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Kimalu PK, Nafula NN, Manda DK, Bedi A, Mwabu G. "A Review of the Health Sector in Kenya, KIPPRA Working Paper No. 11.". 2004.
Kim, Nina H; Scott J; CA; CL; MRA;, et al. "HBV Lamivudine Resistance among Hepatitis B and HIV Co-infected Patients Starting Lamivudine, Stavudine and Nevirapine in Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

Widespread use of lamivudine in antiretroviral therapy may lead to hepatitis B virus resistance in HIV-HBV co-infected patients from endemic settings where tenofovir is not readily available. We evaluated 389 Kenyan HIV-infected adults before and for 18 months after starting highly-active antiretroviral therapy with stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine. Twenty-seven (6.9%) were HBsAg(+) and anti-HBs negative: 24 were HBeAg-negative, 18 had HBV DNA ≤10,000 IU/ml. Sustained HBV suppression to <100 IU/ml occurred in 89% of 19 evaluable patients. Resistance occurred in only 2 subjects, both with high baseline HBV DNA levels. Lamivudine resistance can emerge in the setting of incomplete HBV suppression but was infrequently observed among HIV-HBV co-infected patients with low baseline HBV DNA levels.

Kim HN, Scott J, Cent A, Cook L, Morrow RA, Richardson B, Tapia K, Jerome KR, Lule G, John-Stewart G, Chung MH. "HBV lamivudine resistance among hepatitis B and HIV coinfected patients starting lamivudine, stavudine and nevirapine in Kenya." J. Viral Hepat.. 2011;18(10):e447-52. Abstract

Widespread use of lamivudine in antiretroviral therapy may lead to hepatitis B virus resistance in HIV-HBV coinfected patients from endemic settings where tenofovir is not readily available. We evaluated 389 Kenyan HIV-infected adults before and for 18 months after starting highly active antiretroviral therapy with stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine. Twenty-seven (6.9%) were HBsAg positive and anti-HBs negative, 24 were HBeAg negative, and 18 had HBV DNA levels ≤ 10,000 IU/mL. Sustained HBV suppression to <100 IU/mL occurred in 89% of 19 evaluable patients. Resistance occurred in only two subjects, both with high baseline HBV DNA levels. Lamivudine resistance can emerge in the setting of incomplete HBV suppression but was infrequently observed among HIV-HBV coinfected patients with low baseline HBV DNA levels.

Kim HN, Scott J, Cent A, Cook L, Morrow RA, Richardson B, Tapia K, Jerome KR, Lule G, John-Stewart G, Chung MH. "HBV lamivudine resistance among hepatitis B and HIV coinfected patients starting lamivudine, stavudine and nevirapine in Kenya." J. Viral Hepat.. 2011;18(10):e447-52. Abstract

Widespread use of lamivudine in antiretroviral therapy may lead to hepatitis B virus resistance in HIV-HBV coinfected patients from endemic settings where tenofovir is not readily available. We evaluated 389 Kenyan HIV-infected adults before and for 18 months after starting highly active antiretroviral therapy with stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine. Twenty-seven (6.9%) were HBsAg positive and anti-HBs negative, 24 were HBeAg negative, and 18 had HBV DNA levels ≤ 10,000 IU/mL. Sustained HBV suppression to <100 IU/mL occurred in 89% of 19 evaluable patients. Resistance occurred in only two subjects, both with high baseline HBV DNA levels. Lamivudine resistance can emerge in the setting of incomplete HBV suppression but was infrequently observed among HIV-HBV coinfected patients with low baseline HBV DNA levels.

Kim S, Williams R, Cinque L, Shiundu PM. Size Determination of Nanoparticles Used in Coatings.; 2009. AbstractSize Determination of Nanoparticles Used in Coatings

This chapter begins with a description of some commonly used particle sizing techniques, their applicability to nanoparticles, and their advantages and disadvantages. A special emphasis is given to fractionation techniques and their ability to simultaneously characterize nanoparticles and isolate monodispersed fractions from polydispersed samples. The latter part of this chapter provides an in-depth discussion of sedimentation field-flow fractionation (SdFFF) size analysis of nanoparticles used in coatings

Kiluva VM, Mutua F, Makhanu SK, Ong’or BTI. "Rainfall Runoff Modeling in Yala River Basin of Kenya." Journal of Meteorology and Related Sciences (ISSN:1995-9834). . 2011;Special Issue Vol 5(1). AbstractUoN Digital Repository

When rainfall is received on a watershed, depending on the ini al soil moisture content some of the water seeps underground while the excess forms surface water response. The nature of the runoff and its effects in the watershed can be represented by the applica on of hydrologic models to predict streamfl ow. In this study, the Geological Streamfl ow Model (GeoSFM) and the Muskingum Cunge (M-C) model were used to model the hydrologic processes of the Yala river network. The objec ve of the study was to develop a flood early warning system to mi gate poten al fl ood hazard risk exposed to the downstream inhabitants. Historical hydro-metric datasets of 1975-2005 were used for calibra on, verifi ca on and streamfl ow rou ng based on a split record analysis. For the runoff genera on, rainfall and evapora on datasets were provided by the Kenya Meteorological Department (KMD) while for model calibra on and verifi ca on, streamfl ow was obtained from Water Resources Management Authority (WRMA). To determine the hydrologic connec vity, the 30 meters by 30 meters Digital Eleva on Model was obtained from the Interna onal Centre for Research in Agro-Forestry (ICRAF). The Digital Soil Map of the World developed by Food and Agricultural Organiza on (FAO) and the Global Land Cover data of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) were used for model pa- rameteriza on. The soil moisture accoun ng and rou ng method transferred water through the subsurface, overland and river phases. The percentage of the square of the correla on coeffi cient (R2% value) was used to determine model performance. The GeoSFM modeled streamfl ow at the Bondo streamflow gauging sta on, coded 1FG02 where during the calibra on and verifi ca on phases, streamfl ow was modeled at R2 value of 80.6% and 87.3% respec vely. The M-C model routed streamfl ow from 1FG02 to the Kadenge streamflow gauging sta on, coded 1FG03 at R2 value of 90.8%, Muskingum K value of 2.76 hours and Muskingum X value of 0.4609. The error in predicted peak streamfl ow was 2.3% with a posi ve 1.5% error in predicted speed. This ensured a forecast of the me of peak streamfl ow on the safe side before the actual fl ood peak arrival at 1FG03 sta on. It was concluded that the GeoSFM and M-C models were hence useful tools for flood mi ga- on by issuing fl ood early warning messages defi ned by peak streamfl ow and fl ood wave travel me.

Kiluva VM, Mutua F, Makhanu SK, Ong’or BTI. "Application of the Geological Streanflow Model in the Yala River Basin of Western Kenya." International Journal of Disaster Management and Risk Reduction (IJDMRR) (ISSN: 1992-27. 2011;Vol. 3(3):pp 22-33.
Kilungo JK, McDermott JJ, Oluoch WK, Omore AO. "Social-economics of smallholder dairy production in Kiambu district, Kenya.". 1994. Abstract

Assesses socio-economic features of smallholder dairy farms in Kiambu district, Kenya. Emphasises input use by farmers and compares average milk production and prices. It is also reported in this study that more detailed analysis of the profitability of milk production on these farms is in progress

Kilungo JK;, Oluoch-Kosura W;, McDermott, J.J. J.J. "Relative Efficiency and Application to Kenyan Smallholder Dairy Industry."; 1998.
Kilonzo G, Musisi S, Sebit MB, editor Ndetei, D.M., Szabo CP. "Anxiety and Adjustment Disorders."; 2006.
Kilonzo EM, Ariemba J, J M. "Factors influencing the use of Agency Banking by Bank Customers in Makueni Sub-Country." Journal of Finance & Banking Studies. 2018;6(4):28-40.
Kilonzo BM. A Plastic Anaemia At The Kenyatta National Hospital During The Period 1973-1978.; Submitted. Abstract

