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English M, Gathara D, Mwinga S, Ayieko P, Opondo C, Aluvaala J, Kihuba E, Mwaniki P, Were F, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Wasunna A, Mogoa W, Nyamai R. "Adoption of recommended practices and basic technologies in a low-income setting." Arch Dis Child. 2014;(99):452-456.adoption_of_recommended_practices_and_basic_technologies_in_a_low-income_setting.pdf
Kemboi AK, Mbugua JK, Madadi VO, Guto PM, Kamau GN. "Adsorption Characteristics of Captafol Pesticide by Sediment and Soil Samples: Apparent Thermodynamic Properties Using Spectroscopic Methods." International Journal of BioChemiPhysics. 2014;22:61-68.
Kemboi AK, Mbugua JK, Madadi VO, Guto PM, Kamau GN. "Adsorption Characteristics of Captafol Pesticide by Sediment and Soil Samples: Apparent Thermodynamic Properties Using Spectroscopic Methods." International Journal of BioChemiPhysics. 2014;22:61-68.
Mbugua JK, Michira IN, Kagwanja SM, Madadi VO, Zeranyika M, Kamau GN. "Adsorption of 2,4,4,5,6-Tetrachloroisophthalonitrile (Chlorothalonil) by Nairobi River Sediments: Adsorption characteristics and Related Thermodynamic Data." International Journal of BioChemiPhysics. 2012;20:25-37.
Mbugua JK, Michira IN, Kagwanja SM, Madandi VO, Zaranyika MF, Kamau GN. "Adsorption of 2,4,5,6-tetra chloroisophthalonitrile by Nairobi river sediments: Adsorption characteristics and related thermodynamic data." International Journal of Biochemiphysics. 2012;20:25-37.
Mbugua JK, Kemboi A, Michira IN, Madadi VO, Zaranyika MF, Kamau GN. "Adsorption of Atrazine pesticide by sediment and soil samples: Effect of Equilibration Time on the Freundlich Parameter (n)." International Journal of BioChemiPhysics. 2014;22:31-41.
Mbugua JK, Kemboi A, Michira I, Madadi V, Zaranyika M, Kamau G. "Adsorption of Atrazine Pesticide by sediments and soil samples: Apparent thermodynamic properties." International Journal of Biochemiphysics. 2013;07(10).
K. MJ, Mbui DN, G.N. K. "Adsorption of Dursban (Chlorpyrifos) Pesticide by Loam soil fro Limuru, Kenya: Apparent Thermodynamic Properties." African Journal of Physical Sciences. 2014;1(1):1-9.
Cheruiyot GK, Wanyonyi WC, Kiplimo JJ, Maina EN. "Adsorption of toxic crystal violet dye using coffee husks: equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics study." Scientific African. 2019;5:e00116. Abstract
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Karani PF. "Adult and Continuing Education in Kenya.". In: National Symposium on Adult and Continuing Education (ACE) in Kenya. Kenya School of Monetary Studies, Nairobi. Kenya.; 2003.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Adult Education and Development in Kenya, the Experience of the Kenya Adult Education Association., Proceeding of African Adult Education Association Workshop for National Secretaries and Leaders of Voluntary Associations, Freetown, Sierra Leone, 26th to .". In: Soc Sci Med. 1984;18(5):375-85. SITE; 1980. Abstract

This paper describes the methodology and presents preliminary results of an economic appraisal of a community based health care project in Kenya. Community health workers, trained for 12 weeks and deployed in two locations in Kenya's Western Province, act as first contact providers of basic health care and promoters of selected health, sanitation and nutrition practices. A Cost Benefit Analysis has been undertaken using the Willingness to Pay approach to compare the costs of the project and its benefits. The benefits are in the form of more easily accessible basic health care and are measured as consumer surplus accruing to the community. Gain in consumer surplus is consequent on the fall of average user costs and rise in utilisation of the project established points of first contact with primary health care. The argument for the economic viability of the project is validated by the large Net Present Value and Benefit Cost Ratio obtained for the whole of the project area and for the two locations separately. Although the evaluation technique used faces the problem of valuation of community time, aggregation of health care services at all points of first contact and the partial nature of cost benefit analysis evaluations, the results are strongly in favour of decentralisation of primary health care on similar lines in the rest of the country.

K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Adult Education and its effect on the economics of Primary Health Care. Kenya Journal of Adult Education, Vol. 8, No. 2, September 1980.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1984;18(5):375-85. SITE; 1980. Abstract

This paper describes the methodology and presents preliminary results of an economic appraisal of a community based health care project in Kenya. Community health workers, trained for 12 weeks and deployed in two locations in Kenya's Western Province, act as first contact providers of basic health care and promoters of selected health, sanitation and nutrition practices. A Cost Benefit Analysis has been undertaken using the Willingness to Pay approach to compare the costs of the project and its benefits. The benefits are in the form of more easily accessible basic health care and are measured as consumer surplus accruing to the community. Gain in consumer surplus is consequent on the fall of average user costs and rise in utilisation of the project established points of first contact with primary health care. The argument for the economic viability of the project is validated by the large Net Present Value and Benefit Cost Ratio obtained for the whole of the project area and for the two locations separately. Although the evaluation technique used faces the problem of valuation of community time, aggregation of health care services at all points of first contact and the partial nature of cost benefit analysis evaluations, the results are strongly in favour of decentralisation of primary health care on similar lines in the rest of the country.

KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Adult Education and National Building.". In: Based on speech given at Bushangara school in Jan. 1977. Elsevier; 1977. Abstract
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KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Adult Education and political culture, S.K. Akivaga.". In: East Afr. Medi. Journal. Elsevier; Submitted. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
Kinuthia JW, Odiemo L. "ADULT EDUCATION AND SELF-EFFICACY: A TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING PERSPECTIVE ." INTERNATIONAL OF CURRENT RESEARCH. 2018;10(07).joyce_kinuthia_31164-_2018.pdf
KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Adult education, Conscientization and National Development.". In: A paper read to the law Society Kenya, Conference held in Kisumu in October, 1979. Elsevier; 1979. Abstract
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KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "The Adult Educator and His Leaerner-1977.". In: Proceedings of one weeks councilors seminar held at Kakameg,a, May 1981 compiled and edited by S. Kichamu Akivaga. Elsevier; 1977. Abstract
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KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "The Adult Educator And His Society.". In: A seminar paper given at the center of African studies, university of Edinburgh Jan.1978. Elsevier; 1978. Abstract
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K MRCHEPKONGAMIKE. "The Adult Literacy Programme: How functional? A case study of Metkei Location.". In: Doctorate, Georg-August- University G. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1986. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
K MRCHEPKONGAMIKE. "The Adult Literacy Programme: How functional? A case study of Metkei Location.". In: Doctorate, Georg-August- University G. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1986. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
Krieger JN, Bailey RC, Opeya J, Ayieko B, Ndinya-Achola JO, Magoha GA. "Adult male circumcision outcomes: experience in a developing country setting.". 2007.Website
Gow L, Gulati R, Khan A, Mihaimeed F. "Adult-onset cystic hygroma: a case report and review of management." Grand Rounds. 2011;11:5-11. AbstractWebsite
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Musebe E. A, Bolo, Z.A., K’ Obonyo P., R. K. "Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Competitive Advantage, and Performance of Large Manufacturing Companies In Kenya." DBA Management Review Journal. 2020;10(3):90-114.
Musebe E. A, Bolo, Z.A., K’ Obonyo P., R. K. "Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Organizational Resources and Performance of Large Manufacturing Companies In Kenya." DBA Management Review Journal. 2020;10(2):1-33.
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Advanced Study Companion to "A Grain of Wheat," Nairobi: Heinemann.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1985. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

Obiero K, Lawrence T, Ives J, Smith S, Njaya F, Kayanda R, Waidbacher H, Olago D, Miriti E, Hecky RE. "Advancing Africa’s great lakes research and academic potential: Answering the call for harmonized, long-term, collaborative networks and partnerships." Journal of Great Lakes Research. 2020. Abstractdio.org

Abstract
The African Great Lakes (AGL) have rich fisheries and are renowned “biodiversity hotspots”. Consequently the AGLand the ecosystem services they provide, underpin the welfare and livelihoods of over 50 million people across 10 countries. Despite the recognized importance of the AGL, these vital ecosystems and their livelihood support systems are threatened by numerous anthropogenic stressors at local, regional, and global scales. Past and continued efforts to address critical challenges on these lakes are often short-term, parochial, disparate, and uncoordinated resulting in a lack of comprehensive and comparable scientific data and inadequate resources to influence evidence-based policy. Over the past two decades, several international workshops, conferences and scientific publications have identified the need for collaboration, knowledge sharing, and harmonization of research and management as key elements to enhance conservation efforts in the AGL. In this commentary, we introduce the African Center for Aquatic Research and Education (ACARE), which aims to strengthen research and provide the scientific evidence needed to make informed decisions related to sustainable fisheries and aquatic resource management in the AGL. To do this, ACARE will administer a highly collaborative network of experts with three long-term goals: (1) strengthen global and regional research partnerships; (2) establish transboundary and inter-jurisdictional lake advisory groups; and (3) build capacity of freshwater scientists through experiential education and public engagement.

Keywords
African Great Lakes Collaborative networks Transboundary lake advisory groups, educationResearch partnerships

Opanga L, Mulaku MN, Opanga SA, Godman B, Kurdi A. "Adverse effects of chemotherapy and their management in Pediatric patients with Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in Kenya: A descriptive, situation analysis study." Expert Review of anticancer therapy. 2019;19(5):423-430.
Kebenei P. J, Khatete I. W, M C, S C, Khatete D. L. "Advisory Role of Education Standards and Quality Assurance Council on Provision of Quality Education at Primary Schools in Kenya, A Case Of Bomet County." The Cradle of Knowledge African Journal of Educational and Social Science Research. 2016;4(1):21-26.abstract_7.doc
Jaldesa G, Ogutu O, Johnson A, Ndavi P, Karanja J. "Advocacy Towards Changes and Laws Governing Access to Abortion in Kenya." Gynecol and Obstet. 2015;Vol 4( Issue 9, 2015).
KYALO PROFKIEMAJOHNBOSCO. "Aerolevantamento com Laserscanning .". In: Congresso Brasileiro de Cartografia. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2001. Abstract
This paper examines the influence of multisensor data fusion on the automatic extraction of topographic objects from SPOT panchromatic imagery. The suitability of various grey level co-occurence based texture measures, as well as different pixel windows is also investigated. It is observed that best results are obtained with a 3x3 pixel window and the texture measure homogeneity. The synthetic texture image derived together with a Landsat TM imagery are then fused with the SPOT data using the additional channel concept. The object feature base is expanded to include both spectral and spatial features. A maximum likelihood classification approach is then applied. It is demonstrated that the segmentation of topographic objects is significantly improved by fusing the multispectral and texture information.
Senerwa D;, Diamiano AW;, M K;, Kayihura M. "Aeromonas species from fish from Kenyan waters. .".; 1989.
Senerwa D;, Diamiano AW;, M K;, Kayihura M. "Aeromonas species from fish from Kenyan waters. .".; 1989.
Dimaras H, Kimani K, Dimba E. "Aet al." Lancet. 2012;379:1436-1446. Abstract
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Golden L, Chaya S, Reichmuth K, Visagie A, Ayuk A, Kwarteng Owusu S, Marangu D, Affendi N, Lakhan A, Gray D, Vanker A, Zar H, Zampoli M. "Aetiology and presentation of childhood pleural infections in the post-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era in South Africa." Afr J Thorac Crit Care Med. 2021;27(4). Abstract

Complications of respiratory infections including pleural effusion (PE) are associated with a high morbidity. Differentiating between PE caused by (Mtb) infection and other bacterial infections in endemic areas is difficult in children, thus, impacting treatment.

