosage of polidocanol in treatment of esophageal varices in cirrhotic patients.Indian J Med Res. 1988 Dec;88:515-21.". In: Indian J Med Res. 1988 Dec;88:515-21. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1988. Abstract
Hepatitis G virus (HGV)/GB virus-C (GBV-C) has been identified as a blood-borne agent with disputed pathogenicity. This virus belongs to the flaviviridae with a distant relationship to hepatitis C virus (HCV). Genetically divergent HGV isolates have been reported from different parts of the world. This study describes the prevalence of HGV in multitransfused thalassaemic children in India and genomic sequence variations in 11 HGV isolates from the same geographical location. Hepatitis G virus RNA was detected in 39.7% multitransfused thalassaemic children. The seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HCV was 23.8% and 17.1%, respectively, and 11.4% had dual infection. The nucleotide sequence of a 166 bp HGV genomic segment from the putative capsid-envelope region (nucleotide; nt 578-743) from 11 Indian isolates was compared to the sequences available in the nucleotide databases. The isolates from India were 81.3-94.5% homologous to the isolates from other parts of the world. On phylogenetic analysis, it was observed that HGV isolates from India may belong to two genetically divergent types.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Bhatia V, Batra Y, Acharya SK.Prophylactic phenytoin does not improve cerebral edema or survival in acute liver failure–a controlled clinical trial.J Hepatol. 2004 Jul;41(1):89-96.". In: J Hepatol. 2004 Jul;41(1):89-96. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004. Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Seizure activity in patients with acute liver failure (ALF) may increase cerebral oxygen requirements and worsen cerebral edema. Recently, prophylactic phenytoin has been recommended to suppress sub-clinical seizure activity evident on electroencephalographic monitoring. To determine the clinical utility of prophylactic phenytoin therapy in patients with ALF. METHODS: Forty two patients with ALF were randomized. Twenty two patients were given prophylactic phenytoin and 22 patients acted as controls. The baseline clinical and biochemical features were similar in the two groups and patients with > or =2 poor prognostic variables were equally represented. RESULTS: Sixteen patients in the phenytoin group, and 15 in the control group developed cerebral edema (P=0.38). Mechanical ventilation was required in 10 and 12 patients in the phenytoin and control groups, respectively, (P=0.77). Seizures occurred in 5 (22.7%) control patients and 5 (25%) phenytoin treated patients (P=0.86). Fourteen (70%) patients randomized to phenytoin and 15 (68.2%) control patients died (P=0.89). CONCLUSIONS: Seizure was common in patients with ALF. Prophylactic use of phenytoin did not prevent cerebral edema, seizures or need for mechanical ventilation, and did not improve survival.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Bhatia V, Singh R, Acharya SK.Predictive value of arterial ammonia for complications and outcome in acute liver failure.Gut. 2006 Jan;55(1):98-104. Epub 2005 Jul 15.". In: Gut. 2006 Jan;55(1):98-104. Epub 2005 Jul 15. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In acute liver failure (ALF), the brain is exposed to high levels of ammonia. Human studies defining the clinical significance of ammonia in ALF are lacking. This prospective study evaluated the relationship of arterial ammonia levels at admission to complications and survival among patients with ALF. METHODS: Eighty consecutive ALF patients admitted from March 2001 to December 2003 were followed up until death or complete recovery. All had arterial ammonia estimation at admission (enzymatic method). Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of mortality. RESULTS: Forty two (52.5%) patients died. Non-survivors had significantly higher median ammonia levels than survivors (174.7 v 105.0 micromol/l; p<0.001). An arterial ammonia level of > or = 124 micromol/l was found to predict mortality with 78.6% sensitivity and 76.3% specificity, and had 77.5% diagnostic accuracy. Patients with higher ammonia levels also developed more complications, including deeper encephalopathy (p = 0.055), cerebral oedema (p = 0.020), need for ventilation (p<0.001), and seizures (p = 0.006). Logistic regression analysis showed that pH, presence of cerebral oedema, and arterial ammonia at admission were independent predictors of mortality (odds ratios 6.6, 12.6, and 10.9, respectively). Incorporating these variables, a score predicting mortality risk at admission was derived: 2.53 + 2.91 ammonia + 2.41 oedema + 1.40 pH, where ammonia is scored as 0 (if <124 micromol/l) or 1 (if > or =124 micromol/l); oedema is scored as 0 (absent) or 1(present); and pH is scored as 1 (if < or =7.40) or 0 (if >7.40). Levels of partial pressure of ammonia were equally correlated with outcome. CONCLUSION: Arterial ammonia at presentation is predictive of outcome and can be used for risk stratification. Ammonia lowering therapies in patients with ALF should be evaluated.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Bhatia V, Singhal A, Panda SK, Acharya SK.A 20-year single-center experience with acute liver failure during pregnancy: Is the prognosis really worse?Hepatology. 2008 Jul 9;48(5):1577-1585. [Epub ahead of print].". In: Hepatology. 2008 Jul 9;48(5):1577-1585. [Epub ahead of print]. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2008. Abstract