A total of 54 patients were diagnosed and treated for plastic anaemia between July, 1973 to December 1978 at the Kenyatta National Hospital. The sex distribution was equal. Most of the age groups were affected with the majority of Cases occurring in the young age groups.
Most tribes in Kenya were found not to be free from a plastic anaemia and there was a predominance of the disease amongst the Kikuyu tribe who lived in and around Nairobi.
Very few factors associated with actiology could. Be elicited and this was partially due to adequate histoties taken at the time of admission by the various physicians. Even though great difficulties are encountered in establishing an aetiologic role for a given agent, so that in large proportion of patients remains unexplained.
The presenting clinical features were those of anaemic haemorrhages due to thrombocytopenia and infections resulting from leucopenia, all of which were observed in all the patients reviewed except for the 4 patients with pure red cell aplasia.
The other 50 patients had hypoplastic marrows. Confirmation of diagnosis was delayed due to initial blood transfusion given before peripheral blood film examination in most patients.
Massive blood transfusion was given to patients on remission. Although platelet concentrates are available and obviate the massive blood transactions, only very few patients received platelet infusions.
Corticosteroid and androgenic asteroids were administered but there was no laid down policy as to the protocol to be followed. Hence administration of these drugs was done in a haphazard manner with a big proportion of patients going without any steroid therapy. This may have accounted to a great extent, for the very poor remission rate noted.
Since it has been observed that pure red cell aplacia remits spontaneously, prolonged therapy of these patients should be pursued vigorously.
Most of the deaths encountered occurred during the first 4 months of admission and they were mainly due to complications of the disease process mainly infections, congestive cardiac failure and excessive haemorrhage.

Kilonzi PJ, Saidi HS, Hassanali J, Ogeng’o JA. "Histomorphometry of the left anterior descending coronary artery among Kenyans. ." . Eur J med Res. 2008;13(suppl 1):2.
Killeen, G.F., Mukabana, W.R., Kalongolela, M.S., Kannady, K., Lindsay, S.W., Tanner, M., Castro, M.C., Fillinger U. "Habitat targeting for controlling aquatic stages of malaria vectors in Africa." American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2006;74(4):517-518.
Kiliko J;, Atandi B;, Awino Z. "Strategic planning in turbulent environment .". 2012.Website
Kiliko J, Atandi B, Awino ZB. "Strategic planning in turbulent environment: A Conceptual View." DBA Africa Management Review. 2013;3(1):73-89.
Kilemi M. Life As A Nairobi University Student. Nairobi: Nairobi University; 2012.
Kilemi M. Flooding In Nairobi . Nairobi: Nairobi University; 2012.
Kilemi M. Poverty In Kenya. Nairobi University; 2012.
Kilelu ES. "Antibody responses to new."; 1979.
Kilekwang L, Patel NB. "Catha edulis Forsk (khat) induces conditioned place preference in mice.". In: Society of Neuroscientists of Africa.; 2017.cpp_poster.pdf
Kilavi PK, Kaniu MI, Patel JP, Usman IT. "Quality and human health risk assessment of uranium and other heavy metals in drinking water from Kwale County, Kenya." Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2021;193:1-20. Abstract
n/a
Kilalo DC, Olubayo FM, Ateka EM, Hutchinson JC, Kimenju JW. "Monitoring of Aphid Fauna in Passionfruit Orchards in Kenya.". 2013. Abstract

Passionfruit woodiness disease viral pathogens limit passionfruit production and are non-persistently transmitted by aphid vectors. The study was conducted to identify aphid species and assess the population dynamics of potential vectors in the orchards for purposes of developing viral disease management tactics. Field trials laid out in a randomized complete block design with four replicates, were conducted in Kabete and Embu and aphid populations monitored weekly in passionfruit orchards for a year using yellow water pan traps under natural conditions. Aphid transmission tests using commonly found aphids Aphis gosypii, A. fabae, Brevicoryne brassicae, Ropalosiphum maidis, and Sitobion avenae and a CABMV isolate from the field were also carried out in the greenhouse. These tests would establish the ability of the aphid species to transmit CABMV. Twelve species of aphids were captured but the most abundant were Aphis gosypii, Ropalosiphum maidis, Acyrthosiphon pisum and Brevicoryne brassicae accounting for 97% and 95 % of the total aphids collected in Embu and Kabete, respectively. The species diversity was rich and abundant at 0.79 and 0.7 for Kabete and Embu, respectively. The aphid population in Kabete (8000) was significantly (p< 0.05) higher than that collected in Embu (2900) whereas the population collected during the long rains season was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that which was collected in the short rains. Individual species populations were higher in Kabete than in Embu but only A. gosypii, Macrosiphum euphorbiae, Myzus persicaeand R. maidis had significantly (p<0.05) higher populations in Kabete. About 70% of the total aphids were collected during the peak period in both sites indicating greatest aphid dispersal and flight activity. The aphids were present in the orchards throughout the year with one major seasonal peak in June, a time period when food crops and other vegetation such as weeds grow vigorously. The occurrence of aphids in the orchards throughout the year with the peak population density coinciding with the cropping season has serious implications in the management of the pest and spread of viral diseases of passionfruit.

Kilalo DC. "Survey of the arthropod complex and monitoring and management of homopteran pests of citrus (citrus spp) and their natural enemies."; 2004. Abstract

Citrus production in Kenya is hindered by several constraints. These include pests and diseases, inadequate disease-free planting materials, drought, low soil fertility and poor orchard management in order of decreasing importance. This study was undertaken to determine important pests of citrus and their natural enemies, to monitor the seasonal fluctuations of major homopteran pests and to evaluate the efficacy of various pesticides on homopteran pests in the farmers’ fields. To determine important pests of citrus, a survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire administered to 63 citrus farmers drawn from three major agro-ecological zones present within Bungoma and Machakos districts. This was followed by an on-spot assessment of insect species on randomly selected citrus trees in each farm. To monitor the seasonal population fluctuations, four randomly selected farms in two locations, Upper midlands (UM) and Lower midlands (LM) zones were used. In each farm, four citrus trees were marked for monitoring homopteran pests and the natural enemies fortnightly for two seasons. In the same zones, three orchards were used to evaluate the efficacy of selected pesticides on the homopteran pests. Pesticides used included Metasystox (Oxydementon methyl), Confidor (Imidacloprid), DC Tron (petroleum spray oil) and a mixture of Metasystox and DC Tron. These were applied as foliar or soil drench and in two regimes fortnightly or monthly applications. Homopteran pests were counted fortnightly in the experiment. A hundred and seventeen insects species were found associated with the citrus plants. Eighty-seven of them were pests while 30 were their natural enemies. The most important pest species were citrus whiteflies, citrus psyllids, aphids, blackflies, scale insects, leafhoppers, and leaf miner. All were widely distributed in the three agroecological zones. The natural enemy complex comprised of the spiders, coccinellids, chrysopids, mantids, tachnids, syrphids and reduviid bugs. However, important and conspicuous natural enemies were the spiders and the coccinellids. Farmers relied on their own knowledge to make pest management decisions; hence the pest control strategies applied were inadequate. Monitoring showed that homopteran pest populations varied with seasons and location. Whitefly, aphid and citrus psyllid populations significantly fluctuated with seasons (P<0.05) whereas aphid, blackfly and citrus psyllid populations significantly varied with location (P<0.05). The insect pest load was heaviest during the vigorous flush growth periods, which were preceded by rainfall and the loads were light during the hot and dry months. Treatment schedules significantly reduced the pest populations and the natural enemies (P<0.001). Metasystox schedules had the least populations, particularly in the UM zone. Their effect was, however, not different from Confidor and DC Tron schedules, which effectively lowered homopteran pest populations. Soil drench and foliar methods of applications did not differ nor did the fortnightly and monthly regimes of applications in their effect on homopteran pests. The findings have shown that citrus are associated with many insect species. Some of the pests observed are known vectors of diseases pointing to the need for effective pest management to prevent the spread of diseases. The rich diversity of natural enemies dominated by the spiders and coccinellids indicates that the pests are under some form of natural control. Natural enemies require conservation to play a significant role in suppressing pest populations. Flush growth identified as the critical period for protection of citrus should be the target of any pest control strategy to prevent increases of pest populations. Pesticides demonstrated to effectively reduce pest populations in the farmer’s fields could be used as a component of an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategy of citrus pests. Monthly schedules of Confidor or DC Tron as soil drench and foliar applications, respectively, would help optimise the use of synthetic pesticides while conserving natural enemies. An IPM strategy utilizing scouting and judicious use of insecticides among other components would help citrus farmers to deal effectively with insect pest problems in their orchards. Farmers need training on insect pest and natural enemy identification as well as effective use of pesticides to help bridge the knowledge gap identified in crop protection practices among them.

