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K
Kloos" "H, Khasakhala" "A. "Monitoring and Evaluation of HIV/AIDS programs in Sub-Saharan Africa.". In: Vulnerabilities, Impacts, and Responses to HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa. London: Palgrave Macmillan; 2013.
Klauss, V; Bhatt SM. "Lipaemia retinalis: a case report.". 1985.
KK L, IJMwaniki, GK K. "Pricing options using trinomial lattice method." Journal of Finance and Economics. 2019;7(3):81-87. Abstractwebsite

Abstract
How much to spend on an option contract is the main problem at the task of pricing options. This
become more complex when it comes to projecting the future possible price of the option. This is attainable if one
knows the probabilities of prices either increasing, decreasing or remaining the same. Every investor wishes to make
profit on whatever amount they put in the stock exchange and thus the need for a good formula that give a very good
approximations to the market prices. This paper aims at introducing the concept of pricing options by using
numerical methods. In particular, we focus on the pricing of a European put option which lead us to having
American put option curve using Trinomial lattice model. In Trinomial method, the concept of a random walk is
used in the simulation of the path followed by the underlying stock price. The explicit price of the European put
option is known. Therefore at the end of the paper, the numerical prices obtained by the Black Scholes equation will
be compared to the numerical prices obtained using Trinomial and Binomial methods

KJ G, AM M, GO A’. "ANAEMIA AMONG BREASTFEEDING INFANTS (0-6 MONTHS) AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS IN A LOW INCOME URBAN SETTING OF KENYA." African Journal of Food , Agriculture,Nutrition and Development. 2019;19(2):14303-14319.
joshua Kivuva. "“Non-state actors (NSA) and awareness creation on the East African Community (EAC) regional integration]1.". In: “Non-state actors (NSA) and awareness creation on the EasRole of NSA in the EAC, . The Panafric Hotel, Nairobi, ; 2011.
joshua Kivuva. "The role of the Kenya School of Government in Kenya's changing public Service .". In: kenya school of Government staff Luncheon. KSG Conference Center; 2012.
joshua Kivuva. "Neo-Liberalism on the Cross: Multipartyism and the challenges of democratic transition in kenya.". In: The Studies Program, Good Afternoon Africa Lecture Series. University Center for International studies, WW, Posvar Hall 4130; 2011.
joshua Kivuva. "Legitimizing Ethnic Citizenship as a meams of Means of Managing Ethnic Conflict in Multiethnic Africa: The Case of Kenya.". In: The Young African Scholars' Symposium on Bringing Africa to the Forefront: Contemporary International Law and Development in Africa's Century. Stanford Law School, California.; 2004.
joshua Kivuva. "Reversed Transition in Uganda: From a non-democratic multiparty system to a no-party democracy.". In: The African Search for Stable Forms of Statehood: Essays in political criticism. Lewinston, New York: The Edwin Mellen Press; 2008.
joshua Kivuva. "devolution and the politics of marginalization in Kenya.". In: FES workshop on The national cohesion and devolution forum: the ethnic challenge of devolution. Migori County Hall.; 2011.
joshua Kivuva. "the political dynamics of regional disparities, economis inequalities and marginalization and regional disparities in Kenya .". In: FES workshop on marginalization and regional disparities in kenya.; 2011.
joshua Kivuva. "Integration in East Africa: Uninformed Kenyans oppose political integration." Afrobarometer. 2010;Briefing Paper 90(August 2010).
joshua Kivuva. "The governmental and party system in kenya.". In: The 5th generation scholarship program "Go Africa...Go Germany..." Fairview Hotel, Nairobi.; 2012.
joshua Kivuva. "A critique of Kenya's National Peace Policy .". In: National Policy Conference on IDP Resettlement and Peace-Building in Kenya: State and Non-State Interventions. Kasarani Sportsview Hotel , Nairobi; 2011.
joshua Kivuva. "Neo-Liberal democracy and the challenges of multiparty politics in kenya, Uganda and Zambia.". In: The African Studies Association. Philadelphia USA; 2012.
joshua Kivuva. "Beyond Constitutional Politics: Kenya's new constitution and the restructuring of the state.". In: Public Lecture Series, Honors College. Cathedral of Learning Rm 2810, University of Pittsburgh; 2011.
joshua Kivuva. "Ethnic Citizenship and Regime Legitimization: The Case of Kenya.". In: The 32nd National Association of Ethnic Studies Annual Conference on The Activist Impulse in Ethnic Studies: safegurding rights in Eras of Insecurity. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.; 2004.
joshua Kivuva. "Reforms Without Change: Kenya's unending "war on corruption".". In: Thirty Years of Public Sector Reforms: Selected country experiences. Addis Ababa: OSSREA; 2013.
joshua Kivuva. "Ethnicity and the challenges of democratization in kenya and uganda.". In: The midwest political science association annual conference.; 2008.
joshua Kivuva. "The Politics of Regional Disperities and Marginalization in Kenya.". In: Regional Disparities and Marginalization in Kenya. Nairobi: Friedrich Ebert-Stiftung; 2012.
joshua Kivuva. "devolved governance in the post 2010 kenya.". In: Workshop for provincial administration and senior police officers on devolution and the security sector. Eldoret, Kenya.; 2011.
joshua Kivuva. "Identity, belonging and the challenges of citizenship in Kenya." SID Working Paper Series. 2012;(August 2012).
joshua Kivuva. "regulations and syllabus for the degree of MPA at the Kenya school of Government." The Kenya School of Government; 2012.
joshua Kivuva. "A critique of Kenya’s Draft Policy on Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) .". In: National Policy Conference on IDP Resettlement and Peace-Building in Kenya: State and Non-State Interventions. Kasarani Sportsview Hotel, Nairobi ; 2011.
joshua Kivuva. "kenya: From post-election Crisis to the 2013 elections.". In: The Pitt-Greenburg Political Science Program, Pi Sigma Alpha, and the National Political Science Honor Society. Greensburg Campus, University of Pittsburgh; 2011.
joshua Kivuva. "Role of public budgeting.". In: IDS/APSA workshop on representation reconsidered: ethnic politics and africa's governance unstitutions in comparative perspective. Arziki Hall, Chiromo Campus, University of Nairobi; 2011.
joshua Kivuva. "Civil Society and the Management of Ethnic Conflict: The Role of Ethnic Welfare Associations in Kenya.". In: The 9th Annual Graduate School of Public and International affairs Student Conference, on Transcending Boundaries: Engendering Human Security . The School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh; 2004.
joshua Kivuva. "Zambia: Multiparty Politics in a Single Party Political Culture.". In: Democracy in Africa: Political changes and challenges. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press; 2012.
joshua Kivuva. "Non-state actors (NSA) and awareness creation on the East African Community (EAC) regional integration.". In: FES workshop on East African Community Non state actors Forum. The Panafric Hotel, Nairobi.; 2011.
joshua Kivuva. "rethinking social movements in East Africa.". In: The second action workshop on the social movements' project. University of Nairobi, Ed Building Rm 213; 2012.
Kivuva JM. "Liberal Democracy and the Challenges of Multiparty politics in Kenya and Uganda." International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2014;2(9):64-77.
joshua Kivuva. "Democratization in Kenya: Peoples' dissatisfaction with the benefit-less transition." Afrobarometer Briefing Paper. 2015;(152).
joshua Kivuva. "The role of Parliamentarians in Regional Integration and the Mainstreaming of "AU's Action Plan for Boosting Intra-African Trade" within Eastern Africa.". In: The workshop on the implementation and ratification of African Union's policies and instruments on trade and the African charter on the values and principles of public services and administration. The Serena Beach Hotel, Mombasa; 2012.
Kivuti-Bitok LW, Chepchirchir A, Waithaka P, Ngune I. "Dry Taps? A Synthesis of Alternative “Wash” Methods in the Absence of Water and Sanitizers in the Prevention of Coronavirus in Low-Resource Settings." Journal of Primary Care & Community Health. 2020;11:2150132720936858. Abstract
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Kivuti-Bitok LW, Chepchirchir A, Waithaka P, Ngune I. "Dry Taps? A Synthesis of Alternative “Wash” Methods in the Absence of Water and Sanitizers in the Prevention of Coronavirus in Low-Resource Settings." Journal of Primary Care & Community Health. 2020;11:2150132720936858. Abstract
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Kivuti-Bitok LW, McDonnell G, Abdul R, Pokhariyal GP. "System dynamics model of cervical cancer vaccination and screening interventions in Kenya." Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation. 2014;12(26):1-19.
Kivuti-Bitok LW, Chepchirchir A, Waithaka P, Ngune I. "Dry Taps? A Synthesis of Alternative “Wash” Methods in the Absence of Water and Sanitizers in the Prevention of Coronavirus in Low-Resource Settings." Journal of Primary Care & Community Health. 2020;11:2150132720936858. Abstract
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Kivuti L, Chepchirchir A. "Computerization readiness." Online Journal of Nursing Informatics. 2011;15. Abstract
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Kivuti L, Chepchirchir A. "Computerization readiness." Online Journal of Nursing Informatics. 2011;15. Abstract
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KIVUTI MRKARINGILINCOLN. "Master of Arts Thesis - "Low-income Housing Finance Programs in Kenya".". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1989.
KIVUTI MRKARINGILINCOLN. "Contributor in the environmental group in the report and recommendations fo the National City Convention "The Nairobi we Want" now published as "Actions Towards a Better Nairobi" 27th - 29th July, 1993.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1993.
KIVUTI MRKARINGILINCOLN. ""The risks Of Water Pollution from Urban Refuse - A paper presented in the Second National Conference on Rainwater Harvesting systems at UNEP, Nairobi.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1992.
KIVUTI MRKARINGILINCOLN. "Contributor in the environmental group in the report and recommendations of the National City Convention "The Nairobi we Want" 27th - 29th July, 1993.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1993.
KIVUTI MRKARINGILINCOLN. ""The risks Of Water Pollution from Urban Refuse - A paper presented in the Second National Conference on Rainwater Harvesting systems at UNEP, Nairobi.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1992.
Kivisi Mbali, Mutembei Henry MJ. "Governance Aspects on Adoption of Biogas Technology in." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge. 2018;3(3):81-86.mutembei-mbali-governance-2018.pdf
Kivindu RM. Theoretical and Experimental study of a Multi-pass two-glass cover solar air heater under transient conditions .; 2010. Abstract

The major problems experienced with solar air heaters are their non-reliability as their operation largely depends on weather conditions which keep on changing. This study was aimed at providing and experimentally validating a transient based model for predicting the performance of multi-pass solar air heaters operating on changing weather conditions. A transient prediction model was developed by considering the thermal capacities of the collector components and the flowing air. Differential equations were developed by considering the energy interactions and balances for the various components of the collector, and then solved nUmerically. The developed model was tested with input data of insolation, ambient temperature, wind velocity and solar time and then validated experimentally by use of a single collector which was designed to accommodate all the four flow arrangements investigated ( SPM, DMPM, DTPM and TPM). The time constant of the collector constructed was determined experimentally to be 27 minutes. The theoretical collector performance results indicated a transient behavior for changing weather conditions. This was' also confirmed by the experiment carried out whose data were recorded and plotted at intervals of two minutes Based on air temperature rise and collector efficiency both the developed theoretical model and experimental set up indicated that the triple pass mode is superior to the other modes, with the single pass mode ranked the lowest in performance. The developed ~UlputaticmaI prediction model had a standard deviational error of 1.8 to 2.1 % as compared to the experimental values which had an error of2.7 to 9.6%. The TPM had the lowest error (1.8%) while the SPM had the highest (2.1%). When compared to other models and experiments, the results were in good agreement. The developed model confirmed that air temperature rise in the collector is a function of available solar insolation and prevailing weather conditions such as; cloud cover, ambient temperature and wind. It was found that, in actual sense thermal solar collectors do expenence transient conditions and the developed transient model was necessary, and is expected to reduce the day long experiments that need to' be carried out to. acquire the performance characteristics of solar air heaters under changing weather conditions.