Pregnant patients with acute liver failure (ALF) are believed to have a worse outcome than nonpregnant women and men with ALF. However objective data supporting this supposition are scant. Therefore, the current study compared the outcome, complications, and causes of ALF among pregnant women and girls with age-matched nonpregnant women and girls and men and boys with ALF. One thousand fifteen consecutive ALF patients in the reproductive age group, admitted at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, from January 1986 to December 2006, were included in the study. A total of 249 (38.5%) women were pregnant. They were compared with 341 nonpregnant women and girls and 425 men and boys, aged 15 to 45 years. The mortality rate of pregnant women and girls (53.8%) was similar to age-matched nonpregnant women and girls (57.2%), and men and boys (57.9%); P = 0.572.The clinical and biochemical features, disease severity, and complications were also similar in the three groups. A significantly higher proportion of ALF was attributable to hepatitis E virus (HEV) among women and girls who were pregnant (59.4%), as compared with both nonpregnant women and girls (30.4%), and men and boys (23.1%); P < 0.001. However, the outcome of HEV-related ALF was independent of the sex and pregnancy status of the patients (P = 0.103). Mortality in HEV-ALF and non-HEV-ALF patients in pregnant women and girls was 51% (74/145) and 54.7% (52/95)(P > 0.1), respectively. The outcome of pregnant ALF patients was also unrelated to the trimester of pregnancy. The mortality of non-HEV-related ALF among the pregnant women and girls (54.7%), age-matched nonpregnant women and girls (61.7%), and men and boys (62.8%) were also similar (P > 0.1). Conclusion: The mortality of pregnant patients with ALF is similar to that of nonpregnant women and girls and men and boys and is independent of the cause or trimester. Pregnancy per se should not be regarded as a poor prognostic factor for a patient with ALF. (HEPATOLOGY 2008.).
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah E.K , R.M. Chiti and R.K.K. Cherogony (1994j). Trends in infiltration, runoff and soil loss of unstable crusting soils In. .Soil Tillage for Crop Production and Protection of the Environment. Proceedings of 13th International Soil TillageResearch C.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1994. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah E.K. L.M. Nagava. E.M. Gichangi and R.X.K. Cherogony (f 994j), Micrcscale effects of tillage and organic manure on infiltration and erosion of a crushing soil. In Soil Tillage for Crop Production and Protection of the Environmental Proceedings of 1.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1994. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah E.K., J.K. Muketha and W.K. Sitonik (1994b). Report of national seminar on "Community participation in project planning in ASAL, areas of Kenya, Emergency Drought Recovery Programme, Department of Relief and Rehabilitation. Office of the President,.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1994. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E. K., (1991) . Soil Erosion Survey of Kaibon Catchment, West Pokot District. Study funded through the Suam River Catchment Rehabilitation Project (SRCRP) of the Kerio Valley Development Authority (KVDA), Vidman Consulting Engineers, Nairobi.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1991. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K and A.R. Oduor. Soil, Water and Nutrient Management in China: An assessment of environmental degradation, conservation farming strategies and management options for Dryland Agriculture. Unpublished Manuscript.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1998. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K and R.K. Cherogony(1997). Runoff water management technologies for dryland agriculture in arid and Semi arid lards. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Sustainable Farming Systems for Dryland Agricultural in North West China. Yanglin.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1997. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K. (1997). Conservation of cropland: Structural measures. In Soil and Water Conservation Manual for Kenya. !D B Thomas. A Encksscn. M. Grunder, and J.K. Mburu(eds). Soil and Water Conservation Branch, Ministry of Agriculture. Kenya.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1997. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K. and G.K. Maritim (I994d). Sectoral background profiles of arid and semi arid lands of Kenya. Emergency Drought Recovery Programme, Department of Relief and Rehabilitation, Office of the President, Kenya. July, 1994.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1994. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K. and R.K. Cherogony (1994a). Djabia rainwaterharvesting system for domestic water supply in Lamu, Kenya. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Rainwater Catchment Systems held in Nairobi, Kenya. August, 1993.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1994. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K. and R.K.K. Cherogony (1994h). Tillage technique for effective soil erosion control in Kenya: Evaluation of alternative fanya juu terrace designs. In: Soil Tillage for Crop Production and Protection of the Environment. Proceedings of 13th Inte.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1194. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K. and W.K. Yabann (1994e). Training of Trainers Report on Community participation in project planning in arid lands of Kenya.' Emergency Drought Recovery Programme, Department of Relief and Rehabilitation, Office of the President, Kenya. Octobe.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1994. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K., 2002. Soil and water conservation. In: Managing Dryland Resources: An Extension Manual for Eastern and Southern Africa. International Institute of Rural Reconstruction (IIRR), Nairobi, Kenya. pp 83-99.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 2002. Abstract