Okasha T, Mrumbi K, Kilonzo G, Musisi S, Szabo CP, editor Ndetei, D.M. "Aetiology in Psychiatry."; 2006.
Kanyinga K. "The affidavit relating to graft is elaborate – we should use it!" Daily Nation, February 28, 2016.
Kieti RM, Rukwaro RW, Olima WA. "Affordable Housing in Kenya: Status, Opportunities and Challenges." Africa Habitat Review Journal. 2020;14(1).
Sirma AJ, Senerwa DM, Lindahl. JF, D G, K M, Mtimet N, EK K’ethe. "Aflatoxin B1 occurrence in Millet, Sorghum, and maize from four agro-ecological zones in Kenya. ." African Journal of Food Nutrition and Development. 2016;16:10991-11003:10991-11003.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Aflatoxin contamination in fermented and germinated products in Kenya. Proceedings 3rd Biennial Seminar on African fermented foods. In Traditional fermented food processing in Africa. Ed. M.Halm and M. Jakobsen, pp 103 .". In: 30th European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition (ESPGAN). 22nd May 1997. Thessaloniki, Greece. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1996. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Kibwage IO, Hausler T, Luy B, Kuballa T, Rehm J, Lachenmeier DW. "Aflatoxin contamination in unrecorded beers from Kenya – A health risk beyond ethanol." Food Control. 2017;79:344-348. Abstract

Samples of unrecorded opaque beers (n=58; 40 based on maize, 5 on sorghum and 13 on other plants) and recorded wines (n=8) in Kenya were screened for aflatoxins using a rapid ELISA technique followed by confirmation using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Six of the maize beers were obtained from Kibera slums in Nairobi County. Aflatoxin contamination was detected in six unrecorded beers (10%), but in none of the recorded wines. Remarkably, three of the aflatoxin positive samples were from the Kibera slums.
The concentration of aflatoxins in the positive samples had a mean of 3.5 µg/L (range 1.8–6.8 µg/L), corresponding for an average consumption of 500 mL (1 standard drink) to a margin of exposure (MOE) of 36 (range: 15–58), which is considered as risk. On the other hand, the alcoholic strength of the aflatoxin positive samples had a mean of 4.3% vol (range 3.5-4.8%) corresponding to a MOE of 2.5 (range of 2.2-3.0) for the equivalent consumption volume. While aflatoxins pose a risk to the consumer, this risk is about 10 times lower than the risk of ethanol.
The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives sets no acceptable daily intake for aflatoxins since they are genotoxic carcinogens and instead recommends for the reduction of aflatoxin dietary exposure as an important public health goal, particularly in populations who consume high levels of any potentially aflatoxins contaminated food. Nevertheless, ethanol still posed a considerably higher risk in the unrecorded beers examined. However, consumers should be informed about aflatoxins, as these are an involuntary and unknown risk to them. In addition, producers should be educated about measures to reduce aflatoxins.

Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Kibwage IO, Hausler T, Luy B, Kuballa T, Rehm J, Lachenmeier DW. "Aflatoxin contamination in unrecorded beers from Kenya–A health risk beyond ethanol." Food Control. 2017;79:344-348. Abstract
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Kitty Mngoli1 JIWMKM 2018. "Aflatoxin Contents and Exposure in Young Children, and Sensory Characteristics of a Nixtamalized Supplementary Porridge." Food Science and Quality Management. 2018;78:ISSN 2225-0557 .
Kevin Pietersen, Hans BeekmanAllali Abdelkader HGAOEOTADLLS. Africa Environment Outlook2 (AEO2).; 2006.
Odada E, Crossland JJM, Kremer HH, Salomons W, Arthurton RS. African Basins: LOICZ Global Change Assessment and Synthesis of River Catchment-Coastal Sea Interactions and Human Dimensions.. The Netherlands: LOICZ, Texel, The Netherlands; 2002. AbstractLOICZ

The Land ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ)core project of the International Geosphere Biosphere Project, IGBP, is evaluating the physical, biogeochemical and human interactions influencing coastal change.

KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "African Christian Theology - A Reflection, in Salaam, Journal of the National Association of R.E. Teachers, Nairobi.".; 1981. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "The African Experience of God, in Africa Thought and Practice, Nairobi, Vol. 1 No. 1, pp. 49-58.".; 1974. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

Waris A, Kiamba A. "An African Feminist Perspective on Security and Early Warning Mechanisms.". In: Rethinking Global Security: An African Perspective? Nairobi: Heinrich Boll Foundation; 2006.
Gudu SO, Woomer PL, Karanja NK, Okalebo R, Othieno CO, Serem C, Maritim HK, Sanginga N, Bationo A, Muasya RM. "The African Green Revolution and the Role of Partnerships in East Africa.". 2006. Abstract

Sub-Saharan African (SSA) region continues to experience perennial hunger, poverty and poor health of its people. Agricultural production has remained low over decades and is declining to extremely low staple maize yields below 0.5 t ha–1 season–1 at the smallholder farm scale, against the potential of 4–5 t ha–1 season–1 given modest levels of inputs and good crop husbandry. Constraints contributing to low productivity are numerous, but the planting of poor-quality seed, declining soil fertility, poor markets and value addition to products significantly contribute to poor productivity. Partnerships for development are weak even though there are numerous technologies to improve and sustain agricultural production arising from extensive research and extension in SSA. But, technology adoption rates have been extremely slow, and in some cases we find no adoption. In this chapter we highlight constraints which are bottlenecks for achievement of a green revolution in Africa. Success efforts are reported, but we moot a focus on efficient utilization of abundant and affordable African natural resources, such as phosphate rocks to replenish depleted phosphorus in soils. We argue that to achieve an African green revolution, partnerships with concerned global communities and national institutions, including universities, NGOs, CBOs and farming communities, need to be strengthened. Specifically, human capacity at all levels should be built through training. Without private sector’s strong participation on acquisition of inputs and marketing proven products, it will be difficult to achieve a green revolution

KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "The African Heritage and Contemporary Christianity, Nairobi, Longman.".; 1989. Abstract

The African Heritage and Contemporary Christianity, Nairobi, Longman, 1989

Kimenyi MS, Mwega FM, Ndung'u SN. "The African Lions: Kenya country case study."; 2016.
Ong’amo G, Khadioli N, LeRu B, Mujica N, Carhuapoma P. "African Pink stemborer, Sesamia calamistis (Hampson 1910).". In: Pest distribution and risk atlas for Africa. Potential global and regional distribution and abundance of agricultural and horticultural pests and associated biocontrol agents under current and future climates. Lima (Peru).: International Potato Center (CIP).; 2016.
Ndetei DM, Othieno CJ, Kilonzo G, Mburu J, Tarek O. The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. Nairobi: African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF); 2006.the_african_textbook_of_clinical_psychiatry_and_mental_health_2.pdfWebsite
KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "African Theology, in WSCF Dossier, Geneva, No. 5, pp. 33-49.".; 1974. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

Kinyua PID, Kooten GC, Bulte EH. "African wildlife policy: protecting wildlife herbivores on private game ranches.". 2000. Abstract

In large parts of Africa, wildlife herbivores spill over onto private lands, competing with domestic livestock for forage resources. To encourage private landowners to take into account the externality benefits of wildlife, game cropping is increasingly considered as an important component of conservation policies. In this paper, we employ a bioeconomic model of a private game ranch to examine five potential government policies concerning wildlife conservation, ranging from (strict) preservation to uncontrolled exploitation. 'Intermediate' policies appear to contribute most to wildlife conservation, with costs to landowners of such policies being modest. The model outcomes support recent wildlife policy shifts in Kenya.

KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Agarwal N, Handa R, Acharya SK, Wali JP, Dinda AK, Aggarwal P.A study of autoimmune markers in hepatitis C infection.Indian J Med Res. 2001 May;113:170-4.". In: Indian J Med Res. 2001 May;113:170-4. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001. Abstract
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with several autoimmune markers. Despite HCV being common in India, no information on this aspect is available. This study was undertaken to ascertain the frequency and clinical significance of autoimmune markers like rheumatoid factor (RF), antinuclear antibodies (ANA), antibodies to double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (dsDNA), anti neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA), anti smooth muscle antibodies (ASMA), anti liver kidney microsomal 1 antibodies (anti LKM1), anti gastric parietal cell antibodies (anti GPCA), anti mitochondrial antibodies (AMA), anti cardiolipin antibodies (ACL) and cryoglobulins in HCV infection and to determine the effect of treatment on these markers. METHODS: Twenty five patients with chronic hepatitis C and 25 healthy controls were studied. Cryoglobulins were detected by cryoprecipitation, RF by latex agglutination, anti dsDNA and ACL by ELISA while indirect immunofluorescence was used to detect all other autoantibodies. RESULTS: Eighteen patients (72%) demonstrated autoimmune markers. RF, cryoglobulins and anti LKM1 antibodies were the most frequently detected markers (in 32% patients each). ASMA, perinuclear ANCA (pANCA), ANA and anti GPCA were seen in 24, 20, 12 and 4 per cent patients respectively. None of the patients exhibited ACL, AMA or antibodies to dsDNA. No antibodies were detected in healthy controls. Sixty per cent of the patients had rheumatological symptoms. Of the seven patients followed up after treatment with alpha interferon, only two exhibited persistence of RF, while symptoms and other markers disappeared. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: Rheumatological symptoms and autoimmune markers are common in HCV infection and are usually overlooked. Patients with unexplained joint pains and/or palpable purpura should be screened for HCV. Further studies are needed to delineate fully the link between infection and autoimmunity.
J O’o, P M, B O, K O. "AGE CHANGES IN THE TUNICA INTIMA OF THE AORTA IN GOAT (Capra hircus).". 2008. AbstractAGE CHANGES IN THE TUNICA INTIMA OF THE AORTA IN GOAT (Capra hircus)

Age changes in the aortic tunica intima may explain the higher prevalence of atherosclerosis among the elderly. Goat is a suitable model for the study of cardiovascular disease but the age changes in its aortic tunica intima are unreported. This study therefore examined structural changes that occur in the tunica intima of its aorta. Six healthy goats three aged over 60 months, and three aged less than 12 months, were used in this study. The animals were euthanized with sodium pentabarbitone and specimens taken from the various segment of the aorta studied by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Materials for light microscopy were fixed 10% formaldehyde solution, processed for paraffin embedding and 7 micron sections stained with Mason’s Trichrome and Weigert’s Resorcin Fuchsin/Van Gieson stains. Those for transmission electron microscopy were fixed in 3% phosphate buffered glutaraldehyde solution, post fixed in osmium tetroxide and prepared for durcupan embedding. Ultrathin sections were stained with uranyl acetate, counterstained with lead citrate and examined by EM 201 phillips© electron microscope. Observations reveal that aging is characterized by endothelial discontinuities, presence of lymphocytes and dendritic cells in the tunica intima, subendothelial thickening, vacuolation and disintegration of internal elastic lamina. It is concluded that the intimal breaches observed in intimal aging may promote ingression of macromolecules into the vessel wall, and underpin the higher prevalence of atherosclerosis among the elderly. Control of serum atherogenic molecules should be enhanced in this age group.

Bukachi F, Waldenstrom A, Mörner S, Lindqvist P, Henein MY, Kazzam E. "Age dependency in the timing of mitral annular motion in relation to ventricular filling in healthy subjects: Umea General Population Heart Study.". 2008. AbstractWebsite

AIMS:

Peak left ventricular (LV) relaxation normally precedes peak filling (E), which supports the hypothesis that LV suction contributes to early-diastolic filling. The significance of similar temporal discordance in late diastole has previously not been studied. We describe the time relationships between mitral annular motion and LV filling in early and late diastole and examine the effect of normal ageing on these time intervals.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

A total of 128 healthy subjects aged 25-88 years were studied. Transmitral and pulmonary venous flow reversals (Ar) were recorded by Doppler echocardiography. Mitral annular diastolic displacement-early (E(m)) and late (A(m))-were recorded by Doppler tissue imaging. With reference to electrocardiographic R and P-waves, the following measurements were made: R to peak E-wave (R-E) and E(m) (R-E(m)); onset P to peak A-wave (P-pA), A(m) (P-pA(m)), and Ar (P-pAr). The differences between [(R-E) and (R-E(m))] for early-diastolic temporal discordance (EDTD) and [(P-A) and (P-A(m))] for late-diastolic temporal discordance (LDTD) were calculated. Isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT) was also measured. Early-diastolic temporal discordance was approximately 26 ms in all age groups. Late-diastolic temporal discordance, however, was inversely related to age (r = -0.35, P < 0.001) and IVRT (r = -0.34, P < 0.001) and therefore decreased in the elderly vs. young (13 +/- 10 vs. 23 +/- 10 ms; P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, age failed to predict LDTD in the presence of IVRT. A, A(m), and Ar were simultaneous at onset, and peak A(m) coincided with peak Ar in all age groups (r = 0.97, P < 0.001). No significant differences were noted in the RR intervals.

CONCLUSIONS:

Sequential prolongation of IVRT with ageing reduces LDTD, thus converging the peaks of A(m), A, and Ar (atrial mechanical alignment)-a potential novel method to identify subjects at increased dependency on atrial contraction for late-diastolic filling

Kipchirchir IC. An Age Structured Population Model. Nairobi: Nairobi; 1993.
Ndetei DM, Maru HM, Amayo EO, Kaka ZA. "Agenesis of the corpus callosum with associated inter-hemispheric cyst and right frontal pachygyria presenting with psychiatric symptoms in a Kenyan Citation.". 2006. AbstractWebsite

This case report presents a 26 year old man who had a history of childhood onset seizures, mild cognitive slowing and social withdrawal. He gradually developed symptoms of depression and attempted suicide once. He presented to the authors following a recurrence of his seizures. On examination they noted a normal general and neurological examination apart from some frontal lobe signs on mental status examination. He also had features of psychosis and labile mood. On CT brain scan he had agenesis of the corpus callosum (CC) with associated interhemispheric cyst and right frontal pachygyria. The authors suggest that clinicians in developing countries should be alert to organic disorders presenting with psychiatric symptoms.