Kivengea GM, Mtiba MJ, Sigana DO, Muthumbi AW. "Reproductive biology of common octopus Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier, 1797), on the Kenyan South coast." Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science. 2014;13(1):47-56.
Kivata MW, Mbuchi M, Eyase F, Bulimo WD, Kyanya CK, Oundo V, Mbinda WM, Sang W, Andagalu B, Soge OO, McClelland RS, Distelhorst J. "Plasmid mediated penicillin and tetracycline resistance among Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Kenya." BMC Infectious Diseases. 2020;20. Abstract
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Kivata MW, Mbuchi M, Eyase F, Bulimo WD, Kyanya CK, Oundo V, Mbinda WM, Sang W, Andagalu B, Soge OO, McClelland RS, Distelhorst J. "Plasmid mediated penicillin and tetracycline resistance among Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Kenya.". 2020;20(1):703. Abstractkivata_et_al-2020-bmc_infectious_diseases.pdfkivata_et_al-2020-bmc_infectious_diseases.pdfWebsite

Treatment of gonorrhea is complicated by the development of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) to the antibiotics recommended for treatment. Knowledge on types of plasmids and the antibiotic resistance genes they harbor is useful in monitoring the emergence and spread of bacterial antibiotic resistance. In Kenya, studies on gonococcal antimicrobial resistance are few and data on plasmid mediated drug resistance is limited. The present study characterizes plasmid mediated resistance in N. gonorrhoeae isolates recovered from Kenya between 2013 and 2018.

Kivata MW, Mbuchi M, Eyase FL, Bulimo WD, Kyanya CK, Oundo V, Muriithi SW, Andagalu B, Mbinda WM, Soge OO, McClelland SR, Sang W, Mancuso JD. "gyrA and parC mutations in fluoroquinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Kenya." BMC Microbiol.. 2019;19(1):76. Abstractkivata_et_al-2019-bmc_microbiology.pdf

Phenotypic fluoroquinolone resistance was first reported in Western Kenya in 2009 and later in Coastal Kenya and Nairobi. Until recently gonococcal fluoroquinolone resistance mechanisms in Kenya had not been elucidated. The aim of this paper is to analyze mutations in both gyrA and parC responsible for elevated fluoroquinolone Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) isolated from heterosexual individuals from different locations in Kenya between 2013 and 2017.

Kivai JM, Guantai AN, Mwanda WO, Maitho TE. "Abandonment of treatment and loss to follow up: a potential cause of treatment failure in patients with AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2015;4(4):156-160. Abstract2015_-_abandonment_of_treatment_and_ltfu_aids_karposis.pdf

Background: Management of patients with cancer is complex, multi-disciplinary, longitudinal and costly. Abandonment of treatment by patients and loss to follow up is a common scenario, especially in resource poor countries and severely compromises health outcomes.

Objective: To assess the commitment to drug treatment protocol of patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-Related Kaposi’s Sarcoma at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya, over a 10 week period .

Methods: The study design was prospective, observational, cross-sectional period prevalence study on patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with Kaposi’s sarcoma. Patients with histological diagnosis of Kaposi’s sarcoma were sequentially enrolled into the study as they attended either the Haematology or Radiotherapy clinic or during their admission in the wards. The choice of the treatment protocol was left at the discretion of the attending physician. A pretested data collection form was used to collect demographic and clinical information about the patients, including treatments prescribed and completion of follow up.

Results: A total of 74 patients were enrolled into the study, 42 (56.8%) males and 32 (43.2%) females. The age ranged between 13 years to 55 years. Their treatment protocols included: Vincristine only, Vincristine plus Bleomycin, Vincristine plus Bleomycin plus Doxorubicin, Radiotherapy plus Vincristine and Radiotherapy only. Few of the patients were not assigned any antitumor treatment. Antiemetic and other conventional medicines were also prescribed when necessary. Fifty four (73%) of the patients abandoned treatment, five (6.8%) died, 15(20.3%) continued to attend clinic over the 10 week period. There was no significant association between sex and outcome (p=0.661).

Discussion: The results of this study demonstrate that abandonment of treatment is a major problem among patients on treatment for cancer in Kenyatta National Hospital in Kenya. Abandonment of treatment heavily contributes to poor clinical outcome hence complicating the burden of cancer in the country. It is therefore important to develop and establish follow-up systems to improve adherence to treatment for the cancer patients at Kenyatta National Hospital.

Key words: Abandonment of treatment, Loss to follow up, AIDS-Related Kaposi’s Sarcoma

Kivai JM, KAYIMA JK, Were AO, Qureshi Z. "Impact of Pregnancy Related Acute Kidney Injury on foetalsurvival: a single Centre Experience in Kenya." IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences. 2019;18(7):13-17.Website
Kivai JM, KAYIMA JK, Were AO, Qureshi Z. "Foetal outcome in women with Pregnacy related Acute Kidney Injury in a referral facilty in Kenya ." IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences. 2019;18(11):52-56.Website
Kivai JM, KAYIMA JK, Were AO, Zahida Q. "Assessment of characteristics of patients with pregnancy related acute kidney injury in Kenyatta National hospital.". 2019. Abstract

Pregnancy related acute kidney injury (PRAKI) remains a grave complication of pregnancy. Studies on patient characteristics are few and demonstrate diverse patient features. Objective: To determine the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with PRAKI at Kenyatta National Hospital (K.N.H) Methods: We carried out a descriptive study on women with gestation age equal to or above 28 weeks and on women in postpartum, within six weeks after delivery. The principal investigator or study assistant introduced study requirements to patients with diagnosis of PRAKI. After consent, clinical and demographic information was obtained from participants through verbal interviews and from medical records using a data capture form. Follow up was until discharge or maximum of two weeks which ever came first. Management of patients was at the discretion of the attending clinician. Results Out of 2068 admissions, 66 participants were enrolled into the study. The prevalence of PRAKI was 3.2%. The mean age was 28 years with peak age between 26-30 years. Forty-two (63.6%) were referred from other health facilities, of whom, 24(57.1%) were from rural areas. Nineteen (27.8%) had pre-pregnancy medical conditions, predominantly cardiovascular. All participants developed one or more obstetric complication: -preeclampsia 28(42.4%), eclampsia eight (9.1%) and hemolysis with elevated liver enzyme low platelet (HELLP) syndrome 17(25.8%). Sixty (91%) pregnancies were delivered. Average gestation age at delivery was 35 weeks, with 33(55%) preterm births, of whom, 10 (30.3%) were fresh still births. Severity of PRAKI at presentation was evenly distributed across stages 1 to 111. Forty-one (62.1%) participants improved on conservative management and 25(37.9%) worsened, of whom, 19 (76.0%) were dialyzed. No maternal mortality was reported during the study. Conclusion: We demonstrate a prevalence of PRAKI of 3.2% in K.N.H. Hypertensive disorders were the main associated factors. There was high rate of premature births and a six-fold increase in fresh still births among participants.

Kiuru CW, Oyieke FA, Wolfgang Richard Mukabana, Mwangangi J, Kamau L, Muhia-Matoke D. "Status of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in Kwale County, Coastal Kenya." Malaria journal. 2018;17(1):3.kiuru_et_al_2018.pdf
Kiuru CW, Oyieke FA, Wolfgang Richard Mukabana, Mwangangi J, Kamau L, Muhia-Matoke D. "Status of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in Kwale County, Coastal Kenya." Malaria journal. 2018;17(1):3.
Kiuri J, MARU S, Ndwigah SN. "Product Evaluation of Carbamazepine 200mg Controlled Release Tablets using an in vitro-in vivo Correlation Simulation Model. ." The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2020;23(2):60-66.
Kiunga J, Lukhoba C, Dossaji S, Yenesew A. "A Survey of Traditional Medicinal Uses of Catha Edulis (Celastraceae) in Meru and Embu Counties of Kenya." Journal of Ethnobiology & Ethnomedicine. 2016;3(1):1-12. Abstractcatha_edulis_paper.pdfWebsite

Catha edulis (qat) is an evergreen tree or shrub whose young leaves and stems are widely chewed in Eastern Africa. The aim of the present study was to document ethnomedicinal value of Catha edulis as used traditionally by the Ameru andAembu communities of Kenya.

The study was conducted between the months of September (2014) and February (2015), and involved 42 key informants (32 males and 10 females) aged between 45 and 84 years. Snowball and purposeful sampling techniques were used in the selection of key respondents. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to collect ethnomedicinal data using faceto-face interviews and discussions with key respondents

Eleven traditional varieties based on information from key informants were identified and described. Out of these, 5 were from Embu County while 6 were from Meru County. Plant samples were collected and deposited at the University of Nairobi herbarium as voucher specimens. A total of 13 ethnomedicinal uses of qat were documented. Of these, 62% were reported only in Meru County while 15% were reported only in Embu County. The remaining (23%) were reported in both Meru and Embu counties. The major parts of the plant reported to have medicinal value were leaves. Young stems and roots had scanty medicinal value. Chewing fresh material was identified as the major method of crude drug preparation, althoughin some cases such as in the treatment of diarrhea, gonorrhea and toothache, boiling of fresh material was reported. The main mode of administration of drug is oral and there was no precise dosage reported for any given ailment.

The present study indicates that there is a rich knowledge of ethnomedicinal uses of qat particularly in Meru which forms groundwork for further efficacious study of the plant as that may provide a lead to the discovery of novel bioactive therapeutic agents. In addition, the traditional varieties of C. edulis identified by some morphological characters of taxonomic importance provide a vital clue of possible existence of infraspecific taxa of C. edulis which, to date, has no documented infraspecific taxa.