Kikuvi GM, Ole-Mapenay, I. M; Mitema ES, Ombui JN. "Antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from faeces and carcass samples of slaughtered cattle, swine and chickens in Kenya.". 2013. Abstract

Two hundred and thirty five Escherichia coli isolates from cattle, pigs and chickens were investigated for their resistance to seven antimicrobials by the disc diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for 154 isolates showing resistance to at least one of the antimicrobials tested. Resistance was found in 65.5% and multi-resistance (resistance to = 2 antibiotics) in 37.9% of the isolates. Resistance was highest in the isolates from chickens (74.0%), followed by pigs (64.8%) and cattle (61.3%). The most common resistance was to ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim, and kanamycin (42.5-11.9%). Resistance to kanamycin, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim, and tetracycline was significantly lower in cattle (2.5-7.5%) than in the other species (12.0-40.0%) (p < 0.01). Resistance to streptomycin and ampicillin were significantly higher in cattle and pigs respectively (p < 0.01). Similar resistance rates were observed among the faecal (29.9%) and carcass swab (33.1%) isolates. Forty resistance patterns were recorded of which only 5 (12.5%) were common among the isolates studied. This study shows that multi-drug resistant E. coli isolates are prevalent in cattle, pigs and chickens in Kenya and that a considerable proportion of E. coli isolates from fresh cattle and pig carcasses is resistant to a variety of antimicrobial agents. Differences in the rates and patterns of resistance were noted, perhaps reflecting differences in antibiotic use regimens among these species. It is recommended that the use of antimicrobials in food animals should follow prudent use guidelines to minimize the selection of resistant bacteria and that slaughter hygiene should be improved to minimize the risk of transfer of antimicrobial resistant bacteria to humans.

Kikuvi GM, Schwarz S, Mitema ES, Kehrenberg C. "Streptomycin and chloramphenicol resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolates from cattle, pigs, and chicken in Kenya.". 2007. AbstractWebsite

The aims of this study were to determine the genetic basis of streptomycin and chloramphenicol resistance in 30 Escherichia coli isolates from food animals in Kenya and the role of plasmids in the spread of the resistance. Seven of the 29 streptomycin-resistant isolates harbored both the strA and strB genes. Twenty-one of isolates had the strA, strB, and aadA1 genes. The strA gene was disrupted by a functional trimethoprim gene, dfrA14 in 10 of the 21 isolates harboring the three streptomycin resistance genes. Physical linkage of intact strA and sul2 genes was found in two different plasmids from four isolates. Linkage of cassette-borne aadA1 and dfrA1 genes in class 1 integrons was found in two of the isolates. Chloramphenicol resistance was due to the gene catA1 in all the chloramphenicol resistant isolates. The strB, strA, and catA1 genes were transferable by conjugation and this points to the significance of conjugative resistance plasmids in the spread and persistence of streptomycin and chloramphenicol resistance in food animals in Kenya.

KIKO PROFKIMUYUPETER. "Bigsten A and P.K. Kimuyu (eds), 2002 The Structure and Performance of theManufacturing in Kenya Palgrave Publishers, United Kingdom.". In: sfdsadfsa. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2002. Abstract
research theories for high school students
KIKO PROFKIMUYUPETER. "Kimuyu P.K. Urbanization, Economy Structure and Demand for Fuels inKenya, Eastern Africa Economic Review 6:2.". In: sfdsadfsa. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1990. Abstract
research theories for high school students
KIKO PROFKIMUYUPETER. "Kimuyu P.K. The Human Factor: Household Case Studies in Pinckney T.C. edt. Policy and Rura; Development: Two Communities in East Africa. William' College, Williamstown.". In: sfdsadfsa. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1994. Abstract
research theories for high school students
KIKO PROFKIMUYUPETER. "Kimuyu P.K. Credit and Financial Markets in Pinckney T.C. edt. Policy and Rural Development: Two Communities in East Africa. Williams College, Williamstown.". In: sfdsadfsa. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1994. Abstract
research theories for high school students
KIKO PROFKIMUYUPETER. "Kimuyu P.K. 1997. Enterprise Atributes and Corporate Disputes in Kenya. Discussion Paper No. DP/001/97, Institute of Policy Analysis and Research, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: sfdsadfsa. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1997. Abstract
research theories for high school students
KIKO PROFKIMUYUPETER. "Kimuyu P.K. & Kayizzi-Mugerwa, 1998. Enterprise Response to Deficient Infrastructure Discussion Paper No. DP/011/98, Institute of Policy Analysis and Research, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: sfdsadfsa. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1998. Abstract
research theories for high school students
KIKO PROFKIMUYUPETER. "Kimuyu P.K. 1998. Equipment Acquisitions by Kenyan Manufacturers. Discussion Paper No. DP010/98, Institute of Policy Analysis and Reserch. Nairobi, Kenya.". In: sfdsadfsa. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1998. Abstract
research theories for high school students
KIKO PROFKIMUYUPETER. "Moyi E. & P.K. Kimuyu, 1999. Revealed Comparative Advantage and Export Propensity inKenya, Discussion Paper No. DP/015/1999, Institute of Policy Analysis and Research, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: sfdsadfsa. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1999. Abstract
research theories for high school students
KIKO PROFKIMUYUPETER. "Kimuyu P.K. andIkiara G.K. The Christian Case for the Diffusion of Economic Power: Incentives and Interferences. Transformation 6:4.". In: sfdsadfsa. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1989. Abstract
research theories for high school students
KIKO PROFKIMUYUPETER. "Kimuyu P.K. Urbanization and Petroleum Products Consumption in Kenya Energy Policy 21:4, April.". In: sfdsadfsa. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1993. Abstract
research theories for high school students
KIKO PROFKIMUYUPETER. "Kimuyu P.K. & W.E. Maro. Labour and Labour Markets in Pinckney T.C. edt. Policy and Rural Development: Two Communities in East Africa. Williams Colle.". In: sfdsadfsa. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1994. Abstract
research theories for high school students
KIKO PROFKIMUYUPETER. "Kimuyu P.K. 1995. Waste Management Deficiencies and Self-Provision Incidence in Kenyan Manufacturing in the African Urban Quarterly Vol. 2 Nos. 1 & 2, pp. 129-136.". In: sfdsadfsa. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1995. Abstract
research theories for high school students
KIKO PROFKIMUYUPETER. "Kimuyu P.K., 1999. Rotating Savings and Credit Associations in East Africa. World Development 27:7.". In: sfdsadfsa. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1999. Abstract
research theories for high school students
KIKO PROFKIMUYUPETER. "Kimuyu P.K. The Disintegration of the International OilIndustry and After: Implictions for Kenya in East African Social Science Research Review 3:2.". In: sfdsadfsa. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1987. Abstract
research theories for high school students
KIKO PROFKIMUYUPETER. "Kimuyu P.K. Steardship and the Creation of Wealth in Adeyemo T. edt. A Christian Mind in a Changing Africa. Nairobi, Association f Evangelicals of Africa.". In: sfdsadfsa. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1993. Abstract
research theories for high school students
KIKO PROFKIMUYUPETER. "Pinckney T.C. & P.K. Kimuyu. Land Regisration in East Africa: Good, Bad or Unimportant? Journal of African Econmies 3:1.". In: sfdsadfsa. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1994. Abstract
research theories for high school students
Kiitonde C, Lukhoba CW, Dossaji SF. "Antimicrobial and Phytochemical Study of Vernonia glabra (Steetz) Oliv. & Hiern. in Kenya.". In: Botany 2011 . Healing the Planet Symposium in St. Louis, Missouri, USA.: C. Kiitonde, C.W. Lukhoba & S.F. Dossaji; 2011. Abstract

Infectious diseases are prevalent and life threatening. In Kenya, a majority of the sick are seeking herbal remedies in such for effective, safe, and affordable cure. This project aims to investigate the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical compounds present in different parts of Vernonia glabra, a plant used by herbalists in various regions of Kenya claimed to treat different microbial infections. The plant was collected in January, 2010 in Machakos, and the different plant parts ground into powder and extracted in Dichloromethane:Methanol (1:1) and water. These were tested against bacterial and fungal organisms using disc diffusion technique. It was observed that the organic crude extracts of the flower, leaf, stem, root and/or entire plant, showed activity against at least one of the four test micro-organisms and at concentrations lower than the water crude extracts. The organic crude extract of the leaf showed the highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus (Mean inhibition, 1.83) and Aspergillus niger (mean inhibition, 1.43), and also recorded higher activity those of the standard ds. Organic crude extract of flower showed significant activity against one only organism- Staphylococcus aureus. Thin Layer Chromatography-Bioautography Agar Overlay, showed that saponins were eliciting over 60% of all the antimicrobial activity. These results suggest that Vernonia glabra may contain phytochemicals of medicinal properties and also justifies the use of Vernonia glabra in herbal medicine for the treatment of microbial diseases. In particular, the V. glabra leaf may contain broad spectrum antibacterial and antifungal agents that could be useful in the development of competent antimicrobial drugs. Further investigation to isolate, determine the pure and safe antimicrobial compounds is recommended for scientific verification and validation of the drugs from Vernonia glabra.

