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Korir BK, Wanyoike MMM, KURIA JOSEPHKN, Mwangi DM, Muge EE. "Cassava leaves and azolla as crude protein supplement feed to east african short horned Zebu Heifers." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2020;16:1457-1462. Abstract
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Korir PC, Salim AM, Odalo JO, Waudo W, Gitu LM, Yusuf AO. "Optimization of Extraction Condition and Characterization of Malva Verticillata Root Bark Mucilage." International Journal of Chemistry. 2018;10(2):1-9. AbstractInternational Journal of Chemistry

Description
The study aimed at optimizing the extraction conditions and establishing the physicochemical properties of the mucilage obtained from root bark of Malva verticillata. Effects of temperature, time, particle size and amount of water as a solvent on the yield and composition of mucilage were established. Micrometric, physical, chemical and structural properties were used to characterise the extracted mucilage. Result showed significant correlation between extraction conditions and mucilage yield. Low temperature and short extraction time results into pharmaceutically valuable mucilage with low protein content, high viscosity and good dispersion in aqueous solvent. Large and small size particles of the plant material results into low mucilage yield without significant difference (p= 0.054). The mucilage shows mixed cohesiveness with less tendencies to flow. It exhibits vibration bands in FTIR that are associated with the presence of polysaccharides and proteins. The mucilage contains 2.65% protein, 13.83% inorganics, 1.85% fats, and the rest carbohydrates. High extractive value˃ 80% and moisture content˃ 12% implies that mucilage has high tendency to microbial attack. Optimized extraction conditions results into high yield of the mucilage with the same physicochemical properties and mineral composition regardless of the plant material sampling sites.

Korir EK. "Phytochemical Investigation of the Larvicidal Activity of Toddalia asiatica and Ekebergia capensis against Anopheles gambiae.". 2012. AbstractPhytochemical Investigation of the Larvicidal Activity of Toddalia asiatica and Ekebergia capensis against Anopheles gambiae

With 500 million deaths globally, and over 90% in Africa, malaria is among the greatest killer diseases on the continent. Deaths due to malaria reach about half a million among children annually. Malaria patients constitute 15% of all hospital admissions, 50% of fever cases and 30% of outpatient consultations. The effect and cost of disease has enormous impact on economic growth and development of African economies. The emergence of drug resistant malaria parasite (plasmodium species) and insecticide resistant Anopheles mosquitoes have accelerated the spread of the disease. Some of the anti-malarials like chloroquine and pyrimethamine, which were used as first line drugs have been discontinued due to high prevalence of resistant parasites. Due to the high costs of malaria vaccine development and production coupled with diminished emphasis on vaccine research by multinational pharmaceutical firms, an efficient vaccine has not been produced for malaria management. However, research continues along these lines with two recent reports of new vaccines, one with 47% protection. Vector control. Therefore, remains the method of choice. Larval control is a preferable approach since the life cycle is terminated before emergence into the disease transmitting adults. Nonetheless, the used of biological control methods like larvivorous plants and fish is not viable. Insecticides resistance is on the increase and some of the effective ones like DDT have been banned due to their adverse effects on the environment, human health and non-target organisms. Thus, control strategies such as the use of phytochemical larvicides need to be investigated and developed. The current research examined the potential larvicidal activity of extracts of Toddalia asiatica and Ekebergia capensis. The extracts were subjected to bioassay guided fractionation and isolation of Larvicidal compounds. The results indicate that some extracts have larvicidal activity up to 19.0 ppm with T. Asiatic showing the highest activity. Several compounds were isolated and characterized from the two plants. Sibiricin from T. Asiatic showed the highest level of Larvicidal activity. Eight pure compounds are being reported for the first time from this study. Their bioactivity and structural elucidation are discussed.

KORINGURA, J., MACHARIA D, MUNGAI JC, KYALO DN. Conflict Analysis and Resolution . Master in Project Planning and management, Distance learning Study module. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2010.
Korelitz BI, Sommers SC. "Responses to drug therapy in ulcerative colitis. Evaluation by rectal biopsy and histopathological changes." Am. J. Gastroenterol.. 1975;64(5):365-70. Abstract

To evaluate responses to medical therapy in ulcerative colitis, rectal biopsies of patients with active untreated disease, individuals with positive and negative sigmoidoscopic findings treated with salicylazosulfapyridine, prednisone and 6-mercaptopurine, alone and in combinations and noncolitis controls were compared histologically. Predominant histological observations were analyzed statistically. There were fewer crypt abscesses but more mucosal edema after all forms of therapy. Quantitative histopathological analysis failed to demonstrate that the response to one drug was significantly different from another.

Korelitz BI, Sommers SC. "Responses to drug therapy in ulcerative colitis. Evaluation by rectal biopsy and histopathological changes." Am. J. Gastroenterol.. 1975;64(5):365-70. Abstract

To evaluate responses to medical therapy in ulcerative colitis, rectal biopsies of patients with active untreated disease, individuals with positive and negative sigmoidoscopic findings treated with salicylazosulfapyridine, prednisone and 6-mercaptopurine, alone and in combinations and noncolitis controls were compared histologically. Predominant histological observations were analyzed statistically. There were fewer crypt abscesses but more mucosal edema after all forms of therapy. Quantitative histopathological analysis failed to demonstrate that the response to one drug was significantly different from another.

Kopp N, Diaz D, Amacker M, Odongo DO, Beier K, Nitsch C, Bishop RP, Daubenberger CA. "Identification of a synthetic peptide inducing cross-reactive antibodies binding to Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus BM86 homologues." Vaccine. 2009;28(1):261-9. Abstract

The BM86 antigen, originally identified in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, is the basis of the only commercialized anti-tick vaccine. The long-term goal of our study is to improve BM86 based vaccines by induction of high levels of tick gut binding antibodies that are also cross-reactive with a range of BM86 homologues expressed in other important tick species. Here we have used a BD86 derived synthetic peptide, BD86-3, to raise a series of mouse monoclonal antibodies. One of these mAbs, named 12.1, recognized BM86 homologues in immuno-histochemical analyses in four out of five tick species including R. (B.) microplus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. Our results indicate that broadly cross-reactive tick gut binding antibodies can be induced after immunization with a synthetic peptide derived from the protein BD86.

Kopf A, Patel NB. Guide it Pain Management in Low Resource Settings. International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP); 2009.
Kooten C, Bulte E, Kinyua P. "Game cropping and wildlife conservation in Kenya: A dynamic simulation model with adaptive control.". 1997. Abstract

We use a dynamic stochastic simulation model of forage, herbivores, predators and domestic livestock in the Machakos District of Kenya to address policies related to the multiple use of rangeland resources. The particular policy examined is that of switching from a traditional system, where commercial ranchers do not harvest wildlife herbivores, to one where ranchers are provided economic incentives to adopt multiple-use management of the range resource. Simulations using an adaptive controller indicate that the effects of the policy change on wildlife populations depend on the conditions of the ecosystem and, importantly, on ranchers' attitudes to risk. When forage is abundant, and game and livestock do not compete for food, the policy change leads to reduced wildlife populations, especially of the relatively more valuable species. This indicates that game cropping may not be more compatible with nature conservation than standard pastoralist practices. However, in periods of drought when competition for forage occurs, the policy change may dampen the decline in game populations, as risk-averse ranchers may decide to sell more cattle and harvest wildlife instead. Game cropping reduces wildlife populations, but increases their stability.

Konyole SO, Kinyuru JN, Owuor BO, Kenji GM, Onyango CA, Estambale BB, Friis H, Roos N, Owino VO. "Acceptability of Amaranth Grain-based Nutritious Complementary Foods with Dagaa Fish (Rastrineobola argentea) and Edible Termites (Macrotermes subhylanus) Compared to Corn Soy Blend Plus among Young Children/Mothers Dyads in Western Kenya.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

This paper reports on a prospective study conducted between June 1990 and June 1992 to determine method acceptability, user satisfaction and continuation rates for three highly effective and reversible contraceptive methods currently available in Kenya: the CuT 380A (IUCD), the injectable, Depo-Provera and the low-dose oral contraceptive pill, Microgynon. A non-randomised sample of volunteer participants was used. One thousand and seventy-six users were followed up for a period of one year or up to the time of discontinuation of the method, whichever came earlier. Analysis revealed method specific differences in users' characteristics. The OC users were younger and had fewer children than the IUCD or Depo-Provera users. The Depo-Provera users were older, and had the largest family sizes. Many OC users (almost 40%) were single, while almost three-quarters of IUCD and Depo-Provera users were married. IUCD users were also more educated compared to OC and Depo-Provera users. Survival analysis was used to calculate cumulative life table discontinuation rates by method for the 12 month period. Discontinuation rates were highest for OC users (80%) and lowest for IUCD users (20%) and intermediate for Depo-Provera users (39%). Ninety percent of OC and Depo-Provera users and 86% of IUCD users said they were satisfied with their respective methods. While OCs are among the most popular family planning methods in Kenya, they are also one of the most problematic, while IUCD has the fewest compliance problems. Service providers need to address the issue of high discontinuation rates among the young OC users.
PIP:
This paper reports on a prospective study conducted between June 1990 and June 1992 to determine method acceptability, user satisfaction, and continuation rates for three highly effective and reversible contraceptive methods currently available in Kenya: the CuT 380A IUD; the injectable Depo-Provera; and the low-dose oral contraceptive Microgynon. A nonrandomized sample of volunteer participants was used. 1076 users were followed up for a period of 1 year or up to the time of discontinuation of the method, whichever came earlier. Analysis revealed method-specific differences in users' characteristics. The OC users were younger and had fewer children than the IUD or Depo-Provera users. The Depo-Provera users were older and had the largest family sizes. Many OC users (almost 40%) were single, while almost three-quarters of the IUD and Depo-Provera users were married. IUD users were also more educated compared to OC and Depo-Provera users. Survival analysis was used to calculate cumulative life table discontinuation rates by method for the 12-month period. Discontinuation rates were highest for OC users (80%), lowest for IUD users (20%), and intermediate for Depo-Provera users (39%). 90% of OC and Depo-Provera users and 86% of IUD users said they were satisfied with their respective methods. While OCs are among the most popular family planning methods in Kenya, they are also one of the most problematic, while IUDs have shown the fewest compliance problems. Service providers need to address the issue of high discontinuation rates among young OC users