KEY-WORDS: Qat, ethnomedicinal, traditional varieties, psychostimulant

Kiulia NM, Nyaundi JK, Peenze I, Nyachieo A, Musoke RN, Steele AD MJM. "Rotavirus infections among HIV-infected children in Nairobi, Kenya." J Trop Pediatr. 2009 Oct;55(5):318-23. doi: 10.1093/tropej/fmp016. Epub 2009 Mar 10.. 2009. Abstract

Abstract
Human rotaviruses have emerged as a leading cause of acute diarrhea in children <5 years of age worldwide. Although there are previous reports relating to various aspects of rotaviruses, there is limited data on the involvement of rotavirus infection in HIV-infected children. We therefore evaluated the importance of rotavirus infections in HIV-related diarrhea in Kenyan children. Fecal samples were collected from a total of 207 children during the period February 1999 to June 2000 and screened for HRV antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Positive samples were analyzed by VP6 subgroup specificity assay, by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Fourteen percent (29/207) of the samples were positive. HIV-seropositive children with diarrhea were more likely than their counterparts without diarrhea to have rotaviruses [23.3% (10/43) versus 2.9% (2/70); p = 0.0001]. Rotavirus strain G3P[6] was predominant. These results indicate that rotavirus is an important viral etiological agent causing diarrhea in HIV-seropositive children.

Kiugu RICHARDMWIRIGI, Wanjohi JM. "Factors influencing customer access to piped water and sanitation services in low income urban areas: A case of Meru town, Meru County, Kenya." International Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management. 2017;2(1):356-369. Abstract

Description
A large number of urban residents in sub-Sahara Africa live in slums often characterized by lack of basic services such as water, sewerage and electricity. This is as a result of pressure due population growth, aging infrastructure, climatic change and unsustainable convention water management mostly employed in the region thus posing a huge challenge in managing the unreliable and scarce water resource. Meru Town is not exemption to this phenomenon as in that there are few sanitation facilities and also many people do not access to safe drinking water source. The purpose of this study was to establish the factors that influence customer access to piped water and sanitation services in low income urban areas in Meru Town. The study aimed at determining the influence of; physical parameters, affordability, institutional and structural constraints on customer access to piped water and sanitation services in low income urban areas. The research design used in the study was descriptive research. The target population comprised of 1080 households and 15 staff members of Meru Water and Sewerage Services. The sample size was from two stakeholders namely (i) 105 households and (ii) Purposively sampled 15 staff members of Meru Water and Sewerage Services. To determine the validity and reliability of the interview schedule, a pilot-testing was carried out in a different slum (Kigore) with similar characteristics like those other three. During the field study, information was collected from randomly selected households from three urban poor areas on accessibility and affordability of piped water and sanitation services. The instruments used …

Kituuka SE, King'oriah GK. "Evaluating Development in Small Sub-National Areas of Developing Countries.". 1991. AbstractWebsite

This paper focuses on problems of measuring and evaluating development for small subnational areas in a developing country. It has been stressed that the core of the problem is a lack of suitable tools to do the job, due to conditions of underdevelopment. Paucity of conventional economic data lead to difficulty in the computation of aggregates for gross domestic product (GDP) and most similar measures. The gap the paper hopes to bridge is the need to define “development” in quantitative terms for small subnational spatial areas with deficient data bases and traditional societies, against the paradox of the non-quantitative nature of development. Despite the staggering diversity of physical, ecological, political and socio-economic attributes in such areas, it is possible to formulate sufficient proxy indicators for evaluating development using physical, structural, demographic and socio-economic variables. This paper demonstrates that construction of a multivariate Composite Spatial Development Value Index (CSDVI) goes a long way in solving the problem of economic development evaluation under these data - deficient conditions arising from underdevelopment.

Kituku B, Wagacha PW, Pauw GD. "A Memory-Based Approach to Kikamba Named Entity Recognition.". In: Proceedings of Conference on Human Language Technology for Development. Alexandria, Egypt: Bibliotheca Alexandrina; 2011:. Abstract
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Kituku B, Wagacha P, Pauw GD. "A memory-based approach to Kıkamba named entity recognition." Proceedings of conference on human language technology for development. 2011. AbstractFull text link

This paper describes the development of a data-driven part-of-speech tagger and
named entity recognizer for the resource-scarce Bantu language of Kıkamba. A small
webmined corpus for Kıkamba was manually annotated for both classification tasks and
used as training material for a memory-based tagger. The encouraging experimental results
show that basic language technology tools can be developed using limit amounts of data
and state-of-the-art language-independent machine learning techniques

Kituku B, Muchemi L, Nganga W. "A Review on Machine Translation Approaches." Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. 2016;1(1). Abstractfull website link

There is need to fill the gap between two entities which use different languages to communicate which can be done either via human translation or machine translation means. The world has over 7000 living natural languages, thus making it costly if human translation route is taken hence need for machine translation. There is need to know the available machine translation approaches and their requirement in order to decide which one suits for particular languages or not, hence the motivation for this survey. The survey provide overview and architectures of the three major techniques available namely: rule based translation, corpus based translation and hybrid based translation plus their subcategories available in each approach.

Kituku O, Osano SN, Mwea SK. "Performance Evaluation of Pedestrian Facilities at Donholm Interchange along Outer Ring Road Nairobi, Kenya." Icastor. 2020;Vol. 13(Issue No. 1):1-15.
wandiga Kitui S, et al. "Biomass burning in Africa: role in atmospheric change and opportunities in emission mitigation." University of Nairobi, Macx-Planck Institute of Chemistry, Germany : Cambridge University Press; 2005.
Kitty Mngoli1 JIWMKM 2018. "Aflatoxin Contents and Exposure in Young Children, and Sensory Characteristics of a Nixtamalized Supplementary Porridge." Food Science and Quality Management. 2018;78:ISSN 2225-0557 .
Kitonyo OM, Sadras VO, Zhou Y, Denton MD. "Nitrogen supply and sink demand modulate the patterns of leaf senescence in maize." Field Crops Research. 2018;225:92-103.
Kitonyo OM, Chemining'wa GN, Muthomi JW. "Productivity of farmer-preferred maize varieties intercropped with beans in semi-arid Kenya." International Journal of Agronomy and agricultural Research. 2013;3(1):6-16.productivity_of_farmer_preferred_maize_varieties.
Kitonyo OM, Chemining'wa GN, Muthomi JW. "Productivity of farmer-preferred maize varieties intercropped with beans in semi-arid Kenya." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR). 2013;3(1):6-16.kitonyo_ijaar-v3no1-p6-16.pdf
Kitonyi GW, Macharia WM MOW. "Clinical- pathologic Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes in Children with Neuroblastoma at the Kenyatta National Hospital Nairobi." EAMJ. 2009;(86):39-46. AbstractWebsite

Objertive: To determine clinical-pathologic characteristics, treatment modalities and treatment outcomes of children diagnosed with neuroblastoma.
Design: Cross- sectional descriptive study based on secondary data from patient records.
Setting: Records department of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), a tertiary teaching and referral hospital based in Nairobi.
Subjects: Children aged 15 years and below, admitted with the diagnosis of neuroblastoma, between January 1997 and December 2005.
Main outcome measures: Presenting clinical features, diagnostic modalities including laboratory and imaging data, treatment modalities, response to treatment and patient survival.

Kitonyi GW, Duncan A RJAG'a JW. "Congenital Afibrinogenaemia in a Kenyan female Child: Case report." EAMJ. 2010;2(87):81-83.
Kitonyi GW, Duncan A G'a JNRJANEAIJ. "Congenital afibrogenaemia in a Kenyan child: case report." East Afr Med J.. 2010;87(2):81-3.
Kitonyi GW KJM. "Radiation synovectomy: treatment option for haemophilia Patients." EAMJ. 2009;(86):71-74.
and Kitonyi GW, Wambugu PM OHOIJM. "Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia in a black adult male." East African Medical Journal . 2008;85(8):412-416.
Kitonyi G.W. G‟a MJWP. "Fistulae complicating Burkitt‟s lymphoma Therapy: The challenges." Journal of Hematopathology. 2008;1:19.
Kitonyi G.W., Wambugu P.M. OH. "Hereditary Telangiectasis in a Black African male." EAMJ. 2008;(85):412-416.
Kitonyi G.W., Onyango F.E KEG. "Spontaneous occurrence of leptomonads in a human bone marrow aspirate." EAMJ. 1981;(60):266.
Kitonyi G.W, Githang’a J.N RMJAWO. "Paediatric Thrombosis in Kenya ." Journal of Haemostasis and Thrombosis. 2009;7(Supplement 2):452.
Kitonyi G W, Duncan A GRNIJAEAJ. "Congenital Afibrinogenaemia in a Kenyan child." EAMJ. 2010;87(2). AbstractWebsite

Congenital afibrinogenaemia (CA), is a rare inherited bleeding disorder characterised by complete deficiency of fibrinogen in the plasma. Blood clotting tests are indefinitely prolonged in patients. Themode of inheritance is autosomal recessive. Typically patients present with excessive cord bleeding after birth with intracerebral haemorrhages reported in childhood. Other manifestations include musculoskeletal haemorrhages, mucocutaneous bleeds with poor wound healing reported occasionally. In females, menorrhagia, repeated early pregnancy loss and post-partum haemorrhages are common. We present a four year old female who initially presented with severe cord bleeding after birth, warranting a blood transfusion. Currently she experiences recurrent epistaxis, easy bruising and excessive post -traumatic haemorrhages. All her clotting times are markedly prolonged. Her plasma fibrinogen and fibrinogen antigen are undetectable. An older sibling died from excessive cord haemorrhage after birth. Bleeds in CA respond very favourably to fibrinogen concentrates, cryoprecipitate and fresh plasma. To date, 242 cases of CA have been reported worldwide, none of them in Kenya. Our aim in reporting this case is to document the disorder, and also to raise the index of suspicion of the condition

Kitonyi G W, Wafula E M MAGKKPMFK. "Seropositivity of HIV, HBV, & HCV in transfused patients at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya .". In: 6th International Congress of the Africa Society for Blood Transfusion .; 2012.
Kitonyi. "Haemophilia and Allied disorders in Kenya in “Status and Atlas of Haemophilia world Wide.". In: Status and Atlas of Haemophilia world Wide. A World Federation of Haemophilia Publication; 1984.
Kitonyi, G W; Oburra IHO; JM, Wambugu PM;, Oburra HO;, Ireri JM. "Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia in a black adult male: case report.". 2008. Abstract

Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia, (HHT) or Rendu-Osler-Weber disease is a genetic autosomal dominant disorder that is characterised by telangiectasias, (small vascular malformations), in mucocutaneous tissues and arterial venous malformations, (AVMs), in various internal organs. Although HHT is relatively common in whites, the disorder has been reported to be rare in people of black African descent. Majority of HHT patients present with recurrent epistaxis, which in a significant proportion of patients is severe, warranting repeated blood transfusions and iron supplementation. Telangiectasias are most frequent on the tongue, hands, nose, lips and the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). AVMs occur in internal organs, particularly the lungs, brain, and the liver. Early and correct diagnosis of HHT is crucial as patients derive benefit from certain specific treatment modalities. Besides, AVMs which occur in various organs pose serious complications that may lead to death and therefore require early detection. We report a 55 year old black African male with HHT who presented with severe recurrent epistaxis and haematochezia leading to severe anaemia requiring repeated blood transfusions. His son, daughter and a maternal uncle experience milder recurrent epistaxis. The management of this patient and a brief review of the clinical features and management of HHT is presented. Our aim is to raise awareness of the occurrence of HHT in Kenya, in order to enhance early diagnosis and appropriate management