Kahome P, Opiyo ETO, Okello-Odongo W. "Agent Application In The Stock Market.". In: Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa. Nairobi; 2014.
Ochomo ZO, Opiyo E, Okello-Odongo W, Kizza JM. "Agent Based Model For Localized Secure Payment Systems Integration.". In: Strengthening the Role of ICT in Development. Nairobi; 2010.
and Kibugu J.K., Makumi J.N. NKGMJJNJM. "Aggravation of pathogenesis mediated by aflatoxin B1 in mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense." Protozool. Res. 19. 2009:24-33.
Kibugu J.K., Ngeranwa J.J. MGKMMMJNJK. "Aggravation of pathogenesis mediated by ochratoxin A in mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. ." Parasitology.. 2009;136(3):273-281.
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Agnes Wangechi Karuga, Alice Gathogo , Teresia Mbua, Nancy Ndungu, Prof. Ann Karani Retrospective study on overcrowding in Thika and Kiambu District Hospitals Medical Wards 2006 - 2007 . Kenya Nursing Journal Dec. 2008. vol. 33 No.2.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal Dec. 2008. vol. 33 No.2. Sgma Theta Tau International : Honor Society For Nursing; 2008. Abstract

The study was conducted at Thika and Kiambu District Hospitals Medical wards covering September 2005

Kamau S. "The Agrarian Question in Kenya.". In: UONGOZI INSTITUTE Leadership Training. Dar-er-Salaam; 2006.
Middleton P, Kelly A-M, Brown J, Robertson M. "Agreement between arterial and central venous values for {pH}, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate." Emergency medicine journal: EMJ. 2006;23:622-624. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the extent of agreement between central venous and arterial values for pH, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate in a group of intensive care unit (ICU) patients. METHODS: A prospective study of a convenience sample of patients deemed by their treating doctor to require blood gas analysis as part of their clinical care in ICU. It compared pH, bicarbonate, base excess and lactate on arterial and central venous samples taken within five minutes of each other. Data were analysed using bias (Bland-Altman) methods. RESULTS: A total of 168 matched sample pairs from 110 patients were entered into the study. All variables showed close agreement. The mean difference between arterial and venous values of pH was 0.03 pH units, for bicarbonate 0.52 mmol/l, for lactate 0.08 mmol/l, and for base excess 0.19 mmol/l. All showed acceptably narrow 95% limits of agreement. CONCLUSION: Central venous pH, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate values showed a high level of agreement with the respective arterial values, with narrow 95% limits of agreement. These results suggest that venous values may be an acceptable substitute for arterial measurement in this clinical setting.

Chimoita EL, Onyango CM, Kimenju JW, ph -Onyango JGP. "Agricultural Agents influence on the Uptake of Improved Sorghum Technologies." Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017;5(4):219-225.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Agricultural and Land Use Patterns in Relation to Changing Malaria Conditions in Kenya (with Germano M. Mwabu), Paper presented at the WHO/TDR Meeting on Social Economic Determinants and Consequences of Malaria and its Control under Changing Conditions, S.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30. SITE; 1987. Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

KAHIU DRNGUGIELIUD. "Agricultural Biotechnology Global Genetic Revolution. The role of molecular marker assisted breeding.". In: Symposium organized by the African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS) and Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, 30th October 2001. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2001. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
Kiriti-Nganga TW, Tisdell C, Tisdell CA, Sankar U, Srivastava M. "Agricultural Commercialisa tion in Developing Countries, Household Food Consumption and Nutrition: A Kenyan Case Study.". In: Leading Economic Issues: Essays in Honour of Professor Chandra Srivastava. New Delhi: B. R. Publishin g Corporation; 2003.
Njoroge K, Kinyanjui M. "Agricultural Development and Globalisation in Kenya." In: Gender in International Agricultural Trade Agreements: A Kenya synopsis. Heinrich Boll Foundation, East and Horn of Africa Region. 2007:1-6.
Chimoita EL, Onyango CM, Kimenju JW, Gweyi-Onyango JP. "Agricultural Extension Approaches Influencing Uptake of Improved Sorghum Technologies in Embu County, Kenya." Universal Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016;1(5):45-51.extension_approaches_enhancing_improved_sorghum_uptake.pdf
Kahindi JHP, P; George T, de Moreira FMS, Karanja NK, Giller KE. "Agricultural intensification, soil biodiversity and ecosystem function in the tropics: the role of nitrogen-fixing bacteria.". 1997. Abstract

Among the nitrogen (N2)-fixing bacteria, the rhizobia in symbiosis with legumes are generally the most important in agriculture, although Frankia, cyanobacteria and heterotrophic free-living N2 -fixers may fix significant amounts of nitrogen under specific conditions. The taxonomy of N2-fixing bacteria is undergoing substantial revisions due to the advent of molecular methods for phylogenetic analysis, and in certain cases this has proved useful in unravelling ecological relationships among confusing groups. Molecular methods are also proving useful in studies of biodiversity within populations of rhizobial species. Rhizobia are surprisingly competent free-living bacteria, although few fix nitrogen in the free-living state, and the major factors that determine their population sizes in the absence of legume hosts are environmental stresses (such as soil acidity factors), protozoal grazing and some factors associated with agricultural intensification such as increases in salinity or heavy metal pollution of the soil. Rhizobial populations generally increase in response to the presence of the host legume. Due to the high degree of host-specificity between legume hosts and rhizobial species, loss of a single rhizobial species can result in loss of N2-fixation by that legume, although many legumes can be nodulated by several species of rhizobia. However, as only a single, compatible rhizobial genotype or strain is necessary for establishment of effective N, -fixation (i.e. the basis of the rhizobial inoculant industry), it is questionable whether biodiversity within species is necessary to ensure function, although this may confer resilience in the face of further environmental stresses.

Bluffstone R, Kohlin G, Nyangena W. "Agricultural Investment and Productivity in East Africa.". In: Agricultural Investment and Productivity in East Africa.; 2011.
Keya, SO; Michieka RW. Agricultural sector development.; 1993.
Oluoch-Kosura W, Ariga ES, Waithaka MM, Kyalo AM. "Agricultural technology, economic viability and poverty alleviation in Kenya.". 1999. Abstract

The major challenges facing Kenya today are poverty and unemployment. About 50% of the rural population and 30% of the urban population live below the poverty line. With 80% of the population being rural the poverty problem is overwhelming. The country has been unable to generate adequate employment and wage employment has been declining over the recent past. While in the 1970s the growth rate of employment was about 4% per annum, in the current decade, the growth rate has been about 1.9% per annum, which is below the population growth rate estimated at about 3%. The country has also witnessed declining growth in income per capita. While in the 1960s per capita income grew at 2.6% p.a. this declined to 0.4% in 1980s. Between 1990 and 95 the decline was even more dramatic at negative 0.3% (Kenya, 1997). The poverty line is defined here as the value of consumption of food and non-food items below which individuals cannot afford the recommended energy intake plus a minimum allowance for non-food consumption. The poverty line has been estimated at about US$ 200 and 300 for rural and urban areas respectively (GoK, 1998). This translates to less than one US$ per day. Of Kenya’s total land area of 57.6 million hectares, 9.4 million or about 16% is classified as high and medium potential land for agriculture. The remaining area estimated at 84% makes up the arid and semi arid lands (ASALs). Out of the ASALs 48 million hectares, about 9 million hectares can support crop production, 15 million hectares is adequate for livestock production while the rest is dry and only useful for nomadic pastoralism. The ASAL supports about 20% of the population, 50% of livestock and 3% of current agricultural output and 7% of commercial output. ASALs have low natural fertility which are prone to compaction and vulnerable to erosion. The agriculture sector dominates the economy and contributes virtually to all the stated national goals including achievement of national and household food security, industrialization by year 2020 as well as provision of employment opportunities. Currently, agriculture accounts for about one-third of the gross domestic product, employs more than two-thirds of the labour force, accounts for almost 70% of the export earnings (excluding refined petroleum), generates the bulk of the country's food requirements and provides significant proportion of raw materials for the agricultural based industrial sector. Overall, the smallholder sub-sector contributes about 75% of the total value of agricultural output, 55% of the marketed agricultural output and provides just over 85% of the total employment in agriculture. The sector’s ability to contribute effectively to the national goals hinges on identifying and implementing measures which promote high and sustainable growth rate. Mellor (1990) asserted that agricultural productivity growth is normally the major source of sustained improvements in rural welfare. Three sources of agricultural growth can be identified in Kenya. One is the expansion of cultivated area. The second is substitution or switching towards higher valued commodities. The third is intensification. The first source of agricultural growth is currently extremely limited. The cultivable land available to open up has diminished over the years with rapidly rising population estimated at about 3% per annum to the extent that the land holdings are becoming sub-optimal economic units and there is ever increasing temptation to migrate to the marginal and fragile zone. Moreover, irrigation development which could help in increasing cultivable land has been very slow due to the seemingly high cost associated with it. Commodity substitution will contribute significantly to growth only if the input and output markets function in a way to allow the producers and the private sectors respond appropriately to the market signals. This is expected to occur if the on-going structural adjustment programmes succeed in limiting government intervention to its core functions (of public good nature) and allowing the private sector to take up the production, marketing and distribution role. Most agricultural growth will therefore come from the third source: increased output per unit land area. The realization of this growth potential will hinge on shifting rapidly from resource based to science and knowledge-based agriculture. The objective of this paper is to The sector’s ability to contribute effectively to the national goals hinges on identifying and implementing measures which promote high and sustainable growth rate. Mellor (1990) asserted that agricultural productivity growth is normally the major source of sustained improvements in rural welfare. Three sources of agricultural growth can be identified in Kenya. One is the expansion of cultivated area. The second is substitution or switching towards higher valued commodities. The third is intensification. The first source of agricultural growth is currently extremely limited. The cultivable land available to open up has diminished over the years with rapidly rising population estimated at about 3% per annum to the extent that the land holdings are becoming sub-optimal economic units and there is ever increasing temptation to migrate to the marginal and fragile zone. Moreover, irrigation development which could help in increasing cultivable land has been very slow due to the seemingly high cost associated with it. Commodity substitution will contribute significantly to growth only if the input and output markets function in a way to allow the producers and the private sectors respond appropriately to the market signals. This is expected to occur if the on-going structural adjustment programmes succeed in limiting government intervention to its core functions (of public good nature) and allowing the private sector to take up the production, marketing and distribution role. Most agricultural growth will therefore come from the third source: increased output per unit land area. The realization of this growth potential will hinge on shifting rapidly from resource based to science and knowledge-based agriculture. The objective of this paper is to

Oluoch-Kosura W, Okeyo AM, Waithaka MM, Kyalo AM. "Agricultural technology, economic viability and poverty alleviation in Kenya.". 1999. AbstractWebsite