KONYIMBIH DRTOM. "1Property Taxation in Western and South-Eastern African Countries: Principles and applications in Zimbabwe, Tanzania and Ghana, Paper presented for the pilot core course in Intergovernmental Fiscal Relations and Municipal Financial Management in Harare Zi.". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 1998. Abstract
This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  
KONYIMBIH DRTOM. "Land Settlements, Land Reforms and the historical causes of land grievances in Kenya.". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 1991. Abstract
The objective of this paper is to provide a general review of the historical and statutory genesis of the present land grievances in European settlement on fertile agricultural land in Kenya consigned the indigenous Kenyans in those areas to marginal reserves that soon became overpopulated with the consequent decrease of land acreage per capita leading to resource conflicts.   With the coming of independence, a programme of land re-settlement was hurriedly designed for those who had been marginalized but this had a minimal effect on landlessness because it did not offer enough land (sold to the Kenya Government by departing European settlers) for those who were landless. Those who obtained plots under the programme were saddled by loan repayment from the onset, on, at times very marginal unproductive land.   The policy of land adjudication, consolidation and registration meant to give proprietors indefeasible titles for greater productivity has not, after fifty years, had the economic impact earlier anticipated by its proponents. It has not stemmed landlessness as those with titles at times attempt to enforce their rights against family members whose ancestral rights could not have been recorded in the land registers. In a land-based agricultural country such as Kenya, the problem of landlessness is bound to increase (with increasing population and lack of off-farm economic opportunities) as resource competition increases leading to displacement and further land conflicts.   There is now a new opportunity to design and pass legislation that takes on board the socio-economic circumstances of the land tillers and that will protect multiple rights in periods of lack of alternative economic and social opportunities to guarantee some sort of beneficial access to land for the majority. It will be highly beneficial to these people if new legislations include a researched way of effectively communicating them to the rural population.   
KONYIMBIH DRTOM. "LAND RIGHTS MATRIX: Developing Land Tenure Data for Kenya.". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 1991. Abstract
The government of   This study is a contribution towards that outcome and is meant to examine the general land use structure, land tenure conditions and their interrelations in a matrix of the user-rights scenario that will enable the government to develop a useful data base.   Four of the largest nomadic pastoralist ethnic communities were surveyed in northern Kenya, the Somali, Gabra, Rendille and the Borana in Wajir and Marsabit districts (see Map 2) in locations where they predominantly live.   Against a backdrop of extensive and intensive literature review, a field work survey was carried out using convenience sampling.  Information was recorded in semi-structured questionnaires and interview schedules, followed by focus group discussions and informant interviews.   The analysis shows that land rights, land use and livestock keeping are closely intertwined and form the economic, social and cultural basis of nomadic pastoralist livelihoods.   The detailed labour management requirement of each livestock type and age is well planned at family and community level.  Therefore, the pasture, water, veterinary and security needs of each species of livestock must be coordinated carefully in order to optimize on the use of land resources both at the settlement camps and at the grazing camps.   Land is categorized depending on the type of vegetation that it produces for dry season or wet season grazing and browsing.  Livestock, livelihood and land use therefore require flexibility and movement over large distances in order to pasture and water both the animal and human populations in an environment that is restricted by aridity, insecurity and soil infertility.   Access to suitable land means access to suitable pasture and this enables both livestock and human reproduction.  This is determined by ethnic community membership even when they own all the livestock and some of the water points (boreholes) individually.   Some more work however, remains to be done in tracking the land rights transitions over time and how these rights will respond to population pressure in these nomadic pastoralist areas in the near and distant future.  
KONYIMBIH DRTOM. "Land, Governance and Poverty Alleviation in Kenya. Issues for the next millennium.". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 1991. Abstract
This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  
KONYIMBIH DRTOM. "An Analysis of the relationship between land tenure and agricultural land use in selected subsistence and cash crop areas in Kenya.". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 1991. Abstract
This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  
KONYIMBIH DRTOM. "A strategy for strengthening the service urban centers in Kenya: Case Study of Maseno, Karatina and Athi River.". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 1991. Abstract
This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  
KONYIMBIH DRTOM. "Professional Standards, Negligence, Liability and Indemnity as they relate to the Real Estate Valuer in Kenya. Paper presented to a seminar on Valuation Practice in a changing Socio-political and Economic Environment. UCLAS, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, 4th .". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 1996. Abstract
This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  
KONYIMBIH DRTOM. "LAND TITLING IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA: Kenya.". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 1991.
KONYIMBIH DRTOM. "Evaluating Community/Self-help Water Management Systems in Arid and Semi-Arid Districts in Kenya.". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 1991. Abstract
This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  
Konyimbih TM. "Major issues of smallholder land policy: past trends and current practices in Kenya.". 2001. AbstractWebsite

The official government strategy on land policy in Kenya aims to achieve optimum utilization and equitable distribution of land for the country's rapidly increasing population. This strategy has been pursued with programmes to transform customary tenure structures to statutory freehold through land adjudication and registration for the issuance of individual titles. This article examines the landholding structure in the smallholder sector in Kenya. It analyses how interests in land in those areas are acquired, held and transferred. Among the smallholders in Kenya, the landholding system is still largely custom driven. Statutory stipulations are largely ignored as being irrelevant and bureaucratic. For the proper implementation of any land policy based on statutes, the socio-economic circumstances of smallholders must first be analysed and understood in order to make the law responsive to their aspirations.

KONYIMBIH DRTOM. "Improving community participation in the realization of sustainable sanitation in the Kenyan Market Centres.". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 1991. Abstract
This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  
KONYIMBIH DRTOM. "A strategy for strengthening the service urban centers in Kenya: Case Study of Maseno, Karatina and Athi River.". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 1991. Abstract
This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  
KONYIMBIH DRTOM. "Statutory Land Control and the Small holder Land System in Kenya: A study of land control in the Nyanza Sugar belt. Ph.D, Department of Land Economy University of Cambridge, England. December 1991.". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 1991. Abstract
This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  
KONYIMBIH DRTOM. "Property Valuation Practice in Kenya: Trends & Challenges. Paper presented to a professional group at the Construction Review seminar at the Grand Regency Hotel, Nairobi on the 30th September 1998.". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 1998. Abstract
This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  
KONYIMBIH DRTOM. "Landholding and Ethics: Critical issues for Kenya.". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 1991.
KONYIMBIH DRTOM. "LAND DEALINGS IN KENYA.". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 1991. Abstract
PREAMBLE   In   The Act of Parliament gives wide powers to Land Control Boards established in Land Control Agricultural Areas (Section 5 Cap 302) to hear applications brought to them (through the District Land Registrars) and to consider the same under the criteria stipulated in the Act, with appeal procedures being also provided for in the same statute.   This paper analyses the administrative and circumstantial efficacy of controlling transactions in registered agricultural land as specified in section 6(1) of the Act. It uses the recent land control experiences of the Muhoroni Land Control Board in particular, and the decided court cases in general to analyze the operations of the Act in terms of its practical, legal,social, economic and procedural limitations.   The paper concludes that despite the seemingly good intentions, the forty year old statute should substantially be reviewed in order to be a useful tool of rural land policy.  In the event that it is interfering with private transactions in land in circumstances where a number of statutes also exert some controlling influence on agricultural land in Kenya, Parliament may now consider repealing the Act altogether.
KONYIMBIH DRTOM. "Enhancing Community Participation and Women.". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 1991. Abstract
This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  
KONYIMBIH DRTOM. "Promoting Agricultural Co-operative efficiency in Nyeri District, Kenya.". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 1991. Abstract
This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  
KONYIMBIH DRTOM. "Control of the Rural Land Market in Kenya. Preliminary findings from the CaneCrop areas of Nyanza Province.". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 1991. Abstract
This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  
Konyimbi T. "1Property Taxation In Western And South-Eastern African Countries: Principles And Applications In Zimbabwe, Tanzania And Ghana,."; 2005. Abstract

Land is a vital resource for rural livelihoods. Establishing and clarifying land rights through formalisation has become a key issue in development policies that aim to promote more productive uses of land. This re port looks at some land reform initiatives from a gendered human rights perspective. The human rights-based approach (HRBA) has a direct bearing on international and national land reform policies, facilitating gender equality through elimination of discrimination against women. The overall aim of this report is to make a contribution to the operationalisation of the HRBA. Chapter 2 focuses on different approaches to formalisation in different historical periods to date, starting with a discussion of the concept itself. In Chapter 3 the hum an rights- based approach to development is developed in relation to women’s land rights, while Chapter 4 is an analysis of the approach to land policy found in the 2003 World Bank report. The country studies presented in Chapters 5–8 explore to what extent international and national formalisation initiatives are consonant with international human rights standards

Konneh SS, Saleem A, Awange JL, Goncalves RM, Kiema JBK, Hu KX. "Liberia's coastal erosion vulnerability and LULC change analysis: Post-civil war and Ebola epidemic." Applied Geography. 2018;101:56-67.
Konings E, Ambaw Y, Dilley K, Gichangi P, Arega T, Crandall B. "Implications of adopting new WHO guidelines for antiretroviral therapy initiation in Ethiopia." Bull. World Health Organ.. 2012;90(9):659-63. Abstractimplications_of_adopting_new_who_guidelines_for_antiretroviral_therapy_initiation_in_ethiopia.pdf

To assess the implications of implementing the World Health Organization (WHO) 2010 guidelines for antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in adults and adolescents with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, which recommend initiating ART at a CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4+) threshold of ≤ 350 cells/mm(3) instead of ≤ 200 cells/mm(3), which was the earlier threshold.

Kong’ani LNS, Ang’u C, Muthama NJ. "Adoption of improved cookstoves in the peri-urban areas of Nairobi: Case of Magina area, Kiambu county, Kenya. ." Journal of Sustainability, Environment and Peace. 2019;1(1):19-20.
KONGERE TO. "" Introduction to Business: A Kenyan Perspective",.". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 1996. Abstract

This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  

KONGERE TO. "Revising my book "Fundamentals of Operations Research".". In: Nairobi, University of Nairobi and Ministry of Finance and Planning. WFL Publisher; 2006. Abstract

This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  

KONGERE TO. ""Manual on Operations Research", 2006, for Distance Learning.". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 1996. Abstract

This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  

KONGERE TO. "Fundamentals of Operations Research".". In: Nairobi, University of Nairobi and Ministry of Finance and Planning. WFL Publisher; 2003. Abstract

This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  

KONGERE TO. ""Introduction to Business Studies": Kenyan Perspective.". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 1996. Abstract

This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  

KONGERE TO. ""Manual on Operations Research".". In: Nairobi, University of Nairobi and Ministry of Finance and Planning. WFL Publisher; 2006. Abstract

This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  

Kong'ani LNS, Thenya T. "Project Management Experience in Mau Ecosystem.". In: Forest Resources Utilization, Livelihoods and Conflicts. Synthesis of five-year research under the “Stabilizing Kenya through solving forest related conflicts project,” (STAKE) 2012-2016. Lambert publishers; 2018.
Kong'ani LNS, Ang'u C, Muthama NJ. "Adoption of improved cookstoves in the peri-urban areas of Nairobi: Case of Magina area, Kiambu County, Kenya." Journal of Sustainability, Environment and Peace. 2019; 1(1):19-24.
KONDITI DBO, MAKICHE JK, ABSALOMS HO, ADIKA CO, KOECH EK, Dharmathikary VM. "Practical and Theoretical Evaluation of EMC/EMI: Problems of Metallic Enclosures with Apertures." International Journal of Technical and Physical Problems of Engineering (IJTPE). 2010;1(4):1-8. Abstract

PRACTICAL AND THEORETICAL EVALUATION OF EMC/EMI
Problems of Metallic Enclosures with Apertures

D.B.O. Konditi1 J.K. Makiche2 H.O. Absaloms3 C.O. Adika2 E.K. Koech2
V. M. Dharmadhikary3

1 Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University College of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya, onyango_d@yahoo.co.uk, dkonditi@mmu.ac.ke
2 Department of Telecommunication and Information Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya, jkmakiche@yahoo.co.uk, otychriss@yahoo.com, ekipyegon@yahoo.com
3 Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya, houma@ieee.org, dharmavasudha@gmail.com

Abstract- In this paper, experimental and theoretical evaluation of coupling of electromagnetic radiation is reported. Validation of the results is obtained by comparing the experimental data with theoretical data both generated using CONCEPT Simulator and data from our hybrid MoM/FDTD formulation for the analysis of metallic enclosure with apertures. Both the CONCEPT Simulator and the hybrid MoM/FDTD formulation utilize the method of moments, however, the hybridization of the latter makes it more adaptive to the solutions of apertures of arbitrary shape within enclosures with inhomogeneous dielectrics. The problems analyzed are rectangular slot, cross-shaped aperture and diamond-shaped aperture. The experimental results and MoM/FDTD results also agree fairly well with those available in the literature.