Kitonyi GW. "Role of Bone marrow examination in patient management." EAMJ. 2010;(87):1-2.
Kitonyi GW, Kitonyi JM. "Radiation synovectomy: treatment option for haemophiliac patients with chronic haemarthrosis : a review.". 2009. Abstract

Ablation of the synovium with radiopharmaceuticals, referred to as radiation synovectomy, (RS),has emerged as a simple affordable and safe procedure that is highly effective in preventing chronic disabling end stage arthritis in haemophilia patients. Objective: To provide a review of the principles and role of radiation synovectomy, (RS), in the management ofhaemophiliacpatients with chronichaemarthrosis, and to consider the possibility of this treatment option in Kenyan patients with haemophilia. Data sources: A literature search through the internet using Boolean commands, PubMed interface to MEDLINE, Evidence, the Cochrane library. Papers from reputable haematology and radiation medicine journals, as well as conference presentations of the World Federation of Hemophilia were also included. Data selection: The searches for papers, abstracts and reviews were limited to English language, haemophilia, haemarthrosis, synovectomy, RS, radiopharmaceuticals for RS and safety of RS. Data extraction: All abstracts, and most of the papers were reviewed. Only those abstracts, papers and conference materials from reputable sources were used for this paper. Data synthesis: All available papers and abstracts were reviewed for the most up to date information. The indications, requirements, procedure and safety aspects of RS were examined. The merits of alternative forms of synovectomy were considered. In the light of this information, the feasibility ofRS as a treatment option for haemophilia patients in Kenya was considered. Conclusion: Radiation synovectomy has been carried out on thousands of haemophilia patients with chronic haemathrosis over the last 20 years. Experience accumulated in numerous centres in America, Europe, Asia, North and South Africa indicates that majorityofhaemophilia patients undergoing RS are spared life long crippling arthritis and deformity. The principle safety concern of the potential for late radiation- related malignancy has been mitigated by appropriate choice of radiopharmaceuticals, and carefully executed procedure. The effectiveness, simplicity and affordability of RS make it particularly suitable for treatment of haemophilia patients in developing countries like Kenya.

Kitonyi PM, Segera DR. "Hybrid Gradient Descent Grey Wolf Optimizer for Optimal Feature Selection." Hindawi Biomed Research International. 2021;2021(2021):1-33.
Kitonyi, G.W; Kasili EG. "Hereditary bleeding disorders in Kenya.". 1981. Abstract

This is a retrospective study of 105 patients with herediatry haemorrhagic disorders seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), between March 1975 and July 1980. Haemophilia forms 63% of the cases, Christmas disease 22% and von Willebrarid's disease (VWD) 9.5%. Rarer disorders encountered are factors X and VIII deficiency and one case of Glauzmann's disease. The study includes 3 subjects of Asian descent. Haernophilia co-existed witlt B-thalassaemia trait in 2 of the Asian subjects. Co-existing Christmas disease' and sickle cell anaemia was seen in one case. The clinical picture and course ' of the disorders are very similar to what is described elsewhere in the literature. It is. noted that although complications of replacement therapy in bleeding disorders are well documented elsewhere, only one of these patients' showed clinical evidence of such complications. There is now ample evidence that haemophilia is quite common in Africans, contrary to some reports in the past. This report serves as further evidence that haemophilia is not uncommon in Kenya and adds on to the already documented cases of hereditary haemorrhagic diseases in Kenya (1). With improving diagnostic and therapeutic facilities and increased use of hospital services more of these cases will be diagnosed

Kitonde* CK, Fidahusein DS, Lukhoba CW, Jumba MM. "Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Senna didymobotrya used to treat bacterial and fungal infections in Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2014;2(1):1-12.
Kitonde* CK, Fidahusein DS, Lukhoba CW, Jumba MM. "Phytochemistry and Utilization of Vernonia glabra (Steetz) Oliv. & Hiern. in Management of Food Spoilage and Poisoning Pathogens, in Kenya." European International Journal of Science and Technology. 2014;3(1):65-72.
Kitonde CK, Dossaji SF, Lukhoba CW, Jumba MM. "Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of Senna didymobotry used to treat bacterial and fungal infections in Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2014;2(No. 1):1-12. Abstractsenna_didymobotrya.pdf

Infectious diseases are prevalent and life threatening in Kenya. The majority of the sick are seeking
herbal remedies in search of effective, safe, and affordable treatments. This study aimed to
investigate the antimicrobial activity and presence of chemical compounds in different parts of
Senna didymobotrya. Results showed that, organic extracts of root with Mean inhibition zone (MIZ)
of 1.58 cm, recorded the highest activity against S. aureus than the standard antibiotic
(Streptomycin MIZ of 1.30 cm. Flavonoids were the chemical compoundshighly present. The
results of this study suggest that S. didymobotrya has significant antimicrobial properties and justify
its use in traditional herbal medicine for the management of microbial based diseases. Cytotoxicity
assays are highly recommended for S. didymobotrya in order to verify, validate and document its
safety in medicine.
Key words: Prevalent, Effective, Herbal, Senna didymobotrya.

Kitonde CK, Fidahusein D, Lukhoba CW, Jumba MM. "Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of Senna didymobotry used to treat bacterial and fungal infections in Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2014;2(1):1-12.
Kitonde C, Dossaji SF, Lukhoba CW, Jumba M. "Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical study of Vernonia glabra (Steetz) Oliv. & Hiern in Kenya." Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2013;10(1):149-157. Abstractkitonde_et_al._2013.pdf

Infectious diseases are prevalent and life threatening in Kenya. Majority of the sick are seeking herbal remedies in search of effective, safe, and affordable cure. This project aims to investigate the antimicrobial activity and presence of active phytochemical compounds in different parts of Vernonia glabra; a plant used by herbalists in various regions of Kenya, for the treatment of gastrointestinal problems. The plant sample was collected in January 2010 in Machakos, and different parts dried at room temperature under shade, ground into powder and extracted in Dichloromethane: Methanol in
the ratio 1:1, and water. These crude extracts were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger for antimicrobial activity using disc diffusion technique. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for active crude extracts were done using disc diffusion technique after the failure of agar and broth dilution methods. It was observed that the organic crude extracts of flower, leaf, stem, root, and/or entire plant, showed activity against at least one of
the four micro-organisms screened, and at concentrations lower than the aqueous crude extracts. Organic crude extract of the leaf showed the highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus (mean inhibition zone of 1.85), recording higher activity than the commercially used standard antibiotic (Streptomycin mean inhibition zone of 1.30). The organic crude extract of flower showed significant activity only against S. aureus, with the lowest MIC of 1.5625 mg/100μl, compared to streptomycin with
M.I.C of 6.25 mg/100μl. Thin Layer Chromatography-Bioautography Agar-Overlay showed that, flower alkaloids (50% active), root sapogenins (43.8% active), and root terpenoids (38.5% active) were identified as the potential antibacterial compounds against S. aureus. These results suggest that, V. glabra contains phytochemicals of medicinal properties and justify the use of V. glabra in traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of microbial based diseases. However, research on toxicity which is missing in this study is recommended for V. glabra in order to verify, validate and document the safety
of this medicinal plant to the society.

Keywords: Vernonia glabra, Antimicrobial activity, and Phytochemicals.

Kitonde C, Dossaji SF, Lukhoba CW, WAGACHA JOHNMAINA, Klittich C, Hahn D, Fotso S, Graupner P, Slanec T, Xiong Q. "In vitro studies of 3-O-Methylquercetin against phytopathogenic fungi of major cereals." Journal of Agricultural Science and Practice. 2019;4(4):102-112. Abstract

Maize, wheat, and rice are major cereal crops in the world, which provide more caloric energy than any other type of cereal class. In recent years, the yield of these cereal grains has stagnated due to a myriad of constraints, including infestation by pests and pathogens. Plant pathogens, especially agricultural phytopathogenic fungi, may be resistant to the available chemical fungicides which may have detrimental effects and are expensive. This study investigated whether natural products isolated from Linzia glabra Steetz of family Asteraceae could be used as alternative antifungals for control of cereal diseases caused by agricultural fungi. A single pure fraction was separated and identified from L. glabra methanolic flower crude extract using high performance liquid chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry methods. The pure fraction isolated was tested for inhibition of spore germination in vitro against Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium verticillioides, Zymoseptoria tritici, Ustilago maydis, and Pyricularia oryzae. The fraction was identified as a flavonol, 3-O-Methylquercetin using high resolution mass spectrometry. Among the fungi tested, spores of Z. tritici were the most susceptible to 3-O-Methylquercetin (44% spore inhibition), followed by F. oxysporum (33% inhibition) at 27 μg/mL. Azoxystrobin, a standard commercialized fungicide, gave a complete inhibition of 100% against Z. tritici and 58% inhibition against F. oxysporum at 5 μg/mL. L. glabra contains flavonols with antifungal activity, but the modest and weak antifungal activity of 3-O-Methylquercetin compared to a standard such as azoxystrobin demonstrates the challenge to produce highly potent natural product fungicides. There is need for continued search for antifungals with new modes of action as solutions to challenges in agricultural production.

Keywords: Alternative antifungals, cereal crops, flavonoid concentration, flavonols, plant diseases, Linzia glabra Steetz.

Kitonde CK, Dossaji SF, Lukhoba CW, Jumba MM. "Phytochemistry and Utilization of Vernonia glabra (Steetz) Oliv. & Hiern.in Management of Food Spoilage and Poisoning Pathogens, in Kenya." European International Journal of Science and Technology. 2014;3(1):65-72. Abstractvernonia_glabra.pdf

Food spoilage and poisoning pathogens lead to pre- and post-harvest losses of crop produce and poisoning
of food and feed stuff; posing a great threat to food security and safety worldwide. This project aimed to
investigate the pesticidal activity and presence of chemical compounds in Vernonia glabra; as an alternative
control approach, to food crop protection. Organic extracts of leaves and flowers showed the highest
activity against S. aureus (mean inhibition zones of 1.85 and 1.78 respectively), than the standard antibiotic
(Streptomycin 1.30). Flavonoids were greatly present in all extracts screened. The results of this study
justify the use of V. glabra in traditional herbal medicine, and suggest that the plant has ideal
characteristics in the application as bio-pesticide control to crops and food stuff.

