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Aluvaala J, Okello D, Murithi G, Wafula L, Wanjala L, Isika N, Wasunna A, Were F, Nyamai R, English M. "Delivery outcomes and patterns of morbidity and mortality for neonatal admissions in five Kenyan hospitals." Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. 2015;(61):255-259. Abstractdelivery_outcomes_and_patterns_of_morbidity_and_mortality_for_neonatal_admissions_in_five_kenyan_hospitals.pdf

A cross-sectional survey was conducted in neonatal and maternity units of five Kenyan district public hospitals. Data for 1 year were obtained: 3999 maternal and 1836 neonatal records plus tallies of maternal deaths, deliveries and stillbirths. There were 40 maternal deaths [maternal mortality ratio: 276 per 100 000 live births, 95% confidence interval (CI): 197–376]. Fresh stillbirths ranged from 11 to 43 per 1000 births. A fifth (19%, 263 of 1384, 95% CI: 11–30%) of the admitted neonates died. Compared with normal birth weight, odds of death were significantly higher in all of the low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g) categories, with the highest odds for the extremely LBW (<1000 g) category (odds ratio: 59, 95% CI: 21–158, p<0.01). The observed maternal mortality, stillbirths and neonatal mortality call for implementation of the continuum of care approach to intervention delivery with particular emphasis on LBW babies.

Alusala DN;, Estambale B. "Intermittent presumptive treatment of malaria to prevent low birth weight in newborns in a cohort of pregnant women from a malaria endemic area.". 2009. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine and describe the patterns of low birth weight in newborns of a cohort of mothers given intermittent presumptive treatment (IPT) for malaria prevention in a malaria endemic area of Kenya. DESIGN: A longitudinal prospective cohort study. SETTING: Got Agulu Health Centre in Usigu Division, Bondo District, Nyanza Province. SUBJECTS: Pregnant women of all parities attending antenatal care services. Only women who gave informed consent for themselves and their newborns after birth were eligible to participate in the study. RESULTS: Parity was highly predictive of birth weight in the study subjects. Primigravidae and secondigravidae had a significantly lower mean birth weight (2952g) than women of higher gravidity (3214g) p-value <0.0001. Regardless of IPT administration, women who became positive for malaria infection at any point during pregnancy delivered 73.7% of the LBW infants. There was no significant difference in mean birth weights between primigravidae and multigravidae who had parasitaemia at baseline and at delivery (means 2906g and 3062g respectively, p=0.11). However, there was a significant difference between the parasitaemia negative primigravidae and multigravidae at baseline and at delivery (means 2952g and 3204g respectively, p=0.006). Infection with helminths did not have an effect on birth weight. Overall, low birth weight was observed in 9% of the newborns and was most commonly found in primigravidae and secondigravidae (14.8% and 13.1% respectively). CONCLUSION: Although many factors have been known to play a role in the causation of low birth weight (LBW <2500g), parity status and malaria infection in malaria endemic areas still play a major role regardless of IPT administration.