The major challenges facing Kenya today are poverty and unemployment. About 50% of the rural population and 30% of the urban population live below the poverty line. With 80% of the population being rural the poverty problem is overwhelming. The country has been unable to generate adequate employment and wage employment has been declining over the recent past. While in the 1970s the growth rate of employment was about 4% per annum, in the current decade, the growth rate has been about 1.9% per annum, which is below the population growth rate estimated at about 3%. The country has also witnessed declining growth in income per capita. While in the 1960s per capita income grew at 2.6% p.a. this declined to 0.4% in 1980s. Between 1990 and 95 the decline was even more dramatic at negative 0.3% (Kenya, 1997). The poverty line is defined here as the value of consumption of food and non-food items below which individuals cannot afford the recommended energy intake plus a minimum allowance for non-food consumption. The poverty line has been estimated at about US$ 200 and 300 for rural and urban areas respectively (GoK, 1998). This translates to less than one US$ per day. Of Kenya’s total land area of 57.6 million hectares, 9.4 million or about 16% is classified as high and medium potential land for agriculture. The remaining area estimated at 84% makes up the arid and semi arid lands (ASALs). Out of the ASALs 48 million hectares, about 9 million hectares can support crop production, 15 million hectares is adequate for livestock production while the rest is dry and only useful for nomadic pastoralism. The ASAL supports about 20% of the population, 50% of livestock and 3% of current agricultural output and 7% of commercial output. ASALs have low natural fertility which are prone to compaction and vulnerable to erosion. The agriculture sector dominates the economy and contributes virtually to all the stated national goals including achievement of national and household food security, industrialization by year 2020 as well as provision of employment opportunities. Currently, agriculture accounts for about one-third of the gross domestic product, employs more than two-thirds of the labour force, accounts for almost 70% of the export earnings (excluding refined petroleum), generates the bulk of the country's food requirements and provides significant proportion of raw materials for the agricultural based industrial sector. Overall, the smallholder sub-sector contributes about 75% of the total value of agricultural output, 55% of the marketed agricultural output and provides just over 85% of the total employment in agriculture. The sector’s ability to contribute effectively to the national goals hinges on identifying and implementing measures which promote high and sustainable growth rate. Mellor (1990) asserted that agricultural productivity growth is normally the major source of sustained improvements in rural welfare. Three sources of agricultural growth can be identified in Kenya. One is the expansion of cultivated area. The second is substitution or switching towards higher valued commodities. The third is intensification. The first source of agricultural growth is currently extremely limited. The cultivable land available to open up has diminished over the years with rapidly rising population estimated at about 3% per annum to the extent that the land holdings are becoming sub-optimal economic units and there is ever increasing temptation to migrate to the marginal and fragile zone. Moreover, irrigation development which could help in increasing cultivable land has been very slow due to the seemingly high cost associated with it. Commodity substitution will contribute significantly to growth only if the input and output markets function in a way to allow the producers and the private sectors respond appropriately to the market signals. This is expected to occur if the on-going structural adjustment programmes succeed in limiting government intervention to its core functions (of public good nature) and allowing the private sector to take up the production, marketing and distribution role. Most agricultural growth will therefore come from the third source: increased output per unit land area. The realization of this growth potential will hinge on shifting rapidly from resource based to science and knowledge-based agriculture. The objective of this paper is to The sector’s ability to contribute effectively to the national goals hinges on identifying and implementing measures which promote high and sustainable growth rate. Mellor (1990) asserted that agricultural productivity growth is normally the major source of sustained improvements in rural welfare. Three sources of agricultural growth can be identified in Kenya. One is the expansion of cultivated area. The second is substitution or switching towards higher valued commodities. The third is intensification. The first source of agricultural growth is currently extremely limited. The cultivable land available to open up has diminished over the years with rapidly rising population estimated at about 3% per annum to the extent that the land holdings are becoming sub-optimal economic units and there is ever increasing temptation to migrate to the marginal and fragile zone. Moreover, irrigation development which could help in increasing cultivable land has been very slow due to the seemingly high cost associated with it. Commodity substitution will contribute significantly to growth only if the input and output markets function in a way to allow the producers and the private sectors respond appropriately to the market signals. This is expected to occur if the on-going structural adjustment programmes succeed in limiting government intervention to its core functions (of public good nature) and allowing the private sector to take up the production, marketing and distribution role. Most agricultural growth will therefore come from the third source: increased output per unit land area. The realization of this growth potential will hinge on shifting rapidly from resource based to science and knowledge-based agriculture. The objective of this paper is to

Ariga ES, Okeyo AM, Waithaka MM, Kyalo AM. "Agricultural technology, economic viability and poverty alleviation in Kenya.". 1999. AbstractWebsite

The major challenges facing Kenya today are poverty and unemployment. About 50% of the rural population and 30% of the urban population live below the poverty line. With 80% of the population being rural the poverty problem is overwhelming. The country has been unable to generate adequate employment and wage employment has been declining over the recent past. While in the 1970s the growth rate of employment was about 4% per annum, in the current decade, the growth rate has been about 1.9% per annum, which is below the population growth rate estimated at about 3%. The country has also witnessed declining growth in income per capita. While in the 1960s per capita income grew at 2.6% p.a. this declined to 0.4% in 1980s. Between 1990 and 95 the decline was even more dramatic at negative 0.3% (Kenya, 1997). The poverty line is defined here as the value of consumption of food and non-food items below which individuals cannot afford the recommended energy intake plus a minimum allowance for non-food consumption. The poverty line has been estimated at about US$ 200 and 300 for rural and urban areas respectively (GoK, 1998). This translates to less than one US$ per day. Of Kenya’s total land area of 57.6 million hectares, 9.4 million or about 16% is classified as high and medium potential land for agriculture. The remaining area estimated at 84% makes up the arid and semi arid lands (ASALs). Out of the ASALs 48 million hectares, about 9 million hectares can support crop production, 15 million hectares is adequate for livestock production while the rest is dry and only useful for nomadic pastoralism. The ASAL supports about 20% of the population, 50% of livestock and 3% of current agricultural output and 7% of commercial output. ASALs have low natural fertility which are prone to compaction and vulnerable to erosion. The agriculture sector dominates the economy and contributes virtually to all the stated national goals including achievement of national and household food security, industrialization by year 2020 as well as provision of employment opportunities. Currently, agriculture accounts for about one-third of the gross domestic product, employs more than two-thirds of the labour force, accounts for almost 70% of the export earnings (excluding refined petroleum), generates the bulk of the country's food requirements and provides significant proportion of raw materials for the agricultural based industrial sector. Overall, the smallholder sub-sector contributes about 75% of the total value of agricultural output, 55% of the marketed agricultural output and provides just over 85% of the total employment in agriculture. The sector’s ability to contribute effectively to the national goals hinges on identifying and implementing measures which promote high and sustainable growth rate. Mellor (1990) asserted that agricultural productivity growth is normally the major source of sustained improvements in rural welfare. Three sources of agricultural growth can be identified in Kenya. One is the expansion of cultivated area. The second is substitution or switching towards higher valued commodities. The third is intensification. The first source of agricultural growth is currently extremely limited. The cultivable land available to open up has diminished over the years with rapidly rising population estimated at about 3% per annum to the extent that the land holdings are becoming sub-optimal economic units and there is ever increasing temptation to migrate to the marginal and fragile zone. Moreover, irrigation development which could help in increasing cultivable land has been very slow due to the seemingly high cost associated with it. Commodity substitution will contribute significantly to growth only if the input and output markets function in a way to allow the producers and the private sectors respond appropriately to the market signals. This is expected to occur if the on-going structural adjustment programmes succeed in limiting government intervention to its core functions (of public good nature) and allowing the private sector to take up the production, marketing and distribution role. Most agricultural growth will therefore come from the third source: increased output per unit land area. The realization of this growth potential will hinge on shifting rapidly from resource based to science and knowledge-based agriculture. The objective of this paper is to The sector’s ability to contribute effectively to the national goals hinges on identifying and implementing measures which promote high and sustainable growth rate. Mellor (1990) asserted that agricultural productivity growth is normally the major source of sustained improvements in rural welfare. Three sources of agricultural growth can be identified in Kenya. One is the expansion of cultivated area. The second is substitution or switching towards higher valued commodities. The third is intensification. The first source of agricultural growth is currently extremely limited. The cultivable land available to open up has diminished over the years with rapidly rising population estimated at about 3% per annum to the extent that the land holdings are becoming sub-optimal economic units and there is ever increasing temptation to migrate to the marginal and fragile zone. Moreover, irrigation development which could help in increasing cultivable land has been very slow due to the seemingly high cost associated with it. Commodity substitution will contribute significantly to growth only if the input and output markets function in a way to allow the producers and the private sectors respond appropriately to the market signals. This is expected to occur if the on-going structural adjustment programmes succeed in limiting government intervention to its core functions (of public good nature) and allowing the private sector to take up the production, marketing and distribution role. Most agricultural growth will therefore come from the third source: increased output per unit land area. The realization of this growth potential will hinge on shifting rapidly from resource based to science and knowledge-based agriculture. The objective of this paper is to

Kanyinga K. "Agriculture can help uproot poverty." Sunday Nation, April 22, 2017.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "AN AGRO-ECOSYSTEM HEALTH APPROACH: AN INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT OF SMALLHOLDER DAIRY FARMERS IN KIAMBU DISTRICT KANYA.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1998. Abstract
This paper describes the methodology and some results obtained from an integrated assessment of smallholder dairy farms in Kiambu District Kenya, using the agro-ecosystem health approach. Participatory techniques, soft system methods, complex system theory and convectional research are used in combination. The approach is holistic, multidisciplinary and iterative. It involves designing, planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the development processes. The aim is to make smallholder dairy farms sustainable. A sustainable agricultural system is one in which resource management is optimized to satisfy changing human needs while maintaining or enhancing the quality of the environment and its capacity. The approach applies the agro-ecosystems concepts of health developed both in veterinary and human health. Screening diagnosis and remediation of ecosystems pathologies are carried out in methods analogous to those in individuals and populations.
Mutero C;, Githure J;, Kabutha C;, Kimani V;, Kabuage L;, Gitau G;, Ssennyonga J;, Muthami L. "Agro-ecosystem Management for Malaria Control.".; 2001.
Gitau T;, McDermott JJ;, Waltner-Toews D;, Gathuma JM;, Kang EK;, Kimani VW;, Kilungo, J K;, Muni RK;, Mwangi JM;, Otieno GO. "Agro-ecosystems, natural resources management and human health related research in East Africa."; 1989. Abstract

The paper briefly describes the application of agro-ecosystem health framework for characterization of an agro-ecosystem in central Kenya, and identification of the indications of its health. The lessons learnt from the application are briefly discussed.

Ayuke F.A, Karanja N.K, J.J O, Wachira P.M, Mutua G.K, Lelei D. K, Gachene K.K. "Agrobiodiversity and potential use for enhancing soil health .". In: Tropical Soils of Africa. London: Soils and Food Security; 2012.
Ayuke FO, Karanja NK, Okello J, Wachira P, Mutua GK, Lelei, D., Gachene CKK. "Agrobiodiversity and potential use for enhancing soil health in tropical soils of Africa.". In: In Hester, R.E., Harrison, R.M. (Eds)Soils and Food Security: Issues in Environmental Science and Technology, No 35, 5: 94-133 . London, United Kingdom: The Royal Society of Chemistry; 2012. Abstract

Land degradation and soil fertility decline is often cited as a major constraint to crop production in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). As mineral and organic fertilisers are often limited in quantity and quality, soil
fertility research has focused on developing integrated management strategies to address soil fertility decline. Soil biotas are an essential component of soil health and constitute a major fraction of global
terrestrial biodiversity. Within the context of Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM), soil biota are responsible for the key ecosystem functions of decomposition and nutrient cycling, soil organic matter
synthesis and mineralisation, soil structural modification and aggregate stabilisation, nitrogen fixation, nutrient acquisition, regulation of atmospheric composition, the production of plant growth substances
and the biological control of soil-borne pests and diseases. Soil biological processes are not as well understood as are soil physical and chemical properties, creating opportunities for breakthroughs in
biotic function to provide better services to agriculture. These services accrue through two basic approaches: indirectly, as a result of promoting beneficial soil biological processes and ecosystem services through land management, or directly, through the introduction of beneficial organisms to the soil. Because of their sensitivity to disturbance and their importance in redistributing and transforming organic inputs, some of the soil biota groups, such as earthworms and termites, represent an important indicator of soil quality. In this chapter we have highlighted the importance of soil biodiversity, especially its potential use for enhancing soil health in tropical soils of SSA.

Mungai DN, Ibrahim AA, Kainkwa RMR, Stigter CJ, Mohammed AE, Onyewotu LOZ. Agrometeorological research for protection and improvement of the tropical agricultural environment.; 1994.
Gitari HI, Shadrack N, Kamau S, Karanja NN, Gachene CKK, Schulte-Geldermann E. "Agronomic assessment of phosphorus efficacy for potato (Solanum tuberosum L) under legume intercrops.". 2019.
Héritier KM, Ngugi K, Olubayo F, Kivuva BM. "Agronomic Performance of Kenyan Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato Varieties." Journal of Plant Science;. 2018;7(2):11-19.
Owino-Gerroh C, Keter A, Mbuvi JP. "Agronomic response estimates of acidulated and uncidulated phosphorus sources for tea (camellia spp l.) growing in Kenya.". 1999. Abstract

Studies were conducted on two tea fields, one with tea bushes planted in 1957 and another with tea bushes planted n LgTg in Kaaga, Kenya to determine the response of green tea leaf production to acidulated (Tripleiuper phosphate) and unacidulated (Minjingu phosphate rock) phosphorus fertilisers in the 1993194 af,d lg%lg1 Cropping seasons. The soils yere fairly acidic, low in exchangeable Ca and Mg and high in exchangeable ,ciaty and Al. Al saturation was high ( > 480 g kg-') in both soils. In both tgg3tg4 and 1994195 cropping seasons significantly (P 50.001) higher tea yields were obtained in the field with tea bushes planted in 19?9. The yield for 1994195 cropping season was significantly (P S0.m1) higher. than that for the 1993194 cropping season. There were no significant differences between the two P sources and also that of the control. The higher yields observed in the field with tea planted n lg/g was attributed to the high yielding varieties (clones) which had been planted. Higher yields observed in the 1994195 cropping season were due to improved management practices compared to that of the previous year. The lack of significant response of the crop to either of the P sources was attributed to the 'Al complexation' tolerance mechanism whereby the plant is still able to absorb Ca and P.