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "The Psychology of Time Present and Time Past: An Analysis of Literary and Biographical Creations.". In: Journal of Poetry Therapy 18.3 (September 2005): 1-9. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract

In this article the author argues that one

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Voice through the Thickets of Separateness: A Tribute to Margaret Laurence's Long Drums and Cannons.". In: Margaret Laurence Newsletter 10 (2000): 3-8. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2000. Abstract

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "A Study Guide to "Things Fall Apart," Nairobi: Oxford UP.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1978. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "The Boy Who Learnt to Play Ball. Barrack Muluka and Tobias Otieno (Eds). The Doomed Conspiracy and Other Stories. 191-94.". In: John Wiley & Sons. Publishers Chichester. Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers; 2011. Abstract

PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. ""A Case for Stylistics in Literary Scholarship: Review of Niyi Osundare, Cautious Paths through the Bramble" The Nairobi Journal of Literature 4 (March 2006): 83-89.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Literature 4 (March 2006): 83-89. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2006. Abstract

This paper presents a case for the need to build a virtual bibliography of Kenyan literature on the World Wide Web; this catalogue without cards will present to the wide audience with access to the internet basic and correct information on this literature. In the course of discussing the place of modern information technology in the world, the paper discusses the Kenyan literary heritage as a form of higher culture reflecting social experiences, capturing the souls of the nation and encapsulating the high ideals of humanism and progress. Further, the paper calls for honesty and sensitivity in the preservation of information on the literary texts, lest this information is laid open to possible distortion, even manipulation, by those who post it on the World Wide Web. Implicitly, the paper makes a case for the need of the developing world

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "An Outsider as an Artist: Margaret Laurence's The Diviners.". In: Margaret Laurence Review 11 (2001-2003): 20-23. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2001. Abstract

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "My Family and My State,Mwangaza 1.2.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1987. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "The Man Who Fears the Plague Is not Safe from It.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Literature 5 (March 2007): 68-78. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2007. Abstract

This essay looks at Somali oral poetry, using poetry now committed to writing primarily from B. W. Andrzejewski and I. M. Lewis

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "A Latter-Day Eve,Mwangaza 2.2 (July 2002):49.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Literature 1 (March 2003): 15-22. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2002. Abstract

Borrowing its title from William Shakespeare's King Lear, this article examines some aesthetic and cognitive characteristics of some indigenous ethnic myths in Kenya as a subgenre of the oral narrative. The article asserts that human beings create the myth to help them make sense of human existence

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "I, a Woman, Insincerity, Living Dead and On Marriage,Arthur Luvai (Ed), Boundless Voices: Poems from Kenya, Nairobi: Heinemann (59-63).". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1988. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. ""The Rump and the Neck: Snippets from Somali Oral Poetry," Journal of the Korean Association of African Studies 25 (June 2007): 263-82.". In: Journal of the Korean Association of African Studies 25 (June 2007): 263-82. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2007. Abstract

This essay looks at Somali oral poetry, using poetry now committed to writing primarily from B. W. Andrzejewski and I. M. Lewis

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Fall,.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Literature 1 (March 2003): 15-22. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2003. Abstract

Borrowing its title from William Shakespeare's King Lear, this article examines some aesthetic and cognitive characteristics of some indigenous ethnic myths in Kenya as a subgenre of the oral narrative. The article asserts that human beings create the myth to help them make sense of human existence

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "KCPE Revision English, Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1994. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Literary Journals,.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1993. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "The Dead,Joe (April).". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1974. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Kenyan Literature: A Call for Discourse.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Literature 2 (March 2004): 66-74. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2004. Abstract

The article sets out to investigate the question of the identity of Kenyan literature in the context of East Africa, Africa and the Commonwealth. It argues that this literature appears to reflect as it seeks to create and define a national culture because, despite Kenya being a mosaic of peoples and cultures, symbols of nationhood, defined boundaries and memories of the colonial experience continue to shape and mould its sense of national being. Its literature therefore needs to be discussed in the context of exploring its national sensibility, discussing how the nation produces it and how it narrates the nation. This discourse would assist the nation understand itself, unravel the aesthetic ideal the literature embodies, and, hopefully, galvanise the nation for a unity of purpose arising from yearnings for harmonious social relationships the aesthetic ideal embodies.

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "You Cannot Catch Old Birds with Chaff: The Woman.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1999. Abstract

Kiiru J, Mburu J. "User Costs of Joint Liability Borrowing and their Effects on Livelihood Assets for Rural Poor Households." International Journal of Women, Social Justice and Human Rights. 2007.
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Aspects of East African Literature,.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1977. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

Kiiru J, Barasa L. "Securing inclusive growth: Mentorship, youth employment and employment creation in Kenya.". In: M. Ramutsindela, & D. Mickler ed., Africa and the Sustainable Development Goals. Cham: Springer; 2018.
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. ""Aryan Kaganof: 12 Shooters," The African Book Publishing Record, No. 3, 2008. 191-92.". In: The African Book Publishing Record, No. 3, 2008. 191-92. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2008. Abstract

PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "The Implied Twofold Audience in Ngugi wa Thiong.". In: African Affairs 18 (June 2005):231-46. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract

This essay examines the twofold listening and reading audience Ngugi wa Thiong

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Intercultural Understanding: Margaret Laurence.". In: Margaret Laurence Newsletter 10 (2000): 3-8. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2000. Abstract

Kiiru J, Mburu, Siddhartha S. "User Costs of Joint Liability Borrowing and their Effects on Livelihood Assets for Rural Poor Households.". In: Gender and Pro Poor Growth. New Delhi: Arise Publishers and Distributors; 2009.
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Pessimism in East African Literature, Umma 8.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1978. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Breyten Breytenbach: A Veil of Footsteps: Memoir of a Nomadic Fictional Character.". In: The African Book Publishing Record 35.1 (April 2009) 31-32. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2009. Abstract

PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. ""Dreaming Their Dreams," Margaret Laurence Review 15 (2005) & 16 (2006): 18-22.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Literature 4 (March 2006): 83-89. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2006. Abstract

This paper presents a case for the need to build a virtual bibliography of Kenyan literature on the World Wide Web; this catalogue without cards will present to the wide audience with access to the internet basic and correct information on this literature. In the course of discussing the place of modern information technology in the world, the paper discusses the Kenyan literary heritage as a form of higher culture reflecting social experiences, capturing the souls of the nation and encapsulating the high ideals of humanism and progress. Further, the paper calls for honesty and sensitivity in the preservation of information on the literary texts, lest this information is laid open to possible distortion, even manipulation, by those who post it on the World Wide Web. Implicitly, the paper makes a case for the need of the developing world

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Over That Shoulder,Mwangaza 2.1, July 2001: 17.". In: Margaret Laurence Review 11 (2001-2003): 20-23. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2001. Abstract

Kiiru J, Onsumu E, Wamalwa F. "Does Education and Training Matter for Youth Employment? Lessons from Kenya." Journal of Emerging Issues in Economics, Finance and Banking (JEIEFB). 2013;1(2).
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Some Reflections on Oral Literature,.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1987. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "KCPE Revision English (New Syllabus), Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Literature 5 (March 2007): 68-78. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2006. Abstract

