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Forthcoming
Wambui K, Muiru N, Amatsimbi M. "The Kenya Media: A Brief History.". In: Voices of Media Veterans: Reflections over 70 Years on Communication and Media in Kenya . Nairobi: University of Nairobi & Ford Foundation; Forthcoming.
Amadi H. "Local Government Functions in a Societal Perspective: Evolution of Government-Society Relations in Kenya".". In: Local Government: A Global Perspective.; Forthcoming.
Ayiemba EHO. "Marriage and Family Patterns.". In: Kenya Population Situation Analysis, Nairobi. Nairobi: UNFPA; Forthcoming.
Amatsimbi M, Wambui K. "Media Veterans in Kenya: Archival Records.". In: Voices of Media Veterans: Reflections over 70 Years on Communication and Media in Kenya . University of Nairobi & Ford Foundation; Forthcoming.
Bunyangha J, Majaliwa MJG, Muthumbi AW, Gichuki NN, Anthony Egeru. "Past and future land use/land cover changes from multi-temporal Landsat imagery in Mpologoma catchment, eastern Uganda." The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Sciences. Forthcoming.
Awele BSJ&. Practising IP Law in Kenya and Africa. Lusaka, Zambia.; Forthcoming.
Moses MP, Abungu NO. "REDUCING REAL AND REACTIVE POWER LOSSES IN THE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM BY DFIG PLACEMENT AND SIZING USING ORDINARY PSO AND HGAPSO : A COMPARISON." International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering. Forthcoming. Abstractijetae_paper_forthcoming_paper.pdf

Due to the increased importance of DFIGs in optimization of real and reactive power losses and the maintenance of voltage profile, the general methods of DG placement and sizing in the existing literature cannot be of practical importance in DFIG .In this paper a pure PSO method used in general DG is compared with a HGAPSO in the siting and sizing of DFIG with the objective of minimizing power losses. The corresponding Combined participation factors are assigned using the DFIG Domain Distributed Slack Bus Model and a comparison made on the two schemes of loss minimization.

Anne Wanjiku Ngari. A study of supply chain management practices at the University of Nairobi. UNES Chiromo Conference Center; Forthcoming.abstract_scm.pdf
Mungania G. Ufundishaji wa Kiswahili katika shule za upili chini ya mfumo wa 8-4-4 (Kidato cha Kwanza). Anonymous, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi.; Forthcoming.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. "Forthcoming: History of Adult Education in Africa to be published by Pearson Education, South Africa and UNESCO.". In: To be published by Pearson Education, South Africa and UNESCO. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; Forthcoming. Abstract

Tetralones were converted to tetralinylamines via Leuckart reaction.These were then used to protect carboxamide side-chains of glutamine and asparagine. Clevage studies using trifluoroacetic acid and boron tristrifluoroacetate were then done on these derivatives. The groups 1-tetralinyl, 5,7-dimethyl-1-tetralinyl and 7-methoxy-1-tetralinyl were found to be good carboxamide protecting groups in asparagine.

Submitted
Atoh FO. "Exploring the New Ohangla Music in the Context of Urbanization: The Search for Relevance for Sustainability. .". In: International Conference on Refocusing Music and Performing Arts for Sustainable Development . Kabarak University ; Submitted.
with and SH, Brouder A-M. " `Food Safety Requirements and Food Exports from Developing Countries: The Case of Fish Exports from Kenya to the European Union’ ." American Journal of Agricultural Economics. Submitted;82(5) Number 5, :1159-1169.
Akech M, Kameri-Mbote P. "7) Kenyan Courts and Politics of the Rule of Law in the Post-Authoritarian State ." EAST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF PEACE AND HUMAN RIGHTS. Submitted;18(357 ):2.
Owakah F, Aswani DR. "African Ontology: It’s Implications on Socio-Political Development.". In: Reflections of African Societies and Development: Perspectives from African Philosophers.; Submitted.
Akama MK. Current pattern of road traffic accidents, maxillofacial and associated injuries in Nairobi.; Submitted. Abstract

Objective: To describe the characteristics and pattern of maxillofacial and concomitant injuries sustained in Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs).
Study Area: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).
Study Design: A descriptive cross sectional study including all patients involved in RTAs
brought to casualty and dental departments of KNH as well as accident victims admitted to the
KNH mortuary over a four- month period from September 2004 to December 2004.
Results: A total of 482 people involved in RTAs were included in the study. Four hundred and
thirteen (85.7%) had non-fatal injuries whereas 69 (14.3%) had sustained fatal injuries.
Nonfatal injuries. The 21-30-year-old age group was the most affected. The male to female ratio
was 4:1. Day time injuries were recorded among 60.3% of the participants. The incidence of
RTAs was highest on Fridays. There were 245 (59.5%) pedestrians and 139 (33.7%) passengers
involved. Most accidents were caused by passenger service vehicles (matatu) which were
responsible for 256 (62%) casualties whereas private saloon cars were involved in 150 (36.3%)
cases. Non- use of safety belts was reported in 90 (56.6%) cases whereas over-speeding was
reported by 120 (29.1 %) casualties. Alcohol use by drivers was reported in 26 (6.3%) cases
whereas vehicle defects accounted for 62 (15%) cases.Three hundred and seventy (89.6%)
casualties had soft tissue injuries (STls) involving the craniofacial region with facial cuts being the
majority (69.2%). Two hundred and seventy three (66.1 %) incidents of other STls than those of
the head region were noted, the lower limbs accounting for 45.4% of these. Only 5.1% of the
casualties had fractures involving the maxillofacial skeleton. Skeletal injuries other than those
involving the maxillofacial region were found in 142 (34.1%) incidents. The lower limbs were
more affected with 61 (43%) incidents followed by the upper limbs (24.6%). Pedestrians were
IX
most involved in sustaining skeletal injuries than other categories of road users.
Fatal RTAs: Sixty nine (14.3%) of the 482 participants were fatally injured. The 21-30- year-old
age group was the most affected (20%). The male to female ratio was 3.3:1. Matatus and minibuses
were the leading cause of fatal accidents together having been responsible for 28 (40.6%) of
the accidents. Pedestrians (71.4%) were by far more involved than other categories of road users.
Most participants had multiple injuries with chest injuries having been the most common (50
cases). Fourty six (66.7%) victims had injuries to the head region with subdural haemorrhage
having been the commonest injury found at autopsy (47.8%). Injuries to the chest were found in
fifty (72.2%) victims whereas abdominal and limb injuries were recorded in 42 (60.9%) and 34
(49.3%) victims respectively. Head injury alone was the leading cause of death (37.7%) followed
by head and chest injuries combined (13.0%)
Conclusion: The majority of people involved in RTAs were in their third decade of life with
males having been the predominant group affected. Pedestrians were the leading casualties
amongst road users. Most of the accidents were caused by passenger service vehicles. The lower
limbs sustained most soft tissue and skeletal injuries compared to other anatomic sites other than
the craniofacial area. The leading cause of death was head injury.

Mbuge DO, Kanyara MM, B.K.Mutai E, Murunga S, Mutuli DA, Agullo J. "The Effect of Drying Temperature on Nutrient levels in Oyster Mushroom." AJST. Submitted; ( ). Abstractdocument_2.pdf

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Wazid AM, Anyenda OE, Tole NM. "Eye Lens and Thyroid gland dose during CT head scanning in Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." South Africa Journal of Radiology. Submitted.
Plasman, M., Tiberi, C., Ebinger, C., Albaric, J., Peyrat, S., Déverchère, J., Le Gall, B., Tarits, P., Roecker, S., Wambura, R. MMAG, Wambura, R. MMAG, Wambura, R. MMAG, Mtelela, K. MKHPGMGS, Msabi, M. KHPGGSJ. "Lithospheric low-velocity zones associated with a magmatic segment of the Tanzanian Rift, East Africa." Geophyscical Journal International. Submitted.
Weinstein, A. EORTALWAGMCSS, Ebinger, C. ORTALWAGMSSC, Oliva, S. RTALWAGMSCM, Roecker, S. TALWAGMCMC, Tiberi, C. ALWAGMMCE, Aman, M. LWAGMCEJ, Lambert, C. WAGMEJS, Witkin, E. AGMJS, Albaric, J. GMS, Gautier, S. M, Muzuka, A. MKHI-KMFPMRGGR, Mulibo, G. KG, Kianji, G., Hadfield, R. I-KMFPMRFMR, Illsley-Kemp, F. MFPMRMRS, Msabi, M. FPMRRSJ, Ferdinand, R. PMRSJ, Peyrat, S. MRJ, Muirhead, J. R, Rodzianko, A., Fischer T. "Magmatic Co2 assisted rifitng in East Africa : seismicity of the Magadi-Natron-Manyara basins, Africa. Submitted to Tectonics." tectonics. Submitted.
Akech M. "Privatization and Democracy in East Africa: The Promise of Administrative Law.". Submitted. Abstractprivatization_and_democracy.pdfWebsite

This book explores the role of democracy and Public Law in privatization processes in the three East African countries of Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. In particular, the book recommends the creation of strongly institutionalized Administrative Law frameworks to facilitate meaningful democratization of privatization processes in these countries. The book anticipates that such reforms would enhance the day-to-day accountability of, and public participation in, privatization processes in the three countries. The book seeks to contribute to the study of the relationship between Public Law, markets and democracy in African countries. Its particular contribution is the argument that privatization processes can only be efficient, fair and legitimate if they are democratic, that is, participatory and accountable.

Bhatt B, Angeyo KH, Dehayem-Kamadjeu A. Rapid Nuclear Forensics Analysis via Laser Based Microphotonic Techniques Coupled with Chemometrics. Hangzhou, China; Submitted.
Muia JMK, Kariuki JN, Mbugua PN, Gachuiri CK, Lukibisi LB, Ayako WO, Ngunjiri WV. "Smallholder dairy production in high altitude Nyandarua milk-shed in Kenya: Status, challenges and opportunities.". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

A stratified sampling method was used to select 156 dairying households from representative Divisions in Nyandarua County. The stratification was based on cattle grazing systems (CGS) and agro-ecological zones (AEZs) across the Divisions. The objectives of the study were to assess status of smallholder dairy cattle production in relationship to CGS and AEZ, major challenges facing smallholder dairy production, and the opportunities for improvement. Data collected included the characteristics of the farm, family, farmer, feeds and feeding, dairy cattle and their performance, milk uses and markets, and the dairy production services. The information on the challenges facing dairy production and the opportunities for improvement was obtained from discussions with livestock extension workers, dairy co-operatives, milk processors, and from secondary sources. The present results indicated that the average farm size was 3.5 Ha and 41, 38, and 44% of the households fed dairy stock with improved fodders, grass hay, and concentrate supplements, respectively. Among the households, about 44, 38 and 32% had access to artificial insemination (AI), extension, and all weather roads services, respectively. Households keeping crosses of the dairy breeds were 59% while the average herd size was 5.3 heads consisting of 40% cows in milk. The average calf live-weight gain was 322g/ day and milk yield per cow was 8.4kg/day. About 65% of the milk was marketed at an average price of 15.00 KES/kg, equivalent to 0.205 US$/kg. As the levels of dairy intensification increased, there were significant increase in milk production per hectare and decrease in calf live-weight gains (P<0.05). On the other hand, as the level of agricultural potential increased, there were significant decreases in milk production and marketed milk per farm (P<0.05). It was concluded that smallholder dairy cattle production was below the potential for Nyandarua County and was influenced by the CGS and AEZs. The major challenges in smallholder dairy production included poor road network and milk marketing, high costs and inaccessibility of dairy production inputs and support services, inappropriate dairy production technologies, and limited value addition of milk.