In semi arid Kenya, the most dominant soil types are of limited agricultural productivity due to crusting and compaction. The occurrence of soil crusting and compaction is attributed to seasonal rainfall characteristics, physical soil properties and bad tillage practices. Soil crusting and compaction decreases rainwater infiltration and increases surface runoff. Increased and concentrated surface runoff water flow causes severe soil erosion. The objective of this study was to examine the hydrological effects of different tillage practices with and without farmyard manure on infiltration, surface runoff and soil loss of crusting and compacting soils under field and laboratory conditions in semi arid Kenya. Field investigations on infiltration, soil moisture, surface runoff, soil loss, soil bulk density and soil shear strength covered two rainy seasons (short and long rains) and were done on a Chromic Luvisol. The field treatments were zero and conventional tillage, and two farmyard manure applications (5 and 10 Mg/ha). Laboratory investigations on infiltration, time to runoff, surface runoff, soil loss and penetration resistance were conducted under simulated rainfall on four Luvisols for sixty days with the same farmyard manure (5 and 10 Mg/ha) treatments. A regression analysis and a one way ANOVA revealed significant (P<0.05) differences between soil types and treatments. The results obtained showed significant effects of conventional and zero tillage and farmyard manure on infiltration and soil moisture, time to runoff, surface runoff and soil loss. Soil crusting and compaction significantly influenced the hydrological responses of all soil types and treatments. These responses were attributed to seasonal rainfall events of varying amounts, intensities and duration and treatment differences in soil surface conditions and aggregation. Farmyard manure (FYM) application enhanced infiltration and reduced soil crusting and compaction, and surface runoff during the initial stages of the rainy season. But in the mid-stages of the rainy season, the effects of FYM on soil aggregation diminished and resulted in an increase in soil loss. At the end of the rainy season, when soil crusts had formed, some significant decrease in soil loss with FYM treatments was observed. Conventional tillage without farmyard manure led to high surface runoff and soil loss in these structurally unstable soils. Zero tillage performed poorly under these soil conditions because of high soil crusting and compaction, low rainwater infiltration and subsequent increase in surface runoff.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K., 2005. Coping with Drought: Options for soil and water management in semi-arid Kenya. Tropical Resource Management Papers No. 58 (2005).". In: Wageningen University and Research Centre Publication. ISBN 90-6754-861-8. Also published as thesis (2005) by Wageningen University, ISBN 90-8504-178-3. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005. Abstract
In semi arid Kenya, episodes of agricultural droughts of varying severity and duration occur. The occurrence of these agricultural droughts is associated with seasonal rainfall variability and can be reflected by seasonal soil moisture deficits that significantly affect crop productivity. Model simulation of the stochastic behaviour of dry and wet spells and rainsums provides some insights into: the differences in rainfall characteristics within an agricultural watershed; and distribution and reliability of seasonal rainfall for various uses. The longest dry spell analysis is of practical relevance to the selection of the best conservation practices (including conservation tillage) for soil and water management whilst the largest rainsum analysis can be used to determine the watershed runoff volume and discharges that would assist in the design of flood and erosion control structures, and the design of runoff water catchment systems (RWCS), which are essential for supplementary irrigation in semi arid Kenya. This study adopted an agro-hydrologic systems approach to the mitigation of agricultural drought at micro, meso and macro scale levels within an agricultural watershed. This approach had its premise that many agricultural drought problems in unstable ecosystems are best solved through farmers interventions at the micro scale level, conservation planning at the meso scale level and resource management at the macro scale level. Thus, the adopted agro-hydrologic systems approach is holistic and aimed at optimizing soil and water management in hydrologically defined geographical areas. The three levels of agricultural drought mitigation should be hierarchical and must consider all factors influencing the hydrologic and hydraulic properties of dominant soils in semi arid Kenya.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K., C.K.K. Gachene, P.T. Gichem and R.K.K. Cherogony (1994f). Seasonal variability in soil moisture due to tillage and residue mulching of a clay soil. In: Soil Tillage for Crop Production and Protection of the Environment. Proceedings of 13th I.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1994. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K., G. Sterk, T.C. Sharma. 2005. Analysis of agricultural drought in Iiuni, Eastern Kenya: Application of a Markov model. J. Hydrol. Processes (2005).". In: Wageningen University and Research Centre Publication. ISBN 90-6754-861-8. Also published as thesis (2005) by Wageningen University, ISBN 90-8504-178-3. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005. Abstract
