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Kuria JKN, Ngethe EW, Kabuage LW, Gathura PB. "Isolation of Campylobacter spp and Escherichia coli 0157: H7 from free-range indigenous chicken value chain in Kenya." East African Medical Journal . 2018;95(1):1116-1124.
Kuria MW. "Somatoform Disorders Chapter 3.". In: Aid to Undergraduate Psychiatry. Nairobi: Kenyatta University Press; 2014.
Kuria JKN, Ngatia TA. "Caseous Lymphadenitis of sheep and goats in Kenya." Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 1990;38:15-18.
Kuria ZN, Woldai, T., Opiyo Akech N. ". Imaging saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers with electrical resistivity tomography at Lamu Island, South Coast Kenya. ." African Journal of Science and Technology. 2010;11(2):57-72.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "The nutritive value of the wild tree foods in Turkana district Northern arid Kenya, and their role in food security and human welfare development. Submitted to Ecology of Food and malnutrition Journal, USA.". In: CTA Annual seminar on the . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Effect of fermentation, malted flour treatment and drum drying on nutritional quality of Uji. Ecology of Food and Nutrition. Vol. 28: 271 .". In: Workshop initiated by UNACC Subcommittee on Nutrition ACC/SCN), UNHCR and WFP with support by GTZ, 5 . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1992. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "A survey in Zambian cities. In Handbook of Indigenous fermented Foods, Ed. K.h. Steinkraus, Mercel Dekker Inc. pp. 198, 1983.". In: AFS/UNU workshop on Development of Indigenous Fermented foods and food technology in Africa, 14 18 Octobe3r 1985. Douala Cameroon. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1983. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
Kuria A, Ombui J, Onyuka A. "Tannin analysis of selected plants from Laikipia County, Kenya." Journal of the Society of Leather Technologist and Chemists. 2016;100:73-76.
Kuria MW. Aid to Undergraduate Psychiatry. Nairobi: Kenyatta University Press; 2014.
Kuria JKN, Wahome RG, Kang'ethe EK, Nyaga PN. "Clinical, serological and pathological response in goats infected with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis through cutaneous and subcutaneous routes." Bulletin of Animal Health and Prodroduction in Africa. 1997;45:73-78.
Kuria MW. "Psychiatry of the Elderly Chapter 16.". In: Aid to Undergraduate Psychiatry. Nairobi: Kenyatta University Press; 2014.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Isolation, identification and characterization of the dominary micro organisms of Kule naoto: the Maasai traditional fermented milk in Kenya. International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol 93: (3), pp 269 27, 2004.". In: CTA Annual seminar on the . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "The role of lactic fermentation in porridges used for nutritional rehabilitation.". In: Workshop initiated by UNACC Subcommittee on Nutrition ACC/SCN), UNHCR and WFP with support by GTZ, 5 . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1994. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Microbial growth during the spontaneous Uji fermentation and its influence on the end product. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal, Vol. 50no. 4 101 -110, 1984.". In: AFS/UNU workshop on Development of Indigenous Fermented foods and food technology in Africa, 14 18 Octobe3r 1985. Douala Cameroon. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1984. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
Kuria Z. "Groundwater Distribution and Aquifer Characteristics in Kenya.". In: Developments in Earth Surface process .; 2013.
Kuria MW. "Factitious Disorders Chapter 13.". In: Aid to Undergraduate Psychiatry. Nairobi: Kenyatta University Press; 2014.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Development of therapeutic feeding porridge rations for the clinically malnourished: Part A; Substitution of extrusion cooking with lactic fermentation. Submitted to Ecology of Food and nutrition Journal, USA.". In: CTA Annual seminar on the . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2005. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KURIA MRKAMAUPAUL. "Public Procurement Reforms: Lessons from Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, (With W. Odhiambo) OECD Technical Paper Number 208, March 2003.". In: Published by the Polytechnic of Berlin, Berlin. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2003.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "The microbiology of Uji fermentation.". In: WAITRO Traditional African Fermented Foods Workshop. Kenya Industrial Research and Development Institute, 14 . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1995. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
Kuria MW, Omondi LA, Olando Y, Makenyengo M, Bukusi D. "Is Sexual Abuse a Part of War? A 4-Year Retrospective Study on Cases of Sexual Abuse at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." Journal of Public Health in Africa. 2013;4(e5):24-26.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "a new approach to .". In: AFS/UNU workshop on Development of Indigenous Fermented foods and food technology in Africa, 14 18 Octobe3r 1985. Douala Cameroon. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1985. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KURIA JOSEPHN, GATHOGO STEPHENM. "Concomitant dimorphic yeast fungi and Mycobacteria infections in beef cattle in Kenya." Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research . 2013;80(1):Art. #585 .
Kuria MW. "Personality Disorders Chapter 10.". In: Aid to Undergraduate Psychiatry. Nairobi: Kenyatta University Press; 2014.
Kuria SG, Gachuiri CK, Wahome RG, Wanyoike MM. "Mineral profile in the plasma of free ranging camels (Came/us dromedarius) in Kenya.". 2006. Abstract

The levels of important macro and trace minerals were assessed in the plasma of lactating camels kept by pastoralists in Kenya. The average plasma Ca and Na concentrations were below while mean concentration for K, P, Fe, Zn and Co were within the reported range. Mg concentration was above the reported range. Plasma concentration of Ca, K, Na and Zn decreased from dry to wet season, and of Mg, P and Co increased. Plasma Fe and Co were same in both seasons. Other factors that may affect the plasma concentration of these minerals were also assessed.

KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Information management strategies for small and medium agrofood Enterprises wit n special reference to maize, cassava and milk processors in Kenya.". In: CTA Annual seminar on the . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2006. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "The role of fermentation n weaning foods in Africa.". In: 30th European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition (ESPGAN). 22nd May 1997. Thessaloniki, Greece. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1997. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "The nutritional and fermentation aspects of .". In: Proceedings; Improving young child feeding in Eastern and Southern Africa. Household . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1986. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
Kuria MW. "Psychotic Disorders Chapter 7.". In: Aid to Undergraduate Psychiatry. Nairobi: Kenyatta University Press; 2014.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Carine Dortua,b, Amenan A. Yaoa, Cristina Pintoc, Vinodh A. Edwardc, Melanie Kostinekd, Charles M.A.P. Franzd, Willhelm Holzapfeld, Moutairou Egounletye, Samuel Mbuguaf, Moses Mengug, Philippe Thonarta, b 2008; Use of Lactobacillus strains to start cassav.". In: International J of Food Microbiology vol 128: (2) 258 . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2008. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Effect of drying Lactic Fermented Uji (an East African Sour Porridge) on some carboxylic acids. J.Sci.Food Agric. 80: 1854-1858, 2000.". In: 6th International Seminar on Traditional African Fermented Foods, Sponsored by European Union, Danish International Development Assistance (DANIDA) and CSIR . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2000. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Scope and constraints for utilization of sorghum and millets as fermented and germinated products.". In: National workshop on sorghum and millets Systems K.I.A. April 10 . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1989. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "bugua, S.K. 1977 . The survey of recipes of .". In: AFS/UNU workshop on Development of Indigenous Fermented foods and food technology in Africa, 14 18 Octobe3r 1985. Douala Cameroon. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1977. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
Kuria DJ. "Anti-thyroid antibodies in Kenya." East Africa Med. Journal. 2008;85 (9):459-462.
Kuria MW. "Mood Disorders Chapter 4.". In: Aid to Undergraduate Psychiatry. Nairobi: Kenyatta University Press; 2014.
Kuria MW. "Treatments in Psychiatry Chapter 18.". In: Aid to Undergraduate Psychiatry. Nairobi: Kenyatta University Press; 2014.
Kuria JM, Mbaria JM, Gathumbi PK, Kiama SG. "Influence of Aspilia pluriseta Schweinf (Asteraceae) on the healing of dermal excision wounds (mouse model) and skin sensitization activity (Guinea pig model)." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2015;4(3): 112-117,.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "The pasting behaviours of lactic-fermented and dried Uji (an East African sour porridge). J.Sci. Food Agric. 83: 1412 .". In: CTA Annual seminar on the . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2003. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "UNIMIX quality evaluation and development. A consultancy report for UNICEF Somalia Country Office June 1992. Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Workshop initiated by UNACC Subcommittee on Nutrition ACC/SCN), UNHCR and WFP with support by GTZ, 5 . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1992. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Zambian Munyoko survey. In Handbook of Indigenous fermented Foods, Ed. K.H Steinkraus, Mercel Dekker inc. pp 371, 1983.". In: AFS/UNU workshop on Development of Indigenous Fermented foods and food technology in Africa, 14 18 Octobe3r 1985. Douala Cameroon. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1983. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
Kuria A, Ombui J, Onyuka A, Sasia A, Kipyegon C, Kaimenyi P, A N. "Quality evaluation of leathers produced by selected vegetable tanning materials from Laikipia County, Kenya." IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science. 2016;9:13-17 .
Kuria MW. "Psychiatry Assessment Chapter 1.". In: Aid to Undergraduate Psychiatry. Nairobi: Kenyatta University Press; 2014.
Kuria JKN, Wahome RG, Kang'ethe EK. "Caseous lymphadenitis in goats: the dose of infection and the serological response." Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 1998;68:601-604.
Kuria MW. "Neuropsychiatric Aspects of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Chapter 17.". In: Aid to Undergraduate Psychiatry. Nairobi: Kenyatta University Press; 2014.
Kuria, Z.N., Woldai, T., Barongo, J.O., van der F.D. M. "Active fault segments as potential earthquake sources: inferences from integrated geophysical mapping of the Magadi fault system, southern Kenya Rift." Journal of African Earth Sciences . 2010;57:345-359.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Mapesa O J, S K Mbugua and S M Mahungu 2010; Sensory evaluation of dried beef strips treated with Acetic Acid, Brine and Monosodium Glutamate.Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 34: pp 272 .". In: Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 34: pp 272 . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2010. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "The contamination of Kenyan lager beers with fusariyum mycotoxins. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, U.K. vol 110. No 3 227 .". In: CTA Annual seminar on the . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "A method for the manufacture of a fermented cereal product. Aripo Patent No. Ap 122, 30.4 1992; U.K. patent: G.B. 2. 225 922 B. 20. 6. 1992.". In: Workshop initiated by UNACC Subcommittee on Nutrition ACC/SCN), UNHCR and WFP with support by GTZ, 5 . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1992. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Isolation and characterization of lactic acid bacterial during the traditional fermentation .". In: AFS/UNU workshop on Development of Indigenous Fermented foods and food technology in Africa, 14 18 Octobe3r 1985. Douala Cameroon. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1984. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
Kuria JKN, Wahome RG, Jobalamin M, Kariuki SM. "Profile of Bacteria and Fungi on Money Coins." East African Medical Journal . 2009;86:151-155.
Kuria MW. "Adjustment Disorders Chapter 14.". In: Aid to Undergraduate Psychiatry. Nairobi: Kenyatta University Press; 2014.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Development of /therapeutic Feeding Porridge ration: Part B; Application of lactic fermentation and amylolytic enzymes, Submitted to Ecology of Food and nutrition journal, USA.". In: CTA Annual seminar on the . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2005. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Structure, potential and constraints of cereal/pulses processing with special reference to Africa.". In: In workshop Proceedings on small scale food processing contributing to food security. 4 . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1995. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Application lactic cultures on the fermentation of .". In: AFS/UNU workshop on Development of Indigenous Fermented foods and food technology in Africa, 14 18 Octobe3r 1985. Douala Cameroon. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1984. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KURIA JOSEPHKN, AKWALU SAMUELKAMWILU, MUEMA LUCYMBEKE. "The etiology and public health significance of mycobacteriosis of cattle in Kenya." International Journal of Mycobacteriology. 2018;7:251-6.
Kuria MW. "Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders Chapter 11.". In: Aid to Undergraduate Psychiatry. Nairobi: Kenyatta University Press; 2014.
Kuria SG, Wanyoike MM, Gachuiri CK, Wahome RG. "Nutritive value of important range forage species camels in Marsabit District, Kenya.". 2005. Abstract