Okeng'o GO, Malo JO, Awuor JB, Genga RO. "Testing Structure Formation in the Universe via Coupled Matter Fluids.". Submitted.
Gripenberg U, Saarinen I, Bwibo NO, Oduori ML, Grayburn JA, Awori NW, Wasunna AE, Kinuthia DM. "Two true hermaphrodites with XX chromosomes.". Submitted.
Akunda EM, Kumar B. "Using internal plant water status as a criterion for scheduling irrigation in coffee in east of rift valley Kenya.". In: Kenya coffee vol. 47. No. 560, 281- 284. Kisipan, M.L.; Submitted. Abstract

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Adwok JA, Githaiga JW. "Wandering spleen presenting as a right hypochondrial mass and intestinal obstruction.". Submitted. Abstract

This is a case report of a 23 year old multiparous woman who presented with intestinal obstruction and a right hypochondrial mass. Laparatomy revealed an infarcted 1.4 Kg spleen in the right lumbar region compressing the ascending colon. There was also ileal volvulus around the splenic pedicle. This is probably the first documented case of wandering spleen in the right hypochondrium, presenting as right large bowel obstruction, to be reported in our region. Wandering spleen is a rare condition, often asymptomatic, but may present as an acute abdomen. Pre-operative diagnosis is difficult and rarely made. Laboratory tests are seldom useful, but imaging studies do assist. Up to 1971 only 350 cases had been reported in the western literature. Review of English literature from 1900 to 1991 reported only 51 cases in children. In our region 11 cases were reported in Uganda between 1968 and 1971. No other literature is available from our region. Clinical presentation, aetiology, investigation, and management of wandering spleen is discussed

Githaiga JW, Adwok JA. "Wandering spleen presenting as a right hypochondrial mass and intestinal obstruction.". Submitted. Abstract

This is a case report of a 23 year old multiparous woman who presented with intestinal obstruction and a right hypochondrial mass. Laparatomy revealed an infarcted 1.4 Kg spleen in the right lumbar region compressing the ascending colon. There was also ileal volvulus around the splenic pedicle. This is probably the first documented case of wandering spleen in the right hypochondrium, presenting as right large bowel obstruction, to be reported in our region. Wandering spleen is a rare condition, often asymptomatic, but may present as an acute abdomen. Pre-operative diagnosis is difficult and rarely made. Laboratory tests are seldom useful, but imaging studies do assist. Up to 1971 only 350 cases had been reported in the western literature. Review of English literature from 1900 to 1991 reported only 51 cases in children. In our region 11 cases were reported in Uganda between 1968 and 1971. No other literature is available from our region. Clinical presentation, aetiology, investigation, and management of wandering spleen is discussed

Aduda BOC, Egbe PDDDAM, Musembi RJ, WAITA SEBASTIAN, Kaduki KA, Simiyu J, Agacho A, Nyongesa F. "ANSOLE Mini-Symposium in Kenya (AMSK 2013).". Submitted. Abstract
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AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM, K. MRNGARISAMUEL. ""Application of Ground Charcoal as a Coarse Medium in Dual Media Filtration of Water". East African Journal of Engineering.". In: Jadini Beach Hotel, Mombasa. IBIMA Publishing; Submitted. Abstract
Joint exhibition of paintings and sculptures
AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM, K. MRNGARISAMUEL. ""Application of Ground Charcoal as a Coarse Medium in Dual Media Filtration of Water". East African Journal of Engineering.". In: Canadian and International Education Journal. VOL: 19, No:1'1990. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; Submitted. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM, K. MRNGARISAMUEL. ""Application of Ground Charcoal in the Removal of Organic Matter in Water Treatment". East African Journal of Engineering.". In: East African Journal of Engineering. IBIMA Publishing; Submitted. Abstract
Joint exhibition of paintings and sculptures
AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM, K. MRNGARISAMUEL. ""Application of Ground Charcoal in the Removal of Organic Matter in Water Treatment". East African Journal of Engineering.". In: East African Journal of Engineering. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; Submitted. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

ARAP MRKENDUIWOJOHNK. "An Application of The Transportation Model: The case of Inter-factory Transfer of Bulk Whole Milk at The Kenya co-operative Creameries (KCC) Limited (MBA Research project paper of the University of Nairobi).". In: E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27. Folio Morphol; Submitted. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
ABDULHALIM DRHUSSEIN. "DESCRIPTIVE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE ORAL HEALTH STATUS OF CHILDREN WITH CLEFT LIP AND PALATE IN NAIROBI ( A MASTERS THESIS).". In: A MASTERS THESIS. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; Submitted. Abstract
No abstracts available
A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER. "Haemaccel as a Plasma Volume Expander. A Clinical Trial - Bulletin of the Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research.". In: A Clinical Trial - Bulletin of the Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; Submitted. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Human Resources Development for the Water Sector in the Next Decade.". In: Proceedings of 4th African Water Technology Conference,. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; Submitted. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

ARAP MRKENDUIWOJOHNK. "International Conference on Social Implications of Computers in Developing Countries, Nairobi, Kenya, Presented a paper.". In: E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27. Folio Morphol; Submitted. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
ARAP MRKENDUIWOJOHNK. "The Physical Ditribution Problems: The Need and th Application of Linear Programming Techniques (An M.B.A. Independent Paper of the University of Nairobi,.". In: E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27. Folio Morphol; Submitted. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Pollution Profile of Thika River.". In: Proceedings of 17th WEDC International Conference on Infrastructure, Environment, Water and People. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; Submitted. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

A. EO. "The Post-Colonial Historiography of Kenya." University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
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AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "River Pollution profile: A case Study of Thika River. Proceedings of National Seminar on Technological Solutions for Economic Development in Kenya now and in the 21st Century,.". In: Canadian and International Education Journal. VOL: 19, No:1'1990. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; Submitted. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Simth, WCS and Mwanthi, MA: Tick borne disease .". In: Book Chapter in Medicine and Environment Text Book 2009).; Submitted. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Xerophthalmia among Kenyan children aged four to seven years in high risk using Conjuctival Impression Cytology and transfer. DESIGN: A cross sectional community based study. SETTING: Mathare slum in Nairobi and Tiva/Ithiani area of Kitui. SUBJECTS: Children aged four to seven years residing in the above areas were assessed for both clinical and cytological features of vitamin A deficiency. RESULTS: Of the 342 children included in this study, 316 (92.0%) were normal, five (1.5%) had XN, 19 (5.9% had XIA and two (0.6%) had XIB. No signs of corneal Xerophthalmia were seen in this study. Conjuctival impression cytology and transfer (CICT) was used to asses for squamous metaplastic changes associated with Vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Seventy five (23.1%) of the children were normal by CICT while 249 (76.9%) were abnormal. In comparing the two areas of study, only 13.2% of the children in Mathare had normal CICT compared to 50% in Kitui. For each of the age groups studied there was significant difference between the two areas with children from Mathare being more deficient than those from Kitui. CONCLUSION: VAD is a significant health problem in the high risk areas assessed by CICT in this study.
Zhu Y, Zhou Y, Utama MIB, de la Mata M{\'ıa, Zhao Y, Zhang Q, Peng B, Magen C, Arbiol J, Xiong Q. "Supplementary Information Solution Phase van der Waals Epitaxy of ZnO Wire Arrays.". Submitted. Abstract
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ASIAGO DORCAH, GATHII ALICE, Ngesu LM, Gunga SO, Gakuru A, Kahigi C, Nyaga VK, Oundo MB, Kamoyo JM, ADEGBORO JS, others. "TEACHERS’PERCEPTIONS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL PRACTICES IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN LIMURU DISTRICT.". Submitted. Abstract
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AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Upflow Filters in Flocculation and Direct Filtration of Waters of High Turbidity; Ph.D. Thesis,.". In: Tampere University of Technology, Finland,. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; Submitted. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

M DRININDAJOSEPH, A. DROKOOLARAPHAELE. "Wet periods along the East Africa Coast and the extreme wet spell event of October 1997.". In: A Journal in Meteorology and Related Sciences. Kenya Met Soc; Submitted.
In Press
Atoh F. "Boniface Mganga.". In: Kenyan Musicians - A Biography Volume 2. Nairobi: Permanent Presidential Music Commission; In Press.
Obiero JPO, Gumbe LO, Omuto CT, Hassan MA, Agullo JO. "Development of Pedotransfer functions for saturated hydraulic conductivity." Open Journal of Modern Hydrology. In Press.
D.O. O, Mavuti KM, Aloo-Obudho P, Ojuok JE, Britton JR. "Fish habitat suitability and community structure in an equatorial Lake Naivasha, Kenya. ." Hydrobiologia . In Press.
2022
Mary T. Simiyu, Nyongesa FW, Birech Z, Njenga L, Ilin N, Thomas F. Krauss, Pitruzzello G, Aduda BO. "Application Of Molasses In Improving Water Purification Efficiency Of Diatomaceous Earth-Waste Ceramic Membranes.". In: EAI International Conference on Innovations and Interdisciplinary Solutions for Underserved Areas (INTERSOL 2022) . Nile University Of Nigeria Abuja ; 2022. Abstract

The World Health Organization predicts that 90.0% of the 2.3 million people who die annually due to water-borne diseases come from developing countries. At the same time fluorosis occurrence in the world’s geological fluoride belts has left many people maimed due to drinking highly fluoridated water. This work reports on the use of molasses in making carbon-activated diatomaceous earth waste (DE-waste) ceramic membranes with improved mechanical strength and water purification efficiency. The fabricated diatomaceous membranes were soaked in molasses for 24.0 hours and fired at 600.0 for 3.0 hours. The carbon-activated membranes were used to filter water contaminated with Escherichia coli, Rotavirus, and sodium fluoride. The activated carbon obtained in this work had a bulk density of 450.0 kg/m3 and it reduced the porosity of the DE-waste membranes by 18.0%. The activated carbon improved the modulus of rupture (MOR) of the DE-waste membrane by 47.8% and the average pore size of the active DE-waste membrane was 18.4 nm. The filtration process was found to be dependent on the contaminant’s size, concentration, and the external pressure applied to the water during the filtration process. The filtration efficiency of >99.9 in E. coli was concentration and pressure. Membranes reported efficiency of 97.1% and 98.9% in deflouridation and Rotavirus filtration. Thus, molasses is potential material in fabrication of water membranes

Vannevel V, Vogel JP, Pattinson RC, Adanu R, Charantimath U, Goudar SS, Gwako G, Kavi A, Maya E, Osoti A, Pujar Y, Qureshi ZP, Rulisa S, Botha T, Oladapo OT. "Antenatal Doppler screening for fetuses at risk of adverse outcomes: a multicountry cohort study of the prevalence of abnormal resistance index in low-risk pregnant women." BMJ Open. 2022;12(3):e053622. Abstract

Few interventions exist to address the high burden of stillbirths in apparently healthy pregnant women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). To establish whether a trial on the impact of routine Doppler screening in a low-risk obstetric population is warranted, we determined the prevalence of abnormal fetal umbilical artery resistance indices among low-risk pregnant women using a low-cost Doppler device in five LMICs.