ALUOCH DRAUSTINOCHIENG. "Status of biomolecular recognition using electrochemical techniques.". In: Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Volume 24, Issue 9, 15 May 2009, Pages 2749-2765. Biosensors and Bioelectronics; 2009. Abstract
Omowunmi A. Sadik, Austin O. Aluoch, Ailing Zhou The use of nanoscale materials (e.g. nanoparticles, nanowires, & nanorods) for electrochemical biosensing has seen explosive growth in recent years following the discovery of carbon nanotubes by Suomo Ijima in 1991. Although the resulting label-free sensors could potentially simplify the molecular recognition process; there are several important hurdles to be overcome. These include issues of validating the biosensor on statistically large population of real samples rather than the commonly reported relatively short synthetic oligonucleotides, pristine laboratory standards or bioreagents; multiplexing the sensors to accommodate high-throughput, multianalyte detection as well as application in complex clinical and environmental samples. This article reviews the status of biomolecular recognition using electrochemical detection by analyzing the trends, limitations, challenges and commercial devices in the field of electrochemical biosensors. It provides a survey of recent advances in electrochemical biosensors including integrated microelectrode arrays with microfluidic technologies, commercial multiplex electrochemical biosensors, aptamer-based sensors, and metal-enhanced electrochemical detection (MED), with limits of detection in the attomole range. Novel applications are also reviewed for cancer monitoring, detection of food pathogens, as well as recent advances in electrochemical glucose biosensors
ALUOCH DRAUSTINOCHIENG. "Structure and Important Recommendations of the Fink Report: An African Perspective.". In: Bk 1,2,3 and 4 Published by Longhorn Publishers. University of Bradford; 2011.
ALUOCH DRAUSTINOCHIENG. "Bioactive Compounds from some Kenyan Ethnomedicinal Plants: Myrsinaceae, Polygonaceae and Psiadia punctulata,.". In: Phytochemistry Reviews, 1,311-323 (2002). Springer; 2002. Abstract
J. O. Midiwo, A. Yenesew, B. F. Juma, S. Dereses, J. A. Ayoo, A. Aluoch and S. Guchu There are several described medicinal plants in Kenya from a flora of approximately 10,000 members. Strong cross-medical information from the 42 ethnic groups points to the high potential of some of these species. The Myrsinaceae are well established ethno-anthelmintics and anti-bacterials. They are harbingers of long alkyl side chain benzoquinones which clearly have a protective function from their histochemical disposition. The main benzoquinone in the sub-family Myrsinodae is embelin while for the Maesodae it is maesaquinone together with its 5-acetyl derivative; the distribution of these benzoquinones by their alkyl side chain length or the presence/absence of a 6-methyl group is in accord with morphological sub-family de-limitation. The benzoquinones showed anti-feedant, anti-microbial, phytotoxic, acaricidal, insecticidal and nematicidal activity. Many other benzoquinones of medium and minor concentration were also isolated and characterised. Some plants belonging to the Polygonaceae which are widely used as ethno-anthelmintics have been studied. The common anthelmintic anthraquinones were obtained from all five Rumex species while the naphthalenic acetogenin derivative, nepodin was more selectively distributed. The leaf of Polygonum senegalense is up to 17% surface exudate; about thirteen non polar flavonoid derivatives (chalcones, dihydrochalcones, flavanones and a flavone) have been isolated from it. From the internal aerial tissues of this plant, the major flavonoids were common flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin and their glycosides. The only unique compound isolated from this plant was 2prime-glucosyl-6prime-hydroxy-4prime-methoxydihydrochalcone whose aglycone, uvangolatin is part of the exudate mixture. Other leaf exudate plants studied include the stomach-ache medicine, Psiadia punctulata (Compositae) from which novel methylated flavonoids, kaurene and trachyloban diterpenes have been found
ALUOCH DRAUSTINOCHIENG. "Novel electrochemical oral biosensor for histatin.". In: Sensor Letters, 3(2), 161-163 (2005). American Scientific Publishers; 2005. Abstract
Aluoch A. O., Amrute, K., Sadik, O. A. An amperometric biosensor for monitoring the level of saliva protein histatin is described. The biosensor-sensing elements comprise a layer of salivary histatin antibody self-assembled onto a gold quartz crystal by covalent attachment. The biospecific interaction between the immobilized histatin antibody and histatin antigen was monitored via a novel electroactive indicator, silver monodispersed on the gold surface. The silver is oxidized or reduced and the resulting peak currents provide analytical information about the concentrations of the salivary proteins. A detection limit of 0.626 pg/ml was obtained
ALUOCH DRAUSTINOCHIENG. "Identification and Quantitation of Bacillus globigii using Metal Enhanced Electrochemical Detection and Capillary Biosensor.". In: Analytical Chemistry. Elsevier; 2009. Abstract
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ALUOCH DRAUSTINOCHIENG. "Smart Electrochemical Biosensors: From advanced materials to ultrasensitive devices.". In: Electrochimica Acta, Accepted for publication (2009). Elecro-chimica Acta; 2010. Abstract
Omowunmi A. Sadik, Samuel K. Kallavi and Austin Aluoch The specificity, simplicity, and inherent miniaturization afforded by advances in modern electronics have allowed electrochemical sensors to rival the most advanced optical protocols. One major obstacle in implementing electrochemistry for studying biomolecular reaction is its inadequate sensitivity. Recent reports however showed unprecedented sensitivities for biomolecular recognition using enhanced electronic amplification provided by new classes of electrode materials (e.g. carbon nanotubes, metal nanoparticles, and quantum dots). Biosensor technology is one area where recent advances in nanomaterials are pushing the technological limits of electrochemical sensitivities, thus allowing for the development of new sensor chemistries and devices. This work focuses on our recent work, based on metal-enhanced electrochemical detection, and those of others in combining advanced nanomaterials with electrochemistry for the development of smart sensors for proteins, nucleic acids, drugs and cancer cells