A study carried out in the semi-arid rangelands of Marsabit during dry and wet seasons assessed the content and seasonal variation of crude protein (CP) and fibre of important forage species for camels. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, herders were interviewed and the important forage species consumed by camels identified. The respondents were mainly men and boys responsible for camel herding in the area. The identified forage species were verified through direct field observation of grazing camels. A total of 109 forages were sampled and analysed for CP, Ash and fibre. Camels preferred dwarf shrubs during the wet season, herbaceous and grass species in the dry season. The mean CP and Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF) contents of preferred forages were 13.9iS.0% and S3.6iI3.7% of dry matter (DM) respectively. Fibre content of the forages declined while CP increased from dry to wet season. Shrubs were lower in NDF (Sl.OiI2.6%) and ash (1S.Si7.2%) and higher in DM (SO.OiI8.2%) and CP (14.7i4.9%) compared to grasses (NDF 60.4iI4.3%, ash = 18.SiS.2%, DM = 49.7iI7.8%, CP = 12.0iS.0%). It was concluded that the combination of forage species selected by the camels across sites and seasons was adequate in terms of CP.

KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Problems constraining factors and coping by small scale processors of maize and cassava in Kenya, and implications for policy. Submitted to Food polity journal, 2005.". In: CTA Annual seminar on the . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2005. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Aflatoxin contamination in fermented and germinated products in Kenya. Proceedings 3rd Biennial Seminar on African fermented foods. In Traditional fermented food processing in Africa. Ed. M.Halm and M. Jakobsen, pp 103 .". In: 30th European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition (ESPGAN). 22nd May 1997. Thessaloniki, Greece. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1996. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "The potential of utilization of coffee pulp for animal feed. .". In: Symposium, Animal production Society of Kenya, Naivasha Dairy Training School. 2nd May 1985, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1985. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
Kuria MW. "Psychiatric Emergencies Chapter 8.". In: Aid to Undergraduate Psychiatry. Nairobi: Kenyatta University Press; 2014.
Kunyanga Catherine. N., Amimo JKLC'wa GN. "Consumer Risk Exposure to Chemical and Microbial Hazards through Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables in Kenya. ." Journal of Food Science and Quality Management. 2018;78:59-69.
KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Isolation and Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Kirario, an Indigenous Kenyan fermented Porridge Based on Green Maize and Millet.". In: Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology.; 2009. Abstract
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Kunyanga CN, Imungi JK, Okoth MW, Biesalski HK. "Total phenolic content, antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of methanolic extract of raw and traditionally processed Kenyan indigenous food ingredients.". 2012. Abstract

Certain indigenous foods commonly consumed by Kenyan vulnerable groups (the malnourished; children under 5 years of age; pregnant and lactating women; malnourished adults in cases of vitamin or mineral deficiencies, TB, diabetes, cancer, AIDS; refugees; orphans the elderly and the disabled) are not yet evaluated for phenolic content and health relevant functionality. The present study was therefore designed to analyze the phenolic content, antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of methanolic extract of raw and traditionally processed food ingredients. The total phenolic contents of the cereals, legumes, oil seeds and vegetables were ranged from 0.41 to 3.00 g/100 g DM. Amaranth grain (Amaranthus cruentus) and drumstick leaves (Moringa oleifera) exhibited significantly higher phenolic content than the other samples. The methanolic extract of the investigated samples showed promising levels of DPPH radical scavenging activity (81–89%); ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP, 44–744 mmolL−1 Fe[II]/g extract DM); α-amylase (10–45%) and α-glucosidase (13–80%) inhibition activities. The food ingredients with high phenolic content exhibited relatively higher antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. The results indicate that soaking + cooking is the mild processing method to preserve the phenolic compounds and their health relevant functionality in the presently investigated cereal, legume and oil grains, while cooking is suitable treatment for vegetables.

Kunyanga C. "“This is how Agriculture can drive Vision 2030”." The Standard (2018).
KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Evaluation of the role of flavanoids present in indigenous foods regarding health and nutrition of vulnerable groups in Kenya.". In: II World Congress of Public Health Nutrition and I Latin-American Congress of Community Nutrition.; 2011. Abstract
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KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Antioxidant Potential and type II Diabetes Related Enzyme Inhibition of Cassia obtusifolia L.: Effect of Indigenous Processing Methods.". In: Food Bioprocess Technology. Vadivel, V., Kunyanga C.N., and Biesalski, H.K.; 2011. Abstract
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KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Review on Health Benefits of Nut Consumption with Special Reference to Body Weight Control.". In: Nutrition Journal.; 2012. Abstract
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Kunyanga CN, Imungi JK, Biesalski HK. " http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0023643811002659 http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke:8080/xmlui/handle/123456789/17023 .". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Certain indigenous foods commonly consumed by Kenyan vulnerable groups (the malnourished; children under 5 years of age; pregnant and lactating women; malnourished adults in cases of vitamin or mineral deficiencies, TB, diabetes, cancer, AIDS; refugees; orphans the elderly and the disabled) are not yet evaluated for phenolic content and health relevant functionality. The present study was therefore designed to analyze the phenolic content, antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of methanolic extract of raw and traditionally processed food ingredients. The total phenolic contents of the cereals, legumes, oil seeds and vegetables were ranged from 0.41 to 3.00 g/100 g DM. Amaranth grain (Amaranthus cruentus) and drumstick leaves (Moringa oleifera) exhibited significantly higher phenolic content than the other samples. The methanolic extract of the investigated samples showed promising levels of DPPH radical scavenging activity (81–89%); ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP, 44–744 mmolL−1 Fe[II]/g extract DM); α-amylase (10–45%) and α-glucosidase (13–80%) inhibition activities. The food ingredients with high phenolic content exhibited relatively higher antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. The results indicate that soaking + cooking is the mild processing method to preserve the phenolic compounds and their health relevant functionality in the presently investigated cereal, legume and oil grains, while cooking is suitable treatment for vegetables.

KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Microbiological and Acidity Changes Occurring during The Traditional Production of Kirario: An Indigenous Kenyan Fermented Porridge Produced from Green Maize and Millet.". In: African Journal of Food, Agriculture and Development.; 2009. Abstract
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KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Quality Characteristics and Acceptability of Bread Produced with Supplementation of Dolichos lab lab Beans.". In: Food Science and Technology.; 2010. Abstract
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KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Antioxidant and Antidiabetic properties of condensed tannins in acetonic extract of raw and processed food ingredients from Kenya.". In: Journal of Food Science.; 2011. Abstract
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Kunyanga CN;, Imungi JK. "Quality Characteristics and Acceptability of Bread Produced with Supplementation of Dolichos lab lab Beans."; 2011. Abstract

The viability of production of good quality and acceptable bread with substitution of wheat flour with Dolichos lab lab (Lab lab purpureus) was investigated. The bread was analyzed for protein, moisture, general bread quality and sensory properties. The protein content of bread was elevated by up to about 20% and the moisture content reduced by about 10% without significant changes in bread taste, odor, volume and general bread quality. Substitution levels of up to 10% produced bread with quality characteristics not significantly different from the control. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between the control bread and the Dolichos supplemented breads up to 15% in the sensory attributes of aroma, crumb appearance, texture, crust colour, loaf shape, taste and general acceptability (p < 0.05). The crumb colour changed from creamish white to dull brown and a gradual hardening of crumb texture was observed as the addition of Dolichos lab lab bean flour increased. Above 15% substitution levels, the acceptability declined because of the compact texture of the crumb and the strong beany flavor of the product. Results indicate that acceptable breads can be produced by substitution of up to 15% wheat flour with dolichos bean flour

KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Diversity and Characteristics of Supplementary Foods Sold and Consumed by Vulnerable Groups in Kenya.". In: Journal of Applied Biosciences. Kunyanga CN; 2011. Abstract
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KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Development, Acceptability and Nutritional Characteristics of Low-cost, Shelf-stable Supplementary Food Product for Vulnerable Groups in Kenya.". In: Food and Nutrition Bulletin. Kunyanga CN; 2012. Abstract
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KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Physico-chemical methods for preservation of opuntia cactus fruit syrup: Empowerment of Maasai women in Laikipia, Kenya.". In: African Crop Science Society Conference, Cape Town, South Africa 2009: Science and Technology Supporting Food Security in Africa 28 September to 1 October 2009.; 2009. Abstract
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KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Antioxidant activity of phenolics in indigenous foods.". In: International Conference on .; 2010. Abstract
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KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Flavonoid content of Ethanolic Extract of Indigenous Foods Consumed by Vulnerable Groups in Kenya: Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Activities.". In: International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition.; 2011. Abstract
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Kunyanga CN;, Imungi JK. "Quality Characteristics and Acceptability of Bread Produced with Supplementation of Dolichos lab lab Beans."; 2010. Abstract

The viability of production of good quality and acceptable bread with substitution of wheat flour with Dolichos lab lab (Lab lab purpureus) was investigated. The bread was analyzed for protein, moisture, general bread quality and sensory properties. The protein content of bread was elevated by up to about 20% and the moisture content reduced by about 10% without significant changes in bread taste, odor, volume and general bread quality. Substitution levels of up to 10% produced bread with quality characteristics not significantly different from the control. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between the control bread and the Dolichos supplemented breads up to 15% in the sensory attributes of aroma, crumb appearance, texture, crust colour, loaf shape, taste and general acceptability (p < 0.05). The crumb colour changed from creamish white to dull brown and a gradual hardening of crumb texture was observed as the addition of Dolichos lab lab bean flour increased. Above 15% substitution levels, the acceptability declined because of the compact texture of the crumb and the strong beany flavor of the product. Results indicate that acceptable breads can be produced by substitution of up to 15% wheat flour with dolichos bean flour

KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Antioxidant and Type II Diabetes Related Functional Properties of Phytic Acid Extract from Kenyan Indigenous Food Ingredients: Effects of Traditional Processing Methods.". In: Ecology of Food Nutrition.; 2011. Abstract

Emerging scientific evidences reveal that phytic acid has several positive ef fects on human health. The antioxidant and type 2 diabetes related enzyme inhibition pr operties of phytic acid extract prepar ed from raw and traditionally processed local grains and vegetables collected from Kenya were evaluated. Phytic acid content of raw grains and vegetables ranged between 2.81–3.01 and 0.29–3.23 g/100 g DM, respectively. The phytic acid extract from raw s amples revealed 59%–89% of DPPH radical scavenging capacity, 27–3,526 mmol Fe(II)/g e xtract of reducing power, 20%–72% ofα-amylase inhibition activity and 8%–91% of α-glucosidase inhibition activity. Cooking and roasting impr oved the antioxidant and health relevant functionality of phytic acid extracts obtained from Kenyan local vegetables and grains, respectively

KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Total phenolic content, antioxidant ant antidiabetic properties of methanolic extract of raw and traditionally processed Kenyan indigenous food ingredients.". In: LWT - Food Science and Technology. Kunyanga CN; 2012. Abstract
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Kundu PM, Chemelil MC, Onyando JO, Gichaba M. "The Use of GIS And Remote Sensing to Evaluate the Impact of Land Cover and Land Use Change on Discharges in River Njoro Watershed, Kenya." Journal of World Association of Soil and Water Conservation. 2007;J2-08. Abstract

River Njoro watershed represents diverse hydrological environments in Kenya with considerable land use changes. It was once covered by rich vegetation of highland evergreen forests which extended from the Mau hills and turned into woodland dominated by acacia trees in the Rongai-Njoro plains. it was first opened up for settlement in i889 when the Uganda Railway passed through it. Large ranches and farms were started and the area grew to become a major agricultural region. An increase in population between the 1970s and 1990s led to deforestation, land fiagmentation and cultivation of wetlands to meet the demands for food, fuel Wood and housing. To evaluate the impact of land use and land cover changes, remotely sensed data, Geographical Information System (GIS) and ground survey methods Were used. A 322% land use change from forest and Woodland to agriculture and built-up was determined from the analysis of the imagery and ground survey. This impacted negatively on the hydrology of the area, resulting in reduced infiltration, high peak runolf, reduced discharges and “drying up” of many boreholes. The study provided results which could be extrapolated to similar Watersheds, hence the approach could be adopted for Watershed management in Kenya.

Kumar S, Mehta D, Singh S, Garg ML, Mangal PC, Trehan PN. "Biokinetics of lead in various mouse organs/tissues using radiotracer technique." Indian J. Exp. Biol.. 1988;26(11):860-5.
Kumar R, Tao M. "Multiple forms of casein kinase from rabbit erythrocytes." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;410(1):87-98. Abstract

Two rabbit erythrocyte casein kinases, GTP:casein kinase I and GTP:casein kinase II, have been purified 29 000- and 47 000-fold, respectively. Studies employing sucrose density gradient centrifugation indicate that kinase I has a molecular weight of about 9.5 - 10(5) (25 S) and kinase II about 1.4 - 10(6) (32 S). These enzymes can utilize either ATP or GTP as the phosphoryl donor. Among various protein substrates examined, these kinases catalyze the phosphorylation of casein greater than 50% dephosphorylated phosvitin congruent to 50% dephosphorylated casein greater than phosvitin. Histones, protamine and bovine serum albumin are poor phosphoryl acceptors. Kinetic data indicate that both enzymes are inhibited by high casein substrate concentrations which may be partially relieved by NaCl. Both phosphotransferases require Mg(2+) for activity and are optimally active at pH 9.0. The enzymes have apparent Km values of 2.5 - 10(-5) M for GTP, 2 - 10(-5) M for ATP, and 0.4--0.6 mg/ml for casein. The incorporation of the terminal phosphate of GTP into casein as catalyzed by these enzymes is inhibited to varying degrees by ATP, ITP, ADP, and GDP but not by UTP, CTP, GMP, adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate, and guanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate. In addition, NaF and 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid are also found to inhibit the activity of both kinases. The effect of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate is interesting and suggests that this metabolite may regulate the activity of the casein kinases in the red blood cells.

Kumar R, Musoke R, Macharia WM, Revathi G. "Validation of c-reactive protein in the early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis in a tertiary care hospital in Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

To evaluate utility of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis in a tertiary care Newborn Unit in Kenya. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: All neonates admitted to Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital during the study period with suspected sepsis based on specified clinical criteria. RESULTS: Of the 310 infants, there were 83 episodes of proven sepsis and 94 episodes of probable sepsis. Using the standard CRP cut-off value of 5 mg/dl, a sensitivity of 95.2% in proven sepsis and 98.9% for probable septic episodes were noted. In proven sepsis, a specificity of 85.3%, positive predictive value of 80.6%, and a negative predictive value of 96.5% were noted. In probable sepsis, a specificity of 83.3%, positive predictive value of 80.9% and a negative predictive value of 99.1% were noted. The overall accuracy in proven sepsis was 96.5%, and in probable sepsis was noted to be 99.1%. Sub-analysis showed a lower positive predictive value (61.5%) for early onset sepsis compared to 93% for late onset sepsis. Repeat CRP tests were done in 33 babies. Twenty two of the 29 with proven/probable infection had a ten-fold increase in CRP levels, but levels were noted to be low or reducing in seven (24.1%) babies showing signs of improvement clinically. Using a receiver operator characteristic curve, the optimal cut-off point for CRP was found to be 5 mg/dl. CONCLUSIONS: Serum CRP is an accurate indicator of neonatal sepsis, with high sensitivity, specificity and predictive values, at the standard cut-off of 5. CRP is a better screening test for late-onset than early-onset neonatal sepsis. The standard recommended CRP cut -off point of 5 is appropriate for local use

Kumar R, Tao M. "Multiple forms of casein kinase from rabbit erythrocytes." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;410(1):87-98. Abstract

Two rabbit erythrocyte casein kinases, GTP:casein kinase I and GTP:casein kinase II, have been purified 29 000- and 47 000-fold, respectively. Studies employing sucrose density gradient centrifugation indicate that kinase I has a molecular weight of about 9.5 - 10(5) (25 S) and kinase II about 1.4 - 10(6) (32 S). These enzymes can utilize either ATP or GTP as the phosphoryl donor. Among various protein substrates examined, these kinases catalyze the phosphorylation of casein greater than 50% dephosphorylated phosvitin congruent to 50% dephosphorylated casein greater than phosvitin. Histones, protamine and bovine serum albumin are poor phosphoryl acceptors. Kinetic data indicate that both enzymes are inhibited by high casein substrate concentrations which may be partially relieved by NaCl. Both phosphotransferases require Mg(2+) for activity and are optimally active at pH 9.0. The enzymes have apparent Km values of 2.5 - 10(-5) M for GTP, 2 - 10(-5) M for ATP, and 0.4--0.6 mg/ml for casein. The incorporation of the terminal phosphate of GTP into casein as catalyzed by these enzymes is inhibited to varying degrees by ATP, ITP, ADP, and GDP but not by UTP, CTP, GMP, adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate, and guanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate. In addition, NaF and 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid are also found to inhibit the activity of both kinases. The effect of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate is interesting and suggests that this metabolite may regulate the activity of the casein kinases in the red blood cells.