Syvitski J, Ángel JR, Saito Y, Overeem I, Vörösmarty CJ, Wang H, Olago D. "Earth’s sediment cycle during the Anthropocene.". 2022;3(3):179-196. AbstractWebsite

The global sediment cycle is a fundamental feature of the Earth system, balancing competing factors such as orogeny, physical–chemical erosion and human action. In this Review, values of the magnitudes of several sources and sinks within the cycle are suggested, although the record remains fragmented with uncertainties. Between 1950 and 2010, humans have transformed the mobilization, transport and sequestration of sediment, to the point where human action now dominates these fluxes at the global scale. Human activities have increased fluvial sediment delivery by 215% while simultaneously decreasing the amount of fluvial sediment that reaches the ocean by 49%, and societal consumption of sediment over the same period has increased by more than 2,500%. Global warming is also substantially affecting the global sediment cycle through temperature impacts (sediment production and transport, sea ice cover, glacial ice ablation and loss of permafrost), precipitation changes, desertification and wind intensities, forest fire extent and intensity, and acceleration of sea-level rise. With progressive improvements in global digital datasets and modelling, we should be able to obtain a comprehensive picture of the impacts of human activities and climate warming.

Githiora-Murimi YW, Owuor MA, Abila R, Olago D, Oriaso S. "Integrating stakeholder preferences into ecosystem services mapping in Yala wetland, Kenya." Ecosystems and PeopleEcosystems and People. 2022;18(1):146-163. AbstractWebsite
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Plisnier P-D, Kayanda R, MacIntyre S, Obiero K, Okello W, Vodacek A, Cocquyt C, Abegaz H, Achieng A, Akonkwa B, Albrecht C, Balagizi C, Barasa J, Abel Bashonga R, Bashonga Bishobibiri A, Bootsma H, Borges AV, Chavula G, Dadi T, De Keyzer ELR, Doran PJ, Gabagambi N, Gatare R, Gemmell A, Getahun A, Haambiya LH, Higgins SN, Hyangya BL, Irvine K, Isumbisho M, Jonasse C, Katongo C, Katsev S, Keyombe J, Kimirei I, Kisekelwa T, Kishe M, Otoung A. Koding S, Kolding J, Kraemer BM, Limbu P, Lomodei E, Mahongo SB, Malala J, Mbabazi S, Masilya PM, McCandless M, Medard M, Migeni Ajode Z, Mrosso HD, Mudakikwa ER, Mulimbwa N'sibula, Mushagalusa Déo, Muvundja FA, Nankabirwa A, Nahimana D, Ngatunga BP, Ngochera M, Nicholson S, Nshombo M, Ntakimazi G, Nyamweya C, Ikwaput Nyeko J, Olago D, Olbamo T, O'Reilly CM, Pasche N, Phiri H, Raasakka N, Salyani A, Sibomana C, Silsbe GM, Smith S, Sterner RW, Thiery W, Tuyisenge J, Van der Knaap M, Van Steenberge M, van Zwieten PAM, Verheyen E, Wakjira M, Walakira J, Ndeo Wembo O, Lawrence T. "Need for harmonized long-term multi-lake monitoring of African Great Lakes.". 2022. AbstractWebsite

To ensure the long-term sustainable use of African Great Lakes (AGL), and to better understand the functioning of these ecosystems, authorities, managers and scientists need regularly collected scientific data and information of key environmental indicators over multi-years to make informed decisions. Monitoring is regularly conducted at some sites across AGL; while at others sites, it is rare or conducted irregularly in response to sporadic funding or short-term projects/studies. Managers and scientists working on the AGL thus often lack critical long-term data to evaluate and gauge ongoing changes. Hence, we propose a multi-lake approach to harmonize data collection modalities for better understanding of regional and global environmental impacts on AGL. Climate variability has had strong impacts on all AGL in the recent past. Although these lakes have specific characteristics, their limnological cycles show many similarities. Because different anthropogenic pressures take place at the different AGL, harmonized multi-lake monitoring will provide comparable data to address the main drivers of concern (climate versus regional anthropogenic impact). To realize harmonized long-term multi-lake monitoring, the approach will need: (1) support of a wide community of researchers and managers; (2) political goodwill towards a common goal for such monitoring; and (3) sufficient capacity (e.g., institutional, financial, human and logistic resources) for its implementation. This paper presents an assessment of the state of monitoring the AGL and possible approaches to realize a long-term, multi-lake harmonized monitoring strategy. Key parameters are proposed. The support of national and regional authorities is necessary as each AGL crosses international boundaries.

Cohen AS, Campisano CJ, Arrowsmith RJ, Asrat A, Beck CC, Behrensmeyer AK, Deino AL, Feibel CS, Foerster V, Kingston JD, Lamb HF, Lowenstein TK, Lupien RL, Muiruri V, Olago DO, Owen BR, Potts R, Russell JM, Schaebitz F, Stone JR, Trauth MH, Yost CL. "Reconstructing the Environmental Context of Human Origins in Eastern Africa Through Scientific Drilling." Annual Review of Earth and Planetary SciencesAnnual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. 2022. AbstractWebsite

Paleoanthropologists have long speculated about the role of environmental change in shaping human evolution in Africa. In recent years, drill cores of late Neogene lacustrine sedimentary rocks have yielded valuable high-resolution records of climatic and ecosystem change. Eastern African Rift sediments (primarily lake beds) provide an extraordinary range of data in close proximity to important fossil hominin and archaeological sites, allowing critical study of hypotheses that connect environmental history and hominin evolution. We review recent drill-core studies spanning the Plio?Pleistocene boundary (an interval of hominin diversification, including the earliest members of our genus Homo and the oldest stone tools), and the Mid?Upper Pleistocene (spanning the origin of Homo sapiens in Africa and our early technological and dispersal history). Proposed drilling of Africa's oldest lakes promises to extend such records back to the late Miocene. ?High-resolution paleoenvironmental records are critical for understanding external drivers of human evolution. ?African lake basin drill cores play a critical role in enhancing hominin paleoenvironmental records given their continuity and proximity to key paleoanthropological sites. ?The oldest African lakes have the potential to reveal a comprehensive paleoenvironmental context for the entire late Neogene history of hominin evolution. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Volume 50 is May 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.Paleoanthropologists have long speculated about the role of environmental change in shaping human evolution in Africa. In recent years, drill cores of late Neogene lacustrine sedimentary rocks have yielded valuable high-resolution records of climatic and ecosystem change. Eastern African Rift sediments (primarily lake beds) provide an extraordinary range of data in close proximity to important fossil hominin and archaeological sites, allowing critical study of hypotheses that connect environmental history and hominin evolution. We review recent drill-core studies spanning the Plio?Pleistocene boundary (an interval of hominin diversification, including the earliest members of our genus Homo and the oldest stone tools), and the Mid?Upper Pleistocene (spanning the origin of Homo sapiens in Africa and our early technological and dispersal history). Proposed drilling of Africa's oldest lakes promises to extend such records back to the late Miocene. ?High-resolution paleoenvironmental records are critical for understanding external drivers of human evolution. ?African lake basin drill cores play a critical role in enhancing hominin paleoenvironmental records given their continuity and proximity to key paleoanthropological sites. ?The oldest African lakes have the potential to reveal a comprehensive paleoenvironmental context for the entire late Neogene history of hominin evolution. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Volume 50 is May 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

NW N, J N-M, AN K, M O, C M, T C, MJ O, JM O, S K. " Culture of Kenyan Goat (Capra hircus) Undifferentiated Spermatogonia in Feeder-Free Conditions." Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 2022;9.
Mbindyo SN, Abuom TO, KITAA JAFREDMA. "Antibiotic Resistance and Stewardship in Small Animal Practice-A Review." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences. 2022;5(1):1102.
Abdirahman FA, Wahome RG. "Assessment of the effects of Newcastle disease vaccination on chicken mortality and egg production rates in Machakos town sub-county, Kenya." International Journal of Livestock Production. 2022;12(4):168-175.
A. K, Mbugua J. K., A.G. W, Mbui D.N., J. K, I. M, S.O. W. "Bio-Remediation of Lambda Cyhalothrin, Malathion and Chlorpyrifos Using Anaerobic." Digestion Bio-Slurry Microbes. Medicon Agriculture & Environmental Sciences.. 2022;2(5):03-12.
A. K, Mbugua J. K., Mbui D.N., J.G.N. K, I. M, S.O. W. "Bio-Remediation of Lambda Cyhalothrin, Malathion and Chlorpyrifos Using Microbial Fuel Cells. ." International Journal of Scientific Research in Chemistry (IJSRCH). . 2022;7(2):22-32.
Malenje EM, Ayao Missohou SFT, König EZ, Jung’a JO, Bett RC, Marshall K. "Economic Analysis of Smallholder Dairy Cattle Enterprises In Senegal.". 2022.
OMAYIO DUKEG, Abong' GO, Okoth MW, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Mwang'ombe AW. "Effect of pulping methods on the physicochemical properties of the Kenyan red and white‐fleshed guava pulp." JSFA Reports. 2022;2(3):131-142.
Ali H, Nguta J, Musila F, Ole-Mapenay I, Matara D, Mailu J. "Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity, Cytotoxicity, and Phytochemical Composition of Ocimum americanum L. (Lamiaceae)." Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2022;2022:11.
Al H, Nguta J, Musila F, Ole-Mapenay I, Matara D, Mailu J. "Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity, Cytotoxicity, and Phytochemical Composition of Ocimum americanum L. (Lamiaceae)." Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicin. 2022;2022:11.
A. Jesang, A.N. Kipyegon MMHMEO. "FARM-LEVEL FACTORS AFFECTING DAIRY GOAT ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN KENYA." East African Agriculture and Forestry Journal. 2022;85(Special):250-261.goat_ai_publication_2022-_ascah_et._mutembei.pdf
A J, AN K, HM M, EO M. "Farm-level factors affecting dairy goat artificial insemination in Kenya ." East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. 2022;85:250-261.
L. G, A W. "Financing the Future of the WHO ." Lancet. 2022;399(10334):1445-1447.
Runtuwene LR, Sathirapongsasuti N, Srisawat R, Komalamisra N, Tuda JSB, EMongan A, Aboge GO. "Global research alliance in infectious disease: a collaborative effort to combat infectious diseases through dissemination of portable sequencing." BMC Research Notes . 2022;(2022) 15:44 .
Heng YY, Asad I, Coleman B, Menard L, Benki-Nugent S, Faridah H Were, Karr CJ, McHenry MS. "Heavy metals and neurodevelopment of children in low and middle-income countries: A systematic review." PLOS ONE. 2022;17(3).
J.K.M., A.K., M. DN, K JGN, S.O.W, A.G.W. "Microbial Fuel Cell Bio-Remediation of Lambda Cyhalothrin, Malathion and Chlorpyrifos on Loam Soil Inoculated with Bio-Slurry. ." American Journal of Environment and Climate. 2022;1(1):34-41.
Su R, Wu J, Hu J, Ma L, Ahmed S, Zhang Y, Abdulraheem MI, Birech Z, Li L, Li C, Wei W. "Minimalizing Non-Point Source Pollution Using a Cooperative Ion Selection Electrode System for Estimating Nitrate Nitrogen in Soil." Frontiers in Plant Science. 2022;12:810214.
N ONURAC, J JAMESG, W MUTHUMBIA, W WANG’ONDUV, A SIGANAD. "Performance of African catfish Clarias gariepinus larvae fed on formulated diets containing Spirulina platensis and Eisenia fetida ." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2022;3(2).
OMAYIO DUKEG, Abong’ GO, Okoth MW, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Mwangombe AW. "Physicochemical and Processing Qualities of Guava Varieties in Kenya." International Journal of Fruit Science. 2022;22(1):329-345.
Omweri LG, Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Ndwigah SN. "Quality of povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine-based oral care products in Nairobi, Kenya." F1000Research. 2022;11:343. Abstract

Background: The oral cavity harbors many microbes that may cause diseases, including dental caries and periodontal diseases. Progressive inflammation from periodontal diseases may lead to gum detachment from the teeth. Povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine mouth rinses and gargles are broad-spectrum antimicrobial products that effectively manage dental caries and periodontal diseases and eliminate plaques. This study was conducted in Nairobi County, Kenya to establish the quality of povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine oral care products by determining the content of the active pharmaceutical ingredient and compliance with labeling requirements.
Methods: A total of 34 samples (from 15 brands) of povidone-iodine and 15 samples (from nine brands) of chlorhexidine were collected from retail pharmacies using convenience sampling. All samples were subjected to labeling analysis, identity, and assay tests. Potentiometric titration was used to assay povidone-iodine in the samples, while chlorhexidine was assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) according to British Pharmacopeia 2017 specifications.
Results: All samples complied with identification tests. Moreover, 47.1% of povidone-iodine and 66.7% of chlorhexidine products complied with pharmacopoeial assay specifications. Five povidone-iodine (14.7%) and four chlorhexidine (26.7%) samples had missing label information on the storage conditions and the address of the manufacturer.
Conclusions: Strict adherence to current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) by manufacturers of povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine mouthwashes/gargles is necessary to guarantee quality assured products in the market. Regular post-market surveillance and regulatory enforcement of standards are instrumental in minimizing the circulation of poor-quality products.