ALUOCH DRAUSTINOCHIENG. "Development of an oral biosensor for salivary amylase using a monodispersed silver for signal amplification.". In: Analytical Biochemistry, 340(1), 136-144, (2005). Elsevier; 2005. Abstract
Aluoch, A. O., Sadik, O. A., Bedi, G. An amperometric biosensor for monitoring the level of protein amylase in human saliva is described. A novel design and the preparation of amylase antibodies and antigens, essential for the development of the biosensor, are reported. The biosensor sensing elements comprise a layer of salivary antibody (or antigen) self-assembled onto Au-electrode via covalent attachment. Molecular recognition between the immobilized antibody and the salivary amylase proteins was monitored via an electroactive indicator (e.g., K3Fe(CN)(6)) or a monodispersed silver layer present in solution or electrochemically deposited onto the solid electrode. This electroactive indicator was oxidized or reduced and the resulting current change provided the analytical information about the concentration of the salivary proteins. The limit of detection of 1.57 pg/ml was obtained, in comparison to detection limits of 4.95 pg/ml obtained using potassium ferrocyanide as the redox probe and 10 ng/ml obtained using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cross-reactivity was tested against cystatin antibodies and was found to be less than 2.26%.
ALUOCH DRAUSTINOCHIENG. "Metal Enhanced Detection of Salivary Proteins, Bacillus Globigii and Novel Reagents for Biosensing & Metal Sensing, PhD Dissertation, State University of New York at Binghamton, New York.". In: Binghamton University Library. Binghamton University, USA; 2007. Abstract
The major objective of this research was to develop novel biosensors for detection of the salivary proteins amylase and histatin. Consequently, we report on the development of a label-free electrochemical biosensor based on a new Ab-Ag sensor platform which utilizes metal-enhanced electrochemical detection (MED) for the determination of histatin and amylase. The MED immunosensor exhibits remarkable sensitivity with detection limits of 0.63 pg/ml and 1.57pg/ml for histatin and amylase respectively. The MED biosensor exhibits better sensitivity than ELISA or UPAC (an optical based immunosensor). The MED biosensor concept has been extended for the detection of Bacillus atrophaeus (formerly B. globigii) spores, the biological warfare agent simulant of Bacillus anthracis This is probably the first report on the application of silver nanoparticles as redox probes in the detection of a biological warfare agent (BWA). A detection limit of 760 spores/ml, well below the infectious dose of Bacillus pathogens, is achieved.The second part of this study is dedicated to the development of a new class of fluorescent imaging agents.
ALUOCH DRAUSTINOCHIENG. "SCH 403 - Electrochemistry ODL Module.". In: Electrochimica Acta, Accepted for publication (2009). University of Nairobi; 2010. Abstract
Omowunmi A. Sadik, Samuel K. Kallavi and Austin Aluoch The specificity, simplicity, and inherent miniaturization afforded by advances in modern electronics have allowed electrochemical sensors to rival the most advanced optical protocols. One major obstacle in implementing electrochemistry for studying biomolecular reaction is its inadequate sensitivity. Recent reports however showed unprecedented sensitivities for biomolecular recognition using enhanced electronic amplification provided by new classes of electrode materials (e.g. carbon nanotubes, metal nanoparticles, and quantum dots). Biosensor technology is one area where recent advances in nanomaterials are pushing the technological limits of electrochemical sensitivities, thus allowing for the development of new sensor chemistries and devices. This work focuses on our recent work, based on metal-enhanced electrochemical detection, and those of others in combining advanced nanomaterials with electrochemistry for the development of smart sensors for proteins, nucleic acids, drugs and cancer cells
ALUOCH DRAUSTINOCHIENG. "Stability indicating ion-pair HPLC method for the determination of risedronate in a commercial formulation.". In: Journal of Liquid Chromatography and Related Technologies, 27(17), 2799-2813 (2004). Taylor & Francis, Colchester, ROYAUME-UNI (1996) (Revue); 2004. Abstract
Aluoch, A., Tatini, R., Parsons, D. M., Sadik, O. A. A simple, rapid, and reproducible analytical procedure has been developed for the assay of risedronate in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method is based on ion-pair liquid chromatography with UV detection. 2 Separation is performed on an Eclipse XDB C-18 (4.6 x 150 mm(2), 3.5 mum particles) column, using 5 mM tetrabutylammonium phosphate as counter-ion in the mobile phase. The proposed method was extensively validated according to ICH guidelines for the assay determination. A linear relationship was found in the concentration range studied from 50 to 150 mug risedronate sodium per 25 muL injection. The method precision was below 1.2% relative standard deviation (RSD) (n = 9). The mean recovery of risedronate from commercial tablets was found to be in the range of 99.3-100.6%. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of risedronate were found to be 30 and 100 ng, respectively. Since the method is stability indicating, it is also well suited for shelf-life studies of risedronate pharmaceutical preparations.
ALUOCH DRAUSTINOCHIENG. "Guide for the Selection of Biological Agent Detection Equipment for Emergency First Responder 2nd Edition,.". In: Department of Homeland Security, Guide 101-06 , 2nd Edition (June 2007). Homeland Security, USA; 2007. Abstract
A. A. Fatah, R. D. Arcilesi, T. Chekol, C. H. Lattin, O. A. Sadik, A. Aluoch, The primary purpose of the Guide for the Selection of Biological Agent Detection Equipment for Emergency First Responders is to provide emergency first responders with information to aid them in the selection and utilization of BA detection equipment. The guide is intended to be more practical than technical and provides information on a variety of factors to be considered when purchasing detection equipment, including, but not limited to, sensitivity, specificity, startup and response times, power requirements, cost, durability, and portability
Aluoch JR, JM M. "Platelet function in patients with sickle cell anaemia in Nairobi.". 1996. Abstract