Kitonde CK, F. DS, Lukhoba CW, Jumba MM. "ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF VERNONIA GLABRA (STEETZ) OLIV. & HIERN. IN KENYA." African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative medicines. 2013;10(1):149-157. Abstract

Infectious diseases are prevalent and life threatening in Kenya. Majority of the sick are seeking herbal remedies in search of effective, safe, and affordable cure. This project aims to investigate the antimicrobial activity and presence of active phytochemical compounds in different parts of Vernonia glabra ; a plant used by herbalists in various regions of Kenya, for the treatment of gastrointestinal problems. The plant sample was collected in January 2010 in Machakos, and different parts dried at room temperature under shade, ground into powder and extracted in Dichloromethane: Methanol in the ratio 1:1, and water. These crude extracts were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger for antimicrobial activity using disc diffusion technique. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for active crude extracts were done using disc diffusion technique after the failure of agar and broth dilution methods. It was observed that the organic crude extracts of flower, leaf, stem, root, and/or entire plant, showed activity against one or four micro-organisms, and at concentrations lower than the aqueous crude extracts. Organic crude extract of the leaf showed the highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus (mean inhibition zone 1.85), recording higher activity than the commercially used standard antibiotic (Streptomycin mean inhibition zone of 1.30). The organic crude extract of flower showed significant activity only against S.aureus , with the lowest MIC of 1.5625mg/100μl, compared to streptomycin with M.I.C of 6.25mg/100μl. Thin Layer Chromatography-Bioautography Agar-Overlay showed that, flower alkaloids (50% active), root sapogenins (43.8% active), and root terpenoids (38.5% active) were identified as the potential antibacterial compounds against S.aureus. These results suggest that, V.glabra contains phytochemicals of medicinal properties and justify the use of V.glabra in traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of microbial based diseases. However, research on toxicity which is missing in this study is recommended for V. glabra in order to verify, validate and document the safety of this medicinal plant to the society.

Kitonde CK, Dossaji SF, Lukhoba CW, Jumba MM. "Phytochemistry and Utilization of Vernonia glabra (Steetz) Oliv. & Hiern. in the Management of Food Spoilage and Poisoning Pathogens, in Kenya.". In: 1st International Conference Pesticidal Plants. Vol. 10.; 2013:.
Kitonde CK. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of three selected medicinal plants used to treat bacterial and fungal infections in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012. Abstract

Infectious diseases are prevalent and life threatening in Kenya. The majority of the sick are
seeking herbal remedies in search of effective, safe, and affordable treatments. This study
investigated the antimicrobial activity and presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, sapogenins,
flavonoids and quinones in different parts of Vernonia glabra, Senna didymobotrya, and
Kigelia africana. Traditionally, these medicinal plants are used to treat microbial infections in
Kenya. The plants were selected based on the available traditional medical knowledge and
literature and collected in January 2010 in Machakos and Kisumu Counties. Different parts
were dried at room temperature under shade, ground into powder and extracted in
dichloromethane: methanol (1:1) and water. The crude extracts were tested against
Staphylococcus aureus (gram positive), Escherichia coli (gram negative) bacteria, Candida
albicans (yeast fungus), and Aspergillus niger (filamentous fungus) for antimicrobial activity
and Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) determined using disc diffusion technique
under sterile conditions. Discs impregnated with standard antibiotics (Streptomycin for
bacteria and Nystatin for fungi) were used as positive controls while the extraction solvents
were used as negative controls. Antimicrobial activity was determined by measuring the
diameter of the clear inhibition zones around the paper discs using a transparent ruler (cm)
after 24 to 48 hours for bacteria and yeast fungus, and up to 72 hours for filamentous fungus.
Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) was used to determine the chemical compounds present
in selected active crude extracts. Results showed that, organic extracts of V. glabra leaf
(Mean inhibition zone of 1.85 cm) and flower (MIZ of 1.78 cm) recorded the highest activity
against S. aureus than the standard antibiotic (Streptomycin MIZ of 1.30 cm). Organic extract
of V. glabra flower showed significant activity only against S. aureus, with the lowest MIC
of 1.5625 mg/100 mL compared to streptomycin at high MIC of 6.25 mg/100 mL. Qualitative
spray reagents on TLC plates, showed the V. glabra and S. didymobotrya flavonoids highly
present; terpenoids, sapogenins and quinones sufficiently present and V. glabra flower
alkaloids greatly present. The results of this study suggest that the three plants have
significant antimicrobial properties and justify their use in traditional herbal medicine for the
management of microbial based diseases. The presence of chemical compounds in most
extracts of V. glabra indicates its potential to produce novel compounds. Bioassay-guided
fractionations are recommended to identify the compounds responsible for antimicrobial
activity. Cytotoxicity assays are highly recommended for V. glabra in order to verify,
validate and document its safety in medicine.
Key words: Microbial infections, Vernonia glabra, Senna didymobotrya, Kigelia africa

Kitonde CK, Fidahusein DS, Lukhoba CW, Jumba MM. "Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of Senna didymobotry used to treat bacterial and fungal infections in Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2014;1(2):1-12.
Kiti KR. "Beyond Gender Analysis: An Entrepreneurial Approach to Economic Empowerment for Women: ." A joint WIDE/CEEWAK publication (Aug. 1996). 1996.
Kithusi 12. GG, Knapp SK, Shibairo SI, Nderitu JH, Njoroge K. "Effects of biopestcides on spider-mites (Tranychus evansi Baker and Pritchard) in the laboratory." Phytophaga. 2004;14:1-8.
KITHURE DRKINDIKI. ""Humanitarian Intervention: Its Legality and Applicability to Internal Armed Conflicts in Africa".". In: In Volume 7 Number 1 East African Journal of Peace and Human Rights pp.16-54. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2001. Abstract

We describe the technique of splenic aspiration in 113 patients presenting with splenomegaly. It was used initially to establish a diagnosis, and in those patients with kala azar, to follow the response of the parasites to therapy until 'parasitological cure'. In all 671 aspirations were performed. No complications occurred in the 69 patients with active kala azar, who collectively had more than 600 aspirations. One patient in a moribund condition had a fatal haemorrhage. The aspirate suggested a lymphoma, confirmed at autopsy. In 68 of the 69 patients with active kala azar, the diagnosis was established at the first aspiration. The essentials of the technique are the use of a small calibre needle (21 G), and speed, the needle being in the spleen for less than a second, with the consequent procurement of a few drops of material only.

Kithure JGN, Wandiga SO, I.Jumba, Kariuki DK. "Dynamics of chlorpyrifos in water from Upper Tana River in Kenya." Open sci.Repos. 2014;e23050487.
KITHURE DRKINDIKI. ""International Humanitarian Law in Kenya: A Country Report" 4 Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law The Hague: TMC Asser Press p. 573-574.". In: In Volume 1 East African Journal of International and Comparative Law pp. 115-127. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2001. Abstract

We describe the technique of splenic aspiration in 113 patients presenting with splenomegaly. It was used initially to establish a diagnosis, and in those patients with kala azar, to follow the response of the parasites to therapy until 'parasitological cure'. In all 671 aspirations were performed. No complications occurred in the 69 patients with active kala azar, who collectively had more than 600 aspirations. One patient in a moribund condition had a fatal haemorrhage. The aspirate suggested a lymphoma, confirmed at autopsy. In 68 of the 69 patients with active kala azar, the diagnosis was established at the first aspiration. The essentials of the technique are the use of a small calibre needle (21 G), and speed, the needle being in the spleen for less than a second, with the consequent procurement of a few drops of material only.

KITHURE DRKINDIKI. ""The Normative and Institutional Framework of the African Union Relating to the Protection of Human Rights and the Maitenance of International Peace and Security: A Critical Appraisal".". In: In Volume 3 Number 1 African Human Rights Law Journal pp. 97-117. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2003. Abstract

We describe the technique of splenic aspiration in 113 patients presenting with splenomegaly. It was used initially to establish a diagnosis, and in those patients with kala azar, to follow the response of the parasites to therapy until 'parasitological cure'. In all 671 aspirations were performed. No complications occurred in the 69 patients with active kala azar, who collectively had more than 600 aspirations. One patient in a moribund condition had a fatal haemorrhage. The aspirate suggested a lymphoma, confirmed at autopsy. In 68 of the 69 patients with active kala azar, the diagnosis was established at the first aspiration. The essentials of the technique are the use of a small calibre needle (21 G), and speed, the needle being in the spleen for less than a second, with the consequent procurement of a few drops of material only.

Kithure JGN, Wanjau RN, Murungi JI, Thoruwa CL, Tum PK. "Fate of lambda-cyhalothrin in kales, tomatoes and cabbage from rural setting in Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2017;4(2):12-18.kithure.pdf
KITHURE DRKINDIKI. "(With Kivutha Kibwana) "Kenya" in Christof Heyns (ed) in Volume 2 Human Rights Law in Africa Kluwer: The Hague 1178-1202.". In: In Volume 14 Lesotho Law Journal pp. 51-75. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2004. Abstract

We describe the technique of splenic aspiration in 113 patients presenting with splenomegaly. It was used initially to establish a diagnosis, and in those patients with kala azar, to follow the response of the parasites to therapy until 'parasitological cure'. In all 671 aspirations were performed. No complications occurred in the 69 patients with active kala azar, who collectively had more than 600 aspirations. One patient in a moribund condition had a fatal haemorrhage. The aspirate suggested a lymphoma, confirmed at autopsy. In 68 of the 69 patients with active kala azar, the diagnosis was established at the first aspiration. The essentials of the technique are the use of a small calibre needle (21 G), and speed, the needle being in the spleen for less than a second, with the consequent procurement of a few drops of material only.

KITHURE DRKINDIKI. ""The Years on: The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwands Constributions to International Criminal Law: in Volume 31-34 Eastern Africa Law Review pp. 76-100.". In: In Volume 23 Forced Migration Review p. 37. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2004. Abstract

We describe the technique of splenic aspiration in 113 patients presenting with splenomegaly. It was used initially to establish a diagnosis, and in those patients with kala azar, to follow the response of the parasites to therapy until 'parasitological cure'. In all 671 aspirations were performed. No complications occurred in the 69 patients with active kala azar, who collectively had more than 600 aspirations. One patient in a moribund condition had a fatal haemorrhage. The aspirate suggested a lymphoma, confirmed at autopsy. In 68 of the 69 patients with active kala azar, the diagnosis was established at the first aspiration. The essentials of the technique are the use of a small calibre needle (21 G), and speed, the needle being in the spleen for less than a second, with the consequent procurement of a few drops of material only.