D O, J.N O, A.S O. "Quantification and Characterization of Tannins in Plectranthus barbatus Andrews Water Extracts in Nyamira County, Kenya." Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences. . 2022;Articles in Press.
Watene G-A, Aboge G, Gitau G, Nthiwa D, Bett B. "Seroprevalence And Risk Factors Of Coxiella Burnetii Infecting Cattle Raised In Pastoral Areas Of Narok, Kenya." Research square. 2022.
A. K, Mbugua J. K., Mbui D.N., J. K, I. M, S.O. W. "Voltage Recovery from Pesticides Doped Tomatoes, Cabbages and Loam Soil Inoculated with Rumen Waste: Microbial Fuel Cells. ." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology (IJSRSET).. 2022;9(2):172-180.
Zhang Q, Nam J-S, Han J, Datta S, Wei N, Ding E-X, Hussain A, Ahmad S, Skakalova V, Khan AT, others. "Large-Diameter Carbon Nanotube Transparent Conductor Overcoming Performance–Yield Tradeoff." Advanced Functional Materials. 2022;32:2103397. Abstract
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Zhang J, Peng B, Kim S, Monifi F, Jiang X, Li Y, Yu P, Liu L, Liu Y-xi, Alu A, others. "Optomechanical dissipative solitons (vol 600, pg 75, 2021)." NATURE. 2022. Abstract
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Zhang J, Peng B, Kim S, Monifi F, Jiang X, Li Y, Yu P, Liu L, Liu Y-xi, Alù A, others. "Publisher Correction: Optomechanical dissipative solitons." Nature. 2022. Abstract
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Omweri LG, Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Ndwigah SN. "Quality of povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine-based oral care products in Nairobi, Kenya." F1000Research. 2022;11:343. Abstract
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2021
Faris AA, Akuon PO, Kalecha VO. "BER Performance of SSK Sequence Modulation.". In: IEEE AFRICON 2021. Arusha, Tanzania; 2021.
G N, A N. "MANAGERS’ LEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE IN DE: A CRITICAL DETERMINANT OF TUTOR-LEARNER INTERACTION IN BLENDED LEARNING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI.". In: 4TH ANNUAL FORENSIC VICTIMOLOGY AND VICTIM SUPPORT CONFERENCE, KENYA. Nairobi, Kenya; 2021.
A N, NM G. "Transformational leadership for School Principals as victims of Covid 19 Pandemic.". In: 4TH ANNUAL FORENSIC VICTIMOLOGY AND VICTIM SUPPORT CONFERENCE, KENYA. Nairobi, Kenya; 2021.
Akinyi J, Mwaniki A, Gichamba A, Kariuki D, Chand P, Munene S, Nyakinyua C, Nzangi B, Akinyi V, Betsy M, Cosmas K, Mwangi M. "NanoSatellite Platform for the University of Nairobi (NaSPUoN) Student Project.". In: 72nd International Astronautical Congress (IAC). Dubai, United Arab Emirates (presented online); 2021.
Dean WH, Buchan J, Gichuhi S, Philippin H, Arunga S, Mukome A, Admassu F, Lewis K, Makupa W, Otiti J, Kim MJ, Macleod D, Cook C, Burton MJ. "Simulation-based surgical education for glaucoma versus conventional training alone: the GLAucoma Simulated Surgery (GLASS) trial. A randomised controlled, educational intervention efficacy trial in Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe." Br J Ophthalmol. 2021. AbstractWebsite

Background/aim: Glaucoma accounts for 8% of global blindness and surgery remains an important treatment. We aimed to determine the impact of adding simulation-based surgical education for glaucoma.

Methods: We designed a randomised controlled, parallel-group trial. Those assessing outcomes were masked to group assignment. Fifty-one trainee ophthalmologists from six university training institutions in sub-Saharan Africa were enrolled by inclusion criteria of having performed no surgical trabeculectomies and were randomised. Those randomised to the control group received no placebo intervention, but received the training intervention after the initial 12-month follow-up period. The intervention was an intense simulation-based surgical training course over 1 week. The primary outcome measure was overall simulation surgical competency at 3 months.

Results: Twenty-five were assigned to the intervention group and 26 to the control group, with 2 dropouts from the intervention group. Forty-nine were included in the final intention-to-treat analysis. Surgical competence at baseline was comparable between the arms. This increased to 30.4 (76.1%) and 9.8 (24.4%) for the intervention and the control group, respectively, 3 months after the training intervention for the intervention group, a difference of 20.6 points (95% CI 18.3 to 22.9, p<0.001). At 1 year, the mean surgical competency score of the intervention arm participants was 28.6 (71.5%), compared with 11.6 (29.0%) for the control (difference 17.0, 95% CI 14.8 to 19.4, p<0.001).

Conclusion: These results support the pursuit of financial, advocacy and research investments to establish simulation surgery training units and courses including instruction, feedback, deliberate practice and reflection with outcome measurement to enable trainee glaucoma surgeons to engage in intense simulation training for glaucoma surgery.

Trial registration number: PACTR201803002159198.

Vogel JP, Vannevel V, Robbers G, Gwako G, Lavin T, Adanikin A, Hlongwane T, Pattinson RC, Qureshi ZP, Oladapo OT. "Prevalence of abnormal umbilical arterial flow on Doppler ultrasound in low-risk and unselected pregnant women: a systematic review." Reprod Health. 2021;18(1):38. Abstract

While Doppler ultrasound screening is beneficial for women with high-risk pregnancies, there is insufficient evidence on its benefits and harms in low- and unselected-risk pregnancies. This may be related to fewer events of abnormal Doppler flow, however the prevalence of absent or reversed end diastolic flow (AEDF or REDF) in such women is unknown. In this systematic review, we aimed to synthesise available data on the prevalence of AEDF or REDF.

Miruka SA, Aboge GO, Macharia RW, George O Obiero, Omwenga IM. "Beta hemolysin gene of Staphylococcus phage 3AJ_2017 genome is a suitable molecular marker for identification and characterization of pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus." Vet Med Sci. 2021. Abstract

Staphylococcus aureus cause diseases both in humans and animals. These diseases range from mild to fatal infections thus necessitating development of a specific molecular method for detection of pathogenic S. aureus.

Brizuela V, Cuesta C, Bartolelli G, Abdosh AA, Abou Malham S, Assarag B, Castro Banegas R, Díaz V, El-Kak F, El Sheikh M, Pérez AM, Souza JP, Bonet M, Abalos E. "Availability of facility resources and services and infection-related maternal outcomes in the WHO Global Maternal Sepsis Study: a cross-sectional study." Lancet Glob Health. 2021;9(9):e1252-e1261. Abstract

Infections are among the leading causes of maternal mortality and morbidity. The Global Maternal Sepsis and Neonatal Initiative, launched in 2016 by WHO and partners, sought to reduce the burden of maternal infections and sepsis and was the basis upon which the Global Maternal Sepsis Study (GLOSS) was implemented in 2017. In this Article, we aimed to describe the availability of facility resources and services and to analyse their association with maternal outcomes.

Burton MJ, Ramke J, Marques AP, Bourne RRA, Congdon N, Jones I, Ah Tong BAM, Arunga S, Bachani D, Bascaran C, Bastawrous A, Blanchet K, Braithwaite T, Buchan JC, Cairns J, Cama A, Chagunda M, Chuluunkhuu C, Cooper A, Crofts-Lawrence J, Dean WH, Denniston AK, Ehrlich JR, Emerson PM, Evans JR, Frick KD, Friedman DS, Furtado JM, Gichangi MM, Gichuhi S, Gilbert SS, Gurung R, Habtamu E, Holland P, Jonas JB, Keane PA, Keay L, Khanna RC, Khaw PT, Kuper H, Kyari F, Lansingh VC, Mactaggart I, Mafwiri MM, Mathenge W, McCormick I, Morjaria P, Mowatt L, Muirhead D, Murthy GVS, Mwangi N, Patel DB, Peto T, Qureshi BM, Salomão SR, Sarah V, Shilio BR, Solomon AW, Swenor BK, Taylor HR, Wang N, Webson A, West SK, Wong TY, Wormald R, Yasmin S, Yusufu M, Silva JC, Resnikoff S, Ravilla T, Gilbert CE, Foster A, Faal HB. "The Lancet Global Health Commission on Global Eye Health: vision beyond 2020." Lancet Glob Health. 2021;9(4):e489-e551.Website
Vogel JP, Comrie-Thomson L, Pingray V, Gadama L, Galadanci H, Goudar S, Rose Laisser, Lavender T, Lissauer D, Misra S, Pujar Y, Qureshi ZP, Amole T, Berrueta M, Dankishiya F, Gwako G, Homer CSE, Jobanputra J, Meja S, Nigri C, Mohaptra V, Osoti A, Roberti J, Solomon D, Suleiman M, Robbers G, Sutherland S, Vernekar S, Althabe F, Bonet M, Oladapo OT. "Usability, acceptability, and feasibility of the World Health Organization Labour Care Guide: A mixed-methods, multicountry evaluation." Birth. 2021;48(1):66-75. Abstract

The World Health Organization's (WHO) Labour Care Guide (LCG) is a "next-generation" partograph based on WHO's latest intrapartum care recommendations. It aims to optimize clinical care provided to women and their experience of care. We evaluated the LCG's usability, feasibility, and acceptability among maternity care practitioners in clinical settings.

Golden L, Chaya S, Reichmuth K, Visagie A, Ayuk A, Kwarteng Owusu S, Marangu D, Affendi N, Lakhan A, Gray D, Vanker A, Zar H, Zampoli M. "Aetiology and presentation of childhood pleural infections in the post-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era in South Africa." Afr J Thorac Crit Care Med. 2021;27(4). Abstract

Complications of respiratory infections including pleural effusion (PE) are associated with a high morbidity. Differentiating between PE caused by (Mtb) infection and other bacterial infections in endemic areas is difficult in children, thus, impacting treatment.