From July 1990 to January 1991 we studied platelet functions in 55 indigenous Kenyan patients (23 males and 32 females) with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) in steady state (SCASS) and in 20 (11 males and 9 females) SCA patients in vaso-occlusive sickle cell crisis (VSCC). A control group of 50 healthy (23 males and 27 females) individuals matched for age and sex was also studied. Platelet aggregation time to ADP in SCASS (57.2 +/- 39.1) and in VSCC (31 +/- 11.1) were more prolonged (p < 0.05) compared to controls (12.7 +/- 5.2). It was also significantly more prolonged (p < 0.05) in VSCC than in SCASS. Platelet adhesiveness time was 31.1 +/- 13.7 seconds in SCASS, 30.9 +/- 11.1 in VSCC, and 37.7 +/- 13.0 in controls and was significantly lower in both SCA groups (p < 0.05) but there was no significant difference between the two SCA groups themselves. Clot retraction was 52.8 +/- 6.9 in SCASS, 53.6 +/- 10.7 in VSCC, and 45.9 +/- 8 in controls and was significantly higher in both SCA groups than in controls (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the two SCA groups themselves. We conclude that platelet function is deranged in indigenous Kenyan patients with SCA.

Alulu J, Otieno DJ, Oluoch-Kosura W, Ochieng J. "Drivers of transformations in smallholder indigenous vegetable value chains in western Kenya: Evolution of contract farming." Journal of Business and Economics. 2020;22(6):151-165.
Alukwe GH, Ngugi PK, Ogollah K, Orwa G. "Corporate Governance Challenge to Regulation Compliance by Deposit Taking Savings and Credit Co- Operative Societies in Kenya." Corporate Governance Challenge to Regulation Compliance by Deposit Taking Savings and Credit Co- Operative Societies in Kenya. 2015;5(3).alukhwe_ngugi_ogollah_orwa_corporate_governance_publication_2015.pdf
Aluisio AR, Bosire R, Betz B, Gatuguta A, Kiarie JN, Nduati R, John-Stewart G, Farquhar C. "Male Partner Participation in Antenatal Clinic Services is Associated with Improved HIV-free survival Among Infants in Nairobi, Kenya: A Prospective Cohort Study." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2016. Abstract

This prospective study investigated the relationship between male antenatal clinics (ANC) involvement and infant HIV-free survival.

Aluda AT, Amugune BK, Abuga KO, Kamau FN. "Development and Validation of a Gas Chromatographic Method for Determination of Menthol in Cold-Cough Syrups." PJK. 2018;23(3):90-93. Abstract

Background
Common cold is the most common infection of the upper respiratory tract and cold-cough syrups are often prescribed. Although menthol is one of the common constituents of these syrups, quality checks on cold-cough syrups normally target the major active pharmaceutical ingredients without regard to menthol content.