This essay looks at Somali oral poetry, using poetry now committed to writing primarily from B. W. Andrzejewski and I. M. Lewis

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Clock-Time,Mwangaza 2.2 (July 2002): 10.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Literature 1 (March 2003): 15-22. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2002. Abstract

Borrowing its title from William Shakespeare's King Lear, this article examines some aesthetic and cognitive characteristics of some indigenous ethnic myths in Kenya as a subgenre of the oral narrative. The article asserts that human beings create the myth to help them make sense of human existence

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Introduction to Literary Criticism, University of Nairobi.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1987. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. ""Niyi Osundare: Two Plays," The African Book Publishing Record XXXIII/2/2007: 120.". In: The African Book Publishing Record XXXIII/2/2007: 120. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2007. Abstract

This essay looks at Somali oral poetry, using poetry now committed to writing primarily from B. W. Andrzejewski and I. M. Lewis

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Epigram,.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Literature 1 (March 2003): 15-22. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2003. Abstract

Borrowing its title from William Shakespeare's King Lear, this article examines some aesthetic and cognitive characteristics of some indigenous ethnic myths in Kenya as a subgenre of the oral narrative. The article asserts that human beings create the myth to help them make sense of human existence

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Canadian Literature, Nairobi: Nairobi UP.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1992. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Pessimism in East African Literature, Afras: Journal of African and Asian Studies 1.3.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1973. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Bringing Old Pains to the Surface: Loss, Grief and Healing in Margaret Laurence.". In: Margaret Laurence Review 13 (2003): 9-12. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2003. Abstract

The article sets out to investigate the question of the identity of Kenyan literature in the context of East Africa, Africa and the Commonwealth. It argues that this literature appears to reflect as it seeks to create and define a national culture because, despite Kenya being a mosaic of peoples and cultures, symbols of nationhood, defined boundaries and memories of the colonial experience continue to shape and mould its sense of national being. Its literature therefore needs to be discussed in the context of exploring its national sensibility, discussing how the nation produces it and how it narrates the nation. This discourse would assist the nation understand itself, unravel the aesthetic ideal the literature embodies, and, hopefully, galvanise the nation for a unity of purpose arising from yearnings for harmonious social relationships the aesthetic ideal embodies.

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. ""The Woman's Role in Alex La Guma's Fiction," PhD, University of Nairobi.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1997. Abstract

Kiiru J, Mburu J, Asch F, Becker M. "Determinants and Consequences of Transactions Costs of Microfinance and their Impact on Rural poor Beneficiaries Incomes." International Research on Food Security, Natural Resource Management and Rural Development. 2006:402.
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Cultural Modernisation and the Child, The Voice, 21.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1994. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. ""Criticism of African Literature with Special Reference to Chinua Achebe,.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1977. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. ""Thula Bopela and Daluxolo Luthuli: Umkhonto we Sizwe Fighting for a Divided People," The African Book Publishing Record XXXIV, no. 3, 2008, 194-2008.". In: The African Book Publishing Record XXXIV, no. 3. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2008. Abstract

PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Oral Features in Ngugi wa Thiong.". In: African Affairs 18 (June 2005):231-46. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract

The article examines some preponderant elements that create an impression that Ngugi wa Thiong'o's novel, Devil on the Cross, is orally narrated. More often than not associated with oral discourse, these elements are the narrative voice, biblical allusions, oral literature and the confessional mode. As a result of preponderant oral elements in a form of written discourse, there is not only intersection between oral and written discourse but also an interface between the two modes of transmission of literary works, oral and written, in the novel. Consequently, the article calls for further research into the implications this interface has for the two modes of transmission of literary works.

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Literature at the Touch of a Key The People (Millennium Special), 31December." Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1999. Abstract

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. ""Aspects of East African Literature,.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1977. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

Kiiru MDH. "The Rump and the Neck: Snippets from Somali Oral Poetry," Journal of the Korean Association of African Studies 25 (June 2007): 263-82 .". 2007. AbstractWebsite

This essay looks at Somali oral poetry, using poetry now committed to writing primarily from B. W. Andrzejewski and I. M. Lewis’s Somali Poetry: An Introduction, Basher Goth’s “Abdi Sinimoo and the Balwo Legacy,” Zainab Mohamed Jama’s “Fighting to Be Heard: Somali Women’s Poetry,” and Margaret Laurence’s A Tree for Poverty: Somali Poetry and Prose . Identifying the main genres of the poetry and discussing, with examples of poems, themes the poetry deals with, the essay shows that the beauty of the poetry debunks a stereotype of the Somali as a people bent on conflict, in the process forgetting the intense passion they exhibit in their poetry—whether it is passion for war and peace or whether it is passion for virtue and love.

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Passing on Grace. Review of Margaret Laurence: A Gift of Grace: A Spiritual Biography by Noelle Boughton.". In: Margaret Laurence Review 17 (2007) & 18 (2008-2009): 11-14. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2009. Abstract

PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Kiiru MDH. "Epigram.". 2003.
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Places to Stand on: Travel Essays of Margaret Laurence.". In: Margaret Laurence Review 14 (2004-2005): 17-21. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract

This paper presents a case for the need to build a virtual bibliography of Kenyan literature on the World Wide Web; this catalogue without cards will present to the wide audience with access to the internet basic and correct information on this literature. In the course of discussing the place of modern information technology in the world, the paper discusses the Kenyan literary heritage as a form of higher culture reflecting social experiences, capturing the souls of the nation and encapsulating the high ideals of humanism and progress. Further, the paper calls for honesty and sensitivity in the preservation of information on the literary texts, lest this information is laid open to possible distortion, even manipulation, by those who post it on the World Wide Web. Implicitly, the paper makes a case for the need of the developing world

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH, KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "The Rains Are Late,Mwangaza 2.1, July 2001: 4.". In: Margaret Laurence Review 11 (2001-2003): 20-23. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2001. Abstract

Kiiru J. "Remittances and Poverty in Kenya." OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development. 2010;1(8):.33-41.
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Advanced Study Companion to "A Grain of Wheat," Nairobi: Heinemann.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1985. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Capturing Space. Barrack Muluka and Tobias Otieno (Eds). The Doomed Conspiracy and Other Stories. 82-94.". In: John Wiley & Sons. Publishers Chichester. Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers; 2011. Abstract

PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Catalogue without Cards: Kenyan Literary Texts on the World Wide Web.". In: Journal of the Korean Association of African Studies 23 (June 2006): 117-32. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2006. Abstract

This paper presents a case for the need to build a virtual bibliography of Kenyan literature on the World Wide Web; this catalogue without cards will present to the wide audience with access to the internet basic and correct information on this literature. In the course of discussing the place of modern information technology in the world, the paper discusses the Kenyan literary heritage as a form of higher culture reflecting social experiences, capturing the souls of the nation and encapsulating the high ideals of humanism and progress. Further, the paper calls for honesty and sensitivity in the preservation of information on the literary texts, lest this information is laid open to possible distortion, even manipulation, by those who post it on the World Wide Web. Implicitly, the paper makes a case for the need of the developing world

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "720 Hours in This Scept.". In: The Journal African Travel-Writing 8-9 (2001): 106-19. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2001. Abstract

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "By the Sweat of Your Brow: Culture and Work,.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1987. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Delaying Gratification as a Beautiful Choice. Human Sexuality in Africa: Beyond Reproduction. Ed. Eleanor Maticka-Tyndale, Richmond Tiemoko and Paullina Makinwa-Adebusoye. Sunnyside, South Africa: Fanele, 2007. 19-28 (Revised version of the African Region.". In: Sunnyside, South Africa. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2007. Abstract

This essay looks at Somali oral poetry, using poetry now committed to writing primarily from B. W. Andrzejewski and I. M. Lewis

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Temptation,.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Literature 1 (March 2003): 15-22. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2003. Abstract

Borrowing its title from William Shakespeare's King Lear, this article examines some aesthetic and cognitive characteristics of some indigenous ethnic myths in Kenya as a subgenre of the oral narrative. The article asserts that human beings create the myth to help them make sense of human existence