Baba MM, Bitew M, Fokam J, Lelo EA, Ahidjo A, Asmamaw K, Beloumou GA, Bulimo WD, Buratti E, Chenwi C, Dadi H, D'Agaro P, De Conti L, Fainguem N, Gadzama G, Maiuri P, Majanja J, Meshack W, Ndjolo A, Nkenfou C, Oderinde BS, Opanda SM, Segat L, Stuani C, Symekher SL, Takou D, Tesfaye K, Triolo G, Tuki K, Zacchigna S, Marcello A. "Diagnostic performance of a colorimetric RT -LAMP for the identification of SARS-CoV-2: A multicenter prospective clinical evaluation in sub-Saharan Africa.". 2021;40:101101. Abstract1-s2.0-s2589537021003813-main-1.pdf1-s2.0-s2589537021003813-main-1.pdfWebsite

BackgroundManagement and control of the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is critically dependent on quick and reliable identification of the virus in clinical specimens. Detection of viral RNA by a colorimetric reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) is a simple, reliable and cost-effective assay, deployable in resource-limited settings (RLS). Our objective was to evaluate the intrinsic and extrinsic performances of RT-LAMP in RLS.
Methods
This is a multicenter prospective observational study of diagnostic accuracy, conducted from October 2020 to February 2021 in four African Countries: Cameroon, Ethiopia, Kenya and Nigeria; and in Italy. We enroled 1657 individuals who were either COVID-19 suspect cases, or asymptomatic and presented for screening. RNA extracted from pharyngeal swabs was tested in parallel by a colorimetric RT-LAMP and by a standard real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
Findings
The sensitivity and specificity of index RT LAMP compared to standard RT-PCR on 1657 prospective specimens from infected individuals was determined. For a subset of 1292 specimens, which underwent exactly the same procedures in different countries, we obtained very high specificity (98%) and positive predictive value (PPV = 99%), while the sensitivity was 87%, with a negative predictive value NPV = 70%, Stratification of RT-PCR data showed superior sensitivity achieved with an RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) below 35 (97%), which decreased to 60% above 35.
Interpretation
In this field trial, RT-LAMP appears to be a reliable assay, comparable to RT-PCR, particularly with medium-high viral loads (Ct < 35). Hence, RT-LAMP can be deployed in RLS for timely management and prevention of COVID-19, without compromising the quality of output.

Peter SG, Kariuki HW, Aboge GO, Gakuya DW, Maingi N, Mulei CM. "Prevalence of Ticks Infesting Dairy Cattle and the Pathogens They Harbour in Smallholder Farms in Peri-Urban Areas of Nairobi, Kenya." Veterinary Medicine International. 2021;2021:9501648. AbstractWebsite

This study aimed at determining the tick species infesting dairy cattle in Nairobi, Kenya, and the pathogens they harbour. While ticks are well-known vectors of major bacterial pathogens of both veterinary importance and public health importance, few studies have investigated the range of the tick species and the associated pathogens, especially present in unique dairy production systems, which compromise animal welfare, such as those in peri-urban areas. A cross-sectional study was undertaken involving 314 randomly selected dairy cattle in 109 smallholder farms. Each animal was examined for attached ticks followed by morphological tick identification at the species level. Genomic DNA was extracted from each of the ticks, and 16S rDNA gene was amplified for pathogen identification. Sequencing of the amplicons and subsequent BLASTn analysis, multiple sequence alignment, and phylogenetic reconstruction were performed to confirm the species of the pathogens. Sixty-six (21.0%) of the cattle examined had ticks. A total of 94 adult ticks were found on the cattle, and of these, 63 (67.0%), 18 (19.1%), and 13 (13.8%) were in the genera Rhipicephalus, Amblyomma, and Hyalomma, respectively. Twelve tick species in Rhipicephalus genus and two in Amblyomma and Hyalomma genera were identified. Although Rh. decoloratus was the most prevalent tick (24.5% (23/94)), the emerging Rh. microplus (6.4% (6/94)) was also identified. The DNA of Rickettsia was detected in the ticks, with Rickettsia conorii in H. rufipes and A. variegatum, and Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Rh. microplus and H. rufipes, while Ehrlichia ruminantium and E. canis were in A. variegatum. In conclusion, the study reported a wide range of tick species present in the study area including Rhipicephalus microplus, which is an emerging tick species in parts of Kenya. The ticks harboured DNA of Rickettsia and Ehrlichia, highlighting possible animal and human health concerns. Hence, effective tick control strategies remain paramount to prevent potential diseases associated with the harboured pathogens.

MM B, M B, J F, EA L, A A, K A, GA B, WD B, E B, C C, H D, P D'A, L DC, N F, A M. "Diagnostic performance of a colorimetric RT -LAMP for the identification of SARS-CoV-2: A multicenter prospective clinical evaluation in sub-Saharan Africa." EClinicalMedicine. 2021. Abstract
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Araka E, Oboko R, Maina E, Gitonga RK. " A Conceptual Educational Data Mining Model for Supporting Self-Regulated Learning in Online Learning Environments." https://www.igi-global.com/. 2021:15. Abstract

Self-regulated learning is attracting tremendous researches from various communities such as information communication technology. Recent studies have greatly contributed to the domain knowledge that the use self-regulatory skills enhance academic performance. Despite these developments in SRL, our understanding on the tools and instruments to measure SRL in online learning environments is limited as the use of traditional tools developed for face-to-face classroom settings are still used to measure SRL on e-learning systems. Modern learning management systems (LMS) allow storage of datasets on student activities. Subsequently, it is now possible to use Educational Data Mining to extract learner patterns which can be used to support SRL. This chapter discusses the current tools for measuring and promoting SRL on e-learning platforms and a conceptual model grounded on educational data mining for implementation as a solution to promoting SRL strategies.

Debrah I, Afrane YA, Amoah LE, Ochwedo KO, Mukabana WR, Zhong D, Zhou G, Lee M, Onyango SA, Magomere EO, Atieli HE, Githeko AK, Yan G. ", Larval ecology and bionomics of Anopheles funestus in highland and lowland sites in western Kenya." PLoS ONE . 2021;16(10):e0255321.
Missiame A, Irungu P, Nyikal RA, Appiah-Kubi GD. ""Adoption of rural bank credit programs among smallholder farmers in Ghana: an average treatment effect estimation of rates of exposure and adoption and their determinants"." gricultural Finance Review. 2021. AbstractWebsite

Purpose
The study aims to estimate the rates of exposure to, and adoption of, rural bank credit programs by smallholder farmers in rural Ghana and the factors responsible for those rates.

Design/methodology/approach
The study used a random sample of 300 smallholder farmers in the Fanteakwa District of Ghana, obtained through the multistage sampling technique. The study also employed the average treatment effects approach to estimate the average treatment effect of farmers’ exposure to rural bank credit programs, on their adoption of such programs.

Findings
The actual adoption rate is approximately 41%, and the potential, conditional on the whole population being aware of rural bank credit programs, is approximately 61%. Accordingly, there is a gap of about 20% in the adoption of rural bank credit programs, and is due to the incomplete exposure of smallholder farmers to the rural bank credit programs. Age of the household head, access to extension services, membership in farmer-based organizations and active savings accounts with a rural bank are the major contributors to smallholder farmer exposure to and the adoption of rural bank credit programs.

Originality/value
The current study is the first of its kind to be conducted in Ghana on rural bank credit programs. It takes into account the extent to which smallholder farmers are exposed to such credit programs and how it influences their decisions to access or adopt.

Amecha SC, Njue PN. "Agile Risk Management as a Solution to the Failure of Kenyan Public Projects." American Journal of Engineering and Technology Management. 2021;6(3):35-40.
Abuga K, Nyamweya N. "Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers in COVID-19 Prevention: A Multidimensional Perspective." Pharmacy. 2021;9(1):64. Abstract

The global use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHS) as an important means of controlling the transmission of infectious disease has increased significantly as governments and public health agencies across the world advocated hand hygiene as a preventative measure during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although the performance of these products is most commonly defined as a function of their alcohol concentration, they are multifaceted products in which an interplay of several factors is important in determining efficacy. This paper discusses the interplay between ABHS input (formulation) factors and output (product performance) factors in the context of a multidimen-sional perspective using a novel representative paradigm. In the model, represented in the form of a three-dimensional tetrahedron, each of the faces represents inputs in the manufacturing of the ABHS product, which are the type and amount of alcohol, the inactive ingredients, the formulation and the manufacturing practices. The four corners of the tetrahedron represent the product per-formance factors which include product efficacy, sensory characteristics, usage and compliance and product safety. The multidimensional approach to the formulation and evaluation of ABHS shows that several factors contribute to the effectiveness and utility of these products. The paradigm provides a useful framework for manufacturers of ABHS and related healthcare products.

Babiaka SB, Simoben CV, Abuga KO, Mbah JA, Karpoormath R, Ongarora D, Mugo H, Monya E, Cho-Ngwa F, Sippl W, Loveridge JE, Ntie-Kang F. "Alkaloids with Anti-Onchocercal Activity from Voacanga africana Stapf (Apocynaceae): Identification and Molecular Modeling." Molecules. 2021;26(1):70. Abstract

A new iboga-vobasine-type isomeric bisindole alkaloid named voacamine A (1), along with eight known compounds—voacangine (2), voacristine (3), coronaridine (4), tabernanthine (5), ibox-ygaine (6), voacamine (7), voacorine (8) and conoduramine (9)—were isolated from the stem bark of Voacanga africana. The structures of the compounds were determined by comprehensive spec-troscopic analyses. Compounds 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8 were found to inhibit the motility of both the microfilariae (Mf) and adult male worms of Onchocerca ochengi, in a dose-dependent manner, but were only moderately active on the adult female worms upon biochemical assessment at 30 μM drug concentrations. The IC50 values of the isolates are 2.49–5.49 µM for microfilariae and 3.45–17.87 µM for adult males. Homology modeling was used to generate a 3D model of the O. ochengi thioredoxin reductase target and docking simulation, followed by molecular dynamics and binding free energy calculations attempted to offer an explanation of the anti-onchocercal struc-ture–activity relationship (SAR) of the isolated compounds. These alkaloids are new potential leads for the development of antifilarial drugs. The results of this study validate the traditional use of V. africana in the treatment of human onchocerciasis.

Onyambu CK, Angeline Anyona Aywak, Osiemo SK, Mutala TM. "Anaphylactic Reactions in Radiology Procedures.". In: Asthma. London: IntechOpen; 2021.
Armah FA, Henneh IT, Amponsah IK, Biney RP, F M, J A, W A, Ahmed MA, Adokoh CK, Adukpo G, O AD, Gathumbi PK. "Antidepressant and Anxiolytic Effects and Subchronic Toxicity of the Aerial Parts of Psychotria ankasensis J.B.Hall (Rubiaceae) in Murine Models." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International. 2021;Volume 2021, Article ID 5543320, 18 pages.armah_et_al_2021.pdf
Andima M, Ndakala A, Derese S, Biswajyoti S, Hussain A, Yang LJ, Akoth OE, Coghi P, Pal C, Heydenreich M, Wong VK-W, Yenesew A. "Antileishmanial and cytotoxic activity of secondary metabolites from Taberneamontana ventricosa and two aloe species." Natural Product Research. 2021:1-5. AbstractNatural Product Research

Description
In this study, the antileishmanial and cytotoxic activities of secondary metabolites isolated from Tabernaemontana ventricosa Hochst. ex A. DC., Aloe tororoana Reynolds, and Aloe schweinfurthii var. labworana Reynolds were investigated. Overall, nineteen known compounds were isolated from the three plant species. The compounds were characterized based on their spectroscopic data. Voacristine and aloenin were the most active compounds against promastigotes of antimony-sensitive Leishmania donovani (IC50 11 ± 5.2 μM and 26 ± 6.5 µM, respectively) with low toxicity against RAW264.7, murine monocyte/macrophage-like cells. The in silico docking evaluation and in vitro NO generation assay also substantially support the antileishmanial effects of these compounds. In a cytotoxicity assay against cancer and normal cell lines, ursolic acid highly inhibited proliferation of lung cancer cells, A549 …

Andima M, Ndakala A, Derese S, Biswajyoti S, Hussain A, Yang LJ, Akoth E, Coghi P, Pal C, Heydenreich M, Wong VK-W, Yenesew A. "Antileishmanial and Cytotoxic Activity of Secondary Metabolites from Taberneamontana ventricosa and Two Aloe Species." Natural Product Research. 2021.
Juma M, Sankaradoss A, Ndomb R, Mwaura P, Damodar T, Nazir J, Pandit A, Khurana R, Masika M, Chirchir R, Gachie J, Krishna S, Sowdhamin R, Anzala O, Iyer MS. "Antimicrobial resistance profiling and phylogenetic analysis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae clinical isolates from Kenya in resource limited setting." Frontiers in Microbiology. 2021. AbstractWebsite

Background: Africa has one of the highest incidences of gonorrhea. Neisseria gonorrhoeae is gaining resistance to most of the available antibiotics, compromising treatment across the world. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is an efficient way of predicting AMR determinants and their spread in the population. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies like Oxford Nanopore Technology (ONT) have helped in the generation of longer reads of DNA in a shorter duration with lower cost. Increasing accuracy of base-calling algorithms, high throughput, error-correction strategies, and ease of using the mobile sequencer MinION in remote areas lead to its adoption for routine microbial genome sequencing. To investigate whether MinION-only sequencing is sufficient for WGS and downstream analysis in resource-limited settings, we sequenced the genomes of 14 suspected N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Nairobi, Kenya.