KITHURE DRKINDIKI. ""The Contribution of the International Criminal tribunal for Rwanda to the Development of International Humanitarian Law".". In: In Volume 33 Zambia Law Journal pp. 34-50. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2001. Abstract

We describe the technique of splenic aspiration in 113 patients presenting with splenomegaly. It was used initially to establish a diagnosis, and in those patients with kala azar, to follow the response of the parasites to therapy until 'parasitological cure'. In all 671 aspirations were performed. No complications occurred in the 69 patients with active kala azar, who collectively had more than 600 aspirations. One patient in a moribund condition had a fatal haemorrhage. The aspirate suggested a lymphoma, confirmed at autopsy. In 68 of the 69 patients with active kala azar, the diagnosis was established at the first aspiration. The essentials of the technique are the use of a small calibre needle (21 G), and speed, the needle being in the spleen for less than a second, with the consequent procurement of a few drops of material only.

KITHURE DRKINDIKI. ""Prosecuting the Perpetrators of the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda: Its Basis in International Law and Imlications for the Protection of Human Rights in Africa".". In: In Volume 1 Number 1 (2001) African Human Rights Law Journal pp. 63-76. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2001. Abstract

We describe the technique of splenic aspiration in 113 patients presenting with splenomegaly. It was used initially to establish a diagnosis, and in those patients with kala azar, to follow the response of the parasites to therapy until 'parasitological cure'. In all 671 aspirations were performed. No complications occurred in the 69 patients with active kala azar, who collectively had more than 600 aspirations. One patient in a moribund condition had a fatal haemorrhage. The aspirate suggested a lymphoma, confirmed at autopsy. In 68 of the 69 patients with active kala azar, the diagnosis was established at the first aspiration. The essentials of the technique are the use of a small calibre needle (21 G), and speed, the needle being in the spleen for less than a second, with the consequent procurement of a few drops of material only.

Kithure JGN. ). Statistics for Chemists (Questions and Answers) . Moldova Europe: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, trade mark of Dodo Books Indian Ocean Ltd., member of the OmniScriptum S.R.L Publishing group. Str. A. Russo 15, of 61, Chisinau-2068, Republic of Moldova Europe. Printed by Printforce, United Kingdom. ISBN: 978-620-0-5490; 2022.
KITHURE DRKINDIKI. "Humanitarian intervention and State Sovereignity in Africa: The Changing Paradigms in International Law Occasional Paper Number 3 Centre for Refugee Studies, MUP, ISSN: 1727-1746.". In: In Volume 3 Number 1 African Human Rights Law Journal pp. 97-117. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2003. Abstract

We describe the technique of splenic aspiration in 113 patients presenting with splenomegaly. It was used initially to establish a diagnosis, and in those patients with kala azar, to follow the response of the parasites to therapy until 'parasitological cure'. In all 671 aspirations were performed. No complications occurred in the 69 patients with active kala azar, who collectively had more than 600 aspirations. One patient in a moribund condition had a fatal haemorrhage. The aspirate suggested a lymphoma, confirmed at autopsy. In 68 of the 69 patients with active kala azar, the diagnosis was established at the first aspiration. The essentials of the technique are the use of a small calibre needle (21 G), and speed, the needle being in the spleen for less than a second, with the consequent procurement of a few drops of material only.

KITHURE DRKINDIKI. ""A Preliminary Comment on th Independence of the Kenya National Commission on Human Rights".". In: In Volume 2 Number 2 East African Journal of Human Rights and Democracy p. 120-127. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2004. Abstract

We describe the technique of splenic aspiration in 113 patients presenting with splenomegaly. It was used initially to establish a diagnosis, and in those patients with kala azar, to follow the response of the parasites to therapy until 'parasitological cure'. In all 671 aspirations were performed. No complications occurred in the 69 patients with active kala azar, who collectively had more than 600 aspirations. One patient in a moribund condition had a fatal haemorrhage. The aspirate suggested a lymphoma, confirmed at autopsy. In 68 of the 69 patients with active kala azar, the diagnosis was established at the first aspiration. The essentials of the technique are the use of a small calibre needle (21 G), and speed, the needle being in the spleen for less than a second, with the consequent procurement of a few drops of material only.

KITHURE DRKINDIKI. ""Towards Constitutional Protection of Socio-Economic Rights in Kenya: Any Lessons From the South African Expereience?.". In: In Volume 14 Lesotho Law Journal pp. 51-75. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2004. Abstract

We describe the technique of splenic aspiration in 113 patients presenting with splenomegaly. It was used initially to establish a diagnosis, and in those patients with kala azar, to follow the response of the parasites to therapy until 'parasitological cure'. In all 671 aspirations were performed. No complications occurred in the 69 patients with active kala azar, who collectively had more than 600 aspirations. One patient in a moribund condition had a fatal haemorrhage. The aspirate suggested a lymphoma, confirmed at autopsy. In 68 of the 69 patients with active kala azar, the diagnosis was established at the first aspiration. The essentials of the technique are the use of a small calibre needle (21 G), and speed, the needle being in the spleen for less than a second, with the consequent procurement of a few drops of material only.

KITHURE DRKINDIKI. ""The African Peace and Security Council and the Charter of the United Nations".". In: In Volume 1 Number 1 , The Law Soceity of Kenya Journal p. 77. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2005. Abstract

We describe the technique of splenic aspiration in 113 patients presenting with splenomegaly. It was used initially to establish a diagnosis, and in those patients with kala azar, to follow the response of the parasites to therapy until 'parasitological cure'. In all 671 aspirations were performed. No complications occurred in the 69 patients with active kala azar, who collectively had more than 600 aspirations. One patient in a moribund condition had a fatal haemorrhage. The aspirate suggested a lymphoma, confirmed at autopsy. In 68 of the 69 patients with active kala azar, the diagnosis was established at the first aspiration. The essentials of the technique are the use of a small calibre needle (21 G), and speed, the needle being in the spleen for less than a second, with the consequent procurement of a few drops of material only.

KITHURE DRKINDIKI. ""Gross Violations of Human Rights: Whither Humanitarian intervention?" in Conflict Trends pp. 26-31.". In: In Volume 1 Number 1 (2001) African Human Rights Law Journal pp. 63-76. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2001. Abstract

We describe the technique of splenic aspiration in 113 patients presenting with splenomegaly. It was used initially to establish a diagnosis, and in those patients with kala azar, to follow the response of the parasites to therapy until 'parasitological cure'. In all 671 aspirations were performed. No complications occurred in the 69 patients with active kala azar, who collectively had more than 600 aspirations. One patient in a moribund condition had a fatal haemorrhage. The aspirate suggested a lymphoma, confirmed at autopsy. In 68 of the 69 patients with active kala azar, the diagnosis was established at the first aspiration. The essentials of the technique are the use of a small calibre needle (21 G), and speed, the needle being in the spleen for less than a second, with the consequent procurement of a few drops of material only.

KITHURE DRKINDIKI. ""The General Principles of the Law of International Watercourses".". In: In Volume 1 East African Journal of International and Comparative Law pp. 115-127. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2002. Abstract

We describe the technique of splenic aspiration in 113 patients presenting with splenomegaly. It was used initially to establish a diagnosis, and in those patients with kala azar, to follow the response of the parasites to therapy until 'parasitological cure'. In all 671 aspirations were performed. No complications occurred in the 69 patients with active kala azar, who collectively had more than 600 aspirations. One patient in a moribund condition had a fatal haemorrhage. The aspirate suggested a lymphoma, confirmed at autopsy. In 68 of the 69 patients with active kala azar, the diagnosis was established at the first aspiration. The essentials of the technique are the use of a small calibre needle (21 G), and speed, the needle being in the spleen for less than a second, with the consequent procurement of a few drops of material only.

Kithure JGN, Musundi KW, Waithaka KM. "The Effectiveness of the Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plants in Kenya. ." EJERS, European Journal of Engineering Research and Science. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.24018/ejers.2020.5.9.2131. . 2020;5(9):1143-1154.
KITHURE DRKINDIKI. ""The Increasing Role of African Intergovernmental Organisations in Issues of Regional Peace, Security and the Protection of Human Rights: Legal Aspects:.". In: in Volume 35 Zambia Law Journal pp. 74-103. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2003. Abstract

We describe the technique of splenic aspiration in 113 patients presenting with splenomegaly. It was used initially to establish a diagnosis, and in those patients with kala azar, to follow the response of the parasites to therapy until 'parasitological cure'. In all 671 aspirations were performed. No complications occurred in the 69 patients with active kala azar, who collectively had more than 600 aspirations. One patient in a moribund condition had a fatal haemorrhage. The aspirate suggested a lymphoma, confirmed at autopsy. In 68 of the 69 patients with active kala azar, the diagnosis was established at the first aspiration. The essentials of the technique are the use of a small calibre needle (21 G), and speed, the needle being in the spleen for less than a second, with the consequent procurement of a few drops of material only.

KITHURE DRKINDIKI. "Universal Jurisdiction for International Crimes, the Public Good and the Changing Face of state Sovereignty" in Volume 2 University of Nairobi Law Journal pp. 116-140.". In: In Volume 14 Lesotho Law Journal pp. 51-75. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2004. Abstract

We describe the technique of splenic aspiration in 113 patients presenting with splenomegaly. It was used initially to establish a diagnosis, and in those patients with kala azar, to follow the response of the parasites to therapy until 'parasitological cure'. In all 671 aspirations were performed. No complications occurred in the 69 patients with active kala azar, who collectively had more than 600 aspirations. One patient in a moribund condition had a fatal haemorrhage. The aspirate suggested a lymphoma, confirmed at autopsy. In 68 of the 69 patients with active kala azar, the diagnosis was established at the first aspiration. The essentials of the technique are the use of a small calibre needle (21 G), and speed, the needle being in the spleen for less than a second, with the consequent procurement of a few drops of material only.

KITHURE DRKINDIKI. ""Europe and the Reconstruction of Somalia?".". In: In Volume 23 Forced Migration Review p. 37. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2005. Abstract

We describe the technique of splenic aspiration in 113 patients presenting with splenomegaly. It was used initially to establish a diagnosis, and in those patients with kala azar, to follow the response of the parasites to therapy until 'parasitological cure'. In all 671 aspirations were performed. No complications occurred in the 69 patients with active kala azar, who collectively had more than 600 aspirations. One patient in a moribund condition had a fatal haemorrhage. The aspirate suggested a lymphoma, confirmed at autopsy. In 68 of the 69 patients with active kala azar, the diagnosis was established at the first aspiration. The essentials of the technique are the use of a small calibre needle (21 G), and speed, the needle being in the spleen for less than a second, with the consequent procurement of a few drops of material only.

Kithungu Rose Mwikali DKGGMK&. ".Influence of students’ aspirations on choice of computer studies in public and private secondary schools in Machakos Sub-County. ." International Journal of Education and Research. 2016;4(8).
peter Kithunga N. Factors Influencing Product Innovation among Medium and Large Manufacturing Firms in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1991. Abstract

Purpose – The study sought to determine the factors that influence the introduction of new products by manufacturing firms in Kenya.

Methodology – Primary data was collected from a sample of 32 manufacturing firms that had undertaken product innovation within Nairobi’s Industrial area over a period of three years. A self-administered questionnaire to the marketing or product managers was employed to collect data.