In semi arid Kenya, episodes of agricultural droughts of varying severity and duration occur. The occurrence of these agricultural droughts is associated with seasonal rainfall variability and can be reflected by seasonal soil moisture deficits that significantly affect crop performance and yield. The objective of this study was to stochastically simulate the behaviour of dry and wet spells and rainsums in Iiuni watershed, Kenya. The stochastic behaviour of the longest dry and wet spells (runs) and largest rainsums were simulated using a Markov (order 1) model. There were eight raingauge stations within the watershed. The entire analysis was carried out using probability parameters, i.e. mean, variance, simple and conditional probabilities of dry and rain days. An analysis of variance test (ANOVA) was used to establish significant differences in rainfall characteristics between the eight stations. An analysis of the number of rain days and rainfall amount per rain day was done on a monthly basis to establish the distribution and reliability of seasonal rainfall. The graphical comparison of simulated cumulative distribution functions (cdfs) of the longest spells and largest rainsums showed Markovian dependence or persistence. The longest dry spells could extend to 24 days in the long rainy season and 12 in the short rainy season. At 50% (median) probability level, the largest rainsums were 91 mm for the long rainy season and 136 mm for the short rainy season. The short rains were more reliable for crop production than the long rains. The Markov model performed well and gave adequate simulations of the spells and rainsums under semi arid conditions.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K., G.K. Maritim and W.K. Yabann (1994c). Report on Grassroots community mobilization in Kalokol, Central Turkana. Emergency Drought Recovery Programme, Department of Relief and Rehabilitation, Office of the President, Kenya. May, 1994.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1994. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K., Gichuki, F.N., Kaumbutho, P.G., 1993. Tillage methods and soil and water conservation in Eastern Africa. Soil & Tillage research, 27: 105-123.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1993. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K., Gichuki. F., 2004. Land and Water Management for Poverty Alleviation: Experiences from Iiuni Watershed, Machakos District, Kenya. Paper submitted to Journal of WaterSA, South Africa.". In: Wageningen University and Research Centre Publication. ISBN 90-6754-861-8. Also published as thesis (2005) by Wageningen University, ISBN 90-8504-178-3. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005. Abstract
In semi arid Kenya, episodes of agricultural droughts of varying severity and duration occur. The occurrence of these agricultural droughts is associated with seasonal rainfall variability and can be reflected by seasonal soil moisture deficits that significantly affect crop productivity. Model simulation of the stochastic behaviour of dry and wet spells and rainsums provides some insights into: the differences in rainfall characteristics within an agricultural watershed; and distribution and reliability of seasonal rainfall for various uses. The longest dry spell analysis is of practical relevance to the selection of the best conservation practices (including conservation tillage) for soil and water management whilst the largest rainsum analysis can be used to determine the watershed runoff volume and discharges that would assist in the design of flood and erosion control structures, and the design of runoff water catchment systems (RWCS), which are essential for supplementary irrigation in semi arid Kenya. This study adopted an agro-hydrologic systems approach to the mitigation of agricultural drought at micro, meso and macro scale levels within an agricultural watershed. This approach had its premise that many agricultural drought problems in unstable ecosystems are best solved through farmers interventions at the micro scale level, conservation planning at the meso scale level and resource management at the macro scale level. Thus, the adopted agro-hydrologic systems approach is holistic and aimed at optimizing soil and water management in hydrologically defined geographical areas. The three levels of agricultural drought mitigation should be hierarchical and must consider all factors influencing the hydrologic and hydraulic properties of dominant soils in semi arid Kenya.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K., J.K. Gikonyo, P.T. Gicheru and S.O. Oketch (1992a). Influence of tillage on crop water use at Kalalu, Laikipia, Kenya. East African Journal of Sciences, Kenya. August, 1992.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1992. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K., Nhlabathi, N., 2003. Conservation tillage practices for dryland crop production in semi arid Kenya: Promotion of conservation tillage techniques for improving household food security in iiuni, Machakos, Kenya. In: Beukes, D., de Villiers, M.". In: Wageningen University and Research Centre Publication. ISBN 90-6754-861-8. Also published as thesis (2005) by Wageningen University, ISBN 90-8504-178-3. Kisipan, M.L.; 2003. Abstract