Objective
To develop and validate a gas chromatography method for determination of menthol in cold-cough syrups.

Methods
A simple, rapid, robust, accurate and reliable Gas Chromatography method was developed and validated for the determination of menthol in cold-cough syrups that may also contain ambroxol, chlorpheniramine, guaifenesin, bromhexine and salbutamol.

Results
Optimized chromatographic conditions were: A ZB-WAXplus 60m ×0.25mm; 0.25μm fused silica capillary column. Oven temperature program of 110 0C (2 min), ramp 10 0C/min to 190 0C (2 min). Injector port temperature maintained at 240 0C. Injection volume of 1.0 μl split in the ratio of 50:1. Carrier gas as nitrogen at 1.0mL/min which also serves as make up gas (30 mL/min) in the flame ionization detector (260 0C). Other detector gases were hydrogen (30 mL/ min) and industrial air (300 mL/ min) and the diluent for samples and standards was grade chloroform.
From recovery studies, 97.56 to 102.97 % recovery was reported. Repeatability studies had a coefficient of variation of 0.55 while intermediate precision was 0.32. The method was linear over a range of 0.042 to 0.169 mg/mL with a coefficient of determination (R2) 0.9986.
Of the 21 samples analyzed, only 10 samples (47.6 %) complied with assay specifications of 90.0 to 110.0 % label claim for finished products according to the United States Pharmacopeia 2016.

Conclusion and recommendation
A gas chromatographic method was developed and validated for the determination of menthol in cold-cough syrups in Kenya. This method can be used together with a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method to assay cold-cough syrups that may also contain ambroxol, bromhexine, chlorpheniramine maleate, guaifenesin and salbutamol.
This method can be useful in routine analysis such as pre-registration studies as well as post market surveillance to curb substandard and counterfeit cold-cough syrups.

Aluda AT, Amugune BK, Abuga KO, Kamau FN. "Development and Validation of a Gas Chromatographic Method for Determination of Menthol in Cold-Cough Syrups ." Pharmaceutical Journal of Kenya . 2018;23(3):89-94.
Alubale EA, Simila HO, Amisi SK, Kisumbi BK, others. "Indications for initial placement and replacement of amalgam and composite restorations.". 2011. Abstract
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Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Afendi FM, Kiboi SK, Kanaya S. "Systems biology in the context of big data and networks." BioMed research international. 2014;2014.
Alsanius BW, Kosiba AH, Onyango CM, Mogren L. "Produce quality and safety.". In: Rooftop Urban Agriculture. New York: Springer; 2017.
Alphayo I. Lutta, Lance W. Robinson, Oliver V. Wasonga, Ruto E, Jason Sircely, Nyangito MM. "Economic valuation of grazing management practices: Discrete choice modeling in pastoral systems of Kenya." Journal of Environmental Planning and Management . 2019.
Alphayo I. Lutta, Lance W. Robinson, Oliver V. Wasonga, Ruto E, Jason Sircely, Nyangito MM. "Economic valuation of grazing management practices: discrete choice modeling in pastoral systems of Kenya." Environmental Planning and Management. 2020;63(2).
Alphayo I. Lutta, Lance W. Robinson, Oliver V. Wasonga, Ruto E, Jason Sircely, Nyangito MM. "Economic valuation of grazing management practices: Discrete choice modeling in pastoral systems of Kenya." Journal of Environmental Planning and Management . 2019.
Alphayo L, Wasonga OV, Odadi WO, Ngugi RK. "Differences of Soil Properties between Planned and Unplanned Grazing Sites in Semi-Arid Pastoral Rangelands of Northern Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Development|| ISSN 2278–0211. 2016;5. Abstract
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Aloyo A, Kinuthia DA, sine KA, Mulaku M, A G. " Risk factors for Insulin Prescription Errors in a Public Tertiary Care Hospital in Sub-Saharan Africa. Drug Safety ." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2018;41(14):14.
Aloo PA, Anam RO, Mwangi JN. "Metazoan parasites of some commercially important fish along the Kenyan coast.". 2000. Abstract