Kumar R, Musoke R, Macharia WM, Revathi G. "Validation of c-reactive protein in the early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis in a tertiary care hospital in Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

To evaluate utility of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis in a tertiary care Newborn Unit in Kenya. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: All neonates admitted to Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital during the study period with suspected sepsis based on specified clinical criteria. RESULTS: Of the 310 infants, there were 83 episodes of proven sepsis and 94 episodes of probable sepsis. Using the standard CRP cut-off value of 5 mg/dl, a sensitivity of 95.2% in proven sepsis and 98.9% for probable septic episodes were noted. In proven sepsis, a specificity of 85.3%, positive predictive value of 80.6%, and a negative predictive value of 96.5% were noted. In probable sepsis, a specificity of 83.3%, positive predictive value of 80.9% and a negative predictive value of 99.1% were noted. The overall accuracy in proven sepsis was 96.5%, and in probable sepsis was noted to be 99.1%. Sub-analysis showed a lower positive predictive value (61.5%) for early onset sepsis compared to 93% for late onset sepsis. Repeat CRP tests were done in 33 babies. Twenty two of the 29 with proven/probable infection had a ten-fold increase in CRP levels, but levels were noted to be low or reducing in seven (24.1%) babies showing signs of improvement clinically. Using a receiver operator characteristic curve, the optimal cut-off point for CRP was found to be 5 mg/dl. CONCLUSIONS: Serum CRP is an accurate indicator of neonatal sepsis, with high sensitivity, specificity and predictive values, at the standard cut-off of 5. CRP is a better screening test for late-onset than early-onset neonatal sepsis. The standard recommended CRP cut -off point of 5 is appropriate for local use

Kumar M, Amugune B, Madeghe B, Wambua GN, Osok J, Polkonikova-Wamoto, Bukusi D, Were F, Huang KY. "Mechanisms associated with maternal adverse childhood experiences on offspring's mental health in Nairobi informal settlements: a mediational model testing approach." BMC psychiatry. 2018;18(1):381.
Kulimushi SM, Muiru WM, Mutitu EW. "Potential of Trichoderma spp., Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens in the management of early blight in tomato." . Biocontrol Science and Technology. 2021;31(9):online.
Kugonza, DR; Jianlin KGH; HMOH; O; A. Microsatellite DNA polymorphism of the Long Horned Ankole cattle in Uganda.; 2006. Abstract

Nineteen microsatellite markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships and herd structure of Ugandan Ankole cattle. A total of 304 animals from 8 herds in Mbarara District were characterised. Across all loci, 200 alleles were observed. A high mean number of alleles (MNA) per locus, ranging from 5.89 to 6.79 per herd, was observed. Polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.403 (ILSTS013) to 0.817 (ILSTS036), with an overall mean of 0.688. The average observed heterozygosity (Ho) was highest in Kaibanda (0.727) and lowest in Kituuha (0.648), while the expected heterozygosity (He) ranged from 0.722 (Nshaara) to 0.664 (Kituuha). Significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions were observed on 8 loci, however, all 152 loci-herd combination tests were in equilibrium after Bonferroni correction. FST estimates for all loci and between all herds were highly significant (P<0.001), suggesting little if any gene flow between the herds. For all herd pairs, FST values were generally low, with an overall mean of 0.041 + 0.08. Significant (P<0.01) inbreeding effect (FIS) was detected in the Nasasira herd. The mean number of migrants per generation (Nm) across all herds was 3.82. Phylogenetic analysis showed that herds from the same geographical counties grouped together. These results illustrate at the molecular level the fairly wide genetic variation found among the Ankole herds studied and therefore the potential for genetic improvement of these herds.

Kugonza DR;, Okeyo AM;, Mutetikka D;, Mpairwe DR;, Nabasirye M;, Kiwuwa, GH; Hanotte O, Hanotte O. "Ankole cattle breed of Uganda: functions and criteria used in identification, selection and parentage assignment by herdsmen."; 2005.
Kugonza DR, Nabasirye M, Mpairwe D, Hanotte O, Okeyo AM. "Productivity and morphology of Ankole cattle in three livestock production systems in Uganda.". 2011. Abstract

Phenotypic characterization is critical in breed improvement and conservation. To determine the performance and morphological features of Ankole cattle in three livestock production systems (LPS) of Uganda, 248 farms were studied. Height at withers (HW), heart girth (HG), body length (BL), ear length, horn length (HL), distance between horn tips (HS) and body weight (BW) were then measured on 120 bulls and 180 cows. Data were analysed using LPS (crop livestock, agropastoral, pastoral), county (Gomba, Kazo, Kiboga, Mawoggola, Nyabushozi) and sex (females, males) as main factors. In the results, age at sexual maturity was 23.6 ± 0.5 months for bulls and 22.7 ± 0.5 months for cows. Age at first calving was 33.2 ± 0.5 months, whereas calving interval was 12.9 ± 0.8 months. Lactation length differed between LPS (5.5 ± 0.4, 6.3 ± 0.3 and 7.4 ± 0.2 months in agropastoral, crop livestock and pastoral, respectively). Mean daily milk off take was 2.2 ± 0.1 kg/cow whereas preweaning calf survivability was 90.0 ± 6.5%. Sex and LPS significantly influenced HW, HL and HS. Positive correlations were observed between BW and HG, BL and HL. Correlation coefficients were much lower in females than in males, except for BW vs HG and BW vs HW. Results show wide variations both in performance and morphology suggesting that within breed selection scheme and/or management improvement may lead to productivity improvements.

Kuete V, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Karaosmanoğlu O, Sivas H. "Cytotoxicity of 11 naturally occurring phenolics and terpenoids from Kenyan flora towards human carcinoma cells." Journal of Ayurveda and integrative medicine. 2019;10(3):178-184. AbstractJournal article

Description
Background
Cancer constitutes a major hurdle worldwide and its treatment mainly relies on chemotherapy.
Objectives
The present study was designed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of eleven naturally occurring compounds including six phenolics amongst them were 4 chalcones and 2 flavanones as well as 5 terpenoids (3 clerodane and 2 trachylobane diterpenoids) against 6 human carcinoma cell lines and normal CRL2120 fibroblasts.
Materials and methods
The neutral red uptake (NR) assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the compounds, whilst caspase-Glo assay was used to detect caspase activation. Cell cycle and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were all analyzed via flow cytometry meanwhile levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by spectrophotometry.
Results
Chalcones: 2′,4′-dihydroxy-6′-methoxychalcone (1); 4′,6′-dihydroxy-2′,5′-dimethoxychalcone (2); 2′,4 …

Kuete V, Omosa LK, Karaosmanoğlu O, Sivas H. "Cytotoxicity of 11 Naturally occurring Phenolics and Terpenoids from Kenyan Flora towards Human Carcinoma Cells." Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine. 2018;https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaim.2018.04.001.kuete_et_al_2018 pdfkuete_et_al_2018 pdf
Kuete V, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Karaosmanoğlu O, Sivas H. "Cytotoxicity of naturally occurring phenolics and terpenoids from Kenyan flora towards human carcinoma cells." Journal of Ayurveda and integrative medicine. 2019;10(3):178-184. AbstractJournal article

Description
Background
Cancer constitutes a major hurdle worldwide and its treatment mainly relies on chemotherapy.
Objectives
The present study was designed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of eleven naturally occurring compounds including six phenolics amongst them were 4 chalcones and 2 flavanones as well as 5 terpenoids (3 clerodane and 2 trachylobane diterpenoids) against 6 human carcinoma cell lines and normal CRL2120 fibroblasts.
Materials and methods
The neutral red uptake (NR) assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the compounds, whilst caspase-Glo assay was used to detect caspase activation. Cell cycle and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were all analyzed via flow cytometry meanwhile levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by spectrophotometry.
Results
Chalcones: 2′,4′-dihydroxy-6′-methoxychalcone (1); 4′,6′-dihydroxy-2′,5′-dimethoxychalcone (2); 2′,4 …
Scholar articles
Cytotoxicity of naturally occurring phenolics and terpenoids from Kenyan flora towards human carcinoma cells
V Kuete, LK Omosa, JO Midiwo, O Karaosmanoğlu… - Journal of Ayurveda and integrative medicine, 2019
Related articles All 3 versions

Kuete V, Omosa LK, Tala VSR, Midiwo JO, Mbaveng AT, Swaleh S, Karaosmanoğlu O, Sivas H. "Cytotoxicity of plumbagin, rapanone and 12 other naturally occurring quinones from Kenyan flora towards human carcinoma cells." BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2016;17(1):60. AbstractFull text link

Background
Cancer is a major public health concern globally and chemotherapy remains the principal mode of the treatment of various malignant diseases.

Methods
This study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity of 14 naturally occurring quinones including; 3 anthraquinones, 1 naphthoquinone and 10 benzoquinones against 6 human carcinoma cell lines and normal CRL2120 fibroblasts. The neutral red uptake (NR) assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the compounds, whilst caspase-Glo assay was used to detect caspases activation. Cell cycle and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were all analyzed via flow cytometry meanwhile levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by spectrophotometry.

Results
Anthraquinone: emodin (2), naphthoquinone: plumbagin (4), and benzoquinones: rapanone (9), 2,5-dihydroxy-3-pentadecyl-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione (10), 5-O-methylembelin (11), 1,2,4,5-tetraacetate-3-methyl-6-(14-nonadecenyl)-cyclohexadi-2,5-diene (13), as well as doxorubicin displayed interesting activities with IC50 values below 100 μM in the six tested cancer cell lines. The IC50 values ranged from 37.57 μM (towards breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells) to 99.31 μM (towards small cell lung cancer A549 cells) for 2, from 0.06 μM (MCF-7 cells) to 1.14 μM (A549 cells) for 4, from 2.27 μM (mesothelioma SPC212 cells) to 46.62 μM (colorectal adenocarcinoma DLD-1 cells) for 9, from 8.39 μM (SPC212 cells) to 48.35 μM (hepatocarinoma HepG2 cells) for 10, from 22.57 μM (MCF-7 cells) to 61.28 μM (HepG2 cells) for 11, from 9.25 μM (MCF-7 cells) to 47.53 μM (A549 cells) for 13, and from 0.07 μM (SPC212 cells) to 1.01 μM (A549 cells) for doxorubicin. Compounds 4 and 9 induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells mediated by increased ROS production and MMP loss, respectively.

Conclusion
The tested natural products and mostly 2, 4, 9, 10, 11 and 13 are potential cytotoxic compounds that deserve more investigations towards developing novel antiproliferative drugs against human carcinoma.