Karanja NK, Kahindi JHP. "Agrotechnological Transfer Of Legume Inoculants In Eastern And Southern Africa.". 2002. Abstract

Legumes are an important component of smallholder farming systems in Eastern and Southern Africa and efforts are underway to improve legume yields and symbiotic biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) for replenishment of N depleted soils. Seed inoculation with rhizobia is recommended and solid formulations are produced in Kenya, Uganda...

Kiage DO, Damji FK, Gichuhi S, Gradin D. "Ahmed Glaucoma Valve Implant: Experience in East Africa." Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology. 2009;16(3):157-161. AbstractWebsite

Purpose: To describe short term outcomes of Ahmed Glaucoma Valve [AGV] implantation in East African patients.Materials and Methods: In this multi-center retrospective case series we reviewed eyes of Black African patients with refractory glaucoma, treated consecutively with Ahmed Glaucoma Valve implantation, in two centers in Kenya between January 2006 and October 2007.Results: About 25 cases including 18 [72%] pediatric eyes and seven [28%] adult eyes were identified. Results have been presented with a median follow-up of two months with inter-quartile range [IQR] of one to 12 months. intraocular pressure [IOP] was reduced from a mean of 36.4 mmHg preoperatively to 16.7 mmHg and glaucoma medications were lowered from a mean of 1.32 before surgery to 0.2 after surgery. The success rate during short term follow-up was 79%. The mean visual acuity dropped slightly from 6/18 pre-operatively to 6/24. There was only one major complication of an extruded, infected valve in a child.Conclusions: The Ahmed Valve Implant is safe and effective in lowering IOP for the short term in pediatric and adult East African patients with refractory glaucoma. Further studies with more patients and longer term follow-up are needed in this population.Key words: Aqueous Rainage Devices, Glaucoma Surgery, Intraocular Pressure

Kiage DO, Damji FK, Gichuhi S, Gradin D. "Ahmed glaucoma valve implant: experience in East Africa.". In: Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO).; 2008.agv_poster_arvo.pdf
Kuria MW. Aid to Undergraduate Psychiatry. Nairobi: Kenyatta University Press; 2014.
Piot PM, Kapita B, Ngugi EN, Mann JM, Colebunders R, Wabitsch R. "AIDS in Africa A Manual for Physicians, World Health Organization, Geneva.". 1994.Website
Korongo A, Nzioka C, Njiru R. "AIDS in Kenyan Teacher Colleges." Mitigating the impact: IIEP Research Paper . 2007.
Nzioka C, Korongo A, Njiru R. AIDS In Kenyan Teacher Colleges.; 2007.
…, Njau LN, Mukolwe EA, Kinyua AM, MANGALA MJ,... Air pollution in Kenya. Appendix 13. inis.iaea.org; 1995. AbstractWebsite

SUMMARY Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EXDRF) analysis of aerosol samples in Nairobi is presented. Results show that elemental concentrations is of the order of 10^ to lO" 10\ġfm^ for most elements analyzed. The total suspended particulate (TSP) matter were …

KIRIAGO DRAKAMAMATHEW. "Akama MK, Chindia ML, Guthua SW, Nyong'o A.Extra-abdominal fibromatosis invading the mandible: case report.East Afr Med J. 2002 Jan;79(1):49-50.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Jan;79(1):49-50. University of Nairobi.; 2002. Abstract
Extra-abdominal fibromatosis (desmoid tumour) is a rare aggressive neoplasm with a tendency to infiltrate local structures but rarely metastasises or undergoes spontaneous malignant transformation. The treatment of choice is surgery, however, recurrences have been reported even after wide-field resection. This article presents a case of extra-abdominal fibromatosis that had extensively invaded the mandible.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, KIRIAGO DRAKAMAMATHEW, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Akama MK, Chindia ML, Macigo FG, Guthua SW.Pattern of maxillofacial and associated injuries in road traffic accidents.East Afr Med J. 2007 Jun;84(6):287-95.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 Jun;84(6):287-95. University of Nairobi.; 2007. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Kenya. Victims may suffer multiple injuries including maxillofacial injuries. In most developing countries RTAs are the leading cause of maxillofacial injuries. In an attempt to reduce RTAs, the government of Kenya has enacted a legislation requiring mandatory fitting of speed governors and safety belts by passenger service vehicles. OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics and pattern of maxillofacial and associated injuries sustained in road traffic accidents. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). SUBJECTS: All patients involved in RTAs brought to casualty and the dental department of KNH as well as accident victims admitted to the KNH mortuary over a four- month period from September 2004 to December 2004. RESULTS: Four hundred and thirteen (85.7%) had non-fatal injuries whereas 69 (14.3%) had sustained fatal injuries. Males in the 21-30-year age group were the most affected. Most accidents occurred during weekends with pedestrians being the leading casualties in 59.5% and 71.4% of non-fatal and fatal cases respectively. Most accidents were caused by passenger service vehicles (matatus) which were responsible for 62% and 40.6% of non-fatal and fatal injuries respectively. Non-use of safety belts was reported in 56.6% of the cases who suffered non-fatal injuries. In the non-fatal category 89.6% of the casualties had soft tissue injuries (STIs) involving the craniofacial region with facial cuts being the majority (69.2%). Two hundred and seventy three (66.1%) incidents of other STIs than those of the head region were noted, the lower limbs accounting for 45.4% of these. Only 5.1% of the casualties with non-fatal injuries had fractures involving the maxillofacial skeleton. Skeletal injuries other than those involving the maxillofacial region were found in 142 (34.1%) incidents. In the fatal category head injury alone was the leading cause of death accounting for 37.7% of the cases followed by head and chest injuries combined which were responsible for 13% of the cases. CONCLUSION: Injuries to the maxillofacial skeleton appear to be uncommon in this series. Pedestrians in their third decade of life are most affected with passenger service vehicles being responsible in the majority of the cases. RECOMMENDATIONS: Interventional programmes targeting pedestrians and those in the third and fourth decades of life should be enacted.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, KIRIAGO DRAKAMAMATHEW, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Akama MK, Chindia ML, Macigo FG, Guthua SW.Pattern of maxillofacial and associated injuries in road traffic accidents.East Afr Med J. 2007 Jun;84(6):287-95.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 Jun;84(6):287-95. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2007. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Kenya. Victims may suffer multiple injuries including maxillofacial injuries. In most developing countries RTAs are the leading cause of maxillofacial injuries. In an attempt to reduce RTAs, the government of Kenya has enacted a legislation requiring mandatory fitting of speed governors and safety belts by passenger service vehicles. OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics and pattern of maxillofacial and associated injuries sustained in road traffic accidents. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). SUBJECTS: All patients involved in RTAs brought to casualty and the dental department of KNH as well as accident victims admitted to the KNH mortuary over a four- month period from September 2004 to December 2004. RESULTS: Four hundred and thirteen (85.7%) had non-fatal injuries whereas 69 (14.3%) had sustained fatal injuries. Males in the 21-30-year age group were the most affected. Most accidents occurred during weekends with pedestrians being the leading casualties in 59.5% and 71.4% of non-fatal and fatal cases respectively. Most accidents were caused by passenger service vehicles (matatus) which were responsible for 62% and 40.6% of non-fatal and fatal injuries respectively. Non-use of safety belts was reported in 56.6% of the cases who suffered non-fatal injuries. In the non-fatal category 89.6% of the casualties had soft tissue injuries (STIs) involving the craniofacial region with facial cuts being the majority (69.2%). Two hundred and seventy three (66.1%) incidents of other STIs than those of the head region were noted, the lower limbs accounting for 45.4% of these. Only 5.1% of the casualties with non-fatal injuries had fractures involving the maxillofacial skeleton. Skeletal injuries other than those involving the maxillofacial region were found in 142 (34.1%) incidents. In the fatal category head injury alone was the leading cause of death accounting for 37.7% of the cases followed by head and chest injuries combined which were responsible for 13% of the cases. CONCLUSION: Injuries to the maxillofacial skeleton appear to be uncommon in this series. Pedestrians in their third decade of life are most affected with passenger service vehicles being responsible in the majority of the cases. RECOMMENDATIONS: Interventional programmes targeting pedestrians and those in the third and fourth decades of life should be enacted.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, KIRIAGO DRAKAMAMATHEW, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Akama MK, Chindia ML, Macigo FG, Guthua SW.Pattern of maxillofacial and associated injuries in road traffic accidents.East Afr Med J. 2007 Jun;84(6):287-95.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 Jun;84(6):287-95. Elsevier; 2007. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Kenya. Victims may suffer multiple injuries including maxillofacial injuries. In most developing countries RTAs are the leading cause of maxillofacial injuries. In an attempt to reduce RTAs, the government of Kenya has enacted a legislation requiring mandatory fitting of speed governors and safety belts by passenger service vehicles. OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics and pattern of maxillofacial and associated injuries sustained in road traffic accidents. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). SUBJECTS: All patients involved in RTAs brought to casualty and the dental department of KNH as well as accident victims admitted to the KNH mortuary over a four- month period from September 2004 to December 2004. RESULTS: Four hundred and thirteen (85.7%) had non-fatal injuries whereas 69 (14.3%) had sustained fatal injuries. Males in the 21-30-year age group were the most affected. Most accidents occurred during weekends with pedestrians being the leading casualties in 59.5% and 71.4% of non-fatal and fatal cases respectively. Most accidents were caused by passenger service vehicles (matatus) which were responsible for 62% and 40.6% of non-fatal and fatal injuries respectively. Non-use of safety belts was reported in 56.6% of the cases who suffered non-fatal injuries. In the non-fatal category 89.6% of the casualties had soft tissue injuries (STIs) involving the craniofacial region with facial cuts being the majority (69.2%). Two hundred and seventy three (66.1%) incidents of other STIs than those of the head region were noted, the lower limbs accounting for 45.4% of these. Only 5.1% of the casualties with non-fatal injuries had fractures involving the maxillofacial skeleton. Skeletal injuries other than those involving the maxillofacial region were found in 142 (34.1%) incidents. In the fatal category head injury alone was the leading cause of death accounting for 37.7% of the cases followed by head and chest injuries combined which were responsible for 13% of the cases. CONCLUSION: Injuries to the maxillofacial skeleton appear to be uncommon in this series. Pedestrians in their third decade of life are most affected with passenger service vehicles being responsible in the majority of the cases. RECOMMENDATIONS: Interventional programmes targeting pedestrians and those in the third and fourth decades of life should be enacted.
KIRIAGO DRAKAMAMATHEW. "Akama MK, Guthua SW, Chindia ML.Pierre Robin Syndrome: case report.East Afr Med J. 2000 Jun;77(6):343-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 2000 Jun;77(6):343-4. University of Nairobi.; 2000. Abstract
A case of a female neonate with Pierre Robin Syndrome with frequent cyanotic episodes and feeding difficulties which could not be adequately managed by positioning and oral airway placement is presented. Tongue-anterior mandible fusion procedure was performed with satisfactory results.
Basangwa D, Ndetei DM, Kuria M, Ongecha-Owuor F, Abdullahi A, Mburu J, Gakinya B. "Alcohol and Other Substance Related Disorders."; 2006.
Matheka CW, Karanja J, Ndetei DM, Muriungi SK. "Alcohol and substance abuse risk among students at the Kenya Medical Training College.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

The object was to determine alcohol and substance use risk among students at the Kenya Medical Training College (KMTC). Data related to alcohol and substance use were obtained from 3107 first- and second-year basic diploma students from seven of the KMTC campuses in Kenya. Data were collected using a researcher-designed socio-demographic questionnaire and the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test questionnaire. Most of the participants had low risk for alcohol use (98.1%), while a small percentage had moderate (1.7%) and high (0.25%) risk of alcohol use. Low risk of alcohol use was higher in females (99.15%) compared to males (97%). The risk for alcohol and tobacco use was comparable between those below 24 and those above 24 years. All the separated, divorced and widowed students (n=34) (100%) had low risk for sedatives and hallucinogens use. The risk of alcohol and substance use exists among KMTC students at different levels. There is need to screen students for substance use, increase awareness and provide appropriate intervention to prevent drug use and its related co-morbidities.