Methods: Using WGS, the isolates were confirmed to be cases of N. gonorrhoeae (n = 9), and there were three co-occurrences of N. gonorrhoeae with Moraxella osloensis and N. meningitidis (n = 2). N. meningitidis has been implicated in sexually transmitted infections in recent years. The near-complete N. gonorrhoeae genomes (n = 10) were analyzed further for mutations/factors causing AMR using an in-house database of mutations curated from the literature.

Results: We observe that ciprofloxacin resistance is associated with multiple mutations in both gyrA and parC. Mutations conferring tetracycline (rpsJ) and sulfonamide (folP) resistance and plasmids encoding beta-lactamase were seen in all the strains, and tet(M)-containing plasmids were identified in nine strains. Phylogenetic analysis clustered the 10 isolates into clades containing previously sequenced genomes from Kenya and countries across the world. Based on homology modeling of AMR targets, we see that the mutations in GyrA and ParC disrupt the hydrogen bonding with quinolone drugs and mutations in FolP may affect interaction with the antibiotic.

Conclusion: Here, we demonstrate the utility of mobile DNA sequencing technology in producing a consensus genome for sequence typing and detection of genetic determinants of AMR. The workflow followed in the study, including AMR mutation dataset creation and the genome identification, assembly, and analysis, can be used for any clinical isolate. Further studies are required to determine the utility of real-time sequencing in outbreak investigations, diagnosis, and management of infections, especially in resource-limited settings.

Chepkirui C, Ochieng PJ, Sarkar B, Hussain A, Pal C, Yang LJ, Coghi P, Akala HM, Derese S, Ndakala A, Heydenreich M, Wong VKW, Erdélyi Máté, Yenesew A. "Antiplasmodial and antileishmanial flavonoids from Mundulea sericea." Fitoterapia. 2021;149:104796. AbstractView Website

Description
Five known compounds (1–5) were isolated from the extract of Mundulea sericea leaves. Similar investigation of the roots of this plant afforded an additional three known compounds (6–8). The structures were elucidated using NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. The absolute configuration of 1 was established using ECD spectroscopy. In an antiplasmodial activity assay, compound 1 showed good activity with an IC50 of 2.0 μM against chloroquine-resistant W2, and 6.6 μM against the chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Some of the compounds were also tested for antileishmanial activity. Dehydrolupinifolinol (2) and sericetin (5) were active against drug-sensitive Leishmania donovani (MHOM/IN/83/AG83) with IC50 values of 9.0 and 5.0 μM, respectively. In a cytotoxicity assay, lupinifolin (3) showed significant activity on BEAS-2B (IC50 4.9 μM) and HePG2 (IC50 10.8 μM …

Cherotich S, Abong’o DA, Onyatta JO. "Assessing the Seasonal Changes on Physicochemical Parameters and Major Nutrient Levels in Water and Sediments from Sulal River, Bureti Sub County, Kericho County, Kenya." Chemical Science International Journal. 2021;30(1):46-58. AbstractChemical Science International Journal

Abstract
Sulal River is a victim of nutrient pollution as it crosses different small-scale tea farms in Bureti Sub County, Kericho County. A study was conducted to evaluate different physicochemical parameters and major chemical fertilizer’s nutrients levels in water and sediments from Sulal River. In order to understand the degree of pollution in the river due to inflow of agricultural chemical fertilizer residue levels from its catchment, the samples were collected in the dry (February 2019) and wet seasons (November 2019). The ten chosen sampling sites stretched a length of 12 Km. Samples were analyzed for pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), sediment and water content (WC), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), phosphorous (PO3-P) and potassium (K) using standard methods. Results were analyzed using IBM SPSS 20. The average results during dry and wet seasons in water samples for pH were 6.72±0.05 and 6.38±0.21, DO 6.78±0.59 and 9.58±0.64 mg/L, EC 174±5.02 and 205±20.14 µS /cm, TDS 92±4.59 and 120.70±19.57 mg/L, NO3-N 0.58±0.21 and 1.19±0.22 mg/L, PO3-P 0.00±0.00 and 0.13±0.84 mg/L and K 0.26±0.08 and 0.84±0.19 mg/L respectively. The average results during dry and wet seasons in sediment samples for pH were 6.62±0.20 and 6.75±0.17, EC, 67±6.66 and 52±10.19 µS /cm, WC 16.96±3.95 and 129.84±5.00%, NO3-N 0.70±0.35 and 0.42±0.23 mg/kg, PO3-P 0.49±0.25 and 1.14±0.40 mg/kg and K 1.53±0.45 and 2.86±0.31 mg/kg respectively. The levels of P in water during wet season and in sediments samples in both seasons were however, above the WHO (0.025 mg/L) and KEBS (0.030 mg/L) recommended limit for drinking and domestic use and WASREB (0.005 mg/L) level for the likelihood of eutrophication. Availability of excess phosphorus can accelerate eutrophication. The diversity of cancers has also been associated with drinking water containing phosphorous levels. The water from Sulal River may be used for irrigation purposes but not for drinking and domestic purposes. Significant seasonal variations were observed in all parameters analyzed except NO3-N in sediments. This indicates that rainfall had a great effect on some soil physicochemical properties.

Williams F, Constantine KL, Ali AA, Karanja TW, Kibet S. "An assessment of the capacity and responsiveness of a national system to address the threat of invasive species: a systems approach." CABI Agriculture and Bioscience. 2021;2(42):1-17.
Ochiba, N. K, Abong’o DA, Onyatta JO. "The Assessment of The Effect of Proximity of Septic Tanks on The Levels of Selected Heavy Metals in Borehole Water from Ongata Rongai, Kajiado County, Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2021;8(4):64-76.
Ochiba NK, Abong’o DA, Onyatta JO. "The Assessment of The Effect of Proximity of Septic Tanks on The Levels of Selected Heavy Metals in Borehole Water from Ongata Rongai, Kajiado County, Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2021;8(4):64-76. AbstractInternational Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology

Description
The study was carried out to evaluate the levels of heavy metals in groundwater samples from ten selected boreholes in Ongata Rongai town, Kajiado County. The selected heavy metals analyzed were: Zn, Pb, Hg, Mn, Cd and Cr in the dry and wet seasons. The effect of the proximity of septic tanks distance to borehole was also determined. The statistical analyses of the data using a 2-way ANOVA showed 95% confidence level (p< 0.05) interdependence of the distance from the boreholes and contaminant levels. The study showed that heavy metals were below the maximum recommended level and the guideline values of World Health Organization and Kenya Bureau of Standards. The analyses of the selected heavy metals, by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, revealed that the detected levels of Mn (0.03±0.01-0.26±0.01 mgl-1) were higher than those recommended by WHO and KEBS of 0.01 mgl-1, while Zn (0.11±0.02-0.73±0.01 mgl-1) are within acceptable levels of WHO (3.0 mgl-1) and KEBS (5.0 mgl-1). There was no strong correlation between the distance of borehole from septic tanks and heavy metal levels in water samples. The low detected values should not be overlooked as the heavy metals are capable of bio-accumulating in body tissues.

Mwachaka P, Amayo A, Mwang’ombe N, Kitunguu P. "Association Between Serum Sodium Abnormalities and Clinicoradiologic Parameters in Se." Ann Afr Surg. 2021;18(3):155-162.
A OA, N MJ, A B. "Behavior of Sisal Fiber-Reinforced Concrete in Exterior Beam-Column Joint Under Monotonic Loading." Asian Journal of Civil Engineering. 2021;Vol 22:627-636.
AM J, CAZ J, AEB H, JA O’o. "Bilateral Ligation of the Anterior Branch of the Hypogastric Artery in Massive Obstetric Hemorrhage Secondary to Septic Abortion (Case Report)." J Gynecol Obstet. 2021;3(9):92-99. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Hemorrhage is the main cause of Maternal Mortality (MM) (27%) followed by hypertensive disorders and sepsis (12%). Septic abortion is considered an intermediate risk factor for the development of Massive Obstetric Hemorrhage (MOH). The algorithm for the management of postpartum hemorrhage due to uterine atony that includes systematic pelvic devascularization has been described, but this management is really planned for resolution of the pregnancy after the 20th week of gestation, since an HMO due to abortion is un usual. We present the case of a 21-year-old patient who self-medicates a prostaglandin analog at 2 months of pregnancy, achieving only a threat of abortion, goes to the emergency room 3 months later with a diagnosis of septic shock, USG and MRI are performed with altered results, only of hepatomegaly, delayed abortion of 8 weeks of evolution and gestational trophoblastic disease. Emergency MVA was performed due to profuse bleeding, placement of a Bakri balloon and clamping of the uterine arteries without results, for which an emergency exploratory laparotomy (LAPE) was performed with ligation of the anterior trunk of the internal iliac artery, being a successful procedure, without the need for Obstetric Hysterectomy (HO). The patient is managed in intensive care and in the end the diagnosis of TSG is ruled out. Bilateral Hypogastric Artery Ligation (BHAL) in the case of Massive Obstetric Hemorrhage (MOH) secondary to delivery or cesarean section is commonly used, however it is not a technique to report when bleeding is secondary to abortion. In these cases, it is also a viable, successful, fertility-preserving surgical procedure, and an alternative to Obstetric Hysterectomy (OH) when other less invasive methods such as uterine artery clamping or Bakri balloon have failed.