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Theory of Literature, University of Nairobi.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1988. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "“Patrice Lumumba: Voices of Liberation,”." The African Book Publishing Record . 2014;40(2):233-237.voices_of_liberation.pdf
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "As Flies to Boys Are We to the Gods: Human Identity in Kenyan Myths.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Literature 1 (March 2003): 15-22. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2003. Abstract

Borrowing its title from William Shakespeare's King Lear, this article examines some aesthetic and cognitive characteristics of some indigenous ethnic myths in Kenya as a subgenre of the oral narrative. The article asserts that human beings create the myth to help them make sense of human existence

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. ""Challenges in the Use of Information Technology in Preserving Oral Literature in Kenya,.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1995. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Eulogy,Writers Association of Kenya National Short Story Competition.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1994. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Form and Content in the Novel: Class, the Writer and the Critic, Busara 8.2.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1976. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. ""The Criminal in a Kenyan Autobiography: A Journey towards Redemption" African Affairs (February 2007): 157-175.". In: African Affairs (February 2007): 157-175. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2007. Abstract

This essay focuses on an autobiographical narrative, Life and Times of a Bank Robber, whose author, John Kiggia Kimani, a Kenyan, was a criminal for a bout fifteen years before he was imprisoned for fifteen years. The essay examines the psychology as well as the circumstances that lead him into crime as it looks at literary features of the autobiographical form that create empathy for him

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. ""Niyi Osundare: Cautious Paths through the Bramble: A Critical Classification of Style Theories and Concepts," The African Book Publishing Record 2005/4: 325.". In: The African Book Publishing Record 2005/4: 325. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract

The article examines some preponderant elements that create an impression that Ngugi wa Thiong'o's novel, Devil on the Cross, is orally narrated. More often than not associated with oral discourse, these elements are the narrative voice, biblical allusions, oral literature and the confessional mode. As a result of preponderant oral elements in a form of written discourse, there is not only intersection between oral and written discourse but also an interface between the two modes of transmission of literary works, oral and written, in the novel. Consequently, the article calls for further research into the implications this interface has for the two modes of transmission of literary works.

Kiiru J. "Microfinance: Getting Money to the Poor or Making Money out of Poverty? What was the Promise." International Journal of Finance and the Common good, Bien commun. 2007;27-11:64-73.
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. ""Criticism of African Literature with Special Reference to Chinua Achebe,.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1977. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "You Cannot Shake Hands with a Clenched Fist. Henry Indangasi and Masumi Odari (Eds) Daisaku Ikeda and Voices for Peace from Africa.". In: Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau, 119-23. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2008. Abstract

PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Kiio, L., Mbui, Onyatta J, Dangili P, Oloo F. "Current Biosensors used for Early Detection of Lung Cancer Biomarkers." Journal of Cancer Research Reviews and Reports. 2021;3(3):1-8.
Kihurani DO, Mbiuki SM, Ngatia TA. "The recovery of wounds by dehorning.". 1990.
Kihurani AW;, Carey EE;, Narla RD. "First report of black rot disease of sweetpotato in Kenya.".; 2000.
Kihurani DO, Carstens A, Saulez MN, Donnellan CM. "Transcutaneous ultrasonographic evaluation of the air-filled equine stomach and duodenum following gastroscopy.". 2009. Abstract

Gastroscopy with air insufflation was performed in 10 ponies, after which a transcutaneous ultrasound examination of the stomach and duodenum was performed immediately and at 1, 2, and 4 h postgastroscopy, and 24 h after feeding. Stomach measurements included the dorsoventral and craniocaudal dimensions, as well as the stomach depth from the skin surface and stomach wall thickness at the different time periods. Gastric wall folding was observed in one pony, becoming most distinct 2-4 h postgastroscopy. An undulating stomach wall was noted in eight other ponies postgastroscopy. These observations appeared to be a response to the deflation of the stomach as the insufflated air was released gradually. Gas was detected in the duodenum after the gastroscopy. The parameters measured were noted to be useful to evaluate the extent of stomach distension due to air or feed. The ultrasonographic appearance of the stomach can, therefore, be altered by gastroscopy and this should be borne in mind when examining horses with suspected gastric disease.

Kihurani DO, Nantulya VM, Mbiuki SM, Mogoa E, Mbithi PMF. "Trypanosoma brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax infections in horses on a farm in Kenya.". 1994.
Kihuba E, Gathara D, Mwinga S, Mulaku M, Kosgei R, Mogoa W, Nyamai R, English M. "Assessing the ability of health information systems in hospitals to support evidence-informed decisions in Kenya." Glob Health Action. 2014;7:24859.
Kihuba E, Gathara D, Mwinga S, Mulaku M, Kosgei R, Mogoa W, Nyamai R, English M. "Assessing the ability of health information systems in hospitals to support evidence-informed decisions in Kenya." Glob Health Action. 2014;7:24859. Abstractassessing_the_ability_of_health_information_systems_in.pdf

Hospital management information systems (HMIS) is a key component of national health information systems (HIS), and actions required of hospital management to support information generation in Kenya are articulated in specific policy documents. We conducted an evaluation of core functions of data generation and reporting within hospitals in Kenya to facilitate interpretation of national reports and to provide guidance on key areas requiring improvement to support data use in decision making.

Kihu. SM, Gitao. CG, Bebora. LC, Njenga. MJ, G.G. Wairire, Maingi. N, Wahome. RG. "Appraisal of Pese des petitis ruminants disease by Turkana Pastoral community of Turkana County in Kenya." American Journal of Research Communication. 2014;2(10):186-214.kihu_vol210.pdf
and Kihu S.M J.M. Njenga WRG, J.M. Gachohi, Gitao CG, Bebora LC, Wairire GG, Wairire GG, Maingi N, Wahome RG. "Analysis of small ruminants’ pastoral management practices as risk factors of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) spread in Turkana District, Kenya." Res. Opin. Anim. Vet. Sci.. 2013;3(9):303-314.
Kihu S.M, Gitao C.G, Bebora L.C, and Njenga M.J, Wairire G.G MWNRG, Njenga M.J, Wairire G.G, Maingi N., R.G W. "Participatory risk assessment of Peste des petit ruminants; Factor analysis of small ruminants’ pastoral management practices in Turkana District, Kenya." Research Opinions in Animal and Veterinary Sciences . 2012;2(9):503-510 .2012._participatory_risk_assessment_for_peste_des_petit_ruminants...pdf
Kihu S.M, Gitao C.G, Bebora L.C, J NM, Wairire G.G, Maingi N, R.G W. "Appraisal of Peste des petits ruminants disease by Turkana pastoral community of Turkana County in Kenya. ." American Journal of Research Communication . 2014;2(10):186.abstract.pdf
Kihu SM, Gitao CG, Bebora LC, Munene JN, Wairire GG, Maingi N, Wahome RG, D.N. Karanja, Oyugi JO, Lutomia E. "Clinical, Pathological and Molecular Investigations of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus Infection in Goats from Turkana County in Kenya. ." British Journal of Virology. 2014;3(1):98-102.ppr_turkana.pdf
Kihu SK, Gitao CG, Bebora LC, Munene JN, Wairire GD, Maingi N, Wahome RG, Karanja DN, Oyugi JO, e. Lutomia. "Clinical.pathological and Molecular investigations of Peste des Petits Ruminants virus infection from Turkana County in Kenya." British Journal of Virology. 2014;1(3):98-102.bjv_1_3_98-102.pdf
Kihu SK, Gitao CG, Bebora LC. Peste des Petits ruminants disease in Turkana, Kenya. Omni scriptum GmbH and Co KG. ISBN 978-3-659-51078-3: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing ; 2015.peste_des_petits_ruminants_in_kenya-1.pdf
Kihu SM, Gitao GC, Bebora LC, Munene NJ, Wairire GG, Maingi N, Wahome RG. "Economic losses associated with Peste des petits ruminants in Turkana County Kenya." Pastoralism. 2015;5(1):9.
Kihu, S.M., Gitao, C.G., Bebora, L.C., Njenga, M.J., Wairire, G.G., Karimuribo, E., Wahome, R.G., Maingi N. "Risk factors and socio-economic effects associated with spread of Peste des petits ruminants in Turkana District, Kenya.". In: 2nd Biennial Ruforum meeting. Kampala, Uganda; 2010.
Kihu SM, Gitao GC, Bebora LC, J NM, Wairire GC, Maingi N, Wahome RG, Karanja DN, and others. "Clinical, Pathological and Molecular Investigations of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Infection in Goats from Turkana County in Kenya." British Journal of Virology. 2014;1:98-102.
Kihu SM, Gachohi JM, Ndungu EK, Gitao CG, Bebora LC, Njenga JM, Wairire GG, Maingi N, Wahome RG, Ireri R. "1. Sero-epidemiology of Peste Des Petits ruminants virus infection in Turkana County, Kenya ." BMC Veterinary Research. 2015;11(87):1-13.
Kihu SK, Gitao CG, Bebora LC, Njenga JM, Wairire GG, Maingi N, Wahome RG. "Economic losses associated with Peste des petits ruminants in Turkana County Kenya." Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice . 2015;5(9):DOI 10.1186/s13570-015-0029-6.kihu_et_al_2015_loses.pdf
Kihu SM, Gitao CG, Bebora L, Njenga MJ, Wairire GG, Maingi N, Wahome RG, Ndiwa NN. "Risk factors associated with spread of Peste des petits ruminants in Turkana district, Kenya.". In: Third RUFORUM Biennial Meeting. Kampala, Uganda; 2012.
Kihu, S.M., Gitao GC, Bebora LC, Njenga MJ, Wairire GG, Maingi N, Wahome RG, Oyugi JO, Lutomia E. "Detection of peste des petits ruminants virus in formalin-fixed tissues." Trop Anim Health Prod.. 2014.
Kihu SM, Gachohi JM, Ndungu EK, Gitao GC, Bebora LC, Munene NJ, Wairire GG, Maingi N, Wahome RG, Ireri R. "Sero-epidemiology of Peste des petits ruminants virus infection in Turkana County, Kenya." BMC Veterinary Research. 2015;11(87):1-13.
Kihu SM, Gitao GC, Bebora LC, Njenga MJ, Wairire GG, Maingi N, Wahome RG, Oyugi JO, Lutomia E. "Detection of peste des petits ruminants virus in formalin-fixed tissues." Trop Anim Health Prod. 2015;47(1):247-9. Abstract