Kiama W. Alcohol Related Deaths Amongst Drivers, Passengers, Pedestrians Andcyclists In Nairobi.; 2008. Abstract

Introduction
Alcohol and its effects on persons have use in both civil and criminal
litigation. In terms of civil matters alcohol has impact in the insurance
industry as relates to road traffic accidents, personal accidents claims
and also life insurance claims. Excessive alcohol has been blamed as a
cause of many deaths resulting from road traffic accidents, assault, stab
.wounds, crime and drowning (I).This has been taken to be so. This has
largely remained unverified by scientific research in Kenya.
The purpose of the study is to determine the incidence of alcohol related
deaths in road traffic accidents by measuring alcohol levels in vitreous
humor. Clinical studies have been conducted in this area but there has
not been a forensic pathology study in this area.
Hypothesis
Most deaths of road users in Nairobi are alcohol related.
Study Objects
The study objectives were broadly to determine alcohol related deaths
amongst drivers, passengers, pedestrians and cyclists between January
2007 and March 2007, specifically to determine the presence and levels
of exogenous alcohol levels in vitreous humors of dead bodies from road
traffic accidents; to determine the presence of microorganism in vitreous
humor as a marker of presence of endogenous alcohol and so as a
quality control and to establish the prevalence of alcohol related deaths
in road traffic accidents.
Study Design
A descriptive cross sectional study
Study setting
The study was conducted at the City Mortuary in Nairobi. It is the
biggest mortuary in Nairobi and receives most of the deceased persons
involved in road traffic accidents in Nairobi and its environs.
Methodology
The study subjects consisted of dead bodies of those who died due to
road traffic accidents in Nairobi and were selected consecutively.
The study involved collection of vitreous humor from the deceased
persons.
The sample for alcohol estimation was put into a fluoride bottle
which was tightly closed and sealed with cellotape and transported in a
cooler box and stored at -4 degrees Celsius until time of analysis.
The samples for microbiology were inoculated immediately at the site of
collection into Robertson's cooked media, sobourrounds dextrose agar
media and blood agar.
Results
The study established that out of the 101 subjects 21 had presence of
alcohol in the vitreous humor. Of the 21 subjects 6 had microorganisms
grown from their vitreous humor and were excluded from further
analysis. Exogenous alcohol was therefore established in 15 subjects
which was 15.8%.
The class of persons involved were distributed as passengers
who were 7 out of a total of 36 (46.7%), cyclists who were 3 out of a total
of 24 (20%),pedestrians who were 3 out of a total of 24 (20%) and drivers
2 drivers out of a total of 17 (13.3%).Amongst the males sampled 22.9%
had exogenous alcohol while amongst the females those that had
exogenous alcohol were 16.1%.
Conclusion
The prevalence of exogenous alcohol in bodies from road traffic
accidents was 15.8% this would form a basis for social interventions.
Passengers contributed a larger percentage of the class of persons
involved. The total percentage of death from road traffic accidents was
40% for pedestrians and cyclists.
Recommendations
There is need to structure roads to provide space for pedestrian and
cyclists to reduce contact with motor vehicles. Drivers and passengers
composed 60% of those found to have exogenous alcohol it is therefore
recommended that there be policies on alcohol intake and driving which
would set the legally acceptable drink and drive levels.

Kibera AN, Kuria MW, Kokonya DA. "Alcohol Use Disorders among HIV and AIDS Patients at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Comprehensive Care Centre, Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of Research and Health Sciences. 2017;2(7):21-30.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Kabwana I. Alfa na Omega (Play). Nairobi: Oxford University Press; Submitted. Abstract

n/a

Katende J. Algebra I Lecture Notes (ODL).; 2012.
Ndunda B, Langat MK, Wanjohi JM, Midiwo JO, Kerubo LO. "Alienusolin, a new 4α-deoxyphorbol ester derivative, and crotonimide C, a new glutarimide alkaloid from the Kenyan Croton alienus." Planta medica. 2013;79(18):1762-1766. Abstract

Description
Two novel compounds, alienusolin, a 4α-deoxyphorbol ester (1), crotonimide C, a glutarimide alkaloid derivative (2), and ten known compounds, julocrotine (3), crotepoxide (4), monodeacetyl crotepoxide (5), dideacetylcrotepoxide, (6), β-senepoxide (7), α-senepoxide (8), (+)-(2S,3R-diacetoxy-1-benzoyloxymethylenecyclohex-4,6-diene (9), benzyl benzoate (10), acetyl aleuritolic (11), and 24-ethylcholesta-4,22-dien-3-one (12) were isolated from the Kenyan Croton alienus. The structures of the compounds were determined using NMR, GCMS, and HRESIMS studies.

Babiaka SB, Simoben CV, Abuga KO, Mbah JA, Karpoormath R, Ongarora D, Mugo H, Monya E, Cho-Ngwa F, Sippl W, Loveridge JE, Ntie-Kang F. "Alkaloids with Anti-Onchocercal Activity from Voacanga africana Stapf (Apocynaceae): Identification and Molecular Modeling." Molecules. 2021;26(1):70. Abstract

A new iboga-vobasine-type isomeric bisindole alkaloid named voacamine A (1), along with eight known compounds—voacangine (2), voacristine (3), coronaridine (4), tabernanthine (5), ibox-ygaine (6), voacamine (7), voacorine (8) and conoduramine (9)—were isolated from the stem bark of Voacanga africana. The structures of the compounds were determined by comprehensive spec-troscopic analyses. Compounds 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8 were found to inhibit the motility of both the microfilariae (Mf) and adult male worms of Onchocerca ochengi, in a dose-dependent manner, but were only moderately active on the adult female worms upon biochemical assessment at 30 μM drug concentrations. The IC50 values of the isolates are 2.49–5.49 µM for microfilariae and 3.45–17.87 µM for adult males. Homology modeling was used to generate a 3D model of the O. ochengi thioredoxin reductase target and docking simulation, followed by molecular dynamics and binding free energy calculations attempted to offer an explanation of the anti-onchocercal struc-ture–activity relationship (SAR) of the isolated compounds. These alkaloids are new potential leads for the development of antifilarial drugs. The results of this study validate the traditional use of V. africana in the treatment of human onchocerciasis.

Yaouba S, Koch A, Guantai EM, Derese S, Irungu B, Heydenreich M, Yenesew A. "Alkenyl cyclohexanone derivatives from Lannea rivae and Lannea schweinfurthii." Phytochemistry letters. 2018;23:141-148. AbstractJornal article

Abstract
Phytochemical investigation of the CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1) extract of the roots of Lannea rivae (Chiov) Sacleux (Anacardiaceae) led to the isolation of a new alkenyl cyclohexenone derivative: (4R,6S)-4,6-dihydroxy-6-((Z)-nonadec-14′-en-1-yl)cyclohex-2-en-1-one (1), and a new alkenyl cyclohexanol derivative: (2S*,4R*,5S*)-2,4,5-trihydroxy-2-((Z)-nonadec-14′-en-1-yl)cyclohexanone (2) along with four known compounds, namely epicatechin gallate, taraxerol, taraxerone and β-sitosterol; while the stem bark afforded two known compounds, daucosterol and lupeol. Similar investigation of the roots of Lannea schweinfurthii (Engl.) Engl. led to the isolation of four known compounds: 3-((E)-nonadec-16′-enyl)phenol, 1-((E)-heptadec-14′-enyl)cyclohex-4-ene-1,3-diol, catechin, and 1-((E)-pentadec-12′-enyl)cyclohex-4-ene-1,3-diol. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of compound 1 was established by quantum chemical ECD calculations. In an antibacterial activity assay using the microbroth kinetic method, compound 1 showed moderate activity against Escherichia coli while compound 2 exhibited moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Compound 1 also showed moderate activity against E. coli using the disc diffusion method. The roots extract of L. rivae was notably cytotoxic against both the DU-145 prostate cancer cell line and the Vero mammalian cell line (CC50 = 5.24 and 5.20 μg/mL, respectively). Compound 1 was also strongly cytotoxic against the DU-145 cell line (CC50 = 0.55 μg/mL) but showed no observable cytotoxicity (CC50 > 100 μg/mL) against the Vero cell line. The roots extract of L. rivae and L. schweinfurthii, epicatechin gallate as well as compound 1 exhibited inhibition of carageenan-induced inflammation.

Graphical abstract

Kiamba A. "All the rage in Kenyan Politics.". In: Trendy tribal and politically correct ethnic identity’ Paper presented in the National Symposium on Post-Election Peace-building . Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Nairobi; 2009.
Oluoch-Kosura W, Kilungo JK, McDermott JJ. "Allocative efficiency in smallholder dairy production in Kenya."; 1999. Abstract

This study is aimed at analyzing the economics of smallholder dairy production in the Kiambu District, Kenya. The main objective was to “test for allocative efficiency” of the sample farms. The source of data was from randomly selected dairy farms in Kiambu. An analysis using a Cobb-Douglas form of production function was performed for the major inputs farmers used on their dairy animals. Results revealed that concentrates were being used inefficiently. This implied that there were potential gains which could accrue from reallocation of this resource. However, it was noted that there was efficiency in the use of operating capital, hired and family labour and farm by-products. This implies that, for those inputs used efficiently, further development in agriculture can be achieved only through the introduction of more modern technologies than those currently used. These could include new inputs, apicultural education, special skills and techniques, and competent guidance in farm planning.

Mukabana, W.R., Takken, W., Killeen GF, Knols, B.G.J. "Allomonal effect of breath contributes to differential attractiveness of humans to the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae." Malaria Journal. 2004;3:1.
Kamau SM. "Alpha-Lactalbumin: Its Production Technologies and Bioactive Peptides.". 2010. AbstractWebsite

Alpha-lactalbumin (α-La), a globular protein found in all mammalian milk, has been used as an ingredient in infant formulas. The protein can be isolated from milk using chromatography/gel filtration, membrane separation, enzyme hydrolysis, and precipitation/aggregation technologies. α-La is appreciated as a source of peptides with antitumor and apoptosis, antiulcerative, immune modulating, antimicrobial, antiviral, antihypertensive, opioid, mineral binding, and antioxidative bioactivities, which may be utilized in the production of functional foods. Nanotubes formed by the protein could find applications in foods and pharmaceuticals, and understanding its amyloid fibrils is important in drawing strategies for controlling amyloidal diseases. Bioactive peptides in α-La are released during the fermentation or ripening of dairy products by starter and nonstarter microorganisms and during digestion by gastric enzymes. Bioactive peptides are also produced by deliberate hydrolysis of α-La using animal, microbial, or plant proteases. The occurrence, structure, and production technologies of α-La and its bioactive peptides are reviewed.

Kokwaro JO, et al. "Alpine plant communities of Mount Elgon, An altitudinal transect along the Koitoboss Route." Journal of the East Africa Natural History Society. 1988;75 (190):12.
Redher H, Beck E, Kokwaro JO. "The alpine plant communities of Mount Kenya." Phytocoenologia. 1988;16 (4):433-463.
Kimelberg HK. "Alterations in phospholipid-dependent (Na+ +K+)-ATPase activity due to lipid fluidity. Effects of cholesterol and Mg2+." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;413(1):143-56. Abstract

The (Na+ +K+)-activated, Mg2+-dependent ATPase from rabbit kidney outer medulla was prepared in a partially inactivated, soluble form depleted of endogenous phospholipids, using deoxycholate. This preparation was reactivated 10 to 50-fold by sonicated liposomes of phosphatidylserine, but not by non-sonicated phosphatidylserine liposomes or sonicated phosphatidylcholine liposomes. The reconstituted enzyme resembled native membrane preparations of (Na+ +K+)-ATPase in its pH optimum being around 7.0, showing optimal activity at Mg2+:ATP mol ratios of approximately 1 and a Km value for ATP of 0.4 mM. Arrhenius plots of this reactivated activity at a constant pH of 7.0 and an Mg2+: ATP mol ratio of 1:1 showed a discontinuity (sharp change of slope) at 17 degrees C, with activation energy (Ea) values of 13-15 kcal/mol above this temperature and 30-35 kcal below it. A further discontinuity was also found at 8.0 degrees C and the Ea below this was very high (greater than 100 kcal/mol). Increased Mg2+ concentrations at Mg2+:ATP ratios in excess of 1:1 inhibited the (Na+ +K+)-ATPase activity and also abolished the discontinuities in the Arrhenius plots. The addition of cholesterol to phosphatidylserine at a 1:1 mol ratio partially inhibited (Na+ +K+)-ATPase reactivation. Arrhenius plots under these conditions showed a single discontinuity at 20 degrees C and Ea values of 22 and 68 kcal/mol above and below this temperature respectively. The ouabain-insensitive Mg2+-ATPase normally showed a linear Arrhenius plot with an Ea of 8 kcal/mol. The cholesterol-phosphatidylserine mixed liposomes stimulated the Mg2+-ATPase activity, which now also showed a discontinuity at 20 degrees C with, however, an increased value of 14 kcal/mol above this temperature and 6 kcal/mol below. Kinetic studies showed that cholesterol had no significant effect on the Km values for ATP. Since both cholesterol and Mg2+ are known to alter the effects of temperature on the fluidity of phospholipids, the above results are discussed in this context.