In semi arid Kenya, episodes of agricultural droughts of varying severity and duration occur. The occurrence of these agricultural droughts is associated with seasonal rainfall variability and can be reflected by seasonal soil moisture deficits that significantly affect crop performance and yield. The objective of this study was to stochastically simulate the behaviour of dry and wet spells and rainsums in Iiuni watershed, Kenya. The stochastic behaviour of the longest dry and wet spells (runs) and largest rainsums were simulated using a Markov (order 1) model. There were eight raingauge stations within the watershed. The entire analysis was carried out using probability parameters, i.e. mean, variance, simple and conditional probabilities of dry and rain days. An analysis of variance test (ANOVA) was used to establish significant differences in rainfall characteristics between the eight stations. An analysis of the number of rain days and rainfall amount per rain day was done on a monthly basis to establish the distribution and reliability of seasonal rainfall. The graphical comparison of simulated cumulative distribution functions (cdfs) of the longest spells and largest rainsums showed Markovian dependence or persistence. The longest dry spells could extend to 24 days in the long rainy season and 12 in the short rainy season. At 50% (median) probability level, the largest rainsums were 91 mm for the long rainy season and 136 mm for the short rainy season. The short rains were more reliable for crop production than the long rains. The Markov model performed well and gave adequate simulations of the spells and rainsums under semi arid conditions.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K., Nhlabathi, N., 2003. Conservation tillage practices for dryland crop production in semi arid Kenya: Promotion of conservation tillage techniques for improving household food security in iiuni, Machakos, Kenya. p 45-50. In: Beukes, D., de Vil.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 2003. Abstract
In semi arid Kenya, the most dominant soil types are of limited agricultural productivity due to crusting and compaction. The occurrence of soil crusting and compaction is attributed to seasonal rainfall characteristics, physical soil properties and bad tillage practices. Soil crusting and compaction decreases rainwater infiltration and increases surface runoff. Increased and concentrated surface runoff water flow causes severe soil erosion. The objective of this study was to examine the hydrological effects of different tillage practices with and without farmyard manure on infiltration, surface runoff and soil loss of crusting and compacting soils under field and laboratory conditions in semi arid Kenya. Field investigations on infiltration, soil moisture, surface runoff, soil loss, soil bulk density and soil shear strength covered two rainy seasons (short and long rains) and were done on a Chromic Luvisol. The field treatments were zero and conventional tillage, and two farmyard manure applications (5 and 10 Mg/ha). Laboratory investigations on infiltration, time to runoff, surface runoff, soil loss and penetration resistance were conducted under simulated rainfall on four Luvisols for sixty days with the same farmyard manure (5 and 10 Mg/ha) treatments. A regression analysis and a one way ANOVA revealed significant (P<0.05) differences between soil types and treatments. The results obtained showed significant effects of conventional and zero tillage and farmyard manure on infiltration and soil moisture, time to runoff, surface runoff and soil loss. Soil crusting and compaction significantly influenced the hydrological responses of all soil types and treatments. These responses were attributed to seasonal rainfall events of varying amounts, intensities and duration and treatment differences in soil surface conditions and aggregation. Farmyard manure (FYM) application enhanced infiltration and reduced soil crusting and compaction, and surface runoff during the initial stages of the rainy season. But in the mid-stages of the rainy season, the effects of FYM on soil aggregation diminished and resulted in an increase in soil loss. At the end of the rainy season, when soil crusts had formed, some significant decrease in soil loss with FYM treatments was observed. Conventional tillage without farmyard manure led to high surface runoff and soil loss in these structurally unstable soils. Zero tillage performed poorly under these soil conditions because of high soil crusting and compaction, low rainwater infiltration and subsequent increase in surface runoff.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K., Sharma, T.C., Stroosnijder, L., 2002. Simulation of watershed peak runoff rate using the Nash Model. JEAE 2 (1) 49-56.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 2002. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K., Sterk, G., 2005. Influence of land use changes on watershed runoff volume: Application of AGNPS model in Iiuni watershed, Kenya. Paper accepted for publication by Euro Asian Journal of Applied Sciences.". In: Wageningen University and Research Centre Publication. ISBN 90-6754-861-8. Also published as thesis (2005) by Wageningen University, ISBN 90-8504-178-3. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005. Abstract