Keywords

Carcinoma cytotoxicity Mode of action Plumbagin Quinones Rapanone

Kudra, A1, and 1 C’wa SGN2 KP, 1 SKP. "2014-Striga asiatica growth and seed production in response to organic and inorganic P - fertilizers(3)." ACCESS INTERNATIONAL JUORNAL OF AGRIC SCIE. 2014;Vol. 2(1), pp.6-12, March 2014(Vol. 2(1), pp.6-12, March 2014):Vol. 2(1), pp.6-12, March 2014.2014-striga_asiatica_growth_and_seed_production_in_response_to_organic_and_inorganic_p_-_fertilizers3.pdf
Kubo MN, Kayima JK, Were AJ, McLigeyo SO, Ogola EN. "Factors Associated with Uncontrolled Hypertension among Renal Transplant Recipients Attending Nephrology Clinics in Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of transplantation. 2015. Abstract

Objective.To determine the factors associated with poor blood pressure control among renal transplant recipients in a resource limited setting.Methods.Across- ectionalstudywascarriedoutonrenaltransplantrecipientsattheKenyattaNationalHospital. Sociodemographicdetails,blood pressure,urine albumin: creatinine ratio,andadherenceusingtheMMAS-8questionnairewere noted.Independentfactorsassociatedwithuncontrolledhypertensionweredeterminedusinglogisticregressionanalysis.Results. 85 subjects were evaluated. Mean age was 42.4 (SD ± 12.2) years, with a male:female ratio of 1.9:1. Fifty-five patients (64.7%) had uncontrolled hypertension (BP ≥ 130/80mmHg). On univariate analysis, male sex (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.4–9.5,

Kubo MN, Kayima JK, Were AJ, McLigeyo SO, Ogola EN. "Factors Associated with Uncontrolled Hypertension among Renal Transplant Recipients Attending Nephrology Clinics in Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of Transplantation. 2015;2015. AbstractWebsite

Abstract

Objective. To determine the factors associated with poor blood pressure control among renal transplant recipients in a resource-limited setting. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out on renal transplant recipients at the Kenyatta National Hospital. Sociodemographic details, blood pressure, urine albumin : creatinine ratio, and adherence using the MMAS-8 questionnaire were noted. Independent factors associated with uncontrolled hypertension were determined using logistic regression analysis. Results. 85 subjects were evaluated. Mean age was 42.4 (SD ± 12.2) years, with a male : female ratio of 1.9 : 1. Fifty-five patients (64.7%) had uncontrolled hypertension (BP ≥ 130/80 mmHg). On univariate analysis, male sex (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.4–9.5, ), higher levels of proteinuria (), and nonadherence to antihypertensives (OR 18, 95% CI 5.2–65.7, ) were associated with uncontrolled hypertension. On logistic regression analysis, male sex (adjusted OR 4.6, 95% CI 1.1–19.0, ) and nonadherence (adjusted OR 33.8, 95% CI 8.6–73.0, ) were independently associated with uncontrolled hypertension. Conclusion. Factors associated with poor blood pressure control in this cohort were male sex and nonadherence to antihypertensives. Emphasis on adherence to antihypertensive therapy must be pursued within this population.

Kubo MN, Kayima JK, Were AJ, McLigeyo SO, Ogola EN. "Factors Associated with Uncontrolled Hypertension among Renal Transplant Recipients Attending Nephrology Clinics in Nairobi, Kenya." J Transplant. 2015;2015:746563. Abstract

Objective. To determine the factors associated with poor blood pressure control among renal transplant recipients in a resource-limited setting. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out on renal transplant recipients at the Kenyatta National Hospital. Sociodemographic details, blood pressure, urine albumin : creatinine ratio, and adherence using the MMAS-8 questionnaire were noted. Independent factors associated with uncontrolled hypertension were determined using logistic regression analysis. Results. 85 subjects were evaluated. Mean age was 42.4 (SD ± 12.2) years, with a male : female ratio of 1.9 : 1. Fifty-five patients (64.7%) had uncontrolled hypertension (BP ≥ 130/80 mmHg). On univariate analysis, male sex (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.4-9.5, p = 0.006), higher levels of proteinuria (p = 0.042), and nonadherence to antihypertensives (OR 18, 95% CI 5.2-65.7, p < 0.001) were associated with uncontrolled hypertension. On logistic regression analysis, male sex (adjusted OR 4.6, 95% CI 1.1-19.0, p = 0.034) and nonadherence (adjusted OR 33.8, 95% CI 8.6-73.0, p < 0.001) were independently associated with uncontrolled hypertension. Conclusion. Factors associated with poor blood pressure control in this cohort were male sex and nonadherence to antihypertensives. Emphasis on adherence to antihypertensive therapy must be pursued within this population.

Kubo MN, Kayima JK, Were AJ, McLigeyo SO, Ogola EN. "Factors associated with uncontrolled hypertension among renal transplant recipients attending nephrology clinics in Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of Transplantation. 2015;746563( doi: 10.1155/2015/746563):Online. Abstract

Objective. To determine the factors associated with poor blood pressure control among renal transplant recipients in a resource-limited setting. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out on renal transplant recipients at the Kenyatta National Hospital. Sociodemographic details, blood pressure, urine albumin : creatinine ratio, and adherence using the MMAS-8 questionnaire were noted. Independent factors associated with uncontrolled hypertension were determined using logistic regression analysis. Results. 85 subjects were evaluated. Mean age was 42.4 (SD ± 12.2) years, with a male : female ratio of 1.9 : 1. Fifty-five patients (64.7%) had uncontrolled hypertension (BP ≥ 130/80 mmHg). On univariate analysis, male sex (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.4–9.5, p = 0.006), higher levels of proteinuria (p = 0.042), and nonadherence to antihypertensives (OR 18, 95% CI 5.2–65.7, p < 0.001) were associated with uncontrolled hypertension. On logistic regression analysis, male sex (adjusted OR 4.6, 95% CI 1.1–19.0, p = 0.034) and nonadherence (adjusted OR 33.8, 95% CI 8.6–73.0, p < 0.001) were independently associated with uncontrolled hypertension. Conclusion. Factors associated with poor blood pressure control in this cohort were male sex and nonadherence to antihypertensives. Emphasis on adherence to antihypertensive therapy must be pursued within this population.

KUBASU, S.S., MAKOKKHA GL, KAAYA G. "Biological differences within Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neumann (AKARI: IXODIDAE) Populations in Kenya." Journal of the Eqyptian Society of Parasitology . 2007;37 (2):411-418.
Kuballa T, Hausler T, Okaru AO, Neufeld M, Abuga KO, Kibwage IO, Rehm J, Luy B, Walch SG, Lachenmeier DW. "Detection of counterfeit brand spirits using 1H NMR fingerprints in comparison to sensory analysis." Food chemistry. 2018;245:112-118. Abstract
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Kuballa T, Hausler T, Okaru AO, Neufeld M, Abuga KO, Kibwage IO, Rehm J, Luy B, Walch SG, Lachenmeier DW. "Detection of counterfeit brand spirits using 1H NMR fingerprints in comparison to sensory analysis." Food Chem.. 2018;245:112-115. Abstract

Beverage fraud involving counterfeiting of brand spirits is an increasing problem not only due to deception of the consumer but also because it poses health risks e.g. from possible methanol admixture. Suspicious spirit samples from Russia and Kenya were analysed using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in comparison to authentic products. Using linear regression analysis of spectral integral values, 4 counterfeited samples from Russia and 2 from Kenya were easily identifiable with R2 < 0.7. Sensory analysis using triangle test methodology confirmed significant taste differences between counterfeited and authentic samples but the assessors were unable to correctly identify the counterfeited product in the majority of cases. An important conclusion is that consumers cannot assumed to be self-responsible when consuming counterfeit alcohol because there is no general ability to organoleptically detect counterfeit alcohol. Beverage fraud involving counterfeiting of brand spirits is an increasing problem not only due to deception of the consumer but also because it poses health risks e.g. from possible methanol admixture. Suspicious spirit samples from Russia and Kenya were analysed using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in comparison to authentic products. Using linear regression analysis of spectral integral values, 4 counterfeited samples from Russia and 2 from Kenya were easily identifiable with R2 < 0.7. Sensory analysis using triangle test methodology confirmed significant taste differences between counterfeited and authentic samples but the assessors were unable to correctly identify the counterfeited product in the majority of cases. An important conclusion is that consumers cannot assumed to be self-responsible when consuming counterfeit alcohol because there is no general ability to organoleptically detect counterfeit alcohol.

KS S, FMA B, EAO D. "Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour. Anatomy Journal of Africa." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2013.
Kronk REAS &. "Climate Change, Law and Indigenous Peoples in Kenya.". In: Climate Change, Indigenous Peoples and the Search for Legal Remedies. London: Edward Elgar; 2013.Climate Change.pdf
Kristensen K;, Larsen B;J, Madsen P. Forest rehabilitation in Denmark using nature-based forestry .; 2005.Website
Krieger JN, Bailey RC, Opeya J, Ayieko B, Ndinya-Achola JO, Magoha GA. "Adult male circumcision outcomes: experience in a developing country setting.". 2007.Website
KRHODA GO, m, Nyandega IA. "Geophysical Investigations of Suyien Earthdam in Maralal, Samburu County, Kenya." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences. 2015;Vol.2 (No.1 ):1-18.
Kremmer E, Krämer PM, Weber CM, Räuber C, Martens D, Forster S, Stanker LH, Rauch P, Shiundu PM, Mulaa FJ. Optical Immunosensor and ELISA for the Analysis of Pyrethroids and DDT in Environmental Samples.; 2007. AbstractOptical Immunosensor and ELISA for the Analysis of Pyrethroids and DDT in Environmental Samples

An optical immunosensor (AQUA-OPTOSENSOR) and ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) for the analysis of pyrethroids and DDT in river water and/or sediment, are described. The optical immunosensor consists of a bench-top optical read-out-device and disposable single-use sensor chips. ELISA was carried out in the coating antigen format. As examples, phenothrin (pyrethroid) and p,p'-DDT were chosen. Herein we describe the overall strategy, the set-up and principle of the immunosensor platform, and show representative results for immunosensor and ELISA analysis. The immunosensor employs fluorophore (Oyster®-645)-labeled monoclonal antibodies (mouse mAb Py-1 and rat mAb DDT 7C12), and makes use of the evanescent field, thus operating without washing steps. ELISA in the coating antigen format uses a second antibody labeled with peroxidase. Both, phenothrin and p,p'-DDT can be analyzed with these immunochemical techniques in the low ppb levels. Advantages and drawbacks of both immunochemical platforms are discussed.