Peste des petits ruminants virus that causes a highly infectious and often fatal disease of sheep and goats is confirmed by various diagnostic techniques among them being isolation of the virus from cell culture systems, viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) detection by molecular assays, and viral antigen detection by immunocapture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IC ELISA), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and AGAR gel test. Whereas most of the confirmatory diagnostic procedures require pathological samples to be stored frozen to preserve integrity of the peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus RNA, samples for IHC tests are preserved in 10% formalin. In this study, nine formalin-fixed pathological samples from three goats suspected of PPR were processed for extraction of PPR viral RNA and analyzed for detection with real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay. The results showed that five out of the nine tested samples returned positive for presences PPR viral genome. This study has established that field pathological samples of PPR-suspected cases, collected and stored in 10% formalin for up 2 years, could be used for PPR virus RNA extraction for disease virus confirmation.

KIHORO GEOFFREY. CPY 309: Deviant Behaviour. Nairobi: University of Nairobi.; 2013.
KIHORO GEOFFREY. CPY 204: Psychology of Ageing. Nairobi: University of Nairobi.; 2013.
KIHORO GEOFFREY. CPY 302: Vocationa l Guidance, Module. Nairobi: University of Nairobi.; 2013.
Kihiu J, Rading G, Mutuli S. Boiler, Piping and Pressure Vessel Cross-Bore Design Stresses. Saarbrucken: VDM Publishing; 2011.
Kihiko D, Mutiso VM, Kiboi JG. "Patterns of injuries in children who fall from a Height as seen at Kenyatta National Hospital.". 2010. Abstract

To describe injuries and outcomes among children who fall from a height Design: Prospective, convenience hospital based study. Setting: Paediatric surgical wards of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, from November 2006 to February 2007. Subjects: Children aged 1-13 years who sustained injuries after failing from any height. Results: Eighty children were recruited. There were 61 male (76%) and 19 female (24%), with an age range 1-13 years. Most injuries occurred at home (78.75%) after falling from buildings (33.75%), and were of mild-to-moderate severity. 13.4% sustained external haemorrhage, 16.5% sustained facial injuries, 25.2% sustained CNS injuries, 43.3% sustained various fractures, and 1.6% sustained abdominal trauma. The head and musculoskeletal systems were the most likely regions to be injured. The most common diagnoses were supracondylar fracture of humerus and mild head injury. No thoracic or pelvic fractures were recorded. Recovery was good in most instances. Conclusion: Most children who sustain injuries after a fall from height do so after falling from a building. The most common types of injuries sustained were to the head and distal limbs, especially fractures. They were mostly of mild-moderate severity and recovery usually complete.

Kihiko D. "Degloving penile trauma in a 12 year old boy: Case report." The Annals of African Surgery. 2012;9(1):58-60.
Kihiko MK, Kinoti MW. "The business case for climate change: The impact of climate change on Kenya’s public listed companies.". In: Climate Change and the 2030 Corporate Agenda for Sustainable Development Advances in Sustainability and Environmental Justice. Emerald Group Publishing Limited; 2016.
Kihiko D. Injuries sustained by children who fall from a height as seen at an urban Kenyan hospital.; 2007. Abstract

Topic: To determine the pattern of injuries in children who fall from a height.
Introduction: Most injuries sustained by children who fall from a height are of the blunt
type. Despite there being literature that characterises injuries in general, few studies have
focused on fall-related injuries. Most of these studies are conducted in the primarily
urban western countries. No such study has been conducted in Kenya, and the existing
hospital records may not adequately reflect the full spectrum of these injuries. The aim of
this study was to provide data on the type of injuries that children sustain when they fall
from a height.
Methodology: This was a prospective descriptive study of children aged 0-13 years who
sustained injuries after falling from any height. It was conducted at a large urban hospital
serving a large population (bed capacity of about 1,200). A statistically acceptable sample
size of 80 was picked and all the injuries diagnosed were characterised. The outcome of
the injuries was also investigated. The study took duration of 6 months, 14th Nov 2006-
30th May 2007, during which the sample size was fulfilled.
Results: A total of 80 children were recruited into the study. Boys were 61 (76%) and girls
19(24%), with an age range 0-13 years. Most injuries occurred at home (78.75%) after
falling from buildings (33.75%), and were of mild-to-moderate severity. 13.4% sustained
haemorrhage, 16.5% sustained facial injuries, 25.2% sustained CNS injuries, 43.3%
sustained various fractures, and 1.6% sustained abdominal trauma. The head and
musculoskeletal systems were the most likely regions to be injured. No thoracic or pelvic
fractures were recorded. Recovery was good in most instances.
Conclusion: Most children who sustain injuries after a fall do so from falling from a
building. They are most likely to sustain distal fractures and head injury than other types
of injuries, mostly of mild-moderate severity.

Kihiko D, Mutiso VM, Kiboi JG. "Pattern of injuries in children who fall from height as seen at Kenyatta National Hospital." East African Medical Journal. 2010;87(8):330-334.
Kihiko D, Mutiso V, Kiboi J. "Fractures sustained by children who fall from a height as seen at Kenyatta National Hospital." East African Orthopaedic Journal. 2009;3(1):57-60.
Kihiko D. "Venomous snake bite injuries at Kitui District Hospital." The Annals of African Surgery. 2013;10(1):15-20.
Kihara" "A-B, Gladwell" "K, Eunice" "CJ, Medhat" "A, Issak" "B, Emily" "R, Rose" "KJ. Breast cancer in pregnancy; routine examination, diagnosis and management: A case report.; 2013.crcm_acceptance_of_breast_manuscript.doc
Kihara EN  , P G, Liversidge HM, F B, Gikenye. "Dental age estimation in a group of Kenyan children using Willems' method: a radiographic study." Ann Hum Biol. 2017;44:614-621(7):614-621.
Kihara EN, Mutara L, Maina SW, Kisumbi B. "Pit and fissure sealants: knowledge, attitude and use by dentists in Nairobi.". 2009. Abstract

To study the Knowledge, Attitude, and Use of Pit and Fissure Sealants by Dentists in Nairobi. Materials and methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study which was done between May and June 1999. Questionnaires were distributed to 115 dentists who were sampled through convenience sampling. Setting: Nairobi Subjects: Dentists in public and private practice. Results: Sixty nine dentists (60%) responded. (50.7%) of the dentists had average knowledge on PFS. Majority of the respondents (92.7%) agreed that Pit and fissure sealants should be part of preventive measures for dental caries. (65%) claimed to use Pit and fissure sealants with only a third using them regularly. The Pediatric dentists used sealants frequently. Conclusion: Application of PFS was not practiced much in Nairobi and sealant usage was associated with dentist's knowledge about them. There is need to disseminate knowledge on PFS to the dentists and sensitize the public about prevention of dental decay using sealants.