Findings – Using factor ranking to calculate the coefficient of concordance and by computing mean scores of the factors, the most influential factors in the order of degree were customer orientation, level of competition, technology and availability of a Research and Development department.

Practical Implication – The level of competition and customer orientation should be taken into account by firms when introducing new products to the market.

Key words: Product innovation, medium

KITHUNGA PETERN. "Brand Associations and Consumer Perceptions of Value of Products.". 2002. Abstract

Purpose - Brands are so valuable that companies may soon include a ‘statement of value’ addendum to their balance sheets to include intangibles such as the value of their brands.
This paper examines the importance of brands and the bases for purchase decision and loyalty. The bases are derived from a theoretical framework on the perceptual dimensions of brand association. The framework contains attributes, application, benefits, user, personality and country of origin as the associations that consumers use in their purchase decisions and loyalty.
Practical implications- The growing importance of brands and consumer perceptions of brands among marketing researchers requires that an extensive conceptual treatment of brand association be developed. The paper shows the nature of brand association and the future directions in the measurement of perceptual dimension of brand associations.

Key Words: Brand association, consumer perception, formation of brand association

Kithuka, J.M., Irandu EM, Moronge JM. "The role of periodic markets in provision of manufactured goods and creation of income in rural areas: a case study of selected markets in Mukaa Sub County; Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2020;7(5 ):65-79.
Kithinji AM. "The Effect of Bank Restructuring on Financial Performance Controlled by Customer Deposits: An Empirical Investigation of Commercial Banks in Kenya ." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR INNOVATIVE RESEARCH IN MULTIDISCIPLINARY FIELD. 2019;5(1):13-19. Abstract

Abstract: The ability of commercial banks to provide market knowledge, transaction efficiency and contract
enforcement create demand for its services in the financial markets. Commercial banks operating in Kenya have
undertaken restructuring so as to be more competitive, to restore bank solvency, to increase the banking sector
capacity for financial intermediation and to improve financial performance. Previous researches done on the aspects
of bank restructuring and financial performance found conflicting results and some of them did not include the
intervening effect of deposits on this relationship. The study is informed by the theory of financial intermediation,
agency theory, and the institutional theory. This study sought to investigate the relationship between bank
restructuring, deposits and financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya. The population of the study was
the 44 commercial banks licensed and registered under the banking act to do business in Kenya but data availed
from financial statements of 39 commercial banks which were in operation for the period 2002 to 2014. Descriptive
and inferential data analysis methods were used to analyze the secondary data collected. The empirical findings
conclude that commercial banks use all the four types of bank restructuring which were financial, capital, operational
and asset restructuring. The findings of the first model revealed that capital restructuring, and asset restructuring
were the only variables found to have significant positive and negative influence respectively on the performance of
commercial banks in Kenya. In testing the second hypothesis, deposit were used as an intervening variable on the
relationship between bank restructuring and financial performance, where financial restructuring and capital
restructuring was found to significantly cause an increase in the profit margin of commercial banks while operational
restructuring and deposits were found to have a significant negative effect on bank profits. The composite variable
of financial services was not found to have a significant effect. Therefore, the research disclosed that operational
restructuring, and deposits did not influence banks profitability. The research concludes that the performance of most
commercial banks in Kenya is determined through restructuring banks’ financial and capital ratios The study
recommends that there is need to institute policy reforms geared towards viable restructuring and deposit
mobilization and that to continuously improve bank performance banks should encourage more borrowing and funds
from shareholders and banks need to continuously focus on restructuring rather than ownership.

Key Words: Bank Restructuring, Capital, Financial, Asset, Operational, Deposits.
1. INTRODUCTION:
Bank restructuring is usually undertaken to address the problems in individual banks experiencing

Kithinji AM. "BANK SIZE AS A MODERATING FACTOR ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BANK RESTRUCTURING AND FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN KENYA ." International Journal of Business Management and Economic Review. 2018;5(1):298-307. Abstractdr._angela_kithinji_publications_2018_to_2019_1.pdf

ABSTRACT
The main goal of this research was to examine how bank size moderates the relationship between
bank restructuring and financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya. This study
employed descriptive research design. The study was a census of all the 44 commercial banks in
Kenya which were in operation as at 31st December 2014. This research collected secondary
data gotten from banks annual report for the period of ranging from 2002 to 2014. The regression
analysis model was used to estimate the moderating effect of size on the relationship between
bank restructuring and profitability. The study established that moderation of the relationship
between bank restructuring and financial performance using bank size was not significantly
influenced by financial restructuring, operational restructuring and asset restructuring on
financial performance of commercial banks. However, when bank restructuring variables were
interacted with bank size the findings are that only capital restructuring had a significant
interaction. It was therefore, concluded that bank size therefore moderates the relationship
between bank restructuring and financial performance. The study recommends that there is need
to institute policy reforms geared towards increasing the size of banks either internally by
increasing their asset size or through mergers to expand their size. The regulator can also embark
on setting a minimum size threshold with a view to significantly reducing the number of banks
which would translate into the remaining ones becoming larger. Furthermore, there is need for
commercial banks to strike a balance between enhancing their operations through operational
restructuring or improving profits by focusing on aspects that have a direct positive effect on
profits.

Keyword: Bank Size, Bank Restructuring, Financial Performance, Commercial Banks

Kithinji J. "Genetic divergence in Jatropha curcas L., a potential biofuel crop in Kenya." Future science Journal. 2013;4(3):313-322.
Kithinji AM. "The Effect of Government Expenditure on Fiscal Deficits in Kenya." THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLEDGE . 2019;7(2):122-125. Abstract

Abstract:
In many economies world over, accountability and transparency as well as fiscal discipline in public expenditures take
priority as the main catalysts to economic growth. However, large fiscal deficits have been reported in most developing
countries which lead to inflation and currency devaluations. In this case, Kenyan government is no exception as its
expenditures are consistently way above its revenues. This study therefore attempted to assess the relationship between
government expenditure and fiscal deficit in Kenya. This study used a causal research design. Secondary data was
obtained from the financial records of National Bureau of Statistics, The Economic Surveys, Kenya Institute of Policy
Analysis and Research (KIPRA) and the Institute of Policy Analysis and Research (IPAR) ranging from year 2004/05 to
2010/11. Regression model was used to estimate the effect of government expenditure on fiscal deficits. The study
established that a unit increase in government expenditure, increases fiscal deficit of GDP. The study recommends that
the government of Kenya should come up with strong working policy to regulate the expenditure of its resources.

Keywords: Government expenditure, fiscal deficits, recurrent expenditures, development expenditures, budget deficits

Kithinji NB. Systems approach to building project management: experience from Kenya .; 1988. Abstract

This report is an attempt to impress on managers of building projects the relevance and importance of the systems approach to management in their field. To achieve this aim the report has started by examining some common theoretical models of management and their inherent shortcomings in the management of complex problems such as building projects. The complexity of building projects is demonstrated throuqh a discussion of their resource markets which are found to be highly differentiated yet interdependent. The building process itself is made up of different activities which often require different skills, materials and facilities. As a consequence, a wide range of participants are involved in building projects. This raises the need to coordinate their inputs. The systems approach and its concepts which are most relevant to building project management is discussed. Its place in project management is illustrated with parallels drawn from districts which form the case studies for the research. ~. Among" the most important concepts discussed is the environment. It is the framework of forces within which construction activity takes place. The extent of the environment of a project depends on its resources requirements. Various aspects of the environment affect the execution of building projects. The environment is usually turbulent and projects are vulnerable to the turbulence. The functions of the managerial system of a project are considered in detail. They include the planning; securing and bringing together various inputs in amounts and modes which best suit the requirements of a project. It resolves disputes among project participants and controls the interaction between the project and its environment. In so doing the project is shielded from harmful environmental effects while the environment is protected from the harmful products of a project. Two case studies reveal that project management in districts is disjointed and suffers from technical, managerial, and logistic problems. There is poor coordination between and among participants and projects. Resources are not adequately planned and controlled. Procedures are constrained by bureaucracy and shortage of facilities. A major conclusion of the study is that the organization structure within which building projects are managed is not suitable for the tasks involved in building. The inappropriateness-is largely, the result of Iack of channels for speedy communciation within the structure and the rigidity of the structure especially with regard to the expenditure of authority. The recommendations that are given aim to make the authority structure more flexible to allow a faster rate of discharging duties while at the same time disallowing wasteful operations which result from poor planning and control.

Kithiia SM, Koech RK. "Impacts of Forest Resource Use Conflicts on Conservation Efforts within Enderit Forest Block in Mau Forest Complex, Kenya." European Journal of Geography . 2020;Volume 11(Issue 3,):153-163 .
Kithiia. "Water Quality Degradation Trends in Kenya over the Last Decade .". In: Water Quality Monitoring and Assessment. Rijeka: Intech Publishers; 2012.
Kithiia SM, Wambua BN. "Temporal changes of sediments dynamics within the Nairobi River sub-basins between 1998 - 2006 time scale, kenya." Annals of warsaw University of life sciences(SGGW) land reclamation. 2010;42(42(1)):17.
Kithiia. Impacts of sediments yields and water quality on the Nairobi River basin ecosystem, Kenya. . Warsaw University of Life Sciences-SGGW: IAHS; 2010.
Kithiia SK, Krhoda G, Wambua BN. "Land Alienation, Livelihood and Integrated Water resources Management Strategy in Tana River County.". In: Tana River County Sustainable Resource Utilization and Environmental Management. Proceedings of the National Scientific Conference on the Tana River county; Nema/Wetlands International/UoN. Mombasa, Kenya; 2014.
Kithiia SM. "A Critical Analysis of the Water Quality Impacts on Water Resources in the Athi River Drainage Basin, Kenya.". In: Water Quaity-Factors and Impacts. Rijeka, Croatia: Intech Publishers; 2021.
Kitheka JU, Mavuti KM. "Tana Delta and Sabaki Estuaries of Kenya: Freshwater and Sediment Input, Upstream Threats and Management Challenges." Estuaries: A Lifeline of Ecosystem Services in the Western Indian Ocean. 2016:89-109.
Kitheka JU, Mavuti KM, Nthenge P, Obiero M. "The turbidity maximum zone in a shallow, well-flushed Sabaki estuary in Kenya." Journal of Sea Research. 2016;110:17-28.
Kithaka WM. ""Literature.". 1990.Website
Kithaka WM. "Language.". 1990.Website
Kithaka WM. "Kikuyu Belief System.". 1989.Website
Kithaka WM. "Fishing and Bee - Keeping .". 1990.Website
Kitata M. Rhetorical Strategies in the Novels of Chinua Achebe. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2014.
Kitata M. "Re-narrating the Eastern Africa Coast through music on YouTube: Vitali Maembe’s Little Town Bagamoyo." African Identities. 2021:1-16. Abstract