In semi arid Kenya, episodes of agricultural droughts of varying severity and duration occur. The occurrence of these agricultural droughts is associated with seasonal rainfall variability and can be reflected by seasonal soil moisture deficits that significantly affect crop productivity. Model simulation of the stochastic behaviour of dry and wet spells and rainsums provides some insights into: the differences in rainfall characteristics within an agricultural watershed; and distribution and reliability of seasonal rainfall for various uses. The longest dry spell analysis is of practical relevance to the selection of the best conservation practices (including conservation tillage) for soil and water management whilst the largest rainsum analysis can be used to determine the watershed runoff volume and discharges that would assist in the design of flood and erosion control structures, and the design of runoff water catchment systems (RWCS), which are essential for supplementary irrigation in semi arid Kenya. This study adopted an agro-hydrologic systems approach to the mitigation of agricultural drought at micro, meso and macro scale levels within an agricultural watershed. This approach had its premise that many agricultural drought problems in unstable ecosystems are best solved through farmers interventions at the micro scale level, conservation planning at the meso scale level and resource management at the macro scale level. Thus, the adopted agro-hydrologic systems approach is holistic and aimed at optimizing soil and water management in hydrologically defined geographical areas. The three levels of agricultural drought mitigation should be hierarchical and must consider all factors influencing the hydrologic and hydraulic properties of dominant soils in semi arid Kenya.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K., Sterk, G., Sharma, T.C. 2004. Analysis of agricultural drought in Iiuni, Eastern Kenya: Application of a Markov model. J. Hydrol. Processes.". In: Wageningen University and Research Centre Publication. ISBN 90-6754-861-8. Also published as thesis (2005) by Wageningen University, ISBN 90-8504-178-3. Kisipan, M.L.; 2004. Abstract
In semi arid Kenya, episodes of agricultural droughts of varying severity and duration occur. The occurrence of these agricultural droughts is associated with seasonal rainfall variability and can be reflected by seasonal soil moisture deficits that significantly affect crop performance and yield. The objective of this study was to stochastically simulate the behaviour of dry and wet spells and rainsums in Iiuni watershed, Kenya. The stochastic behaviour of the longest dry and wet spells (runs) and largest rainsums were simulated using a Markov (order 1) model. There were eight raingauge stations within the watershed. The entire analysis was carried out using probability parameters, i.e. mean, variance, simple and conditional probabilities of dry and rain days. An analysis of variance test (ANOVA) was used to establish significant differences in rainfall characteristics between the eight stations. An analysis of the number of rain days and rainfall amount per rain day was done on a monthly basis to establish the distribution and reliability of seasonal rainfall. The graphical comparison of simulated cumulative distribution functions (cdfs) of the longest spells and largest rainsums showed Markovian dependence or persistence. The longest dry spells could extend to 24 days in the long rainy season and 12 in the short rainy season. At 50% (median) probability level, the largest rainsums were 91 mm for the long rainy season and 136 mm for the short rainy season. The short rains were more reliable for crop production than the long rains. The Markov model performed well and gave adequate simulations of the spells and rainsums under semi arid conditions.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K., Sterk, G., Stroosnijder, L. 2003. Hydrological effects of tillage and farmyard manure on crusting and compacting soils in semi arid Kenya. p 150-158. In: Tullberg, J., Hoogmoed, W. (Eds.), Soil management for sustainability, Proceedings of 1.". In: The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. ISBN 0-646-42496-3. Kisipan, M.L.; 2003. Abstract
In semi arid Kenya, the most dominant soil types are of limited agricultural productivity due to crusting and compaction. The occurrence of soil crusting and compaction is attributed to seasonal rainfall characteristics, physical soil properties and bad tillage practices. Soil crusting and compaction decreases rainwater infiltration and increases surface runoff. Increased and concentrated surface runoff water flow causes severe soil erosion. The objective of this study was to examine the hydrological effects of different tillage practices with and without farmyard manure on infiltration, surface runoff and soil loss of crusting and compacting soils under field and laboratory conditions in semi arid Kenya. Field investigations on infiltration, soil moisture, surface runoff, soil loss, soil bulk density and soil shear strength covered two rainy seasons (short and long rains) and were done on a Chromic Luvisol. The field treatments were zero and conventional