The parasitic fauna of some commercial fish species along the Kenyan coast was investigated at four localities between August 2001 and March 2002. The study was carried out to establish the extent of parasitisation of different fish species and quantify the relationship between the parasites and their fish hosts. Fish samples were collected once a month from four landing beaches. Sixteen fish species were examined out of which only eight were infested with ecto-and endo parasites. The infested fish species included: the rabbitfish (Siganus sutor), the mackerels (Selar crumenophthalmus, Scomberomorus commerson and Rastrelliger kanarguta), parrot fish (Leptoscarus vagiensis), sardine (Sardinella gibbosa), tuna (Thunnus sp.) and needle fish (Hemiramphus far). Of the eight species, Si. sutor was most infested with parasites while Sardinella and Leptoscarus were primarily infested wit h ectoparasites (isopods). Intensity of infestation increased with age (size), especially in Si. sutor, where very young fish had a low infestation rate, while adults were heavily infested (P < 0.01). No significant differences were observed in the intensity of infestation between sexes in Si. sutor (P > 0.05).

Allen RG, Gichuki FN, Rosenzweig C. "CO2‐Induced Climatic Changes and Irrigation‐Water Requirements.". 1991. AbstractWebsite

Effects of CO2‐induced climatic changes on irrigation‐water requirements (IR) in the Great Plains region were evaluated using results of global atmospheric‐circulation models with a water balance‐IR model. Increases were predicted for evapotranspiration Et due to predicted increases in air temperature, solar radiation, and wind speed under doubled concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (2×CO2). Predicted increases in humidity under the 2×CO2 scenarios and shifting of crop life cycles to months with lower levels of solar radiation moderated predicted increases in Et. Increases in irrigation requirements were caused primarily by increases in evaporative demands and changes in precipitation patterns. Increases in net seasonal IR for alfalfa were larger due to predicted increases in length of frost‐free growing seasons and higher evaporative demands as compared to winter wheat and corn. Decreases or only modest increases in seasonal irrigation requirements were projected under 2×CO2 scenarios for com and winter wheat due to reductions in length of crop life cycles and projected increases in bulk stomatal resistances.

Alkizim FO, Kimani JM, Otieno ES, Thairu K. "In vivo study on the effect of African black tea extract on wound healing." International journal of Medical and Health Research. 2020;6(6):67-74.
Alison C. Roxby1*, Alison L. Drake2 FO-O10 JK7 BR2 DM7 JN 4 N. "Effects of Valacyclovir on Markers of Disease Progression in Postpartum Women Co-Infected with HIV-1 and Herpes Simplex Virus-2.". 2012. Abstractplosone

Objective: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) suppression has been shown to reduce HIV-1 disease progression in non-
pregnant women and men, but effects on pregnant and postpartum women have not been described.
Methods: We analyzed data from a cohort of Kenyan women participating in a randomized clinical trial of HSV-2
suppression. Pregnant HIV-1-seropositive, HSV-2-seropositive women who were not eligible for antiretroviral therapy (WHO
stage 1–2, CD4.250 cells/ml) were randomized to either 500 mg valacyclovir or placebo twice daily from 34 weeks gestation
through 12 months postpartum. Women received zidovudine and single-dose nevirapine for prevention of mother-to-child
HIV-1 transmission. HIV-1 progression markers, including CD4 count and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, were measured serially.
Multivariate linear regression was used to compare progression markers between study arms.
Results: Of 148 women randomized, 136 (92%) completed 12 months of postpartum follow-up. While adjusted mean CD4
count at 12 months (565 cells/ml placebo arm, 638 cells/ml valacyclovir arm) increased from antenatal levels in both arms, the
mean CD4 count increase was 73 cells/ml higher in the valacyclovir arm than placebo arm (p = 0.03). Mean increase in CD4
count was 154 cells/ml in the valacyclovir arm, almost double the increase of 78 cells/ml in the placebo arm. At 12 months,
adjusted HIV-1 RNA levels in the placebo arm increased by 0.66 log10 copies/ml from baseline, and increased by only 0.21
log10 copies/ml in the valacyclovir arm (0.40 log10 copies/ml difference, p = 0.001).
Conclusion: Women randomized to valacyclovir suppressive therapy during pregnancy and postpartum had greater
increases in CD4 counts and smaller increases in plasma HIV-1 RNA levels than women in the placebo arm. Valacyclovir
suppression during pregnancy and breastfeeding may improve outcomes and delay antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1/HSV-
2 co-infected women.