Keywords: Shielding effectiveness, metallic enclosures, method of moments, finite difference time domain, EMI/EMC.

Konde AM, Gitau GK, Kiptoon J, Gakuya D. "Puppy morbidity and mortality among breeding kennels in Nairobi, Kenya." Jacobs Journal of Veterinary Science Research. 2015;1(4):019.
Konde AM, Gitau GK, Kiptoon JC, Gakuya DW. "Factors associated with puppy morbidity and mortality among the breeding kennels in Nairobi and its environs in Kenya." Jacobs Journal of Veterinary Science Research . 2015;1(4):023.
Komu P, Dimba EAO, Macigo FG, Ogwell AEO. "Cigarette smoking and oral health among healthcare students." East African Medical Journal. 2009;86. Abstract
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Komolafe, A.A., Kuria ZN, Woldai T, Noomen M, Anifowose AYB, A.Y.B. "Integrated Remote Sensing and Geophysical Investigations of the Geodynamic Activities at Lake Magadi, Southern Kenyan Rift." International Journal of Geophysics. 2012;2012(2012):15 pages.
Kolodgie FD, Gold HK, Burke AP, Fowler DR, Kruth HS, Weber DK, Farb A, Guerrero LJ, Hayase M, Kutys R, Narula J, Finn AV, Virmani R. "Intraplaque hemorrhage and progression of coronary atheroma." The New England journal of medicine. 2003;349:2316-2325. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Intraplaque hemorrhage is common in advanced coronary atherosclerotic lesions. The relation between hemorrhage and the vulnerability of plaque to disruption may involve the accumulation of free cholesterol from erythrocyte membranes. METHODS: We stained multiple coronary lesions from 24 randomly selected patients who had died suddenly of coronary causes with an antibody against glycophorin A (a protein specific to erythrocytes that facilitates anion exchange) and Mallory's stain for iron (hemosiderin), markers of previous intraplaque hemorrhage. Coronary lesions were classified as lesions with pathologic intimal thickening, fibrous-cap atheromas with cores in an early or late stage of necrosis, or thin-cap fibrous atheromas (vulnerable plaques). The arterial response to plaque hemorrhage was further defined in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis. RESULTS: Only traces of glycophorin A and iron were found in lesions with pathologic intimal thickening or fibrous-cap atheromas with cores in an early stage of necrosis. In contrast, fibroatheromas with cores in a late stage of necrosis or thin caps had a marked increase in glycophorin A in regions of cholesterol clefts surrounded by iron deposits. Larger amounts of both glycophorin A and iron were associated with larger necrotic cores and greater macrophage infiltration. Rabbit lesions with induced intramural hemorrhage consistently showed cholesterol crystals with erythrocyte fragments, foam cells, and iron deposits. In contrast, control lesions from the same animals had a marked reduction in macrophages and lipid content. CONCLUSIONS: By contributing to the deposition of free cholesterol, macrophage infiltration, and enlargement of the necrotic core, the accumulation of erythrocyte membranes within an atherosclerotic plaque may represent a potent atherogenic stimulus. These factors may increase the risk of plaque destabilization.

Kolb H. "Amacrine cells of the mammalian retina: neurocircuitry and functional roles." Eye (London, England). 1996;11 ( Pt 6):904-923. AbstractWebsite

Europe PubMed Central (Europe PMC) is an archive of life sciences journal literature.

Kolb H. "Amacrine cells of the mammalian retina: neurocircuitry and functional roles." Eye (London, England). 1997;11 ( Pt 6):904-923. Abstract

Since amacrine cells are important interneurons of the inner retina and their activity may be detected in certain waveforms of the electroretinogram, this paper reviews their morphologies, classification, mosaics, neurotransmitter content, neural circuitry and physiological responses to light. Nine different amacrine cell types of cat, rabbit and human retinas are presently quite well studied in terms of the aforementioned aspects and are described in detail in this paper.

Kola S, Kanja LW, Mbaria JM, Maina JG, Okumu MO. "potential ramifications to human health [version 1; peer review.". 2019.
Kokwaro JO. "Meliola icacinacearum and M. Kerichoensis as new Meliolaceae from Kenya." Mycological Research Journal. 1998;102(2):1418-1420.
Kokwaro JO. The Kakamega forest of Kenya. Nairobi: ETMA; 1984.
Kokwaro GO. "Pharmacokinetic basis of nifedipine-digoxin interaction: a commentary.". 1995. Abstract

Elevation of plasma digoxin levels following concurrent administration of nifedipine have previously been reported. The mechanism for this interaction has not been fully explained, but may include a reduction in volume of distribution of digoxin and/or reduction in the renal or non-renal clearance of digoxin by nifedipine. The end result is probably an elevation of plasma concentrations of free (pharmacologically active) digoxin, which may lead to manifestation of side effects of digoxin. This communication highlights the possible pharmacokinetic basis of the reported digoxin-nifedipine interaction.

Kokwaro G, Ogutu BR, Muchohi SN, Otieno GO, Newton CR. "Pharmacokinetics and clinical effect of phenobarbital in children with severe falciparum malaria and convulsions.". 2010. Abstractpharmacokinetics_and_clinical_effect_of_phenobarbital_in_children_with.pdf

Phenobarbital is commonly used to treat status epilepticus in resource-poor countries. Although a dose of 20 mg kg(-1) is recommended, this dose, administered intramuscularly (i.m.) for prophylaxis, is associated with an increase in mortality in children with cerebral malaria. We evaluated a 15-mg kg(-1) intravenous (i.v.) dose of phenobarbital to determine its pharmacokinetics and clinical effects in children with severe falciparum malaria and status epilepticus. Methods: Twelve children (M/F: 11/1), aged 7-62 months, received a loading dose of phenobarbital (15 mg kg(-1)) as an i.v. infusion over 20 min and maintenance dose of 5 mg kg(-1) at 24 and 48 h later. The duration of convulsions and their recurrence were recorded. Vital signs were monitored. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) phenobarbital concentrations were measured with an Abbott TDx FLx fluorescence polarisation immunoassay analyser (Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostic Division, Abbott Park, IL, USA). Simulations were performed to predict the optimum dosage regimen that would maintain plasma phenobarbital concentrations between 15 and 20 mg l(-1) for 72 h. Results: All the children achieved plasma concentrations above 15 mg l(-1) by the end of the infusion. Mean (95% confidence interval or median and range for Cmax) pharmacokinetic parameters were: area under curve [AUC (0, infinity)]: 4259 (3169, 5448) mg l(-1).h, t(1/2): 82.9 (62, 103) h, CL: 5.8 (4.4, 7.3) ml kg(-1) h(-1), Vss: 0.8 (0.7, 0.9) l kg (-1), CSF: plasma phenobarbital concentration ratio: 0.7 (0.5, 0.8; n= 6) and Cmax: 19.9 (17.9-27.9) mg l(-1). Eight of the children had their convulsions controlled and none of them had recurrence of convulsions. Simulations suggested that a loading dose of 15 mg kg(-1) followed by two maintenance doses of 2.5 mg kg(-1) at 24 h and 48 h would maintain plasma phenobarbital concentrations between 16.4 and 20 mg l(-1) for 72 h. Conclution:Phenobarbital, given as an i.v. loading dose, 15 mg kg(-1), achieves maximum plasma concentrations of greater than 15 mg l(-1) with good clinical effect and no significant adverse events in children with severe falciparum malaria. A maintenance dose of 2.5 mg kg(-1) at 24 h and 48 h was predicted to be sufficient to maintain concentrations of 15-20 mg l(-1) for 72 h, and may be a suitable regimen for treatment of convulsions in these children

Kokwaro JO. "Seasonal traditional fruits and vegetables of Kenya." Mitt. Inst. Allg. Bot. 1990;23:911-928.
Kokwaro JO. Medicinal Plants of East Africa. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2009.University of Nairobi Press
Kokwaro JO. "Conservation status of the Kakamega forest in Kenya." Monogr. Sys. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard.. 1988;25:471-489.
Kokwaro JO. "Vegetation.". In: Ecological survey of the Kamburu/ Gitaru hydroelectric dam area of Kenya. Stockholm: Ecological Bulletin No.29; 1979.
Kokwaro JO, Johns T. Luo-English Biological Dictionary. Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers Ltd; 2013.
Kokwaro JO. "The animal threat to Mount Kenya’s Afroapline plants." Swara . 1987;10(1):30-31.
Kokwaro JO. "Vegetation analysis of the upper Teleki Valley of Mt. Kenya and adjacent areas." Journal of East African Natural History Society. 1981;171:1-8.
Kokwaro JO. "The state of conservation in African Tropical Forest.". In: UNEP/ADB workshop on the environment of indigenous African timber trees. Abidjan; 1983.
Kokwaro JO. "Valerianaceae." Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea.. 2001;4(1):285.
Kokwaro JO. Research on medicinal and aromatic plants of East Africa. Citta di Castello ; 1983.
Kokwaro JO, Herlocker DJ. A check-list of Botanical, Samburu and Rendile names of plants of the IPAL (UNESCO) study area, Marsabit District, Kenya,. Nairobi, Kenya: IPAL (UNESCO) Technical Paper No. D-4; 1982.
Kokwaro JO. Vegetation map of Mount Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya: Survey of Kenya; 1988.
Kokwaro GO, Indalo AA, Taylor G. "Pharmacokinetics of oxamniquine in rabbit and rat.". 1996. Abstract

The pharmacokinetics of the schistosomicidal agent oxamniquine (6-hydroxmethyl-2-isopropylaminomethyl-7-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetra hydroquinoline) were studied in 8 (4 male, 4 female) New Zealand White rabbits and 5 female Wistar rats, following intravenous administration (15 mg/kg). The pharmacokinetic parameters (mean +/- SD) in the rabbit and rat, respectively, were as follows: plasma clearance, 65.5 +/- 33 and 17.2 +/- 5.7 ml/min/kg; steady-state volume of distribution, 7.9 +/- 4.5 and 2.1 +/- 0.5 l/kg; terminal elimination half-life, 1.8 +/- 0.3 and 1.8 +/- 0.9 h. Oxamniquine appeared to be widely distributed in both species, although significantly higher in the rabbit. Similarly, plasma clearance was significantly higher in the rabbit. Using reported estimates of liver blood flow and fractions excreted unchanged in urine of the rabbit and rat, calculations based on blood clearances indicated that oxamniquine has a low hepatic extraction ratio (0.2) in the rat and an intermediate hepatic extraction ratio (0.6) in the rabbit. From separate experiments, however, hepatic extraction appeared to be low in the rabbit, suggesting that oxamniquine disposition is probably broadly similar in both rabbit and rat