Kreiss JK;, Coombs R;, Plummer F;, Holmes KK;, Nikora B;, Cameron W;, Ngugi EN;, Ndinya-Achola JO;, Corey L. "Isolation of human immunodeficiency virus from genital ulcers in Nairobi prostitutes.". 1989. Abstract

Recent epidemiologic studies have implicated genital/anorectal ulcer disease as an important cofactor for acquisition and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during sexual intercourse. To better understand the mechanism for the association between genital ulcers and HIV, exudates from 62 genital ulcers of 56 HIV-seropositive prostitutes in Nairobi (Kenya) were cultured for HIV. Twenty-six ulcer cultures could not be evaluated for the presence of HIV because of bacterial or fungal contamination. HIV was isolated from 4 (11%) of the 36 remaining uncontaminated ulcer cultures (2 introital, 1 vaginal, and 1 cervical) from 4 separate women. HIV was isolated from the cervical os from only 2 of the 4 women. HIV p24 antigen was detected in exudate from 1 of the 4 culture-positive ulcers and 0 of 32 culture-negative ulcers. Genital ulcers in seropositive patients should be regarded as potential sources of HIV, which could be important in transmission of HIV during intercourse. Public health measures aimed at controlling sexually transmitted genital ulcer diseases should be an integral part of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention programs

Kreisberg RA. "Phosphorus deficiency and hypophosphatemia." Hospital Practice. 1977;12:121-128. Abstract

Low serum phosphorus levels, sometimes associated with depletion of phosphorus stores, can engender a variety of serious, often life-threatening physiologic changes. The proximate cause of this dangerous situation is usually medical intervention in such conditions as alcoholism and diabetic ketoacidosis, which can produce a shift of phosphorus within the body unless preventive measures are instituted.

Kraut JA, Madias NE. "Treatment of acute metabolic acidosis: a pathophysiologic approach." Nature Reviews. Nephrology. 2012;8:589-601. Abstract

Acute metabolic acidosis is associated with increased morbidity and mortality because of its depressive effects on cardiovascular function, facilitation of cardiac arrhythmias, stimulation of inflammation, suppression of the immune response, and other adverse effects. Appropriate evaluation of acute metabolic acidosis includes assessment of acid-base parameters, including pH, partial pressure of CO(2) and HCO(3)(-) concentration in arterial blood in stable patients, and also in central venous blood in patients with impaired tissue perfusion. Calculation of the serum anion gap and the change from baseline enables the physician to detect organic acidoses, a common cause of severe metabolic acidosis, and aids therapeutic decisions. A fall in extracellular and intracellular pH can affect cellular function via different mechanisms and treatment should be directed at improving both parameters. In addition to supportive measures, treatment has included administration of base, primarily in the form of sodium bicarbonate. However, in clinical studies of lactic acidosis and ketoacidosis, bicarbonate administration has not reduced morbidity or mortality, or improved cellular function. Potential explanations for this failure include exacerbation of intracellular acidosis, reduction in ionized Ca(2+), and production of hyperosmolality. Administration of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (THAM) improves acidosis without producing intracellular acidosis and its value as a form of base is worth further investigation. Selective sodium-hydrogen exchanger 1 (NHE1) inhibitors have been shown to improve haemodynamics and reduce mortality in animal studies of acute lactic acidosis and should also be examined further. Given the important effects of acute metabolic acidosis on clinical outcomes, more intensive study of the pathogenesis of the associated cellular dysfunction and novel methods of treatment is indicated.

Krauskopf J. "Relative number of long- and middle-wavelength-sensitive cones in the human fovea." Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, image science, and vision. 2000;17:510-516. Abstract

Flicker photometric measurements yield spectral sensitivity curves that are well fitted by sums of the spectral sensitivity curves of long-wavelength-sensitive (L) cones and middle-wavelength-sensitive (M) cones if the L cones are given twice the weight of the M cones. This result has been interpreted as implying that L cones are more numerous than M cones but is also consistent with a different numerical ratio, say, 1:1, and with the assignment of greater weight to the L cone input than to the M cone input by the mechanism subserving flicker photometry. Measurements of temporal sensitivity are presented for lights that modulate the inputs of either only the L cones or only the M cones. Sensitivity to modulation of the L cones is approximately twice that of modulation of the M cones at approximately 30 Hz, but that advantage disappears at approximately 2 Hz. Thus flicker sensitivity is equivocal with regard to cone numerosity. Electrophysiological, anatomical, and psychophysical evidence is reviewed, with particular weight placed on the statistics of color appearance of small, brief, monochromatic lights and on increment thresholds measured on the same observers. It is concluded that, in the central fovea, the ratio of L:M cone numbers is close to unity and may not be so variable as is usually supposed.

Krämer PM, Weber CM, Kremmer E, Räuber C, Martens D, Forster S, Stanker LH, Rauch P, Shiundu PM, Mulaa FJ. Optical Immunosensor and ELISA for the Analysis of Pyrethroids and DDT in Environmental Samples.; 2007. AbstractOptical Immunosensor and ELISA for the Analysis of Pyrethroids and DDT in Environmental Samples

An optical immunosensor (AQUA-OPTOSENSOR) and ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) for the analysis of pyrethroids and DDT in river water and/or sediment, are described. The optical immunosensor consists of a bench-top optical read-out-device and disposable single-use sensor chips. ELISA was carried out in the coating antigen format. As examples, phenothrin (pyrethroid) and p,p'-DDT were chosen. Herein we describe the overall strategy, the set-up and principle of the immunosensor platform, and show representative results for immunosensor and ELISA analysis. The immunosensor employs fluorophore (Oyster®-645)-labeled monoclonal antibodies (mouse mAb Py-1 and rat mAb DDT 7C12), and makes use of the evanescent field, thus operating without washing steps. ELISA in the coating antigen format uses a second antibody labeled with peroxidase. Both, phenothrin and p,p'-DDT can be analyzed with these immunochemical techniques in the low ppb levels. Advantages and drawbacks of both immunochemical platforms are discussed.

Krämer PM. Biosensors.; 2011.Website
Krahe TE, Guido W. "Homeostatic {Plasticity} in the {Visual} {Thalamus} by {Monocular} {Deprivation}." The Journal of Neuroscience. 2011;31:6842-6849. AbstractWebsite

Monocular deprivation (MD) is a classic paradigm for experience-dependent cortical plasticity. One form is known as homeostatic plasticity, in which neurons innervated by the deprived eye show a remarkable capacity to compensate for degraded visual signals in an attempt to stabilize network activity. Although the evidence supporting homeostatic plasticity in visual cortex is extensive, it remains unclear whether neurons in subcortical visual structures respond to MD in a similar manner. Here we examined whether cells in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), the thalamic relay between the retina and visual cortex, show similar forms of experience-dependent homeostatic plasticity following MD. Two-week-old mice were monocularly deprived for a period of 5–7 d and miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs) were obtained from cells located in dLGN regions receiving input from the deprived or nondeprived eye. We found that MD promotes increases in the frequency and amplitude of mEPSCs and were restricted to the monocular segment contralateral to the deprived eye. These changes were accompanied by an increase in the probability of glutamate release at corticothalamic terminals that arise from the deprived visual cortex. Our findings indicate that homeostatic synaptic regulation from MD extends beyond cortical circuitry and shed light on how the brain modulates and integrates activity in the face of altered sensory experience.

Krahe TE, Guido W. "Homeostatic {Plasticity} in the {Visual} {Thalamus} by {Monocular} {Deprivation}." The Journal of Neuroscience. 2011;31:6842-6849. AbstractWebsite
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Krahe TE, Guido W. "Homeostatic {Plasticity} in the {Visual} {Thalamus} by {Monocular} {Deprivation}." The Journal of Neuroscience. 2011;31:6842-6849. AbstractWebsite

Monocular deprivation (MD) is a classic paradigm for experience-dependent cortical plasticity. One form is known as homeostatic plasticity, in which neurons innervated by the deprived eye show a remarkable capacity to compensate for degraded visual signals in an attempt to stabilize network activity. Although the evidence supporting homeostatic plasticity in visual cortex is extensive, it remains unclear whether neurons in subcortical visual structures respond to MD in a similar manner. Here we examined whether cells in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), the thalamic relay between the retina and visual cortex, show similar forms of experience-dependent homeostatic plasticity following MD. Two-week-old mice were monocularly deprived for a period of 5–7 d and miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs) were obtained from cells located in dLGN regions receiving input from the deprived or nondeprived eye. We found that MD promotes increases in the frequency and amplitude of mEPSCs and were restricted to the monocular segment contralateral to the deprived eye. These changes were accompanied by an increase in the probability of glutamate release at corticothalamic terminals that arise from the deprived visual cortex. Our findings indicate that homeostatic synaptic regulation from MD extends beyond cortical circuitry and shed light on how the brain modulates and integrates activity in the face of altered sensory experience.

Koyio LN, van der Sanden WJM, Dimba EO, Mulder J, van der Ven AJAM, Merkx MAW, Frencken JE. "Knowledge of Nairobi East District Community Health Workers concerning HIV-related orofacial lesions and other common oral lesions." BMC public health. 2014;14:1-8. Abstract
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Koyio LN, WJMvd S, Dimba E, Mulder J, Creugers NHJ, others. "Oral Health Training Programs for Community and Professional Health Care.". 2014. Abstract
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Koyio LN, van der Sanden WJM, Dimba E, Mulder J, Creugers NHJ, Merkx MAW, van der Ven A, Frencken JE. "Oral health training programs for community and professional health care workers in Nairobi East District increases identification of HIV-infected patients." PLoS One. 2014;9:e90927. Abstract
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Koyio LN, van der Sanden WJM, Mulder J, Dimba EO, Creugers NHJ, Merkx TMAW, Stelma FF, van der Ven Andre JAM. "Pseudomembranous Candidiasis Indicates High Level Drug Resistance among Patients on Antiretroviral Treatment in Nairobi East District, Kenya." Journal of HIV for Clinical and Scientific Research. 2015;2:040-044. Abstract
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Koyaweda GW, Ongus JR, Machuka E, Juma J, Macharia R, Komas NP, Pelle R. "Detection of circulating hepatitis B virus immune escape and polymerase mutants among HBV-positive patients attending Institut Pasteur de Bangui, Central African Republic." Int J Infect Dis. 2020;90:138-144. Abstract

Previous studies in the Central African Republic (CAR) have reported the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) recombinant genotype E/D and a suspicion of immune escape mutants (IEMs), without further investigation into their impact on prevention and diagnosis. Consequently, this study investigated HBV mutations among hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive patients attending Institut Pasteur de Bangui in the CAR.