tillage, and two farmyard manure applications (5 and 10 Mg/ha). Laboratory investigations on infiltration, time to runoff, surface runoff, soil loss and penetration resistance were conducted under simulated rainfall on four Luvisols for sixty days with the same farmyard manure (5 and 10 Mg/ha) treatments. A regression analysis and a one way ANOVA revealed significant (P<0.05) differences between soil types and treatments. The results obtained showed significant effects of conventional and zero tillage and farmyard manure on infiltration and soil moisture, time to runoff, surface runoff and soil loss. Soil crusting and compaction significantly influenced the hydrological responses of all soil types and treatments. These responses were attributed to seasonal rainfall events of varying amounts, intensities and duration and treatment differences in soil surface conditions and aggregation. Farmyard manure (FYM) application enhanced infiltration and reduced soil crusting and compaction, and surface runoff during the initial stages of the rainy season. But in the mid-stages of the rainy season, the effects of FYM on soil aggregation diminished and resulted in an increase in soil loss. At the end of the rainy season, when soil crusts had formed, some significant decrease in soil loss with FYM treatments was observed. Conventional tillage without farmyard manure led to high surface runoff and soil loss in these structurally unstable soils. Zero tillage performed poorly under these soil conditions because of high soil crusting and compaction, low rainwater infiltration and subsequent increase in surface runoff.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K., Sterk, G., Stroosnijder, L., 2005. Tillage and Farmyard Manure effects on Crusting and Compacting Soils in Semi Arid Kenya. Paper accepted for publication by Euro Asian Journal of Applied Sciences.". In: Wageningen University and Research Centre Publication. ISBN 90-6754-861-8. Also published as thesis (2005) by Wageningen University, ISBN 90-8504-178-3. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005. Abstract
In semi arid Kenya, episodes of agricultural droughts of varying severity and duration occur. The occurrence of these agricultural droughts is associated with seasonal rainfall variability and can be reflected by seasonal soil moisture deficits that significantly affect crop productivity. Model simulation of the stochastic behaviour of dry and wet spells and rainsums provides some insights into: the differences in rainfall characteristics within an agricultural watershed; and distribution and reliability of seasonal rainfall for various uses. The longest dry spell analysis is of practical relevance to the selection of the best conservation practices (including conservation tillage) for soil and water management whilst the largest rainsum analysis can be used to determine the watershed runoff volume and discharges that would assist in the design of flood and erosion control structures, and the design of runoff water catchment systems (RWCS), which are essential for supplementary irrigation in semi arid Kenya. This study adopted an agro-hydrologic systems approach to the mitigation of agricultural drought at micro, meso and macro scale levels within an agricultural watershed. This approach had its premise that many agricultural drought problems in unstable ecosystems are best solved through farmers interventions at the micro scale level, conservation planning at the meso scale level and resource management at the macro scale level. Thus, the adopted agro-hydrologic systems approach is holistic and aimed at optimizing soil and water management in hydrologically defined geographical areas. The three levels of agricultural drought mitigation should be hierarchical and must consider all factors influencing the hydrologic and hydraulic properties of dominant soils in semi arid Kenya.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K., Stroosnijder, L., 2004. Watershed conservation in semi arid Kenya, Submitted to Physics and chemistry of the earth.". In: Wageningen University and Research Centre Publication. ISBN 90-6754-861-8. Also published as thesis (2005) by Wageningen University, ISBN 90-8504-178-3. Kisipan, M.L.; 2004. Abstract
In semi arid Kenya, episodes of agricultural droughts of varying severity and duration occur. The occurrence of these agricultural droughts is associated with seasonal rainfall variability and can be reflected by seasonal soil moisture deficits that significantly affect crop performance and yield. The objective of this study was to stochastically simulate the behaviour of dry and wet spells and rainsums in Iiuni watershed, Kenya. The stochastic behaviour of the longest dry and wet spells (runs) and largest rainsums were simulated using a Markov (order 1) model. There were eight raingauge stations within the watershed. The entire analysis was carried out using probability parameters, i.e. mean, variance, simple and conditional probabilities of dry and rain days. An analysis of variance test (ANOVA) was used to establish significant differences in rainfall characteristics between the eight stations. An analysis of the number of rain days and rainfall amount per rain day was done on a monthly basis to establish the distribution and reliability of seasonal rainfall. The graphical comparison of simulated cumulative distribution functions (cdfs) of the longest spells and largest rainsums showed Markovian dependence or persistence. The longest dry spells could extend to 24 days in the long rainy season and 12 in the short rainy season. At 50% (median) probability level, the largest rainsums were 91 mm for the long rainy season and 136 mm for the short rainy season. The short rains were more reliable for crop production than the long rains. The Markov model performed well and gave adequate simulations of the spells and rainsums under semi arid conditions.