The Eastern Africa coast has been a complex contact theatre between overseas peoples and the local population. These interconnections have over time produced mixed identities and cultural adaptation processes, expression, and transmission which are foundations of present-day Eastern Africa histories. The musician – historian’s account reflects the coastal identities as not simply painful and isolated historical creations upon a place, but also a part of global processes of cultural productions and affirmation. Through YouTube video, the coastal musician retells the coast’s history thereby preserving memory and lessons leant. The creative artist unveils the history – in an effort to gain inspiration from a cultural and commercial identity formation process. This paper, through Vitali Maembe’s YouTube music video, Little Town Bagamoyo, seeks to highlight the narrative that music exposes in retelling East African coast

Kitata M. "Sexualising the performance, objectifying the performer: The twerk dance in Kenya." Agenda. 2020;34(3):11-21. Abstract

Shifting arenas of dance performance and youths’ counterculture have brought the twerk to the internet, thus exposing it to the discourse of cultural imperialism, appropriation, and cultural resistance. This has changed the symbolism of the art form: from a performance meant for celebration, to a dance of sexual rage. The media associates the dance with bottom provocation, prostitution or celebrity achievement stories − rarely celebrating the intellect, aesthetics or the expression of freedom in it. From a western point of view, twerking is overly sexualised and the performers participants in a cultural notoriety – thus, objectifying it. However, in its original context it is primarily a dance for festive celebrations. As a form of artistic expression resisting cultural destruction in Kenya, twerk is a way of re-politicising the African female body, and decolonising it from the male, western influenced gaze. Sexual expression in it is …

Kitata M. "The Problematics of Naming in Kenyan Creative Narratives." Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies. 2020;6(1):1-15. Abstract

There is a tendency in Kenyan literature, which can be defined as ahistorical ethnopolitanism. In this approach the writer chooses to use names of characters and places that indicate an attempt to see the Kenyan community from a distance. The result is that, in the push for inclusivity in works of literature, the very idea an authentic record of history and self-knowledge is lost: Real actors are alienated from the story of the history of the country; the background loses its referential significance; fantasy contexts are created to overlay and erase the real; and an atmosphere of namelessness is prioritised. This paper is a preliminary critique of these traits in contemporary Kenyan creative narrative. It seeks to highlight how such an approach – whose aim is to create a text that sidesteps ethnic politics – paradoxically undermines the writers’ efforts.

Kitaoka M, Mitoma J, Asakura H, Anyenda OE, et al. "The relationship between hypertension and health-related quality of life: adjusted by chronic pain diseases, and life habits in the general middle-aged population in Japan." Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine. 2016;21(4):193-214.
Kitala P, McDermott J, Dye C. "Transmission dynamics of dog rabies in Machakos district, Kenya.". 1997. Abstract

Rabies is still prevalent in most parts of the developing WOrld, with approximately 4 million people in Asia, Africa, and South America receiving post-exposure treatment and over 30 000 dying after being bitten by rabid dogs (WHO, 1992). In Kenya, rabies has been common in Machakos District for at least 40 years. We have undertaken several studies in recent years to collect information on dog ecology, dog population dynamics and rabies epidemiology required to improve rabies control in this district (Kitala et aI., 1993; Kitala and McDermott, 1995). Given this baseline data, mathematical models, often quite simple ones, can serve as a useful tool for predicting disease incidence under different natural and disease control scenarios (Anderson and May, 1991) and have been used to advantage in assessing rabies epidemiology, particularly in fox populations in Europe and North America (e.g. Anderson et al., 1981; Voigt et al., 1985). In this paper, we describe a simple deterministic model of rabies which incorporates both transitions between the main rabies disease states and dog populaton parameters. particularly thresholds for dog density. We compare model predictions to observed patterns of rabies in Machakos District and also explore the potential efficacy of different rabies control programmes.

Kitaka N, Harper DM, Mavuti KM. "Phosphorus inputs to Lake Naivasha, Kenya, from its catchment and the trophic state of the lake.". 2002. AbstractPhosphorus inputs to Lake Naivasha, Kenya, from its catchment and the trophic state of the lake

The main river supplying Lake Naivasha, Kenya, the Malewa, drains a catchment given over to largely subsistence cultivation and animal husbandry. The lake itself is the focus for an intensive horticultural industry based upon irrigation from the lake. The Malewa, however, is relatively independent of the impact of industry, and so its contribution to eutrophication of the lake was evaluated. Two periods of study, a very wet-dry and a `normal' wet-dry season showed that the river contribution of phosphorus led to a total phosphorus loading of 1.4 g m−2 lake surface ann−1 in the very wet period compared to 0.2 in the `normal'. Chlorophyll `a' in the open water of the lake was significantly related to soluble reactive phosphorus. The lake is now eutrophic by normal limnological criteria.

Kitabchi AE, Ayyagari V, Guerra SM. "The efficacy of low-dose versus conventional therapy of insulin for treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis." Annals of Internal Medicine. 1976;84:633-638. Abstract

The effect of low-dose intramuscular insulin therapy was compared with that of high-dose insulin therapy by intravenous and subcutaneous routes in 48 patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. A simplified protocol was devised to compare efficacy of the two methods of therapy in a randomized manner. Plasma glucose dropped to less than 250 mg/dl in the low-dose group in 6.7 +/- 0.8 h and in the high-dose group in 4.5 +/- 0.8 h (P = not significant). The amount of insulin necessary to lower plasma glucose to 250 mg/dl was 263 +/- 45 U in the high-dose group and 46 +/- 5 U in the low-dose group. Twenty five percent in the high-dose group and none in the low-dose group developed hypoglycemia. Other biochemical and clinical variables in the two groups were comparable. No treatment complications were noted in the low-dose group. Our studies suggest that low-dose intramuscular insulin therapy is simple and as effective as high-dose therapy in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis without the risk of hypoglycemia and with a diminished incidence of hypokalemia. Furthermore, the favorable response of these patients to low-dose insulin therapy suggests the absence of insulin resistance in diabetic ketoacidosis.

Kitabchi AE, Umpierrez GE, Murphy MB, Barrett EJ, Kreisberg RA, Malone JI, Wall BM. "Management of hyperglycemic crises in patients with diabetes." Diabetes Care. 2001;24:131-153. Abstract
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Kitabchi AE, Umpierrez GE, Fisher JN, Murphy MB, Stentz FB. "Thirty years of personal experience in hyperglycemic crises: diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state." The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2008;93:1541-1552. Abstract

CONTEXT: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) cause major morbidity and significant mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. For more than 30 yr, our group, in a series of prospective, randomized clinical studies, has investigated the pathogenesis and evolving strategies of the treatment of hyperglycemic crises. This paper summarizes the results of these prospective studies on the management and pathophysiology of DKA. SETTING: Our earliest studies evaluated the comparative efficacy of low-dose vs. pharmacological amounts of insulin and the use of low-dose therapy by various routes in adults and later in children. Subsequent studies evaluated phosphate and bicarbonate therapy, lipid metabolism, ketosis-prone type 2 patients, and use of rapid-acting insulin analogs as well as leptin status, cardiac risk factors, proinflammatory cytokines, and the mechanism of activation of T lymphocytes in hyperglycemic crises. MAIN OUTCOME: The information garnered from these studies resulted in the creation of the 2001 American Diabetes Association (ADA) technical review on DKA and HHS as well as the ADA Position and Consensus Paper on the therapy for hyperglycemic crises. CONCLUSIONS: Areas of future research include prospective randomized studies to do the following: 1) establish the efficacy of bicarbonate therapy in DKA for a pH less than 6.9; 2) establish the need for a bolus insulin dose in the initial therapy of DKA; 3) determine the pathophysiological mechanisms for the absence of ketosis in HHS; 4) investigate the reasons for elevated proinflammatory cytokines and cardiovascular risk factors; and 5) evaluate the efficacy and cost benefit of using sc regular insulin vs. more expensive insulin analogs on the general ward for the treatment of DKA.

Kitabchi AE, Murphy MB, Spencer J, Matteri R, Karas J. "Is a priming dose of insulin necessary in a low-dose insulin protocol for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis?" Diabetes Care. 2008;31:2081-2085. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of an insulin priming dose with a continuous insulin infusion versus two continuous infusions without a priming dose. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This prospective randomized protocol used three insulin therapy methods: 1) load group using a priming dose of 0.07 units of regular insulin per kg body weight followed by a dose of 0.07 unit x kg(-1) x h(-1) i.v. in 12 patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA); 2) no load group using an infusion of regular insulin of 0.07 unit . kg body weight(-1) x h(-1) without a loading dose in 12 patients with DKA, and 3) twice no load group using an infusion of regular insulin of 0.14 x kg(-1) x h(-1) without a loading dose in 13 patients with DKA. Outcome was based on the effects of insulin therapy on biochemical and hormonal changes during treatment and recovery of DKA. RESULTS: The load group reached a peak in free insulin value (460 microU/ml) within 5 min and plateaued at 88 microU/ml in 60 min. The twice no load group reached a peak (200 microU/ml) at 45 min. The no load group reached a peak (60 microU/ml) in 60-120 min. Five patients in the no load group required supplemental insulin doses to decrease initial glucose levels by 10%; patients in the twice no load and load groups did not. Except for these differences, times to reach glucose {\textless}or=250 mg/dl, pH {\textgreater}or=7.3, and HCO(3)(-) {\textgreater}or=15 mEq/l did not differ significantly among the three groups. CONCLUSIONS: A priming dose in low-dose insulin therapy in patients with DKA is unnecessary if an adequate dose of regular insulin of 0.14 unit x kg body weight(-1) x h(-1) (about 10 units/h in a 70-kg patient) is given.

Kitabchi AE, Umpierrez GE, Miles JM, Fisher JN. "Hyperglycemic crises in adult patients with diabetes." Diabetes Care. 2009;32:1335-1343. Abstract
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Kitaa JMA, Mulei CM, Wabacha JK, Mande JD. "A retrospective study of clinical presentation of canine ehrlichiosis in the Small Animal Clinic of the University of Nairobi.". In: 47th Annual Scientific Conference of the Kenya Veterinary Association.; 2013. Abstract
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Kitaa JMA, Abuom TO, Gitonga P, Muraya J. "Chronic pododermatitis in a Great Dane.". In: 44th Annual Scientific Conference of the Kenya Veterinary Association. Almond Resort, Garissa Kenya; 2010.
Kitaa JMA, Mulei CM, Mande JD, Wabacha J. "A retrospective study of canine ehrlichiosis in Kenya.". 2014. Abstract
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Kitaa JMA, Mulei CM, Wabacha JK, Mande JD. "A retrospective study of clinical presentation of canine ehrlichiosis in the Small Animal Clinic of the University of Nairobi.". In: 47th Annual Scientific Conference of the Kenya Veterinary Association. Whitesands Hotel, Mombasa Kenya; 2013.
Kitaa JMA, Mulei CM, Mande JD, Wabacha J, others. "A retrospective study of canine ehrlichiosis in Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2014;3:122-124. Abstract
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