Kovesdy CP. "Metabolic acidosis and kidney disease: does bicarbonate therapy slow the progression of {CKD}?" Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. 2012;27:3056-3062. AbstractWebsite

Metabolic acidosis is a common complication associated with progressive loss of kidney function. The diminishing ability of the kidneys to maintain acid–base homeostasis results in acid accumulation, leading to various complications such as impairment in nutritional status, worsened uremic bone disease and an association with increased mortality. In addition to these adverse effects which are related to acid retention, metabolic acidosis may also cause kidney damage, possibly through the stimulation of adaptive mechanisms aimed at maintaining acid–base homeostasis in the face of decreasing kidney function. Recent clinical trials have suggested that correction or prevention of metabolic acidosis by alkali administration is able to attenuate kidney damage and to slow progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), and may hence offer an effective, safe and affordable renoprotective strategy. We review the physiology and pathophysiology of acid–base homeostasis in CKD, the mechanisms whereby metabolic acidosis may be deleterious to kidney function, and the results of clinical trials suggesting a benefit of alkali therapy, with special attention to details related to the practical implementation of the results of these trials.

Kovacic Z, Musango JK, Ambole LA, Buyana K, Smit S, Anditi C, Mwau B, Ogot M, Lwasa S, Brent AC, others. "Interrogating differences: A comparative analysis of Africa’s informal settlements." World Development. 2019;122:614-627. Abstract

Urban development in Africa is a very diverse and ambivalent phenomenon with aspects that do not fall neatly into global standards. Informal settlements therefore challenge governance by standards. We argue that quantifying and interrogating differences offers a better basis for governance. By drawing on a comparative analysis of three different informal settlements in Sub-Saharan Africa, this paper explores what differences reveal about the governance of informal settlements. The paper uses an urban societal metabolism approach, focussed on gender, energy and health, based on questionnaires and focus group discussions in Enkanini (Stellenbosch, South Africa), Mathare (Nairobi, Kenya), and Kasubi-Kawaala (Kampala, Uganda). The contribution of the paper is both empirical and theoretical. Empirically, we provide new evidence about the metabolism of urban informality at multiple levels of analysis: the individual, the household and the settlement. Findings show the gender asymmetries in urban poverty and the intricate links between energy choices, health and economic status. Theoretically, we argue that different levels of analysis produce different understandings of urban informality, and that analyzing informal settlements only by population aggregates means missing information. We conclude by arguing that understanding differences leads to the formulation of modest and localised goals, which are better able to take into account the complexity of urban informality.

Kotonya R, Mutungi GM, Kanja LW. "Organochiorine Pesticides in Swine Tissues from Abattoir Material Collected in Nairobi, Kenya.". 1994. Abstract

Subsequent to the discovery of DDT in the early 40's, other organochlorine pesticides have been introduced. These compounds generally resist microbial and chemical degradation and therefore persist in the environment. Despite the fact that the use of organochlorine pesticides has been banned or restricted, environmental contamination remains the main source of organochlorine pesticides in food animals (Raisbeck et al. 1989). Studies on organochlorine pesticide residues carried out on different tissues of various animal species in Kenya, have indicated varying levels of environmental contamination. (Kanja et al.; 1992, Mitema and Gitau 1990; Mugachia 1992 a; b). Organochlodne pesticides found in follicular fluid of infertile women have been implicated as the cause of infertility (Bauklouh et al. 1985). Due to the fact that swine are polytocous, the large number of follicles and corpora lutea available makes it a suitable animal model for the study of the possible effects of organochlorine pesticides on reproduction. In this study, swine fat, muscle, liver, corpus luteum and follicular fluid samples from abattoirs were analysed for organochlorine pesticide residues. The tissues were obtained from two groups of gilts; one group came from farms that used only commercial feed; the other originated from farms that used commercial feed and swill interchangeably. The objectives of this study were to establish the levels of organochlorine pesticide levels in various swine tissues and to compare the levels of the pesticides found in swine tissues from two slaughter houses obtaining pigs from different backgrounds.

Kotikot T, Ndalamia J, OGUTU H, B Nyaoke, MW MUREITHI, Farah B, C Perciani, Mac Donald K, Anzala O, Jaoko W. " Reproductive Tract Infections Among Low Risk Women Attending KAVI-VZV 001 Study in Nairobi, Kenya. AIDS RESEARCH AND HUMAN RETROVIRUSES ."; 2016.
Koteng POG, Ralwala AO. "Assessment of Heat Stress Exposure on Construction Workers in Hot and Humid Environments during the Covid-19 Pandemic Period. .". In: (Re)Setting Built Environment Theory and Practice in a Post-pandemic World: Disrupted Buildings or Design for Disruption. School of Architecture and Building Sciences (SABS) online (virtual) conference, JKUAT; 2021.
Kosure JN, Kibera FN, Musyoka R, Njihia JM. "PERCEIVED VALUE OF INVESTMENT PROMOTION INCENTIVES, MACROMARKETING ENVIRONMENT AND PERFORMANCE OF FIRMS IN EXPORT PROCESSING ZONES IN KENYA." DBA Africa Management Review. 2016;6(3):1-15.
Kosura-Oluoch W;, Marenya PP;, Place F;, Barrett CB. "Indices and Manifestations of Poverty: Informing anti-poverty Policy Choices."; 2004. Abstract

Kenya has entered the 21st century with over 50% of its population classified as absolutely poor in that they live on less than a dollar a day. Per capita income is lower than at the end of the 1960’s. Income, assets, and access to essential services are unequally distributed. The country has made important economic reforms, improving macroeconomic management, liberalizing markets and trade, and widening the scope for private sector activity in the hope of improving economic growth and welfare for Kenyans. Yet, despite these reforms the country has experienced little growth and poverty continues to afflict an ever-larger segment of its citizenry, especially in rural areas. Recent debate on the reasons for limited impact of economic reforms on poverty reduction has been of a “top-down’ nature, where analysts consider a policy reform as an external shock and ask how its benefits and costs work their way through the economy to the poor. Increasingly, researchers are recognizing that macroeconomic and sectoral issues are only part of the basis for growth and poverty reduction. What is missing is a “bottom-up” perspective, which starts from the capabilities of individuals, households, and communities. What are their productivities, their environment and how do economic and social developments play out on the ground and how can these developments be influenced? Poverty is a complex, multifaceted concept reflecting a low level of well-being (World Bank 2000). The human well being itself is a multidimensional continuum from extreme deprivation (poverty) to a high attainment or experience of standard of living. 2 In economics use is commonly made of income or expenditure flows as proxies for welfare. This approach is appropriately contested within the social sciences, since well being is experiential, value laden, context and situation dependent and reflects social and personal factors. Poverty is therefore more than lack of material needs, since material sufficiency alone does not guarantee well being. While measurement of poverty is a critical empirical and policy concern, an important phenomenon that has gained currency in recent work on poverty analysis is that of poverty dynamics and poverty traps: who climbs above it, descends below it or oscillates around it – because poverty dynamics is the more fundamental policy concern. Identifying the right policy mix to help a given poor subpopulation depend on an accurate understanding of rural poverty dynamics.

Kosura-Oluoch, Willis; Marenya PP;, Place F;, Barrett CB. "Indices and Manifestations of Poverty: Informing anti-poverty Policy Choices."; 2004. Abstract

Kenya has entered the 21st century with over 50% of its population classified as absolutely poor in that they live on less than a dollar a day. Per capita income is lower than at the end of the 1960’s. Income, assets, and access to essential services are unequally distributed. The country has made important economic reforms, improving macroeconomic management, liberalizing markets and trade, and widening the scope for private sector activity in the hope of improving economic growth and welfare for Kenyans. Yet, despite these reforms the country has experienced little growth and poverty continues to afflict an ever-larger segment of its citizenry, especially in rural areas. Recent debate on the reasons for limited impact of economic reforms on poverty reduction has been of a “top-down’ nature, where analysts consider a policy reform as an external shock and ask how its benefits and costs work their way through the economy to the poor. Increasingly, researchers are recognizing that macroeconomic and sectoral issues are only part of the basis for growth and poverty reduction. What is missing is a “bottom-up” perspective, which starts from the capabilities of individuals, households, and communities. What are their productivities, their environment and how do economic and social developments play out on the ground and how can these developments be influenced? Poverty is a complex, multifaceted concept reflecting a low level of well-being (World Bank 2000). The human well being itself is a multidimensional continuum from extreme deprivation (poverty) to a high attainment or experience of standard of living. 2 In economics use is commonly made of income or expenditure flows as proxies for welfare. This approach is appropriately contested within the social sciences, since well being is experiential, value laden, context and situation dependent and reflects social and personal factors. Poverty is therefore more than lack of material needs, since material sufficiency alone does not guarantee well being. While measurement of poverty is a critical empirical and policy concern, an important phenomenon that has gained currency in recent work on poverty analysis is that of poverty dynamics and poverty traps: who climbs above it, descends below it or oscillates around it – because poverty dynamics is the more fundamental policy concern. Identifying the right policy mix to help a given poor subpopulation depend on an accurate understanding of rural poverty dynamics