Alimonti JB, Koesters SA, Kimani J, Matu L, Wachihi C, Plummer FA, Fowke KR. "Cd4+ T Cell Responses In Hiv-exposed Seronegative Women Are Qualitatively Distinct From Those In Hiv-infected Women.". 2005. AbstractWebsite

The immune response of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed seronegative (ESN) women may be qualitatively different from that in those infected with HIV (HIV(+)). In a cohort of female commercial sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya, we found significantly lower (P< or =.01) levels of CD4(+)-specific immune activation and apoptosis in the ESN women compared with those in the HIV(+) women. Compared with the HIV(+) women, a lower proportion of the ESN women showed p24 peptide pool responses by the short-term, CD4(+)-specific, interferon (IFN)- gamma intracellular cytokine staining assay, whereas the proportion showing responses by the long-term, CD8(+)-depleted T cell proliferation assay was similar. Interestingly, the ESN responders had a 4.5-fold stronger proliferation response (P=.002) than the HIV(+) group. These data suggest that, compared with those in HIV(+) women, CD4(+) T cells in ESN women have a much greater ability to proliferate in response to p24 peptides.

Alila PO, Mitullah WV, Kamau AW. Women street vendors. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2002.
Alila PO. "Local Communicty Social Systems and Human Security." A. Kumssa et al (eds). Conflict and Human Security in Africa: Kenya in Perspective, Macmillan, 2011; 2012. Abstract
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Alila PO;, Suda C;, Yambo MO;, Adhiambo-Oduol J;, Ligunya A;, Hopkins M. "Sixth Country Programme Evaluation Report. Nairobi: Government of Kenya and UNDP .". 2005.Website
Alila PO, Njoka JM. "Child Labour: New and Enduring Forms." Nairobi. ILO/IPEC 2009,ISBN 978-9966-786-07-4; 2012. Abstract
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Alila PO, Mitullah WV, Kamau AW. Women street vendors.; 2002.Website
Alila PO;, Suda C;, Yambo MO;, Adhiambo-Oduol J;, Ligunya A;, Hopkins M. "Sixth Country Programme Evaluation Report. Nairobi: Government of Kenya and UNDP .". 2005.Website
Aligianis IA, Johnson CA, Gissen P, Chen D, Hampshire D, Hoffmann K, Maina EN, Morgan NV, Tee L, Morton J, others. "Mutations of the catalytic subunit of RAB3GAP cause Warburg Micro syndrome." Nature genetics. 2005;37:221-224. Abstract
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Aligianis IA, Johnson CA, Gissen P, Chen D, Hampshire D, Hoffmann K, Maina EN, Morgan NV, Tee L, Morton J, Ainsworth JR, Horn D, Rosser E, Cole TRP, Stolte-Dijkstra I, Fieggen K, Clayton-Smith J, Mégarbané A, Shield JP, Newbury-Ecob R, Dobyns WB, Graham JM, Kjaer KW, Warburg M, Bond J, Trembath RC, Harris LW, Takai Y, Mundlos S, Tannahill D, Woods GC, Maher ER. "Mutations of the catalytic subunit of RAB3GAP cause Warburg Micro syndrome." Nat. Genet.. 2005;37(3):221-3. Abstract

Warburg Micro syndrome (WARBM1) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by developmental abnormalities of the eye and central nervous system and by microgenitalia. We identified homozygous inactivating mutations in RAB3GAP, encoding RAB3 GTPase activating protein, a key regulator of the Rab3 pathway implicated in exocytic release of neurotransmitters and hormones, in 12 families with Micro syndrome. We hypothesize that the underlying pathogenesis of Micro syndrome is a failure of exocytic release of ocular and neurodevelopmental trophic factors.