Kokwaro JO. "Euphorbiaceae.". 1976.Website
Kokwaro JO. Classification of East African Crops. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2013.University of Nairobi Press
Kokwaro JO, et al. "Alpine plant communities of Mount Elgon, An altitudinal transect along the Koitoboss Route." Journal of the East Africa Natural History Society. 1988;75 (190):12.
Kokwaro JO, Gillett JB. "Notes on Anacardiaceae of Eastern Africa." Kew Bulletin. 1980;34(4):745-760.
Kokwaro JO. "Ethnobotany in Africa .". In: Ethnobotany by R.E. Schultes & S. Von Reis, . Portland, Oregon: Dioscorides Press; 1995.
Kokwaro JO. "Maintaining the balance between Agriculture and the environment.". In: Fifth International Farm Management Congress. Nairobi; 1983.
Kokwaro G;, Edwards G;, Roberts P;, Ward S;, Winstanley P;, Watkins W. "Infection with Plasmodium berghei alters benzodiazepine receptor in rat brain.". 1997. Abstract

The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of malaria infection on benzodiazepine binding in rat brain. Young male Wistar rats were infected with the rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei, while age-matched control rats (n = 5) received normal saline intraperitoneally. Parasitemia was determined in blood of infected animals. Animals were killed after two weeks, and synaptosomal brain membrane homogenate was prepared from cerebral cortex. Membrane homogenate was incubated in duplicate with 3H-flunitrazepam (0.2-10 nM in buffer, pH 7.4) and binding parameters determined. The number of receptors (Bmax) was decreased marginally but significantly (P = 0.047) in malaria-infected (MI) rats (MI rats: 1.12 +/- 0.1 pmol.mg-1 protein; control rats: 1.42 +/- 0.08 pmol.mg-1 protein) while binding affinity (Kd) was not altered (MI rats: 1.18 +/- 0.3 nM; control rats: 1.02 +/- 0.15 nM). These results suggest that malaria may be associated with decreased benzodiazepine activity

Kokwaro JO. "Two new species of Meliola (Ascomyceetes) form Kenya." Fungal Diversity . 1999;2(153-157).
Kokwaro JO. Aquatic resources of Kenya. Mombasa, Kenya; 1981.
Kokwaro GO, Marsh K, Edwards G, Otieno GO, Muchohi SN, Crawley J, Newton CRJC, Ogutu BR. "Pharmacokinetics and anticonvulsant effects of diazepam in children with severe falciparum malaria and convulsions.". 2002. Abstract

Convulsions are a common complication of severe malaria in children and are associated with poor outcome. Diazepam is used to terminate convulsions but its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics have not been studied in this group. Accordingly, we carried out a comparative study of the pharmacokinetics of intravenous (i.v.) and rectal (p.r.) diazepam. Twenty-five children with severe malaria and a convulsion lasting >5 min were studied. Sixteen children received diazepam intravenously (i.v.; 0.3 mg kg−1) and nine rectally (p.r.; 0.5 mg kg−1). Plasma diazepam concentrations were measured by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The duration of convulsions, depth of coma, respiratory and cardiovascular parameters were monitored.   Median maximum plasma diazepam concentrations of 634 (range 402–1507) ng ml−1 and 423 (range 112–1953) ng ml−1 were achieved at 5 and 25 min following i.v. and p.r. administration, respectively. All patients except three (one i.v. and two p.r.) achieved plasma diazepam concentration >200 ng ml−1 within 5 min. Following p.r. administration, plasma diazepam concentrations were more variable than i.v. administration. A single dose of i.v. diazepam terminated convulsions in all children but in only 6/9 after p.r. administration. However, nine children treated with i.v. and all those treated with p.r. diazepam had a recurrence of convulsions occurring at median plasma diazepam concentrations of 157 (range: 67–169) and 172 (range: 74–393) ng ml−1, respectively. All the children in the i.v. and four in the PR diazepam group who had recurrence of convulsions required treatment. None of the children developed respiratory depression or hypotension.   Administration of diazepam i.v. or p.r. resulted in achievement of therapeutic concentrations of diazepam rapidly, without significant cardio-respiratory adverse effects. However, following p.r. administration, diazepam did not terminate all convulsions and plasma drug concentrations were more variable.

Kokwaro JO. "Conservation of Medicinal Plants in Kenya.". In: Conservation of Medicinal Plants. London: Cambridge; 1991.
Kokwaro JO, Aketch CA. "A comparative study of the Kenya Acacia species based on their pollen morphological characters." Mitt. Inst. Allg. Bot.. 1990;23b:665-676.
Kokwaro GO. The Formulation Of Stable Adrenaline Eye Drops For Use In The Management Of Glaucoma.; 1981. Abstract

The different factors affecting the stability of adrenaline
in solution have been examined with a view to producing a
pharmaceutically active eye drop prep~ration of adrenaline. It
was important that such a formulation should be simple enough to

enable preperation using the available facilities in this country_
A preformu1ation screening of antioxidants in the
pH
absence of adrenaline showed that at low/values (around pH 3.0)
sodium sulphite was superior to either sodium metabisu1phite or
ascorbic acid. Accelerated stability studies showed that the
pH of maximum stability for aqueous solutions of adrenaline was
approximately pH 3.7. Accelerated stability tests at this pH

confirmed the superiority of sodium sulphite over a combination
of sodium metabisu1phite and ascorbic acid as antioxidants.
Accelerated stability studies also confirmed the
important role of boric acid in enhancing the stability of adrenaline
in aqueous solutions.
An investigation of four sterilization procedures
showed that the immediate loss of adrenaline was negligible
after either sterilization by filtration or by heating at 980c
for 30 minutes. Higher sterilization temperatures caused
substantial loss of adrenaline and discolouration of the solut
ions ,
For reasons of comfort to the patient on instillation
- 131 -
into the eye and for clarity of the solution in presence of the
preservative used (Benzalkonium Chloride), a final formulation of
adrenaline eye drops was prepared in borate buffer at pH 5.8,
with sodium sulphite as the antioxidant. Accelerated stability
studies and long term storage studies at ambient temperatures
showed that the final preparation was reasonably stable. Clinical
testing of the preparation on hospitalized glaucoma patients
showed that the preparation compared favourably with commercial
and other preparations used in the management of raised intraocular
pressures.

Kokwaro JO. "New Taxa and combination in Rutaceae of East Africa and North-East Africa." Kew Bulletin . 1978;34(4):785-798.
Kokwaro JO. "Traditional methods of treating skin diseases in Kenya through the use of plants." Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 1988;25:363-372.
Kokwaro GO. "Use of Artemisinin (Qinghaosu) derivatives in the treatment of malaria.". 1998. Abstract

Derivatives of the Chinese herbal remedy ginghaosu (artemisinin) are useful in the treatment of multiple-drug resistant malaria. This review covers the discovery, development, clinical pharmacology and toxicology of these compounds, with emphasis on those derivatives currently in use in parts of Africa

Kokwaro GO, kwasa TO, Indalo AA, Kibwage IO. "Steady-state anticonvulsant drug levels in epileptic patients.". 1996. Abstract

Steady state concentrations of three anticonvulsant drugs (phenobarbitone, phenytoin and carbamazepine) were measured in plasma samples from fifteen patients (eight males and seven females; ages: 13-49 years; body weights: 44-70kg), attending the outpatient Neurology Clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital. In addition, total protein and albumin levels were measured in plasma from patients taking phenytoin. Total protein levels were normal (range:6.3-7.6g1dl) in all patients except in one patient (l0.7g1dl). Albumin levels were also normal (range: 3. 7 -4.1g1dl) in all patients except one (2.54g1dl). One patient on phenobarbitone and three patients on phenytoin had no detectable drug levels in their plasma. In the remainder, phenobarbitone, phenytoin and carbamazepine steady state concentrations were 8.7-21.1mgIL (N=8), 9.3-27.3mgIL (N=6) and 10-19.7mgIL (N=5), respectively. The unbound fraction of phenytoin in plasma (fu) was normal(approximately 0.1) in six patients, but relatively high (0.2) in one patient. Most patients in the study complied with the prescribed treatment and their epilepsy was controlled. Cases where drug le•vels were undetectable probably arose from a lack of money to purchase all, prescribed medicines: rather than deliberate non-compliance. Routine monitoring of anticonvulsant drug levels may improve management of epileptic patients.

Kokwaro JO. "An overview of the current status of biodiversity in Africa." AAS Whydah newsletter , August 13, 1994:9.
KokonyaSichangi E, Kalambuka Angeyo H, AlixDehayem-Massop. "Trace metal biomarker based Cancer diagnostics in body tissue by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) spectrometry." Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy. 2019:105635. Abstract
n/a
KokonyaSichangi E, Kalambuka Angeyo H, AlixDehayem-Massop. "Trace metal biomarker based Cancer diagnostics in body tissue by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) spectrometry." Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy. 2019:105635. Abstract
n/a
KokonyaSichangi E, Kalambuka Angeyo H, Dehayem-Kamadjeu A, Mangala M. "Hybridized robust chemometrics approach for direct rapid determination of trace biometals in tissue utilizing energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) spectrometry." Radiation Physics and Chemistry. 2018;153:198-207.
KokonyaSichangi E, Kalambuka Angeyo H, AlixDehayem-Massop. "Trace metal biomarker based Cancer diagnostics in body tissue by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) spectrometry." Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy. 2019:105635. Abstract
n/a
Kokonya DA, Kuria MW, Ong'echa FA, Mburu JM, Ndetei DM. "Complex Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in Defilement: Case Report." Open Journal of Psychiatry. 2014;4.
Koirala D, Yangyuoru PM, P HM. "Mechanical affinity as a new metrics to evaluate binding events." Reviews in Analytical Chemistry. 2013;32(3):197-208.
Koigi-Kamau R, Leting PK, Kiarie JN. "Perceptions and practices of vaginal birth after Caesarean section among privately practicing obstetricians in Kenya.". 2012. Abstract

To determine perceptions, preferences and practices of vaginal birth after Caesarean. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Private clinics of obstetricians in five major towns of Kenya. SUBJECTS: Obstetricians in private practice. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Practice and experiences in trial of labour (TOL); need for, and application of, selection criteria in TOL; perceptions on outcomes of TOL and patient preference; perception on trends of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC) and need for policy on TOL. RESULTS: Nearly all respondents (98.4%) believed in the need for, and application of, selection criteria for allowing TOL. However, only 23% believed in routine screening with radiological pelvimetry, while 63.2% believed in routine foetal weight estimation. All obstetricians (100%) have ever managed TOL in private practice, and 74% had managed at least one case in the last six months. Despite lack of tangible selection criteria, 83.1% think that most women prefer TOL while 95.1% discourage it if perceived as inappropriate. Failure rate of TOL was perceived to be more than 50% by 35.2% of the respondents. A majority of the respondents (about 75%) would prefer TOL on themselves or their spouses. Those who perceived that there was a falling trend of VBAC were 58%, citing increased demand by mothers (45.7%), obstetricians' convenience (40.0%) and fear of litigation (26.8%) as the reasons for this observation. A fluid policy of "TOL whenever it is deemed as appropriate" was preferred by 88.7%. CONCLUSION: The perception of obstetricians is that desire for VBAC predominates over elective repeat Caesarean. However, consensus on appropriate selection criteria is lacking, which leaves the obstetrician in a management dilemma. Hence, there is need to study outcomes of both ERC and TOL in order to come out with objective policy guidelines on management of one previous Caesarean in pregnancy.