Kosgei RJ, Ndavi PM O’ech JOAJMSAMW-KK, Fojo T, Mwangi A MREMEJCHTE. "Symptom screening: diagnostic usefulness to detect pulmonary tuberculosis in HIVinfected pregnant women in Kenya." Public Health Action . 2011;1(2):30-34.
Kosgei RJ, Sitienei JK, Kipruto H, Kimenye K, Gathara D, Odawa FX, P G, Callens S, Temmerman M, Sitienei JC, AB K. "Gender differences in treatment outcomes among 15–49 year olds with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Kenya." Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. . 2015;19(10):1176-81.
Kosgei RJ, Ndavi MP, Ong’ech JO, Abuya JM, Siika AM, Wools-Kaloustian K, Mabeya H, Fojo T, Mwangi A, Reid T, Edginton ME, Carter JE. "Symptom screening: diagnostic usefulness to detect pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-infected pregnant women in Kenya." Public Health Action . 2011;1(2):30-33.symptom_screening_diagnostic_usefulness_to_detect_pulmonary_tuberculosis_in_hiv-infected_pregnant_women_in_kenya.pdf
Kosgei DC, Mageto IG, Wagoro MC. "PSYCHOLOGICAL OUTCOMES OF SEXUAL ASSAULT AMONG SURVIVORS SEEKING CARE AT GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE CLINIC OF KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL, KENYA." International Academic Journal of Medical and Clinical Practice. 2020;5:19-34. Abstract
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Kosgei RJ, Gathara D, Kamau R, Babu S, Mueke S, Cheserem EJ, Kihuba E, Karumbi J, Mulaku M, Aluvaala J, English M, Kihara AB. "quality of comprehensive emergency obstetric care through the lens of clinical documentation on admission to labor ward." East African Medical Journal. 2016;93(2):63-71.
Kosgei PK, Bebora LC, Waiboci LW, Waringa N, Kiambi SG, Kitala PN. "Prevalence and factors associated with brucellosis in livestock in Baringo County, Kenya." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health. 2021.abstract3.pdf
Kosgei RJ, Lubano KM, Shen C, Wools-Kaloustian KK, Musick BS, Siika AM, Mabeya H, Carter JE, Mwangi A, Kiarie J. "Impact of integrated family planning and HIV care services on contraceptive use and pregnancy outcomes: a retrospective cohort study." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2011;58(5):e121-6. Abstract

To determine the impact of routine care (RC) and integrated family planning (IFP) and HIV care service on family planning (FP) uptake and pregnancy outcomes.

Kosgei T, Makumbi D, Njoroge K. "Use of GGE biplot method to evaluate stability of performance of new maize hybrids in eastern Africa.". In: aGRO 2011 Biennial Conference c2098.; 2011.
Kosgei RJ, Szkwarko D, Callens S, Gichangi P, Temmerman M, Kihara AB, Sitienei JJ, Cheserem EJ, Ndavi PM, Reid AJ, Carter EJ. "Screening for tuberculosis in pregnancy: do we need more than a symptom screen? Experience from western Kenya." Public Health Association. 2013;3:294-298.
Kosgei RJ, Wools-kaloustian KK, Braitstein P, Sidle JE, Sang E, Gitau JN, Sitienei JJ, Owino R, Mamlin JJ, Kimaiyo SN, Siika AM. "Task Shifting in HIV Clinics, Western Kenya." East African Medical Journal . 2010;87(7):299-303.eamj_task_shifting.pdftask_shifting_in_hiv_clinics_western_kenya.pdf
Kosgei RJ, Lubano KM, Shen C, Wools-Kaloustian KK, Musick BS, Siika AM, Mabeya H, Carter JE, Mwangi A, Kiarie J. "Impact of integrated family planning and HIV care services on contraceptive use and pregnancy outcomes: a retrospective cohort study." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2011;58(5):e121-6. Abstract

To determine the impact of routine care (RC) and integrated family planning (IFP) and HIV care service on family planning (FP) uptake and pregnancy outcomes.

Kosgei RJ, Szkwarko D, Callens S, Gichangi P, Temmerman M, Kihara AB, Sitienei JJ, Cheserem EJ, Ndavi PM, Reid AJ, Carter EJ. "Screening for tuberculosis in pregnancy do we need more than a symptom screen Experience from western Kenya." Public Health Action . 2013;3(4):294-298.screening_for_tuberculosis_in_pregnancy_do_we_need_more_than_a_symptom_screen_experience_from_western_kenya.pdf
Korongo A, Nzioka C, Njiru R. "AIDS in Kenyan Teacher Colleges." Mitigating the impact: IIEP Research Paper . 2007.
Korir A, Mauti N, Moats P, Gurka MJ, Mutuma G, Metheny C, Mwamba PM, Oyiro PO, Fisher M, Ayers LW, Rochford R, Mwanda WO, Remick SC. "Developing clinical strength-of-evidence approach to define HIV-associated malignancies for cancer registration in Kenya." PLoS ONE. 2014;9(1):e85881. Abstract

Sub-Saharan Africa cancer registries are beset by an increasing cancer burden further exacerbated by the AIDS epidemic where there are limited capabilities for cancer-AIDS match co-registration. We undertook a pilot study based on a "strength-of-evidence" approach using clinical data that is abstracted at the time of cancer registration for purposes of linking cancer diagnosis to AIDS diagnosis.

Korir BK, Wanyoike MMM, KURIA JOSEPHKN, Mwangi DM, Muge EE. "Cassava leaves and azolla as crude protein supplement feed to east african short horned Zebu Heifers." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2020;16:1457-1462. Abstract
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Korir PC, Salim AM, Odalo JO, Waudo W, Gitu LM, Yusuf AO. "Optimization of Extraction Condition and Characterization of Malva Verticillata Root Bark Mucilage." International Journal of Chemistry. 2018;10(2):1-9. AbstractInternational Journal of Chemistry

Description
The study aimed at optimizing the extraction conditions and establishing the physicochemical properties of the mucilage obtained from root bark of Malva verticillata. Effects of temperature, time, particle size and amount of water as a solvent on the yield and composition of mucilage were established. Micrometric, physical, chemical and structural properties were used to characterise the extracted mucilage. Result showed significant correlation between extraction conditions and mucilage yield. Low temperature and short extraction time results into pharmaceutically valuable mucilage with low protein content, high viscosity and good dispersion in aqueous solvent. Large and small size particles of the plant material results into low mucilage yield without significant difference (p= 0.054). The mucilage shows mixed cohesiveness with less tendencies to flow. It exhibits vibration bands in FTIR that are associated with the presence of polysaccharides and proteins. The mucilage contains 2.65% protein, 13.83% inorganics, 1.85% fats, and the rest carbohydrates. High extractive value˃ 80% and moisture content˃ 12% implies that mucilage has high tendency to microbial attack. Optimized extraction conditions results into high yield of the mucilage with the same physicochemical properties and mineral composition regardless of the plant material sampling sites.

Korir EK. "Phytochemical Investigation of the Larvicidal Activity of Toddalia asiatica and Ekebergia capensis against Anopheles gambiae.". 2012. AbstractPhytochemical Investigation of the Larvicidal Activity of Toddalia asiatica and Ekebergia capensis against Anopheles gambiae

With 500 million deaths globally, and over 90% in Africa, malaria is among the greatest killer diseases on the continent. Deaths due to malaria reach about half a million among children annually. Malaria patients constitute 15% of all hospital admissions, 50% of fever cases and 30% of outpatient consultations. The effect and cost of disease has enormous impact on economic growth and development of African economies. The emergence of drug resistant malaria parasite (plasmodium species) and insecticide resistant Anopheles mosquitoes have accelerated the spread of the disease. Some of the anti-malarials like chloroquine and pyrimethamine, which were used as first line drugs have been discontinued due to high prevalence of resistant parasites. Due to the high costs of malaria vaccine development and production coupled with diminished emphasis on vaccine research by multinational pharmaceutical firms, an efficient vaccine has not been produced for malaria management. However, research continues along these lines with two recent reports of new vaccines, one with 47% protection. Vector control. Therefore, remains the method of choice. Larval control is a preferable approach since the life cycle is terminated before emergence into the disease transmitting adults. Nonetheless, the used of biological control methods like larvivorous plants and fish is not viable. Insecticides resistance is on the increase and some of the effective ones like DDT have been banned due to their adverse effects on the environment, human health and non-target organisms. Thus, control strategies such as the use of phytochemical larvicides need to be investigated and developed. The current research examined the potential larvicidal activity of extracts of Toddalia asiatica and Ekebergia capensis. The extracts were subjected to bioassay guided fractionation and isolation of Larvicidal compounds. The results indicate that some extracts have larvicidal activity up to 19.0 ppm with T. Asiatic showing the highest activity. Several compounds were isolated and characterized from the two plants. Sibiricin from T. Asiatic showed the highest level of Larvicidal activity. Eight pure compounds are being reported for the first time from this study. Their bioactivity and structural elucidation are discussed.

Korir BK, Nyariki DM, Nyariki DM. "Effects of Selected Routine Husbandry Practices on Growth Rate of Weaned Small East African Goats." Research Journal of Animal Sciences. 2010;4(Issue: 2 ):66-71. Abstract

Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the effects of overnight housing, helminthes control, supplementation and their combinations on average weight gain of weaned Small East African Goats (SEAG) in the semi-arid southeastern rangelands of Kenya. The study also evaluated the economic viability of these goat husbandry practices. About 40 weaned Small East African Goats of similar age (7±1 months) and weights (21±3 kg) were randomly assigned to the following eight treatments: housing (Th); helminthes control (Td); supplementation (Ts); housing+supplementation (Ths); housing+helminthes control (Thd); supplementation+ helminthes control (Tsd); housing+supplementation+helminthes control (Thsd) and control (Tc-traditional husbandry). All the animals were weighed every week and weight gains calculated as the difference between the current and previous weight. The experiment lasted for 18 weeks. All treatment groups consistently exhibited higher average weekly weight gains than the control over the entire trial period. However, the enhanced weight gains were not statistically significant (p<0.05) up to the end of 3rd week. On the 4th week, however all treatment groups except housing, registered significantly (p<0.05) higher weight gains than the control. Overall a combination of all the three treatments (Thsd) had the highest impact on the goats weight gain (6.95 kg) followed by Tsd (6.65 kg). The cost-benefit analysis indicated that the most cost-effective treatment was helminthes control with a Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR) of 9.45. Supplementation and supplementation combined with helminthes control with 2.35 and 2.75 RBCs, respectively were also cost-effective. The results of this study support the conclusion that housing; control of internal parasites; enhancement of nutrition or a combination of any of these practices has the potential of substantially improving the weight gain rate of weaned Small East African Goats which would translate into increased off-take and ultimately, income.

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