Imwene K.O., Mbui D.N., Kinyua, Gladys Wanjiru, J.K M, Ahenda S, Onyatta JO. "Biotransformation of Biodegraded Organic Waste from a Batch Mode Microbial Fuel Cell to Organic Fertilizer." J. Bioremediat Biodegrad. . 2021;12(8):1-5.
Matara DN, Nguta JM, Musila FM, Mapenay IO, Ali HM, Omambia VM. "Botanical description, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological effects of Croton dichogamus Pax (Euphorbiaceae). ." The Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2021;10(1):42-47.
Matara DN, Nguta JM, Musila FM, Mapenay I, Ali HM, Omambia VM. "Botanical description, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological effects of Croton dichogamus pax (Euphorbiaceae). ." Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2021;10(1).
Akaranga SI, I.O.Otieno, Kayeli EC. "The Challenges of Christian Marriage in Africa." Impact Journal of Transformation. 2021;4(1):46-55.impact_journal_of_transforrmation_vol_4_no_1_46_55.pdf
Okoya, Mumenya, Abuodha, Dulo. "Characteristics of Kenyan Rice Husk Ash Produced Under Controlled Burning." International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT). 2021;10(11):549-554.
Osman MAA, Onono JO, Olaka LA, Elhag MM, Abdel-Rahman EM. "Climate Variability and Change Affect Crops Yield under Rainfed Conditions: A Case Study in Gedaref State, Sudan." Agronomy. 2021;11:1680.
Maina, akach, osanjo. "CO-DESIGN: CATALYST FOR INCLUSION IN THE DESIGN PROCESS." Machakos University Press. 2021.
Akach JA, Osanjo L, Maina S. "Co-Design: Tools, Methods and Techniques for Designing with Users." African Habitat Review. 2021;15(1):2145-2156.
Akach JA, Osanjo L, Mwituria SM. "Co-Designing Eco-community Based Tourism." Design for All. 2021;16(3):3-33.
Heylen D, Day M, Schunack B, Fourie J, Labuschange M, Johnson S, Samuel Maina Githigia, Akande FA, Nzalawale JS. "A community approach of pathogens and their arthropod vectors (ticks and fleas) in dogs of African Sub-Sahara." Parasites & Vectors. 2021;2021(14:576):1-20.
Wamuyu H, Odote C, Anyango S. "Compensating Toxic Torts in Kenya: Overcoming the Causation Dilemma." The Journal of Sustainable Development, Law and Policy. 2021;12(2):258-281.
Mutende R;, Akala W;, Imonje RK. "Connecting Theory and Practice: Pre-service Science Teachers’ Adoption and Implementation of the Demonstration Method." International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. 2021;20(5):189-210.
Muhwezi MRL, Aseey A, Ondicho T, Otieno MAC. "The contribution of technical and vocational education and training to women’s economic empowerment in Kampala, Uganda." Nairobi Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2021;5(2):1-23.
Obiero LM, Abong' GO, W OM, OMAYIO DUKEG, G OE, Villacampa M. "Current practices concerning the environmental management systems among horticultural processing MSMES in Kenya." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation,. 2021;2(special Issue):1-16.current_practices_of_msmes.pdf
Ballesteros C, Mwasi A, Mungai E, Ibarahim A, Thuranina-McKeever C, Aboge GO, Onono JO, Alarcon P. "Developing and validating a rapid assessment tool for small ruminant reproduction and production in pastoralist flocks in Kajiado, Kenya." Veterinary and Animal Science. 2021;13.
Malembaka REB, Onwonga R, Jefwa J, Ayuke F, Nabahungu L. "Diversity and distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in maize (Zea mays) cropping fields in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2021;17(4):604-617.
Ayonga, N J. R.W. R&(2021). "Dual Spatial Patterns, In-optimal Legal Framework and how they affect Land Use Planning in Kenya: Evidence from the Planning statutes. ." Journal of African Habitat Review. 2021; (15(4). (Forthcoming.).
MO F, MO O, M E-T, A K, OB A-B, B G, RJ S. "An ecological study on the association between early childhood caries and intimate partner violence in 20 low- and middle-income countries; 2007-2017." AAS Open Res. 2021;2021; 4:39.(2021; 4:39.):2021; 4:39.
MO F, ME T, JI V, CA F, M R, AM K, R V, OB A‐B, R A, B G, SZ M, A A, H D, A V, RJ S, for the Group ECCA. "An ecological study on the association between universal health service coverage index, health expenditures, and early childhood caries." BMC Oral Health. 2021;2021; 21:126.(2021; 21:126.):2021; 21:126.
Mwinami T, Junga JO, Oduma JA, Chesire D, Musina J, Kioko E, Ayiemba W, Harper DM. "EFFECT OF FOREST FRAGMENTATION ON AVIAN SPECIES COMPOSITION, DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTION WITHIN AN UPLAND TROPICAL FOREST ECOSYSTEM:.". 2021.
Shiwani, D.I., Kalai, J.M., Gatumu JC, Akala WJ. "Effect of Head Teachers’ Acquisition of Teaching and Learning Resources on Implementation of Inclusive Education in Public Primary Schools in Nairobi City County. ." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice (JPAHAP). 2021;2(1):90-108.
ADWATI SM, Edalia LG, Gathece L. "EFFECT OF PAST DENTAL EXPERIENCE ON PATIENTS ATTITUDES FOLLOW UP ORAL HEALTH CARE INTERVENTION." EAMJ. 2021;VOL 98 NO2 PG 3529-3537:VOL 98 NO2 PG 3529-3537.
Onyango SO, Abong GO, Okoth MW, Kilalo DC, Mwang’ombe AW. "Effect of Pre-treatment and Processing on Nutritional Composition of Cassava Roots, Millet, and Cowpea Leaves Flours." Nutrition and Sustainable Diets, a section of the journal Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems. 2021;5(625735):1-8.
KathambiBE, N MUTHAMAJ, AnguC. "Essence of Water Governance for SMEs for Sustainable Consumption in Nairobi, Kenya." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2021;2(2).
Kathambi EB, Muthama JN, Ang'u C. "Essence of Water Governance for SMEs for Sustainable Consumption in Nairobi, Kenya." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2021;2.
Ali HM, Nguta JM, Mapenay IO, Musila FM, Vincent OM, Nyak DM. "Ethnopharmacological uses, biological activities, chemistry and toxicological aspects of Ocimum americanum var. americanum (Lamiaceae)." The Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2021;10(1):56-60 .
Ali HM, Nguta JM, Mapenay IO, Musila FM, Omambia VM, Matara DN. "Ethnopharmacological uses, biological activities, chemistry and toxicological aspects of Ocimum americanum var. americanum (Lamiaceae)." Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2021;10:56-60.
Omambia VM, Nguta JM, Mitema ES, Musila FM, Nyak DM, Ali HM, Gervason MA. "Ethnopharmacology, pharmacological activities, and chemistry of the Hypericum genus." The Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2021;10(2):105-113.
Muhwezi MRL, Aseey A, Ondicho TG, Otieno MAC. "An evaluation of social and psychological effect of empowerment of women in Uganda through Technical and Vocational Education and Training participation." Journal of African Studies and Ethnographic Research. 2021;3(4):24-45.
Amare GG, Degu A, Njogu P, Kifle ZD. "Evaluation of the antimalarial activity of the leaf latex of Aloe weloensis (Aloaceae) against plasmodium parasites." Evid-based Complem. Altern. Med. 2021;2021:6664711.
A A Fabuyide, Cornish LA, Apata AO, Rading GO, Muobeni TN, Witcomb MJ, Jain PK, Borode JO. "Experimental Liquidus Surface Projection and Isothermal Section at 1000C of the V-Ni-C System, J of Phase Equilibria and Diffusion.". 2021.
AM K, IA O. "A fatal case of infant oral mutilation." Contemp Clin Dent. 2021;2021; 12:76-80(2021; 12:76-80):2021; 12:76-80.
Ayieyo P, Rambo C, Ndiritu A. "Financial Effect of Labour Related Risks on Completion of PPP Projects. Advances in social sciences research journal.volume 7(10):122-130.". 2021. Abstract

Efficient management of construction works should focus its attention on utilizing labour, equipment, and raw materials in the right way. Besides, they claim that responsible parties should evaluate labour productivity continuously and that cost control measures should be developed. Low productivity witnessed in construction is linked to internal challenges including disputes, abandonment of projects, excess budget, and time overlaps. The objective of the study was to determine the financial effect of labour related risks on completion of PPP projects. A descriptive survey design was used with simple random sampling targeting 85 members of the management team at the completed Sondu-Miriu Power project. The participants were administered with questionnaire which were sent by mail (in some cases) and selected participants encouraged to respond. Data obtained was analysed through SPSS platform using descriptive statistics and Pearson Moment correlation as inferential statistics. The study found that labour related risks in construction PPP projects included failure by employees and experts to complete assigned tasks, injuries and deaths, changing labour demands during the project as well as cases of go slow. Construction labour related risks affected the financial cost, time and quality of work performed in the construction project. The study concludes that labour related risks have a financial effect on completion of PPP projects such that as the risks increase, the financial cost increases. The study recommends that more focus should be placed on the identification and recruitment of project staff as well task allocation.

SS G, G A, P A, K B, R B, G C, KJ C, ACR C, T C, YO C, D D, ML F, MO F, A G, HH H, V J, A K, SC L, P L, VP M, T M, Y M, N P, A T-M, ECM L, CH C. "Global Oral Health Policies and Guidelines: Using Silver Diamine Fluoride for Caries Control. Front Oral Health." Front Oral Health. 2021;2021; 2:685557(2021; 2:685557):2021; 2:685557.
S Gachau, E Njeru Njagi, N Owuor, P Mwaniki, M Quartagno, Sarguta R, English M, Ayieko P. "Handling missing data in a composite outcome with partially observed components: Simulation study based on clustered paediatric routine data." Journal of Applied Statistics. 2021. AbstractWebsite

Gachau, S; Njeru Njagi, E; Owuor, N; Mwaniki, P; Quartagno, M; Sarguta, R; English, M; Gachau, S; Njeru Njagi, E; Owuor, N; Mwaniki, P; Quartagno, M; Sarguta, R; English, M; Ayieko, P; - view fewer (2021) Handling missing data in a composite outcome with partially observed components: Simulation study based on clustered paediatric routine data. Journal of Applied Statistics (In press) … This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher's terms and conditions.

S Gachau, E Njeru Njagi, N Owuor, P Mwaniki, M Quartagno, Sarguta R, English M, Ayieko P. "Handling missing data in a composite outcome with partially observed components: Simulation study based on clustered paediatric routine data." Journal of Applied Statistics. 2021. AbstractWebsite

Gachau, S; Njeru Njagi, E; Owuor, N; Mwaniki, P; Quartagno, M; Sarguta, R; English, M; Gachau, S; Njeru Njagi, E; Owuor, N; Mwaniki, P; Quartagno, M; Sarguta, R; English, M; Ayieko, P; - view fewer (2021) Handling missing data in a composite outcome with partially observed components: Simulation study based on clustered paediatric routine data. Journal of Applied Statistics (In press) … This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher's terms and conditions.

S Gachau, E Njeru Njagi, N Owuor, P Mwaniki, M Quartagno, Sarguta R, English M, Ayieko P. "Handling missing data in a composite outcome with partially observed components: Simulation study based on clustered paediatric routine data." Journal of Applied Statistics. 2021. AbstractWebsite

Gachau, S; Njeru Njagi, E; Owuor, N; Mwaniki, P; Quartagno, M; Sarguta, R; English, M; Gachau, S; Njeru Njagi, E; Owuor, N; Mwaniki, P; Quartagno, M; Sarguta, R; English, M; Ayieko, P; - view fewer (2021) Handling missing data in a composite outcome with partially observed components: Simulation study based on clustered paediatric routine data. Journal of Applied Statistics (In press) … This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher's terms and conditions.