Koigi-Kamau R, Leting PK, Kiarie JN. "Perceptions and practices of vaginal birth after Caesarean section among privately practicing obstetricians in Kenya." East Afr Med J. 2005;82(12):631-6. Abstract

To determine perceptions, preferences and practices of vaginal birth after Caesarean.

Kohn, A; Bruce J, Bruce J, Kinoti G, Mutahi WT, Coles G, Katz N. "Action of oxamniquine on Schistosoma mansoni in mice experimentally infected with a strain from Kenya.". 1984.Website
Koh K-L, Kelman I, Kibugi R, Osorio R-LE. Adaptation to Climate Change: ASEAN and Comparative Experiences. World Scientific; 2015. Abstract
n/a
Koh DM, Kaste SC, Vinnicombe SJ, Mutala TM, et al. "Proceedings of the International Cancer Imaging Society (ICIS) 16th Annual Teaching Course." Cancer Imaging. 2016;16(28):1-40.
Koh K-L, Kelman I, Kibugi R, Osorio R-LE. Adaptation to Climate Change: ASEAN and Comparative Experiences. World Scientific; 2015. Abstract
n/a
Koh K-L, Kelman I, Kibugi R, Osorio R-LE. Adaptation to Climate Change: ASEAN and Comparative Experiences. World Scientific; 2015. Abstract
n/a
Koh VT, Tham Y-C, Cheung CY, Wong W-L, Baskaran M, Saw S-M, Wong TY, Aung T. "Determinants of ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness measured by high-definition optical coherence tomography." Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2012;53:5853-5859. Abstract

{PURPOSE: To determine the distribution, variation, and determinants of ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) thickness in nonglaucomatous eyes measured by high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT). METHODS: Six hundred twenty-three Chinese adults aged 40 to 80 years were consecutively recruited from a population-based study. All subjects underwent a standardized interview, ophthalmic examination, and automated perimetry. HD-OCT with macular cube protocol was used to measure the GC-IPL thickness. Univariate and multiple linear regression analyses were performed to examine the relationship between GC-IPL thickness with ocular and systemic factors. RESULTS: The mean (±SD) age of study subjects was 52.84 ± 6.14 years, 50.1% were male, and all subjects had normal visual fields with no signs of glaucoma or glaucoma suspect. The mean overall, minimum, superior, and inferior GC-IPL thicknesses were 82.78 ± 7.01 μm, 79.67 ± 9.17 μm, 83.30 ± 7.89 μm, and 80.16 ± 8.31 μm, respectively. In multiple linear regression analysis, GC-IPL thickness was significantly associated with age (β = -0.202, P {\textless} 0.001), female sex (β = -2.367, P {\textless} 0.001), axial length (β = -1.279

Kogi-Makau W;, Mwangi AM;, Mwikya SM;, Ngala S;, Sehmi JK;, Obudho E;, Mugo J. "The Joy and Challenges of Capacity Building for Better Nutrition in Africa.".; 2006. Abstract

partners to recognize the need for tangible support in capacity building at institutions of higher learning for better nutrition in Africa. Objective: To articulate the experience of capacity building in nutrition in Africa using the Applied Nutrition Programme of University of Nairobi as a case. Design: Case study. Setting: Applied Nutrition Programme, Department of Food Technology and Nutrition University of Nairobi, Kenya The Experiences: In response to lack of critical mass of qualified nutrition professionals for effective mainstreaming of nutrition at community and national levels in Africa, the Applied Nutrition Programme of the University of Nairobi, since 1985, has been providing sound nutrition training at postgraduate degree level, to international students; mainly from Africa and with some from New Zealand, Sweden and Brazil. The Programme also conducts capacity building in form of short courses for Government Ministries, development partners and communities and will be launching a BSc degree programme in nutrition and dietetics this year (2005). The capacity building venture has helped integrate regional indigenous nutrition knowledge and local technologies with mainstream nutrition training, producing graduates who know both their subject and field. The Programme has expanded into nutrition in emergencies, interventions, dietetics, food as a human rights and nutrition policy, inline with its goal of contributing to regional development. Lack of consistent long-term funding is a major challenge. Others include the rigid nature of donor funding, increasing competition for students and delay, though in the phase-out, in timely completion of the degree programme. Conclusion: There is adequate demand for training and the Programme has the potential to meet a substantial portion especially if provided with the necessary support. The Programme is flexible and vibrant in keeping with the dynamism that nutrition, health and development challenges require. There is a need to define and impart a critical portion of nutritional knowledge to all working in development in Africa. Recommendations: The nutrition fraternity must define a package of critical nutrition knowledge for developmental communication, increase opportunities for training and lobby for responsive policy and partnership environment that supports all aspects of capacity building including technical, infrastructure, information communication technology, equipment and scholarships either in form of direct funding or through commissioned assignments.

Kogi-Makau W, Opiyo R. Somali Knowledge Attitude and Practices Study (KAPS) - Infant and Young Child Feeding and Health Seeking Practices. Nairobi: Food Security Analysis Unit(FSAU)/FAO; 2007.
Kogi-Makau, Wambui; Tibaijuka MG; MRGM;. The Tanzania Family Planning Training Program:The Impact of an Innovative Training Strategy on Reproductive and Child Health Service Performance of Health Attendants in Tanzania.; 2001. Abstract

This report is based on a study, implemented in Kasulu and Kibondo districts in Kigoma Region, Tanzania, to assess the impact of a health attendants’ pilot training strategy on reproductive and child health (RCH) services. The strategy was developed and implemented by the RCH-Unit of Ministry of Health (MOH) with technical assistance from Intrah/PRIME and was implemented with financial support from USAID. The training strategy, covering a period of four months (July to October, 1998), used a combination of on-the-job-training (OJT) and traditional central and distance-based learning (DBL). The training was divided into four modules. Modules 1 and 3 were centrally based while Modules 2 and 4 used OJT and DBL in which the HAs remained at the facilities where they worked. The DBL was backed by supportive supervision from facility in-change staff as onsite supervisors, district-based supervisors and trainers and regional trainers. It also utilized two key leaning aids (developed as part of this strategy): a handbook and solar-powered cassette player with audiotapes. Each trainee was given a solar/battery-powered cassette player and six audiotapes containing course content. The study utilized three different intervention designs to assess three different levels of impact. The study used pre-and post-test assessments of knowledge and skills to determine whether learning occurred among trainees as a result of the training. A non-equivalent control group design was used to compare whether the training significantly influenced provision of reproductive and child health services in trainee facilities over facilities whether providers had not been trained. The study requested feedback from various players on the HA training strategy. This assessment addressed attributes such as appropriateness, acceptance, achievement of the project’s objectives, how the project was comprehended/perceived and the reliability of this training approach. The HA training led to acquisition of knowledge as indicated by a significant change in the mean score of Module 1 pre-test (32.8) compared to post-test mean score (71.4)(P<.05). A similar trend was found in module 3 in which the mean pre-test score (70.5) was significantly lower than the post-test mean score (87.1)(P<.05). The skills assessment demonstrated a substantial gain in two skills: antenatal clinic client assessment and conducting growth monitoring. However, counseling services, care for mothers and neonates during the postpartum period and care during and monitoring progress in labor did not improve. As a result, the investigators conducted that HAs gained adequate skills in some areas while continued learning is essential in others, possibly through further OJT by the RCH trained CO/ACO at the HA work site. Comparison sites are also in need of improved training to improve their RH/FP skills. The data collection period for the service statistics assessment was divided into three blocks: prior to training (March-June 1998), during training (July-October 1998). The intervention group comprised 29 health facilities while the comparison group contained 25 facilities. For the comparison group, data were collected only for the periods before and after training. Six study instruments (five questionnaire and one data collection sheet) were used as data collection tools. From the RCH-Unit through the regional, district and facility levels, the training approach was considered to be suitable, especially for the targeted (HA) cadre. It was agreed that this target group required a training approach that emphasized practice oriented learning methods instead of a traditional didactic approach. To meet these needs, the project provided two key learning aids: the handbook and cassette tapes. The handbook was considered to be appropriate for three reasons: the handbook satisfactorily covered the training content, it was well illustrated, and it utilized language appropriate to the target audience. The cassette tapes were considered to be suitable learning aids because they were audible and contained appropriate and adequate content. However, audibility reportedly decreased sharply as battery power diminished. Nevertheless, feedback also highlighted area for improvement. Respondents pointed out that the approach was expensive. District planning boards that are responsible for financing training in the post health sector reform (HSR) era may not be able to afford to replicate the training. As a result, they may revert to the traditional central training approach. Respondents also reported that the use of solar powered cassette players were found to be vulnerable to frequent breakdown and other minor mishaps, As a result of these failings, a recommendation was made that ordinary battery-powered cassette players be adopted for future training. A recommendation was also made to review and edit the handbook was easy to understand and the illustrations were clear, they reported that there was room for improvement in these areas as well. The sustainability of this training strategy depends on the availability of sufficient funding to carry out all of the project’s elements, especially learning at the work site. The feasibility of replicating this successful intervention remains to be demonstrated.The HA training strategy set out to achieve certain objectives: develop a curriculum and two complimentary learning aids; select and prepare trainers, and both on and offsite supervisors; update facility in charge staff on RCH; and train a selected number of HAs. It was also planned as a pilot study for testing all of the components and documenting the strengths and weaknesses of the approach. In addition, the training was geared at empowered both the DHMT members and staff at the intervention facilities. This evaluation conducted that the HA training strategy achieved these objective.

Kogi-Makau W;, Mwangi AM;, Mwikya SM;, Ngala S;, Sehmi JK;, Obudho E;, Mugo J. "The Joy and Challenges of Capacity Building for Better Nutrition in Africa.".; 2006. Abstract

partners to recognize the need for tangible support in capacity building at institutions of higher learning for better nutrition in Africa. Objective: To articulate the experience of capacity building in nutrition in Africa using the Applied Nutrition Programme of University of Nairobi as a case. Design: Case study. Setting: Applied Nutrition Programme, Department of Food Technology and Nutrition University of Nairobi, Kenya The Experiences: In response to lack of critical mass of qualified nutrition professionals for effective mainstreaming of nutrition at community and national levels in Africa, the Applied Nutrition Programme of the University of Nairobi, since 1985, has been providing sound nutrition training at postgraduate degree level, to international students; mainly from Africa and with some from New Zealand, Sweden and Brazil. The Programme also conducts capacity building in form of short courses for Government Ministries, development partners and communities and will be launching a BSc degree programme in nutrition and dietetics this year (2005). The capacity building venture has helped integrate regional indigenous nutrition knowledge and local technologies with mainstream nutrition training, producing graduates who know both their subject and field. The Programme has expanded into nutrition in emergencies, interventions, dietetics, food as a human rights and nutrition policy, inline with its goal of contributing to regional development. Lack of consistent long-term funding is a major challenge. Others include the rigid nature of donor funding, increasing competition for students and delay, though in the phase-out, in timely completion of the degree programme. Conclusion: There is adequate demand for training and the Programme has the potential to meet a substantial portion especially if provided with the necessary support. The Programme is flexible and vibrant in keeping with the dynamism that nutrition, health and development challenges require. There is a need to define and impart a critical portion of nutritional knowledge to all working in development in Africa. Recommendations: The nutrition fraternity must define a package of critical nutrition knowledge for developmental communication, increase opportunities for training and lobby for responsive policy and partnership environment that supports all aspects of capacity building including technical, infrastructure, information communication technology, equipment and scholarships either in form of direct funding or through commissioned assignments.