Leucci E, Cocco M, Cleef PV, Bellan C, Rijik AV, Falco GD, Onnis A, Joshua Nyagol, Byakika B, Lazzi S, Tosi P, Kricken HV, Leoncini L. "Altered expression of mirnas in c-MYC negative Burkitt lymphoma cases." Virchows Archives. 2007;451(2):119.
Kamau G, James K, Jones M, Benedict M. Alternative Approach to Mining of Heavy Minerals in Kenya.; 2002.
K DRKARIUKIDAVID. "Alternative Energy Sources in Kenya, A Case of Coal.". In: Journal of Coal Science. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2005. Abstract

While Diagnostic Radiology has become increasingly indispensible in sound clinical patient management the cost and maintenance of radiological equipment has continued to soar, reaching almost unaffordable levels in developing countries. As an attempt to provide some measure of remedy to the above problem, the World Health Organization in the early 80's introduced the basic radiological system (BRS) concept. The BRS is supposed to meet such criteria as being relatively cheap, of low maintenance cost easy operability and suitable in rural areas where electrical power supply may not be constant. In addition it should be able to perform 80% of all conventional radiological examinations. In this paper the author gives a critical account of the BRS experience in Kenya. Proposals for possible future considerations and modifications in order to achieve near ideal BRS X-ray machine are also advanced.

Mutembei H, Tsuma V, Kios D. "Alternative Follicle Stimulating Hormone Dose Rate for Embryo Production in Dairy Cattle." Journal of Dairy & Veterinary Sciences. 2019;10(3):1-7.mutembei-kios_2019.pdf
Mwangi JW, P. K. Gathumbi, Kibwage IO, Thoithi GN, Oketch-Rabah HA. "Alternative medicines and prostate enlargement-Prunus africana emphasis." Pharm. J. Kenya. 2001;(March):26-31.
J.W. M, Gathumbi PK, Kibwage IO, et al. "Alternative medicines and prostate enlargement-Prunus africana emphasis." Pharmaceutical J. Kenya. 2000;12(1):26-30.
Njenga LW, Maina DM, Kariuki DN, Mwangi FK. Aluminium exposure from vegetables and fresh raw vegetable juices in Kenya.; 2007.
Kolb H. "Amacrine cells of the mammalian retina: neurocircuitry and functional roles." Eye (London, England). 1997;11 ( Pt 6):904-923. Abstract

Since amacrine cells are important interneurons of the inner retina and their activity may be detected in certain waveforms of the electroretinogram, this paper reviews their morphologies, classification, mosaics, neurotransmitter content, neural circuitry and physiological responses to light. Nine different amacrine cell types of cat, rabbit and human retinas are presently quite well studied in terms of the aforementioned aspects and are described in detail in this paper.

Kolb H. "Amacrine cells of the mammalian retina: neurocircuitry and functional roles." Eye (London, England). 1996;11 ( Pt 6):904-923. AbstractWebsite

Europe PubMed Central (Europe PMC) is an archive of life sciences journal literature.

K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Amayo E.O., Kayima J.K., McLigeyo S.O. and Kioy P.G. Autonomic nervous function in patients with chronic renal failure at the Kenyatta National Hospital. East African Medical Journal, 71(4): 253-5; 1994.". In: African Journal of Health Sciences 1(4): 185-191, 1994. East African Medical Journal.71(4): 253-5; 1994.; 1994. Abstract
Persistent microcytosis was noted among a number of post renal transplant patients attending the transplant clinic at the Western General Hospital Edinburgh. We retrospectively looked at the pattern of recovery of the anaemia of chronic renal failure following successful renal transplantation with good graft function (Creatinine less than 250 (mol/l). Comparisons were made between those patients with persistent microcytosis and those with normal mean cell volume (MCV). Patients with microcytosis tended to have a slower recovery compared to those with normal MCV especially from week 12 to 21 after transplantation with corresponding Hb changes of 108+ 20 to 126+/-20 g/l vs 128+ 17 to 144+/-19 g/l ([P < 0.05], 95% confidence limits). The microcytic groups also tended to have had poorer graft function with serum creatinines significantly higher than those with normal MCV from week 8 to 21, 182+/- 62 to 173+/- 51 (mol/1 vs 139+/- 40 to 149+/- 38 (mo1/L ([P < 0.05] 95% confidence limits). In both groups haemoglobin concentration was negatively correlated to serum creatinine. (r=-0.54, [P < 0.05]). Body iron status studies had not been done in these patients. Persistent microcytosis though a non sensitive marker of iron deficiency may be a marker of disordered iron metabolism in patients with poorer graft functions.
K. MRNJERUERASTUS. "Amayo EO, Jowi JO, Njeru EK.Headache associated disability in medical students at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 2002 Oct;79(10):519-23.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Oct;79(10):519-23. Kisipan, M.L.; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To study headache associated disability in a group of medical students at the Kenyatta National Hospital. STUDY DESIGN: Cross sectional survey. RESULTS: Between October 1994 and January 1995 we conducted a survey on headache characteristics on medical students at both the Kenya Medical Training Centre and the Medical School of the University of Nairobi. Six hundred and twenty-five (87%) of the 711 students surveyed admitted having had at least one episode of headache in the last six months. Using the International headache society (IHS) case criteria 314 students (50%) had tension type headache, 240 (38%) migraine headache and 71(12%) unclassified headache. Eighty-six percent of the students with headache had their working ability disturbed to various degrees. Eighty-five percent of the students reported that their social activities were interfered with by headache. Migraine headaches had the greatest impact on both the working and social activities at a p-value of 0.0005 and 0.0004 respectively. One hundred and forty-one students (23.6%) had missed at least one day of work or school in the last one-year as a direct result of the headache. There was an association between headache severity with working ability and social effect. There was no association between the days students missed work or classes with the severity of the headache. No gender difference was found in the headache associated disability. CONCLUSION: Headache is a prevalent condition with disability both in working and social activities.
K. MRNJERUERASTUS. "Amayo EO, Jowi JO, Njeru EK.Migraine headaches in a group of medical students at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 1996 Sep;73(9):594-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 1996 Sep;73(9):594-7. Kisipan, M.L.; 1996. Abstract
A survey was carried out on 711 medical students from both the medical school and the Kenya Medical Training Centre on headaches using a closed ended questionnaire. Six hundred and twenty five (88%) of the students reported to have at least one episode of headache in the last six months. Two hundred and forty (33.8%) of these were classified as migraine using the International Headache Society case definition. Seventy (29%) had migraine with aura, the rest being migraine without aura. The mean age was 22.7 +/- 5 years with a male to female ratio of 1:1.3. The majority of the respondents (43%) had an average of two to three headache episodes per month. The major triggering factors for the headache were physical activities, emotional disturbance and studying, each occurring in 21% of the student respondents. It was reported by 43.6% of the respondents that there was a member of their nucleus family with a similar headache. Only 40% of the respondents had sought medical attention for their headache in the last one year. The main reason for not seeking medical services was self medication in 56% of those who did not attend medical services. Only 27 (11%) of the respondents were currently on medication which consisted of simple analgesics and antimalarials. There were only two students who were on specific drugs for migraine. The majority of the respondents continued to be inadequately treated despite the development of wide range of effective treatment.
K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Amayo EO, Kayima JK, Amayo AA.Transient focal neurological deficits in patients with hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia: report of four cases. East Afr Med J. 1998 Jan;75(1):53-4. Review.". In: East African Medical Journal, 75: 30-34; 1998. Ochieng P. O., McLigeyo S. O., Amayo E. O., Kayima J. K. and Omonge E. O.; 1998. Abstract
A case of hypoglycaemia and three cases of hyperglycaemia presenting with focal neurological deficits are presented. The focal presentations were hemiparesis and focal convulsion that returned to normal upon correction of the blood sugar. Elderly patients not uncommonly present with transient focal neurologic deficits related to abnormalities in blood sugar levels. In these patients correction of blood sugar levels per se may ameliorate symptoms and signs making it unnecessary to investigate for cerebrovascular disease. In diabetic patients on insulin or oral hypoglycaemic agents focal neurologic deficit should alert the clinician on the possibility of hypoglycaemia.
K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Amayo EO, Kayima JK, Joshi MD.Platelet functions in patients with meningococcal meningitis at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2002 Aug;79(8):405-7.". In: East African Medical Journal, 79(7): 390-393; 2002. Ochieng P. O., McLigeyo S. O., Amayo E. O., Kayima J. K. and Omonge E. O.; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine platelet abnormalities in patients with menigococcal meningitis. DESIGN: Case control study. SUBJECTS: Fifty seven cases of mennigococcal meningitis based on a cerebrospinal fluid gram stain for gram negative diplococcus or positive culture were recruited. Fifty-seven controls matched for age and sex were also recruited. The following platelet functions tests were performed; platelet counts, platelet adhesiveness, platelet aggregation and clot retraction. RESULTS: Fifty seven patients (41 males and 16 females) with meningococcal meningitis were studied. Their mean age was 25.5 +/- 8.32 years with a range of 15 to 45 years. Five patients had purpura, four peripheral gangrene, eight conjunctival haemorrhages and one was in shock. There was a statistical significant difference in the platelet aggregation and clot retraction between the patients and controls at p-values of 0.0001 and 0.0002 respectively. There was no significant difference in the platelet count and adhesiveness between the patients and the controls at a p-value of 0.203 and 0.22 respectively. No association was found between the platelet functions and the clinical presentations. CONCLUSION: Patients with meningococcal meningitis have abnormalities in the platelet functions mainly in aggregation and adhesiveness.
K DRMUSAUCHRISTOPHER. "Amayo EO, Kwasa TO, Musau CK, Mugo N, Wambani J.Primary intracerebral haemorrhage complicated by cerebral abscess: case report.East Afr Med J. 2002 Mar;79(3):163-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Mar;79(3):163-4. uon press; 2002. Abstract
A case of primary intracerebral haemorrhage complicated by cerebral abscess is presented with a review of the literature.
K. MRNJERUERASTUS. "Amayo, E.O., Owade, J.N., Aluoch, J.R., Njeru, E.K. Neurological Complications of Sickle Cell Disease at Kenyatta National Hospital. A five-year Retrospective Study. East Afr. Med. J. 1992; 69:660-2.". In: East Afr. Med. J. 1992; 69:660-2. Kisipan, M.L.; 1992. Abstract
In a five year retrospective study of 360 patients with homozygous (SS) sickle cell disease, eighteen (5%) were found to have neurological complications. Their ages ranged from 7 months to 21 years with a mean of 11.1 +/- 6 years. Of those with neurological complications, twelve (67%) of the patients had cerebrovascular accident, six (33.3%) convulsions, three visual disturbance; one sensorineural deafness, one cerebellar degeneration and the last one confusion and hallucinations. Four of the patients had multiple neurological complications. There was only one patient with recurrence of neurological complications. Two patients were hypertransfused and up to the end of the study period none of them had any recurrence. The pattern of neurological complications are similar to that observed in other studies. However, in this study, there were fewer recurrences of neurological complications.
Njenga MJ, Wabacha JK, Abuom TO, Ndurumo SM, Gitonga PN, Kirui G. "Ambulatory clinical exposure of final year veterinary students 2003/2004. .". In: Presented at Annual Scientific conference of Kenya Veterinary Association. University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2004.
Njenga MJ;, Wabacha JK;, Ndurumo SM;, Gitonga PN;, Kirui G. "Ambulatory clinical exposure of final year veterinary students 2003/2004.".; 2004.
Njenga MJ;, Wabacha JK;, Ndurumo SM;, Gitonga PN;, Kirui G. "Ambulatory clinical exposure of final year veterinary students 2003/2004.".; 2004.
Njenga MJ;, Wabacha JK;, Ndurumo SM;, Gitonga PN;, Kirui G. "Ambulatory clinical exposure of final year veterinary students 2003/2004.".; 2004.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Amenan A Yao; Carine Dortu; M Egounlety; C Pinto; E A Vinodh; M H Kostinek; Charles M A P Franz; W Holpzapfel; Samuel Mbugua; Moses Mengu and Phillipe Thonart 2009: Production of freeze-dried Lactic Acid Bacteria starter cultures for cassava fermentation .". In: African Journal of Biotechnology, vol 8 (19) pp 4996 . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2009. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
Kanyinga K. "Amusing game of corruption in Africa as the rule of law fails." Sunday Nation, March 24, 2018.
KJ G, AM M, GO A’. "ANAEMIA AMONG BREASTFEEDING INFANTS (0-6 MONTHS) AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS IN A LOW INCOME URBAN SETTING OF KENYA." African Journal of Food , Agriculture,Nutrition and Development. 2019;19(2):14303-14319.
Mwazighe FM, Kamau GN, Mwaniki JM. "Anaerobic Digestion of Sewage Wastewaters with Sludge and Rumen Fluid." EIJST. 2014;3(6):61-66.
Mwazighe FM, Kamau GN, Mwaniki JM. "Anaerobic Digestion of Sewage Wastewaters with Sludge and Rumen Fluid." European International Journal of Science and Technology. 2014;Vol 3(6):61-66. Abstract

Anaerobic digestion was conducted at mesophilic (37oC) and thermophilic (55oC) conditions using sewage
wastewaters as the substrate and sludge and/or rumen fluid as the inoculum, with a view to optimize biogas
production. The substrate and inoculum were mixed in the ratios 1:1, 1:3, and 3:1 (volume by weight (where
sludge was used) or volume by volume (where rumen fluid was used).At mesophilic conditions for both
inocula, the 3:1 substrate/inoculum mixture produced the most biogas in a 24 hour period, with the rumen
mixture producing the highest yield (20 ml). At thermophilic conditions the 3:1 wastewater/sludge mixture
had the highest biogas yield (58 ml), whereas when rumen fluid was used as inoculum, the 1:3 mixture
produced the most biogas (66 ml). The thermophilic experiments using rumen as the inoculum were
repeated for a 10 day period and the 3:1 mixture achieved the maximum yield (140 ml) faster than the other
two (1:1 and 1:3 mixtures) indicating that the 3:1 substrate/inoculum ratio is the best.