Wanja ND, Agnèse J-F, Ford AGP, Day JJ, Ndiwa TC, Turner GF, Getahun A. Identifying and conserving Tilapiine cichlid species in the twenty-first century. Springer; 2021.
Makinya KJ, Wagacha JM, Odhiambo JA, Likhayo P, Edoh-Ognakossan K, Tefera T, Abass A, Mutungi C. "The importance of store hygiene for reducing post-harvest losses in smallholder farmers’ stores: Evidence from a maize-based farming system in Kenya." Journal of Stored Products Research. 2021;90(DOI:10.1016/j.jspr.2020.101757):101757.
Ali RT, Kunyanga CN, Ngugi K. "In-Vitro protein digestibility, physico-chemical properties and nutritional quality of sorghum-green gram cookies supplemented with mango powder." International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2021;5(39).
Nyamweya NN, Lumb PN, Mujyarugamba JC, Abuga KO. "Inactive Ingredients used in Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers marketed in the Nairobi Metropolitan Area." PJK. 2021;25(1):17-20. Abstract

Background: Alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHS) have become widely used products since the advent of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus based COVID-19 pandemic. In addition to ethanol or isopropanol (the active ingredients of ABHS) and water, these products are formulated with a number of ingredients to optimize delivery, efficacy and safety as well as to provide consumer appeal. Despite the widespread use of ABHS, there is very limited information in the literature on the non-alcohol ingredients used in these products.
Objectives: The aim of this work was to determine the inactive ingredients used in ABHS marketed in metropolitan Nairobi.
Methodology: ABHS products were randomly obtained from several locations at retail outlets within the Nairobi metropolitan region. The ingredients used in each ABHS were obtained from the product labels.
Results: The most common inactive ingredients based on percentage frequency of listing on product labels were glycerin (50%), fragrances (36%), carbomer (26%), triethanolamine (18%) and propylene glycol (17%). It was observed that some products incorporated additional antimicrobial agents and preservatives in the formulation. The fragrances and some of the preservatives used in the ABHS products are potential allergens. Incomplete or inadequate ingredient naming was noted for several products.
Conclusions: There is a need for ABHS manufacturers to fully disclose all raw materials used in ABHS products using standardized ingredient nomenclature. ABHS users need to be aware of potential allergens present in respective marketed products.

Owuor KO, Machani MG, Mukabana WR, Munga SO, Yan G, Ochomo E, Afrane YA. "Insecticide resistance status of indoor and outdoor resting malaria vectors in a highland and lowland site in Western Kenya." PLoS ONE . 2021;3(16):e0240771.
Karamshetty V, DeVries H, Wassenhove LVN, Dewilde S, Minnaard W, Ongarora D, Abuga K, Yadav P. "Inventory Management Practices in Private Healthcare Facilities in Nairobi County." Prod. Oper. Manag.. 2021;31(2):828-846. Abstract

Universal health coverage (UHC) is an integral part of the United Nations sustainable development goals. The private sector plays a prominent role in achieving UHC, being the primary source of essential medicines for many people. However, many private healthcare facilities in low‐ and middle‐income countries (LMICs) have insu_cient stocks of essential medicines. At the same time, these same facilities carry excessive quantities of certain drugs, leading to obsolescence. This suggests poor inventory control. To propose potential remedies it is vital to fully understand the underlying causes. In semi‐structured interviews with managers of private healthcare facilities in Nairobi, we asked them about their 1) inventory control systems, 2) inventory control skills, 3) time/human resource constraints, 4) budget constraints, 5) motivations for inventory control, and 6) suppliers. Our results suggest that the problems are driven by resource limitations (budget and time/human resources), managerial issues (relating to skills and systems), and market mechanisms that limit overage and underage costs. Unavailability at the supplier level and motivations for inventory control are relatively minor issues. We posit that the key causes are interlinked and stem from wider issues in the market and regulatory environment. Our results challenge prevalent beliefs about medicine supply chains in LMICs and lead to alternative hypotheses. Testing these hypotheses could improve our understanding of inventory management in private healthcare facilities and aid progress in achieving UHC.

Chebet ON, Omosa LK, Subramanian S, Nchiozem-Ngnitedem V-A, Mmari JO, Akutse KS. "Mechanism of Action of Endophytic Fungi Hypocrea lixii and Beauveria bassiana in Phaseolus vulgaris as Biopesticides against Pea Leafminer and Fall Armyworm." Molecules. 2021;26(26):htts://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26185694.
Rahman M, Ahmed R, Moitra M, Damschroder L, Brownson R, Chorpita B, Idele P, Gohar F, Huang KY, Saxena S, Lai J, Peterson SS, Harper G, McKay M, Amugune B, Esho T, Ronen K, Othieno C, Kumar M. "Mental Distress and Human RightsViolations During COVID-19: A RapidReview of the Evidence InformingRights, Mental Health Needs, andPublic Policy Around VulnerablePopulations." Front. Psychiatry . 2021;11:603875.
Makau CM, Towett PK, Abelson KSP, Kanui TI. "Modulation of nociception by amitriptyline hydrochloride in the Speke’s hinge‐back tortoise (Kiniskys spekii)." Veterinary Medicine and Science. 2021;early view. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Background: There are limited studies on the utilization of analgesics in testudines.
Management of pain in reptiles is by use of analgesics generally used in other vertebrate species. Evidently, some analgesics considered to be generally effective in
reptiles are not effective in certain reptile species.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of amitriptyline hydrochloride on nociceptive behaviour in Speke's hinge-back tortoise.
Methods: Twenty-four adult Speke-hinged tortoises weighing 500–700 g were used.
The effects of amitriptyline hydrochloride on nociception were evaluated using the
formalin, capsaicin and hot plate nociceptive tests. Amitriptyline was administered
intracoelomically at doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg.
Results: The higher doses of amitriptyline hydrochloride caused an increase in nociceptive behaviour (time spent in hindlimb withdrawal) on the formalin and capsaicin
nociceptive tests, suggesting a potentiating effect. However, the doses used had no
significant change in nociceptive behaviour on withdrawal response in the hot plate
test.
Conclusions: The study showed that amitriptyline hydrochloride which is widely used
in management of neuropathic pain potentiates nociceptive effects in the formalin
and capsaicin nociceptive tests in the Speke's hinge-back tortoise. The hot plate test,
which previously has not been reported in these animals, gave results not in line
with the other tests and therefore more testing and validation of the test is required.
Amitriptyline modulates chemical and thermal pain differently

FW N, K O, A A, J O, GW A. "Multiple Cytokines Elevated in Patients with Keloids: Is It an Indication of Auto-Inflammatory Disease?" J. Inflam Res. 2021;14(7):2465-2470. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Background: Inflammation seems to play a major role in the pathophysiology of keloids. However, the role of cytokines in keloid pathophysiology has not been fully evaluated with only a few cytokines studied. We undertook this study to compare various cytokines in patients with keloids and a control group of patients without keloids nor family history of keloids so as to determine which cytokines are elevated and could thus be critical in keloid formation.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of patients with keloids and a control group of those without. Patients in both groups were matched for age, sex and body mass index. Their plasma was analyzed for both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines using the Bio-flex ElisaTM method. Comparisons of cytokines means in both groups were done using Student's t-test.

Results: A total of 84 participants with 42 participants in each group were followed during the study. Male to female ratio was 1:2. Age ranges were similar with a mean of 29.6 years. A total of 28 cytokines were assayed. Statistically significant differences were noted in 15 of the 28 cytokines assayed with 11 being elevated more in keloid patients with only four in the non-keloid forming group. Among elevated cytokines in keloid patients were granulocyte colony-stimulating factors, granulocyte-monocyte-colony-stimulating factors, interleukins 4, 6 and 13.

Conclusion: Patients with keloids have significantly higher cytokines compared with non-keloid forming patients. This finding suggests that keloid formation could be influenced by multiple inflammatory cytokines, an indication that the patient's immune system could play a role in keloid formation akin to auto-inflammatory disease.

Murungi MK, M.Muloi D, Muinde P, Samuel Maina Githigia, Akoko J, Fevre EM, Rushton J, Alarcon P. "The Nairobi Pork Value Chain, Mapping and Assessment of Governance, Challenges and Food Safety Issues." Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 2021;2021(https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.581376).
Ochora DO, Kakudidi E, Namukobe J, Heydenreich M, Coghi P, Yang LJ, Mwakio EW, Andagalu B, Roth A, Akala HM, Wong VKW, Yenesew A. "A new benzophenone, and the antiplasmodial activities of the constituents of Securidaca longipedunculata fresen (Polygalaceae)." Natural Product Research. 2021:1-9. AbstractView Website

Description
Extracts from Securidaca longipedunculata showed antiplasmodial activities against reference clones and clinical isolates using SYBR Green I method. A new benzophenone, 2,3,4,5-tetramethoxybenzophenone (1) was isolated and characterized along with seven known compounds: 4-hydroxy-2,3-dimethoxybenzophenone (2); 3-hydroxy-5-methoxybiphenyl (3), methyl-2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzoate (4), benzyl-2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzoate (5), 2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzoic acid (6), 2,4,5-trimethoxybenzophenone (7) and 2-methoxy-3,4-methylenedioxybenzophenone (8). Compounds 1 and 2 showed ex vivo antiplasmodial activities (IC50 28.8 μM and 18.6 μM, respectively); while 5 and 8 showed in vivo activities (IC50 19.7 μM and 14.5 μM, respectively) against D6 strain. In a cytotoxicity assay, all the extracts (with an exception of the MeOH extract of the leaves) and pure compounds were not toxic to the …

AM K, Waudo J, Were G. "Nutrition status of adolescents in Kenya.". In: Nutrition status of adolescents in Kenya. Nairobi: Williams Publishers ltd; 2021.
Osoro EM, Wandiga SO, Madadi VO, Abong’o DA. "Occurrence and Distribution of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Sediments from Nairobi River Basin, Kenya, East Africa." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2021;8(1):274-286. Print ISSN: 2395-1990 | Online ISSN : 2394-4099. doi : https://doi.org/10.32628/IJSRSET218148.
Osoro EM, Wandiga S, Madadi V, Abongo D. "Occurrence and Distribution of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Water from Nairobi River Basin, Kenya, East Africa." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences ISSN: 2313-3317. 2021;6. AbstractAfrica Journal of Physical Sciences

Description
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers are linked to adverse health effects that includethyroid hormone disruption, neuro-developmental deficit, abnormal pregnancy, and potential carcinogens. This study was aimed at assessing the concentrationsof selected Polybrominated diphenyl ether compounds in water of Nairobi River. Water samples were collected by grab method from nine sites along the river andanalysed for brominated diphenyl ethers using gas chromatography coupled withmass spectrometer. The mean concentration of polybrominated diphenyl ethersresidue in water ranged from< 0.0009 to 72.89±6.15 ng/L. The dominantcongeners were 2, 2′, 4, 4′-tetra-bromodiphenyl ether, 2, 2′, 4, 4′, 5, 5′-hexabromodiphenylether, 2, 2′, 4, 4′, 6-penta-bromodiphenyl ether, 2, 2′, 4, 4′, 5, 5′-hexabromodiphenylether and 2, 2′, 4, 4′, 5, 6′-hexa-bromodiphenyl. The highest meanconcentration of 2, 2′, 4, 4′-tetra-bromodiphenyl ether was 72.89±6.15 ng/L, 2, 2′, 3, 4, 4′-penta-bromodiphenyl ether was 14.08±0.68 ng/L, 2, 2′, 4, 4′, 6-pentabromodiphenylether was 43.67±1.47 ng/L, 2, 2′, 4, 4′, 5, 5′-hexa-bromodiphenylether was 24.78±2.49 ng/L, and 2, 2′, 3, 4, 4′, 5′, 6-hepta-bromodiphenyl ether was11. 75±0.97 ng/L. Consequently, as these compounds are known to bioaccumulatein fatty tissues, continued use of the river water poses a health risk toanimals and humans due to contamination across the food chain.

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