Kogi-Makau W;, Mwangi AM;, Mwikya SM;, Ngala S;, Sehmi JK;, Obudho E;, Mugo J. "The Joy and Challenges of Capacity Building for Better Nutrition in Africa.".; 2006. Abstract

partners to recognize the need for tangible support in capacity building at institutions of higher learning for better nutrition in Africa. Objective: To articulate the experience of capacity building in nutrition in Africa using the Applied Nutrition Programme of University of Nairobi as a case. Design: Case study. Setting: Applied Nutrition Programme, Department of Food Technology and Nutrition University of Nairobi, Kenya The Experiences: In response to lack of critical mass of qualified nutrition professionals for effective mainstreaming of nutrition at community and national levels in Africa, the Applied Nutrition Programme of the University of Nairobi, since 1985, has been providing sound nutrition training at postgraduate degree level, to international students; mainly from Africa and with some from New Zealand, Sweden and Brazil. The Programme also conducts capacity building in form of short courses for Government Ministries, development partners and communities and will be launching a BSc degree programme in nutrition and dietetics this year (2005). The capacity building venture has helped integrate regional indigenous nutrition knowledge and local technologies with mainstream nutrition training, producing graduates who know both their subject and field. The Programme has expanded into nutrition in emergencies, interventions, dietetics, food as a human rights and nutrition policy, inline with its goal of contributing to regional development. Lack of consistent long-term funding is a major challenge. Others include the rigid nature of donor funding, increasing competition for students and delay, though in the phase-out, in timely completion of the degree programme. Conclusion: There is adequate demand for training and the Programme has the potential to meet a substantial portion especially if provided with the necessary support. The Programme is flexible and vibrant in keeping with the dynamism that nutrition, health and development challenges require. There is a need to define and impart a critical portion of nutritional knowledge to all working in development in Africa. Recommendations: The nutrition fraternity must define a package of critical nutrition knowledge for developmental communication, increase opportunities for training and lobby for responsive policy and partnership environment that supports all aspects of capacity building including technical, infrastructure, information communication technology, equipment and scholarships either in form of direct funding or through commissioned assignments.

Koech Oscar Kipchirchir1 *, Ngugi1 KR, Mwangi1 MS, Njomo1 KG, Raphael2 W. "Water Stress Tolerance of Six Rangeland Grasses in the Kenyan Semi-arid Rangelands ." American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry. 2015;3: 222-229.
Koech OK, Ngugi RK MSMKJNWRK. "Effect of Different Soil Water Content and Seed Storage on Quality of Six Range Grasses in the Semi-Arid Ecosystems of Kenya." Environment and Ecology Research. 2014;2(7):261-271.
Koech OK, Ngugi RK MSMKJNWRK. "Effect of varied soil water content on seed yield of six range grasses in the rangelands of Kenya." Universal Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014;2(5):174-179.
Koech D.K, Obel AO. "Treatment of HIV infections and AIDS: New Horizons." East African Medical. 1990;(67):77-81. Abstract

Treatment of HIV infections has involved the use of antiviral drugs as well as those drugs that act against opportunistic infections. Immune modulators have also been used. A review of these drugs is reported emphasizing on those which have great promise in the clinical management of HIV infections in the light of our present knowledge on immunopathology of the disease.

Koech D.K, Obel AO. "Potassium supplementation versus bendrofluazide in mildly to mo derately hypertensive Kenyans." Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology. 1991;(17):504-507.
Koech OK;, Kinuthia RN;, Wahome RG;, Choge SK;, Ekaya NW. "The importance of trees and shrubs as livestock feed in the arid and semi arid rangelands of Kenya: Case of Prosopis juliflora in Baringo district."; 2010. Abstract

This study was conducted to determine the potential of integrating Prosopis juliflora in drylands livestock production where the tree is abundant and has been reported by the community to be a menace to their livelihoods. Despite these allegations, the tree has great potential as a source of livestock feed among other many uses that has not been fully exploited. The overall aim of this study was therefore, to assess the feasibility of incorporating Prosopis juliflora seedpods into a typical dryland livestock production system. The study further sought to evaluate the economic viability of supplementing the goats with Prosopis juliflora through cost benefit analysis and find out the optimum supplementation level for improved performance. The experiment involved 20 weaner Galla goats of similar age (6 months) and weights (11-14 kg) which were randomly assigned to four treatments of five weaners each. The treatments were; No P. juliflora (0PJP), 100 g/goat/day P. juliflora (100PJP), 200 g/goat/day P. juliflora (200PJP), 400g/goat/day P. juliflora (400PJP). Supplementation involved providing the goats with their respective diets in the morning before mixed species range grass hay was offered as basal diet. The animals were weighed on weekly basis and weight gains calculated as previous week’s weight and current week’s weight. The experiment lasted for 70 days. Overall, all the treatment groups exhibited higher average weekly weight gains than the control group throughout the experimental period. However, for the first 3 weeks, this was not statistically significant (P<0.05). From the fifth week up to the tenth week, there was significant difference (P<0.05) in the growth rates for the treatments except for the control group. Overall, treatment 200Pjp exhibited highest total weight gain (3.96kg), followed by 400Pjp (2.70kg). Group 0Pjp lost weight by the end of the experiment (-0.009kgs). The cost benefit analysis indicated that it is profitable to supplement the goats with 200g/ goat/day, which was the most cost effective with a benefit cost ratio (BCR) of 1.50. The 100PJP was also cost effective but at a lower level BCR 0f 1.47. Treatment 400Pjp was not cost effective with BCR of 0.57, which is less than 1. It is therefore recommended that supplementation at optimum improves productivity.

Koech OK;, Kinuthia RN;, Wahome RG;, Ekaya W. "Effects of supplementing mesquit (Prosopis juliflora) seedpod meal on the performance of weaner Galla goats in the drylands of Kenya."; 2010. Abstract

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of increasing amounts of Prosopis juliflora seedpod meal on the growth rate of weaner Galla goats. The overall aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of incorporating Prosopis seedpods into a typical dryland livestock production system. Twenty weaner Galla goats of similar age (6 months) and weights (11-14 kg) were randomly assigned to four treatments of five weaners each. The treatments were T1 No Prosopis (control treatment), T2 (100 g /goat /day Prosopis), T3 (200 g /goat /day Prosopis), and T4 (400g /goat /day Prosopis). Prosopis contained 88.4% dry matter (DM), 18.5% crude protein (CP), 83.2% organic matter (OM), 51.8% neutral detergent fibre (NDF), 29.8% acid detergent fibre and 5.2% Ash. The experiment lasted for 70 days. Overall, all the treatment groups exhibited higher average weekly weight gains than T1 (control) throughout the experimental period. However, for the first 3 weeks, these differences were not statistically significant (P<0.05). From the fifth week on wards, however, the differences in growth rates were statistically significant (P<0.05). Treatment T3 exhibited highest total weight gain (3.96 kg), followed by T4 (2.70kg). Group T1 lost weight by the end of the experiment. This study demonstrated that Prosopis could be used as goats feed up to 200g/goat/day giving good weight gains and no negative effects on feed intakes and digestibility.

Koech KJ, Chindia ML, Njiru AK. "Primary inter-osseous adenoid cystic carcenoma of the mandible.". 2007.
Koech KJ, Chindia ML. "Presentation and management of cervicofacial necrotising fasciitis: report of nine cases.". 2009. Abstract

Cervicofacial necrotising fasciitis (CNF) is an acute soft tissue infection that primarily involves the subcutaneous, adipose and fascial planes of the head and neck region. Secondary ischaemia of the skin results in widespread ulceration and suppuration. It is imperative that early diagnosis is made and judicious medical and surgical intervention instituted. We present a case series of patients with CNF diagnosed and managed at the division of oral and maxillofacial surgery of the Kenyatta National Hospital in Kenya.

Koech ID. ""Urbanization Process and the Spread of STDs, HIV and AIDS in Africa.". In: (eD) Demistifying AIDS in Africa: Nairobi: KEMRI. Nairobi; 2007.
Koech OK, Kinuthia RN, Karuku GN, Mureithi SM, Wanjogu R. "Water use efficiency of six rangeland grasses under varied soil moisture content levels in the arid Tana River County, Kenya." African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2015;9(7):632-640.wue_koech_et_al_2015.pdf
Koech OK, Kinuthia RN, Wahome RG, and Choge SK. "Effects of Prosopis juliflora Seedpod Meal Supplement on Weight Gain of Weaner Galla Goats in Kenya." Research Journal of Animal Sciences. 2010;4(2):58-62. AbstractWebsite

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of increasing amounts of Prosopis juliflora seedpod meal on the growth rate of weaner Galla goats. The overall aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of incorporating Prosopis seedpods into a typical dryland livestock production system. Twenty weaner Galla goats of similar age (6 months) and weights (11-14 kg) were randomly assigned to four treatments of five weaners each. The treatments were T1 No Prosopis (control treatment), T2 (100g/goat/day Prosopis), T3 (200 g/goat/day Prosopis) and T4 (400 g/goat/day Prosopis). Prosopis contained 88.4% Dry Matter (DM), 18.5% Crude Protein (CP), 83.2% Organic Matter (OM), 51.8% Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF), 29.8% acid detergent fibre and 5.2% Ash. The experiment lasted for 70 days. Overall, all the treatment groups exhibited higher average weekly weight gains than T1 (control) throughout the experimental period. However for the first 3 weeks these differences were not statistically significant (p<0.05). From the 5th week on wards however, the differences in growth rates were statistically significant (p<0.05). Treatment T3 exhibited highest total weight gain (3.96 kg) followed by T4 (2.70 kg). Group T1 had lowest weight by the end of the experiment. This study demonstrated that Prosopis could be used as goats feed up to 200 g/goat/day giving good weight gains and no negative effects on feed intakes and digestibility.