Kihara P, Schröder H. "A relevance-theoretical analysis of aspects of Mchongoano." Journal of Language and Linguistics . 2012;Vol 2, Department of Linguistics and Languages, University of Nairobi:63-78.
Kihara A, Karanja P, Kennedy O. "INFLUENCE OF STRATEGIC CONTINGENT ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS ON PERFORMANCE OF LARGE MANUFACTURING FIRMS IN KENYA." International Journal of Strategic Management and Current Business Studies.. 2016;5(1):35-49 .allan_kihara_karanja_and_ogollah_2016.pdf
Kihara EN, Mutara L, Maina SW, Kisumbi B. "Pit and fissure sealants: knowledge, attitude and use by dentists in Nairobi.". 2009. Abstract

To study the Knowledge, Attitude, and Use of Pit and Fissure Sealants by Dentists in Nairobi. Materials and methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study which was done between May and June 1999. Questionnaires were distributed to 115 dentists who were sampled through convenience sampling. Setting: Nairobi Subjects: Dentists in public and private practice. Results: Sixty nine dentists (60%) responded. (50.7%) of the dentists had average knowledge on PFS. Majority of the respondents (92.7%) agreed that Pit and fissure sealants should be part of preventive measures for dental caries. (65%) claimed to use Pit and fissure sealants with only a third using them regularly. The Pediatric dentists used sealants frequently. Conclusion: Application of PFS was not practiced much in Nairobi and sealant usage was associated with dentist's knowledge about them. There is need to disseminate knowledge on PFS to the dentists and sensitize the public about prevention of dental decay using sealants.

Kihara EN, Opondo F, Ocholla TJ, Chindia ML, Wagaiyu E. "5-year audit of the range and volume of diagnostic radiographic services at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Background: Dental and cranio-maxillofacial diagnostic imaging constitutes an invaluable tool in the accurate diagnosis and management of a diverse range of conditions and diseases that afflict the oral and cranio-maxillofacial region. In order to improve on any existing facility, periodic audit evaluation is paramount. In this way proper and relevant service delivery can be achieved. Objective: To evaluate the range and volume of dental and cranio-maxillofacial diagnostic radiographic services offered at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital (UNDH) in Kenya over a 5-year period (2006-2010). Methods: Retrospective survey involving manual examination of patient records at the Division of Dental and cranio-maxillo- facial Radiology registry of the UNDH. Results: Over the study period, the range of diagnostic radiographic services offered comprised of both intra- and extra- oral examinations. The total volume of radiographs taken was 48,874 among which 41,980 (86%) were intraoral and 6894 (14%) extraoral views. Among the intraoral views, 74% were bitewing, 25% periapical and only 1% were occlusal diagnostic views. The majority (95%) of the extraoral projections consisted of panoramic views and only 5% constituted other techniques. The volume of radiographs was high from January to September while November and December had the lowest number of examination requests. Conclusion: Intraoral radiography was the commonest examination with bitewings having been the majority while the panoramic tomography was the com- monest extraoral examination performed.

Kihara, A, Harries, AD, Bissell K, Kizito W, Van Den Berg, R, Mueke, S, Mwangi, J.W., Sitene, JC, Gathara, D, Kosgei, RJ, Kiarie, J.W, Gichangi. "Antenatal care and pregnancy outcomes in a safe motherhood health voucher system in rural Kenya: 2007-2013." 2007-2013. PHA 2015; . 2015;5(1):23-29.
Kihara J, Mukalama J, Ayuke FO, Njoroge S, Waswa B, Okeyo J, Koala S, Bationo A. "Crop and Soil response to tillage and crop residue application in a tropical Ferralsol in Sub-humid Western Kenya.". In: In: Bationo, A., Waswa, B., Kihara, J., Adolwa, I., Vanlauwe, B., Saidou, K. (Eds), Lessons learned from long-term soil fertility management experiments in Africa, 3:41-57. Springer; 2012. Abstract

Conservation agriculture (CA) offers an opportunity to reverse prevailing land degradation and consequent loss of productivity often occasioned by intensive soil tillage in cropping systems in most parts of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). A long term experiment was established in Nyabeda Western Kenya in 2003 to evaluate the effect of tillage and crop residue application on maize and soybean yields, and on soil properties. The experiment was set up as a split-split-split plot design with four replicates and involved a factorial combination of tillage system (reduced and conventional tillage), cropping system (continuous cereal, soybean-maize rotation and intercropping), crop residue – maize stover – management (plus and minus crop residue) and nitrogen (N) application. Results showed that tillage infl uenced performance
of maize although signifi cant tillage effects were observed in only 5 out of the 15 seasons analyzed. Overall average maize grain yields were 2.9 ton ha −1 in reduced tillage and 3.6 ton ha −1 in conventional tillage systems. Application of crop residue increased seasonal maize grain yield in reduced tillage (340 kg ha −1 ) and in conventional tillage (240 kg ha −1 ), but the only signifi cant crop residue (CR) effect was observed in season 10. Differences in maize yields between the two systems were attributed to phosphorus availability as it was demonstrated that application of crop residue in the reduced tillage resulted in better availability of P than without crop residue application. Under the rotation system, signifi cant tillage effects were observed in 6 of the 15 seasons with greater maize yield in conventional than in reduced tillage system. Soybean yields under reduced tillage were comparable to those from conventional tillage with the good performance of soybean in reduced tillage being related to the effect of its canopy on soil evaporation, and or to changes in microbial diversity and soil structure. For both the conventional and reduced tillage systems, legume
benefi ts on succeeding maize were observed with similar maize yields being observed between maize monocropping and maize rotated with soybean. Reduced tillage improved soil aggregation with greater aggregate mean weight diameters being observed in this system than in conventional tillage. Tests for biological activity showed that the application of crop residue increased termite abundance in both
reduced and conventional tillage systems. The results from this study indicate the importance of long term trials in better understanding the benefi cial effects of conservation agriculture on soil productivity.

Keywords Reduced tillage • Rotation • Soybean • Soil aggregation • Soil organisms

Kihara AB, Kiarie G, Cheserem EJ, Amin M, Issak B, Rogena E, Kosgei RJ. "Breast cancer in pregnancy; routine examination, diagnosis and management- A case report ." Case reports in clinical medicine. 2013;2:119-122.breast_cancer_in_pregnancy_routine_examination_diagnosis_and_managemen_a_case_report.pdf
Kihara EN, Mutara L, Maina SW, Kisumbi B. "Pit and fissure sealants: knowledge, attitude and use by dentists in Nairobi.". 2009. Abstract

To study the Knowledge, Attitude, and Use of Pit and Fissure Sealants by Dentists in Nairobi. Materials and methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study which was done between May and June 1999. Questionnaires were distributed to 115 dentists who were sampled through convenience sampling. Setting: Nairobi Subjects: Dentists in public and private practice. Results: Sixty nine dentists (60%) responded. (50.7%) of the dentists had average knowledge on PFS. Majority of the respondents (92.7%) agreed that Pit and fissure sealants should be part of preventive measures for dental caries. (65%) claimed to use Pit and fissure sealants with only a third using them regularly. The Pediatric dentists used sealants frequently. Conclusion: Application of PFS was not practiced much in Nairobi and sealant usage was associated with dentist's knowledge about them. There is need to disseminate knowledge on PFS to the dentists and sensitize the public about prevention of dental decay using sealants.

Kihara E, Owino R, Otwoma J, Dimba E, Chindia M, others. "Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour manifesting in the maxillary antrum: Case report." Open Journal of Stomatology. 2013;3:504-506. Abstract
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