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K., Stroosnijder, L., Omuto, C.T., 2005. Watershed Conservation in Semi-arid Kenya. Paper accepted for publication by Physics and Chemistry of the Earth Journal (but yet to receive official communication), an Elsevier Science Publication.". In: Wageningen University and Research Centre Publication. ISBN 90-6754-861-8. Also published as thesis (2005) by Wageningen University, ISBN 90-8504-178-3. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005. Abstract
In semi arid Kenya, episodes of agricultural droughts of varying severity and duration occur. The occurrence of these agricultural droughts is associated with seasonal rainfall variability and can be reflected by seasonal soil moisture deficits that significantly affect crop productivity. Model simulation of the stochastic behaviour of dry and wet spells and rainsums provides some insights into: the differences in rainfall characteristics within an agricultural watershed; and distribution and reliability of seasonal rainfall for various uses. The longest dry spell analysis is of practical relevance to the selection of the best conservation practices (including conservation tillage) for soil and water management whilst the largest rainsum analysis can be used to determine the watershed runoff volume and discharges that would assist in the design of flood and erosion control structures, and the design of runoff water catchment systems (RWCS), which are essential for supplementary irrigation in semi arid Kenya. This study adopted an agro-hydrologic systems approach to the mitigation of agricultural drought at micro, meso and macro scale levels within an agricultural watershed. This approach had its premise that many agricultural drought problems in unstable ecosystems are best solved through farmers interventions at the micro scale level, conservation planning at the meso scale level and resource management at the macro scale level. Thus, the adopted agro-hydrologic systems approach is holistic and aimed at optimizing soil and water management in hydrologically defined geographical areas. The three levels of agricultural drought mitigation should be hierarchical and must consider all factors influencing the hydrologic and hydraulic properties of dominant soils in semi arid Kenya.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K.,(1983). Comparison between field measurements and local climatic estimates of crop water use in Oklahoma. M.Sc. Thesis. Oklahoma State University. Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1983. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K.,(1984). Soil and Water Conservation in Kenya; Concepts and Practices Unpublished Manuscript, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1984. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K.,(1985). Editor, Proceedings of a Workshop on Soil Conservation on Grazing Lands. Ministry of Agriculture, Kenya.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1985. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K.,(1986). Environmental Degradation and Conservation within the Njemps Flats and Tugen Plateau Areas of Central Baringo, Kenya. December,1986. Unpublished Report.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1986. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K.,(1986). Technical and Socio-Economic considerations in rehabilitating and conserving an eroded/denuded catchment area: A case study of the Chemeron Catchment Area, Central Baringo, Kenya. In: Soil and Water Conservation in Kenya . Proceedings.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1986. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K.,(1987). Lessons learnt from Arid and Semi Arid Lands Development Projects in Kenya. Proceedings of a Conference on Project Identification in Developing Countries, held at the University of Manchester, U.K. September, 1987.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1987. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K.,(1988a). Environmental Degradation and Rehabilitation in Central Baringo, Kenya. In: Land Conservation for Future Generations .S. Rimwanich (Ed.). Proceedings of the 5th International Soil Conservation Conference (ISCO), Bangkok, Thailand. Ja.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1988. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K.,(1988b). Evaluation of Feasible Conservation Strategies in Sub-Saharan Africa: A case study on Kenya and Malawi. In: Challenges in Dryland Agriculture ; A Global Perspective. P.W. Unger, T.V. Sneed W.R. Jordan and R. Jensen (Eds.). Proceeding.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1988. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K.,(1992b). Production Oriented Conservation Strategy for developing sustainable projects in Arid and Semi Arid Areas of Kenya. In: People Protecting their Land. Proceedings of the 7th International Soil Conservation Conference (ISCO), Sydney, A.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1992. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.

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