Koech KJ, Kabui AC, Migosi J. "Assessment on the Influence of Top Leadership on Service Delivery in the Kenya Police Service in Kitui County." International Journal of Business and Commerce. 2016;5(8):40-46.
Koech OK;, Kinuthia RN;, Wahome RG;, Choge SK;, Ekaya NW. "The importance of trees and shrubs as livestock feed in the arid and semi arid rangelands of Kenya: Case of Prosopis juliflora in Baringo district."; 2010. Abstract

This study was conducted to determine the potential of integrating Prosopis juliflora in drylands livestock production where the tree is abundant and has been reported by the community to be a menace to their livelihoods. Despite these allegations, the tree has great potential as a source of livestock feed among other many uses that has not been fully exploited. The overall aim of this study was therefore, to assess the feasibility of incorporating Prosopis juliflora seedpods into a typical dryland livestock production system. The study further sought to evaluate the economic viability of supplementing the goats with Prosopis juliflora through cost benefit analysis and find out the optimum supplementation level for improved performance. The experiment involved 20 weaner Galla goats of similar age (6 months) and weights (11-14 kg) which were randomly assigned to four treatments of five weaners each. The treatments were; No P. juliflora (0PJP), 100 g/goat/day P. juliflora (100PJP), 200 g/goat/day P. juliflora (200PJP), 400g/goat/day P. juliflora (400PJP). Supplementation involved providing the goats with their respective diets in the morning before mixed species range grass hay was offered as basal diet. The animals were weighed on weekly basis and weight gains calculated as previous week’s weight and current week’s weight. The experiment lasted for 70 days. Overall, all the treatment groups exhibited higher average weekly weight gains than the control group throughout the experimental period. However, for the first 3 weeks, this was not statistically significant (P<0.05). From the fifth week up to the tenth week, there was significant difference (P<0.05) in the growth rates for the treatments except for the control group. Overall, treatment 200Pjp exhibited highest total weight gain (3.96kg), followed by 400Pjp (2.70kg). Group 0Pjp lost weight by the end of the experiment (-0.009kgs). The cost benefit analysis indicated that it is profitable to supplement the goats with 200g/ goat/day, which was the most cost effective with a benefit cost ratio (BCR) of 1.50. The 100PJP was also cost effective but at a lower level BCR 0f 1.47. Treatment 400Pjp was not cost effective with BCR of 0.57, which is less than 1. It is therefore recommended that supplementation at optimum improves productivity.

Koech OK, RN K, GN K, SM M, R W. "Field curing methods and storage duration affect the quality of hay from six rangeland grass species in Kenya." Ecological processes. 2016; 5(3):1-6.
Koech OK;, Kinuthia RN;, Wahome RG;, Ekaya W. "Effects of supplementing mesquit (Prosopis juliflora) seedpod meal on the performance of weaner Galla goats in the drylands of Kenya."; 2010. Abstract

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of increasing amounts of Prosopis juliflora seedpod meal on the growth rate of weaner Galla goats. The overall aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of incorporating Prosopis seedpods into a typical dryland livestock production system. Twenty weaner Galla goats of similar age (6 months) and weights (11-14 kg) were randomly assigned to four treatments of five weaners each. The treatments were T1 No Prosopis (control treatment), T2 (100 g /goat /day Prosopis), T3 (200 g /goat /day Prosopis), and T4 (400g /goat /day Prosopis). Prosopis contained 88.4% dry matter (DM), 18.5% crude protein (CP), 83.2% organic matter (OM), 51.8% neutral detergent fibre (NDF), 29.8% acid detergent fibre and 5.2% Ash. The experiment lasted for 70 days. Overall, all the treatment groups exhibited higher average weekly weight gains than T1 (control) throughout the experimental period. However, for the first 3 weeks, these differences were not statistically significant (P<0.05). From the fifth week on wards, however, the differences in growth rates were statistically significant (P<0.05). Treatment T3 exhibited highest total weight gain (3.96 kg), followed by T4 (2.70kg). Group T1 lost weight by the end of the experiment. This study demonstrated that Prosopis could be used as goats feed up to 200g/goat/day giving good weight gains and no negative effects on feed intakes and digestibility.

Koech OK;, Kinuthia RN;, Wahome RG;, Choge SK;, Ekaya NW. "The importance of trees and shrubs as livestock feed in the arid and semi arid rangelands of Kenya: Case of Prosopis juliflora in Baringo district."; 2010. Abstract

This study was conducted to determine the potential of integrating Prosopis juliflora in drylands livestock production where the tree is abundant and has been reported by the community to be a menace to their livelihoods. Despite these allegations, the tree has great potential as a source of livestock feed among other many uses that has not been fully exploited. The overall aim of this study was therefore, to assess the feasibility of incorporating Prosopis juliflora seedpods into a typical dryland livestock production system. The study further sought to evaluate the economic viability of supplementing the goats with Prosopis juliflora through cost benefit analysis and find out the optimum supplementation level for improved performance. The experiment involved 20 weaner Galla goats of similar age (6 months) and weights (11-14 kg) which were randomly assigned to four treatments of five weaners each. The treatments were; No P. juliflora (0PJP), 100 g/goat/day P. juliflora (100PJP), 200 g/goat/day P. juliflora (200PJP), 400g/goat/day P. juliflora (400PJP). Supplementation involved providing the goats with their respective diets in the morning before mixed species range grass hay was offered as basal diet. The animals were weighed on weekly basis and weight gains calculated as previous week’s weight and current week’s weight. The experiment lasted for 70 days. Overall, all the treatment groups exhibited higher average weekly weight gains than the control group throughout the experimental period. However, for the first 3 weeks, this was not statistically significant (P<0.05). From the fifth week up to the tenth week, there was significant difference (P<0.05) in the growth rates for the treatments except for the control group. Overall, treatment 200Pjp exhibited highest total weight gain (3.96kg), followed by 400Pjp (2.70kg). Group 0Pjp lost weight by the end of the experiment (-0.009kgs). The cost benefit analysis indicated that it is profitable to supplement the goats with 200g/ goat/day, which was the most cost effective with a benefit cost ratio (BCR) of 1.50. The 100PJP was also cost effective but at a lower level BCR 0f 1.47. Treatment 400Pjp was not cost effective with BCR of 0.57, which is less than 1. It is therefore recommended that supplementation at optimum improves productivity.

Koech A, Ndungu B, Gichangi P. "Structural changes in umbilical vessels in pregnancy induced hypertension." Placenta. 2008;29(2):210-4. Abstract

Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH) is associated with placental morphological changes, alterations in the blood flow patterns in the umbilical vessels and adverse fetal and maternal outcome. Studies have demonstrated changes in the structure of the umbilical vessels but these have not been described across the length of the cord or correlated with the severity of disease.

Koech OK, Kinuthia RN, Wahome RG, Choge SK. "Effects of Prosopis juliflora Seedpod Meal Supplement on Weight Gain of Weaner Galla Goats in Kenya." Research Journal of Animal Sciences. 2010;4(2):58-62. Abstract

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of increasing amounts of Prosopis juliflora seedpod meal on the growth rate of weaner Galla goats. The overall aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of incorporating Prosopis seedpods into a typical dryland livestock production system. Twenty weaner Galla goats of similar age (6 months) and weights (11-14 kg) were randomly assigned to four treatments of five weaners each. The treatments were T1 No Prosopis (control treatment), T2 (100g/goat/day Prosopis), T3 (200 g/goat/day Prosopis) and T4 (400 g/goat/day Prosopis). Prosopis contained 88.4% Dry Matter (DM), 18.5% Crude Protein (CP), 83.2% Organic Matter (OM), 51.8% Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF), 29.8% acid detergent fibre and 5.2% Ash. The experiment lasted for 70 days. Overall, all the treatment groups exhibited higher average weekly weight gains than T1 (control) throughout the experimental period. However for the first 3 weeks these differences were not statistically significant (p<0.05). From the 5th week on wards however, the differences in growth rates were statistically significant (p<0.05). Treatment T3 exhibited highest total weight gain (3.96 kg) followed by T4 (2.70 kg). Group T1 had lowest weight by the end of the experiment. This study demonstrated that Prosopis could be used as goats feed up to 200 g/goat/day giving good weight gains and no negative effects on feed intakes and digestibility.

Koech OK. Effects of Prosopis juliflora Seedpod Meal Supplement on Weight gain of Weaner Galla goats. NAIROBI: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2010. Abstractkoech_oscar_thesis.pdf

This study was conducted to determine the effect of increasing amounts of Prosopis juliflora
seedpod meal on the growth rate of weaner Galla goats. The overall aim of this study was to assess
the feasibility of incorporating Prosopis seedpods into a typical dryland livestock production
system. The study further sought to evaluate the economic viability of supplementing goats with
Prosopis seed pods and establish the optimum supplementation level for improved performance.
The experiment involved 20 weaner Galla goats of similar age (6 months) and weights (11-14 kg)
which were randomly assigned to four treatments of five weaners each. The treatments were T1 No
Prosopis (control treatment), T2 (100 g /goat /day Prosopis), T3 (200 g /goat /day Prosopis), and T4
(400g /goat /day Prosopis). Supplementation involved providing the goats with their respective
portions of Prosopis seedpod meal in the morning before the grass hay was offered. The animals
were weighed on weekly basis and the average weight gains calculated as the difference between
that weeks’ weight and the previous week’s weight divided by five. The experiment lasted for 70
days. Overall, all the treatment groups exhibited higher average weekly weight gains than T1
(control) throughout the experimental period. However, for the first 3 weeks, these differences
were not statistically significant (P<0.05). From the fifth week on wards, however, the differences
in growth rates were statistically significant (P<0.05). Overall, treatment T3 exhibited highest total
weight gain (3.96kg), followed by T4 (2.70kg). Group T1 lost weight by the end of the experiment
(-0.009kgs). The cost benefit analysis indicated that it is profitable to supplement the goats with
200g/goat/day, which was the most cost effective with a benefit cost ratio (BCR) of 1.50. T2 was
also cost effective, but at a lower level (RBC=1.47). Treatment T4 was not cost effective BCR
(0.57). It is therefore recommended that supplementation at optimum level of Prosopis seedpods
increases growth rates.

Koech R, Koroti E, Aboge G, Mwangi A, Odhiambo J;, Ouma E;, Staal S;, McDermott J;, Kangethe E;, Arimi S;, Omore A. "Assessing and managing milk-borne health risks for the benefit of consumers in Kenya.". 2002.
Koech OK, Kinuthia RN, Mureithi SM, Karuku GN, WANJOGU RG. "Effect of Varied Soil Moisture Content on Seed Yield of Six Range Grasses in the Rangelands of Kenya." Universal Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014;2(5):174-179.
Koech OK, Kinuthia RN, Mureithi SM, Karuku GN, Wanjogu R. "Effect of Different Soil Water Content and Seed Storage on Quality of Six Range Grasses in the Semi-Arid Ecosystems of Kenya." Environment and Ecology Research. 2014;2(2):261-271.eer1-14002517-seed_quality.pdf
Koech OK, Kinuthia RN, Karuku GN, Mureithi SM, Wanjogu R. "Water use efficiency of six rangeland grasses under varied soil moisture content levels in the arid Tana River County, Kenya." African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2015;9(7):632-640.
Koech OK;, Kinuthia RN;, Wahome RG;, Choge SK;, Ekaya NW. "The importance of trees and shrubs as livestock feed in the arid and semi arid rangelands of Kenya: Case of Prosopis juliflora in Baringo district."; 2010. Abstract

This study was conducted to determine the potential of integrating Prosopis juliflora in drylands livestock production where the tree is abundant and has been reported by the community to be a menace to their livelihoods. Despite these allegations, the tree has great potential as a source of livestock feed among other many uses that has not been fully exploited. The overall aim of this study was therefore, to assess the feasibility of incorporating Prosopis juliflora seedpods into a typical dryland livestock production system. The study further sought to evaluate the economic viability of supplementing the goats with Prosopis juliflora through cost benefit analysis and find out the optimum supplementation level for improved performance. The experiment involved 20 weaner Galla goats of similar age (6 months) and weights (11-14 kg) which were randomly assigned to four treatments of five weaners each. The treatments were; No P. juliflora (0PJP), 100 g/goat/day P. juliflora (100PJP), 200 g/goat/day P. juliflora (200PJP), 400g/goat/day P. juliflora (400PJP). Supplementation involved providing the goats with their respective diets in the morning before mixed species range grass hay was offered as basal diet. The animals were weighed on weekly basis and weight gains calculated as previous week’s weight and current week’s weight. The experiment lasted for 70 days. Overall, all the treatment groups exhibited higher average weekly weight gains than the control group throughout the experimental period. However, for the first 3 weeks, this was not statistically significant (P<0.05). From the fifth week up to the tenth week, there was significant difference (P<0.05) in the growth rates for the treatments except for the control group. Overall, treatment 200Pjp exhibited highest total weight gain (3.96kg), followed by 400Pjp (2.70kg). Group 0Pjp lost weight by the end of the experiment (-0.009kgs). The cost benefit analysis indicated that it is profitable to supplement the goats with 200g/ goat/day, which was the most cost effective with a benefit cost ratio (BCR) of 1.50. The 100PJP was also cost effective but at a lower level BCR 0f 1.47. Treatment 400Pjp was not cost effective with BCR of 0.57, which is less than 1. It is therefore recommended that supplementation at optimum improves productivity.