Onzago RO, Kiama SG, Mbaria JM, Gakuya DW, Githinji CG, Rukenya ZM. "Analgesic activity of aqueous extract of Vernonia hymenolepis (A. Rich) a traditional medicine plant used in Kenya for toothache." The Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2013;2(6):41-45.the_journal_of_phytopharamacology-onzago_paper.pdf
Onzago RO, Kiama SG, Mbaria JM, D.W Gakuya, C.G. Githiji, Rukenya ZM. "Analgesic activity of aqueous extract of Vernonia hymenolepis (A. Rich) a traditional medicine plant used in Kenya for toothache." The Journal of Phytopharmacology 2013; 2(6): 41-45. 2014. Abstractanalgesic_activity_of_aqueous_extract_of_vernonia_hymenolepis.pdf

The main aim of the study was to ascertain the analgesic properties of Vernonia hymenolepis leaves to validate its use for the treatment of toothache. The plant is widely used as a traditional herb by communities in Trans Nzoia County, Kenya for treatment of various infections including toothache. However its efficacy has not been established. Leaves of the plant were collected from Trans Nzoia County, Kenya and identified at University of Nairobi Herbarium. An aqueous extraction of leaves was prepared. Formalin test was carried out using 30 male albino wister mice to determine antinociceptive effect and the painful response at 0 – 10 min (Early) and 15 – 60 min (late phase). Acetylsalicylate at dose of 100 mg/Kg was used as a positive control. The dose significantly (p<0.05) reduced the time spent in pain behavior in both phases hence indicating that the plant posses antinociceptive activity. It’s concluded that Vernonia hymenolepis possesses analgesic property.

Keywords: Vernonia hymenolepis, Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, Antinociceptive.

Onzago RO, Kiama SG, Mbaria JM, Githinji CG, Rukenya ZM. "Analgesic activity of aqueous extract of Vernonia hymenolepis (A. Rich), a traditional medicine plant used in Kenya." Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2013; 2(6):41-45.
Kariuki DK, Kanui TI, Mbugua PM, Githinji CG. "Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of 9-Hexacosene and Stigmasterol isolated from Mondia whytei.". 2012. Abstractanalgesic.pdfWebsite

The aim of the study was to ascertain the analgesic properties of Mondia whytei
roots and to isolate and characterize the active constituents. Bioactivity guided
fractionation of the chloroform root extract yielded stigmasterol and 9-hexacosene.
Stigmasterol (15 mg/kg) and 9-hexacosene (30 mg/kg) significantly (p<0.05)
inhibited chemical nociception induced by intraperitoneal acetic acid. Stigmasterol
(7.5, 15, 30 and 100 mg/kg) dose dependently reduced the time spent in pain behavior
in both the early and late phases of the formalin test. 9-hexacosene dose
dependently caused significant (p<0.001) antinociceptive effect on the late phase of
the formalin test. Co-administration of naloxone failed to antagonize the analgesic
activity of stigmasterol and 9-hexacosene in the formalin test. We concluded that
both stigmasterol and 9-hexacosene possess potential analgesic effects which are
most likely mediated by their anti-inflammatory activities rather than through
opioid receptor system.

K.Njunge, G.Muriuki, Mwangi JW, Kuria KAM. "Analgesic and antipsychotic effects of myrica salicifolia (Myricaceae)." Phytother Res. 2002;16:573-574.
Njung'e K, Muriuki G, Mwangi JW, Kuria KA. "Analgesic and antipyretic effects of Myrica salicifolia (Myricaceae).". 2002. AbstractWebsite

Myrica salicifolia Hoechst (Myricaceae) root extract was found to have analgesic activity in mice. In rats there was antipyretic but no antiinflammatory activity.

Kanduma EG, Mwacharo JM, Githaka NW, Kinyanjui PW, Njuguna JN, Kamau LM, Kariuki E, Mwaura S, Skilton RA, Bishop RP. "Analyses of mitochondrial genes reveal two sympatric but genetically divergent lineages of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus in Kenya." Parasites & vectors. 2016;9:1-15. Abstract
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Boon TRE;, Lund DH;, Buttoud G;, Kouplevatskaya I. Analysis along procedural elements.; 2008.Website
Boon TRE;, Nathan I;, Buttoud G;, Kouplevatskaya I, Lund DH;. Analysis along procedural elements.; 1998.Website
Mukaria SM, Thenya T, Raphael G Wahome, Karatu K. "Analysis and Perception of Health Impact of Motor Vehicle Emissions on Traffic Police in Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2017;5(3):104-110.
Mukaria SM, Thenya T, Raphael G Wahome, Karatu K, Michael Gatari. "Analysis and Perception of Health Impact of Motor Vehicle Emissions on Traffic Police in Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2017;5:104-110. Abstract
n/a
Mukaria SM, Thenya T, Raphael G Wahome, Karatu K, Michael Gatari. "Analysis and Perception of Health Impact of Motor Vehicle Emissions on Traffic Police in Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2017;5(3):104-110.
Angeyo HK, Dehayem-Massop A, Kaduki KA. "Analysis and Spectral Imaging Approaches to Disease Diagnostics: Forays into Malaria and Cancer.". In: LAM 10 International Workshop: Optics Photonics and Lasers in Science and Technology for Sustainable Development. 13-18 January 2014, Dakar, Senegal; 2014. Abstract
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Mukabana, W.R., Takken W, Knols, B.G.J. "Analysis of arthropod blood meals using molecular genetic markers." Trends in Parasitology. 2002;18:505-509.
Maina J, Wandiga S, Gyampoh B, KK GC. "Analysis of Average Annual Rainfall and Average Maximum Annual Temperature for a Period of 30 years to Establish Trends in Kieni, Central." Journal of Climatol Weather Forecasting. 2019;7:249. Abstractwww.longdom.org

The aim of the study was to analyze average annual rainfall and average maximum annual temperature records for
30 years in the study area to establish trends hence confirm the presence or absence of climate change. The analysis
was accomplished with the use of MS Excel spreadsheets. The meteorological datasets were 1984-2013 records for
rainfall and 1981-2012 for temperature. The rainfall climatological standard normal was computed for a 25-year
period between 1989 and 2012 which was used to compute the average annual rainfall anomaly. The temperature
provisional normal was computed for a period of 10 years due to lack of adequate data. The average annual rainfall
anomaly for 1984-2013 periods was -8.8 mm an indication of a declining rainfall trend while the annual maximum
temperature for 1981-2012 period was 0.5°C a positive trend showing that the annual maximum temperatures
are rising in the study area. Therefore, the declining average annual rainfall accompanied with rising maximum
temperatures were indicators of the presence of climate change.

Keywords: Average annual rainfall; Average maximum temperature; Trends; Climatological standard normal;
Datasets; Climate change

Kibiego MB;, Odhiambo MO;, Kimani PM. "Analysis of bean marketing system in urban areas of Kenya."; 2003. Abstract

The beans industry in Kenya is faced with several problems, most especially shortage, seasonal fluctuations in supply of beans and lack of reliable statistical information. This study was conducted to determine the structure and performance of the beans marketing system in Nairobi metropolitan area in Kenya. Primary and secondary data were used. Primary data were generated from a survey of 102 beans traders using cluster and systematic sampling methods. Majority of the traders were women (60.8 %). ‘Rosecoco GLP 2’ (Nyayo) wariety was the most prefered variety. Other varieties on sale were red haricot, Canadian wonder and mwitemania among others. Bean marketing structure approached that of pure competition but lack of capital was a barrier to entry into the wholesale/retail trade. There were no cohesive tactics against established rivals or potential entrants. Stiff competition has resulted in marketing margins that closely approximate the actual marketing costs. The Augmented Dickey-Fuller test (ADFs) showed no significant co-integration for several pairs of markets. Thus market integration had not been fully realized in Nairobi bean markets. This is due to inadequate flow of market information and risk.

Mwaniki JM, Mwazighe FM, Kamau GN. "Analysis of Blue Chamomile Essential Oil produced by multi-solvent Solvent Extraction Clevenger Distillation Method." African Journal of Physical Sciences. 2015;2(1):1-10. Abstract

Blue colored essential oil samples were obtained from chamomile flowers
by a Solvent Extraction Clevenger Distillation (SECD) method and by the
standard Clevenger distillation of Chamomile flowers. The solvents used
were hexane, acetone, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate and
methanol. The solvents were evaluated in terms of the yield of extract, and
the quality of extract (determined by Gas Chromatography-Mass
Spectrometry). Of all the SECD extracts, the DCM extract gave the highest
yield of the essential oil while the hexane extract gave the lowest yield of
the blue essential oil.

Mwaniki JM, Mwazighe FM, Kamau GN. "Analysis of Blue Chamomile Essential Oil produced by multi-solvent Solvent Extraction Clevenger Distillation Method." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences. 2015;Vol 2(1):1-10. AbstractWebsite

Blue colored essential oil samples were obtained from chamomile flowers by a Solvent Extraction Clevenger Distillation (SECD) method and by the standard Clevenger distillation of Chamomile flowers. The solvents used were hexane, acetone, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate and methanol. The solvents were evaluated in terms of the yield of extract, and the quality of extract (determined by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry). Of all the SECD extracts, the DCM extract gave the highest yield of the essential oil while the hexane extract gave the lowest yield of the blue essential oil

Njiru EN;, Kironchi, G; Mbuvi NJP; S, Kironchi G;, Mbuvi JP;, Nguluu S. "Analysis of climate data and the associated risks to maize production in Semi-Arid Eastern Kenya."; 2010.
Njiru, E N; Kironchi MNG; JP;, Kironchi G;, Mbuvi JP;, Nguluu S. "Analysis of climate data and the associated risks to maize production in Semi-Arid Eastern Kenya."; 2010.
Nyaory GM, K’Onditi DBO, Ouma HA, Musyoki S. "Analysis of Electromagnetic Field Radiation from a Rectangular Cavity-Backed Slot Antenna Using ADI-FDTD Method." Journal Of Information Engineering and Applications . 2012;2(No. 8):1-8. Abstract

In this paper, a rectangular Cavity Backed Slot Antenna (CBSA) Model excited by a probe is investigated.
The analysis is carried out using the Alternating Direction Implicit - Finite Difference Time Domain (ADIFDTD)
Method which is applied to investigate its characteristics in terms of radiation patterns and power.
This is because the method is capable of providing a more accurate definition of the electromagnetic fields
within the rectangular apertures, while eliminating the Courant-Friedrich-Levy (CFL) stability condition
which is present in the regular Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. A cavity-backed slot
antenna structure with dimensions of 14cm×22cm×30cm is analyzed with the slot and aperture
measurements done at 3GHz. Results showing current distribution on the material surrounding the
apertures are presented and a discussion on the physical aspects of the aperture radiation phenomenon is
also presented.

**This research was sponsored by The German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD)**

Abungu NO, Konditi DB, Otieno AV. "Analysis of Electromagnetic Transmission through dielectric filled Apertures of Arbitrary Shape in a Thick Conducting Screen." World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society (WSEAS). 2005. AbstractWebsite

The paper deals with an extension of the previous work appearing in a past issue of this transaction by the authors on hybrid FEM/MOM technique for analyzing transmission properties of arbitrarily shaped apertures on a thick conducting screen. In the present work, the effect of placing different dielectric material slabs in the conducting screen cavity on the electromagnetic transmission parameters is first analyzed and, then, the effect of interchanging the positions of these dielectric slabs relative to the incident field. Validation results for rectangular and cross-shaped slots are presented. Close agreement between our data and published data is observed.  Further data has been generated for rectangular, circular, diamond-shaped and cross-shaped apertures.

Nunow A, Nzioka JM, Kinama JM. "Analysis of gender parity in climate change adaptation actions within Kajiado and Kiambu counties, Kenya." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2020;1(2).
Kamau, L., Mukabana, W.R., Hawley, W.A., Lehmann, T., Irungu, L.W., Orago AA, Collins, F.H. "Analysis of genetic variability in Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae using microsatelite loci. ." Insect Molecular Biology. 1999;8:287-297.
Oleche OM, Kiriti-Nganga TW. "The Analysis of Health Expenditures on Key Health Indicators in Kenya." International Journal of Afro - Asian Studies. 2008;8(2):7-24.

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