Koech OK;, Kinuthia RN;, Wahome RG;, Ekaya W. "Effects of supplementing mesquit (Prosopis juliflora) seedpod meal on the performance of weaner Galla goats in the drylands of Kenya."; 2010. Abstract

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of increasing amounts of Prosopis juliflora seedpod meal on the growth rate of weaner Galla goats. The overall aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of incorporating Prosopis seedpods into a typical dryland livestock production system. Twenty weaner Galla goats of similar age (6 months) and weights (11-14 kg) were randomly assigned to four treatments of five weaners each. The treatments were T1 No Prosopis (control treatment), T2 (100 g /goat /day Prosopis), T3 (200 g /goat /day Prosopis), and T4 (400g /goat /day Prosopis). Prosopis contained 88.4% dry matter (DM), 18.5% crude protein (CP), 83.2% organic matter (OM), 51.8% neutral detergent fibre (NDF), 29.8% acid detergent fibre and 5.2% Ash. The experiment lasted for 70 days. Overall, all the treatment groups exhibited higher average weekly weight gains than T1 (control) throughout the experimental period. However, for the first 3 weeks, these differences were not statistically significant (P<0.05). From the fifth week on wards, however, the differences in growth rates were statistically significant (P<0.05). Treatment T3 exhibited highest total weight gain (3.96 kg), followed by T4 (2.70kg). Group T1 lost weight by the end of the experiment. This study demonstrated that Prosopis could be used as goats feed up to 200g/goat/day giving good weight gains and no negative effects on feed intakes and digestibility.

Koech OK, Kinuthia RN, Karulu GN, Mureithi SM, Wanjogu R. "Water Stress Tolerance of Six Rangeland Grasses in the Kenyan Semi-arid Rangelands." American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry. 2015;3(5):222-229.water_stress_tolerance_of_six_range_grasses_..._american_journal_of_agriculture_and_forestry.pdf
Koech A, Ndungu B, Gichangi P. "Structural Changes in Umbilical Vessels in Pregnancy Induced Hypertension." Placenta. 2008;29(2 (February, 2008)):p. 210-214.
Kodwavwala Y, Jani PG. "Breast cancer in Kenya." J ObstGynecol East Cent.Afric. 1987.
Kodikra GL, Woldai T, van Ruitenbeek JA, Kuria ZN, van der Meer F, Shepherd KD, van Hummel GJ. "Spectral remote sensing of evaporate minerals and associated sediments in Lake Magadi area, Kenya." International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation. 2012;14(1):22-32.
Kodhiambo MO, B.K.Amugune, Oyugi J. "Impact of devolution on the trends of paediatric malaria admissions and mortality in Homa-Bay County, Kenya." East and Central Africa Medical Journal. 2017;3(1):3-6.
Kodhiambo MO, Amugune BK. "Correlates of Paediatric Malaria Prevention and Health Seeking Behaviour in Households within Homa Bay County, Kenya ." Pharmaceutical Journal of Kenya /2018 vol. 23, No 3 100-106. 2018;23(3):100-106.
Koch, A. SDMDPBC, et al. "Antimalarial Albietane ditetane diterpene from Fuerstia africana T.C.E. ." Biochemistry Systematics and Ecology . 2010;(270).
Kobia EN, Ochanda H, Yole DS. "The effect of immunizing Swiss white mice with snail soluble proteins and challenging them with Schistosoma mansoni." The Internet Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2012;8(1):DOI: 10.5580/2b3f.
KO, Awori, N P, G G. "Pattern of Innervation of the Upper Gluteus Maximus Muscle: Implication in Prosthetic Hip Dislocation." Annals of African Surgery . 2012;8(2):28-30.
Ko HS, Schenk JP, Tröger J, Rohrschneider WK. "Current radiological management of intussusception in children." European radiology. 2007;17:2411-2421. AbstractWebsite
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Knowles DP, Kappmeyer LS, Haney D, Herndon DR, Fry LM, Munro JB, Sears K, Ueti MW, Wise LN, Silva M, Schneider DA, Grause J, White SN, Tretina K, Bishop RP, Odongo DO, Pelzel-McCluskey AM, Scoles GA, Mealey RH, Silva JC. "Discovery of a novel species, Theileria haneyi n. sp., infective to equids, highlights exceptional genomic diversity within the genus Theileria: implications for apicomplexan parasite surveillance." Int J Parasitol. 2018;48(9-10):679-690. Abstract

A novel apicomplexan parasite was serendipitously discovered in horses at the United States - Mexico border. Phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rDNA showed the erythrocyte-infective parasite to be related to, but distinct from, Theileria spp. in Africa, the most similar taxa being Theileria spp. from waterbuck and mountain zebra. The degree of sequence variability observed at the 18S rDNA locus also suggests the likely existence of additional cryptic species. Among described species, the genome of this novel equid Theileria parasite is most similar to that of Theileria equi, also a pathogen of horses. The estimated divergence time between the new Theileria sp. and T. equi, based on genomic sequence data, is greater than 33 million years. Average protein sequence divergence between them, at 23%, is greater than that of Theileria parva and Theileria annulata proteins, which is 18%. The latter two represent highly virulent Theileria spp. of domestic cattle, as well as of African and Asian wild buffalo, respectively, which differ markedly in pathology, host cell tropism, tick vector and geographical distribution. The extent of genome-wide sequence divergence, as well as significant morphological differences, relative to T. equi justify the classification of Theileria sp. as a new taxon. Despite the overall genomic divergence, the nine member equi merozoite antigen (EMA) superfamily, previously found as a multigene family only in T. equi, is also present in the novel parasite. Practically, significant sequence divergence in antigenic loci resulted in this undescribed Theileria sp. not being detectable using currently available diagnostic tests. Discovery of this novel species infective to equids highlights exceptional diversity within the genus Theileria, a finding with serious implications for apicomplexan parasite surveillance.

Knols, B.G.J., Bossin, H.C., Mukabana, W.R., Robinson AS. "Transgenic mosquitoes and the fight against malaria: managing technology push in a turbulent GMO world." American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2007;77(6):232-242.
Knols, B.G.J., Njiru, B.N., Mathenge, E.M., Mukabana, W.R., Beier JC, Killeen, G.F. "Malariasphere: A greenhouse-enclosed simulation of a natural Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) ecosystem in Western Kenya." Malaria Journal. 2002;1:19.
Knols BGJ, Hood-Nowotny RC, Bossin H, Franz G, Robinson A, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Kemboi SK. "Knols, B.G.J., Hood-Nowotny, R.C., Bossin, H., Franz, G., Robinson, A., Mukabana, W.R., & Kemboi, S.K. GM sterile mosquitoes: a cautionary note. Nature Biotechnology, 24(9): 1067-1068." Nature Biotechnology, 24(9): 1067-1068.. 2006. AbstractWebsite

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Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of
practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots
level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.

Knols, B.G.J., Hood-Nowotny, R.C., Bossin, H. FG, Robinson, A., Mukabana, W.R., Kemboi, D.C. "GM sterile mosquitoes: a cautionary note." Nature Biotechnology. 2006;24(9):1067-1068.
KM M, M Z, K S, S K, Y S, N I. "Expression, immunolocalization and serodiagnostic value of Tc38630 protein from Trypanosoma congolense." Parasitology Research. 2013;112(9):3357-3363.
KM M, K S, N T-T, M Z, S K, Y S, N I. "). Recombinant Protein from Trypanosoma Congolense a Good Diagnostic Antigen in Immunochromatographic Test." Egerton Journal of Science and Technology. 2018;16:1-21.
KM N, GO O, KM B, CS I. "Disease activity measurement in rheumatoid arthritis." Afr J Rheumatol. 2016:19-24.disease_activity_measurement.pdf
Klopp J, Orwa D, Wagacha PW, Williams S, White A. "Informal 2.0: Seeing and Improving Urban Informal Practices through Digital Technologies The Digital Matatus case in Nairobi." Field Actions Science Reports. The journal of field actions. 2017;(16):39-43. Abstractfull text link

Conceived out of collaboration between Kenyan and American universities and the technology sector in Nairobi, Digital Matatus shows how to leverage the ubiquitous nature of cellphone technology to collect missing data for essential infrastructure - including those with high levels of informality. The project captured transit data in standardized form for Nairobi’s semi-formal bus system, developed the first public transit map for such a system and made the map and data free to the public, spurring innovation and improved services for citizens.
While most cities develop sophisticated IT projects to make their organization smarter, the Digital Matatus case suggests the value of a much more modest and bottom-up approach: it encourages reliance on common technologies like cellphones to understand and improve existing urban services – that often involve informality – in emerging countries. By developing the first-ever high quality data set and map of the Matatu network (very common semi-informal mini-buses in Kenya), the projects promotes a new, low-cost and more practical vision of smart and transit-oriented cities.

Klopp J, Ngau P, Sclar E. "University/City Partnerships: Creating Policy Networks for Urban Transformation in Nairobi."; 2011. Abstract

Kenya's capital city, Nairobi, like many rapidly growing cities in the global South is confronting massive inter-related problems of slum expansion, violence, ethnic segregation, poor service delivery, public health hazards and environmental degradation. These problems, in turn, are deep reflections of a long history of inequitable power relations at both local and global levels, repression, democratic institutional failure and skewed, exclusive urban policy and planning processes. How can a foreign university like Columbia University play a constructive role in this exceptionally challenging context? We argue that part of the answer involves fostering a research and teaching agenda that directly addresses the complexity inherent in the problems of simultaneous urbanization and democratization in places like Nairobi. However, this is not enough. All too often research by external universities fails to circulate or have any impact on urgently needed policy change. We argue that a key role for Columbia University is not just providing research, technical advice or “technology transfer,” rather it is also most critically about nurturing a sustained authentic partnership with local universities to enhance their role in urban transformation. By an authentic partnership we mean a collaboration that produces relationships of trust, honesty, transparency, respect and equity and results in the genuine co-production or facilitation of knowledge for positive local change.1 Fowler succinctly characterizes “authentic partners” versus relations involving “clients” or “counterparts” as involving“equality in ways of working and mutuality in respect for identity, position and role.”2 This paper explores the dynamics and importance of one such a partnership in the field of urban planning. This partnership, which started in April 2005, involves the Centre for Sustainable Urban Development (CSUD)3 at Columbia University and the Department of Urban and Regional Planning (DURP) at the University of Nairobi.

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