Alice K. Charles, William M. Muiru DMJKW & W. "Distribution of Common Maize Diseases and Molecular Characterization of Maize Streak Virus in Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2019;11(5).
Alibiri OA. "Incidence of HIV among initially HIV negative pregnant women in Kenya." Lambert Academic Publishers, Saarbrücken, Germany. 2013;(ISBN 978-3-659-44198-1.). Abstract

Background: Human Immune deficiency Virus (HIV) counseling and testing provides an entry point to comprehensive HIV/AIDS management. In Africa, most women attending antenatal care (ANC) clinics are counseled and tested for HIV only once; during the initial visit and yet there is documented evidence of seroconversion later in pregnancy. Failure to repeat the test leaves a gap in Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT).
Purpose: To identify the incidence of HIV seroconversion in pregnancy among initially HIV negative pregnant women.
Objectives: To determine the incidence of HIV seroconversion among initially HIV negative women later in pregnancy. To describe the factors associated with seroconversion among initially HIV negative women later in pregnancy. To discuss factors that influence HIV repeat counseling and testing among initially HIV negative pregnant women.
Study site: Kakamega Provincial General Hospital ANC clinics and antenatal ward (ANW).
Study design: A descriptive cross sectional study was employed.
Sampling and sample size: Three hundred and two pregnant women as per Fisher’s formula who on initial testing were HIV negative, revisiting ANC clinics or presenting in latent phase of labor at the ANW were systematically sampled for the study.
Data collection: A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Respondents were retested to identify their HIV seroconversion status.
Data analysis: Statistical Package for the Social Sciences was used for data analysis. Descriptive data were analyzed using descriptive statistics; frequency tables were generated, measures of central tendency calculated. Associations between variables were sought using chi square and significance tests. A p value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: Among 302 women retested, 225 (74%) were married with a mean age of 24.6±5.4 years. Ninety three (30.8%) of these were house wives. Nine women (2.98%) who were retested turned HIV positive. Only 9 (2.98%) thought it was not necessary to repeat HIV testing 4 (44%) arguing that they tested HIV negative during their last test. For those who thought it was necessary to repeat testing, 91 (31.1%) thought it was part of self care. There was significant difference between women with multiple sex partners and those who did not have multiple sex partners in so far as HIV seroconversion was concerned χ2 =14.532; p = 0.008. those with multiple sex partners were almost 11 times more likely to seroconvert as compared with those without multiple sex partners (OR 95% C.I: 10.769; 2.419 – 47.942).
Conclusion: HIV seroconversion of 2.98% was clinically significant considering the fact that these women risk passing on the virus to their infants and their partners. It was realized that women still engage in risky sexual behaviors despite acknowledging that they have been taught on the need to avoid risky sexual behaviors. The government needs to strengthen repeat counseling and testing of pregnant women later in pregnancy in line with the Ministry’s new policy guidelines and aim at giving health messages which will foster behavior change so that the women avoid risky sexual behavior.

Ali HM, Nguta JM, Mapenay IO, Musila FM, Omambia VM, Matara DN. "Ethnopharmacological uses, biological activities, chemistry and toxicological aspects of Ocimum americanum var. americanum (Lamiaceae)." Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2021;10:56-60.
Ali H, Nguta J, Musila F, Ole-Mapenay I, Matara D, Mailu J. "Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity, Cytotoxicity, and Phytochemical Composition of Ocimum americanum L. (Lamiaceae)." Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2022;2022:11.
Ali HM, Nguta JM, Mapenay IO, Musila FM, Vincent OM, Nyak DM. "Ethnopharmacological uses, biological activities, chemistry and toxicological aspects of Ocimum americanum var. americanum (Lamiaceae)." The Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2021;10(1):56-60 .
Ali RT, Kunyanga CN, Ngugi K. "In-Vitro protein digestibility, physico-chemical properties and nutritional quality of sorghum-green gram cookies supplemented with mango powder." International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2021;5(39).
Ali FA, Ongeri BO. "Impact of refugee influx in east African Community-An exploratory analysis." Global Journal of Contemporary Research in Accounting, Auditing and Business Ethics. 2019;GJCRA .
Alhasan H, abuaffan A, AM K. "MIH prevalence, pattern and distribution in Sudanese children." BMC Oral Health. 2020;2021, 21:9.(2021, 21:9.):2021, 21:9.
Alfred Mitema. Genetic Diversity of the Deadly Kenyan Aspergillus flavus Population. Germany: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing; 2019.
Alfred A, Musembi RJ, Waita SM, Mwabora JM. Effects of Oxygen Partial Pressure and Substrate Temperature on Optical Properties of Sputter Deposited Thin Films. United Kenya Club; 2013. Abstract

The effects of oxygen partial pressure and substrate temperature on optical properties of CuCrO_2 thin films deposited on float glass substrate by reactive DC magnetron sputtering system using CuCr alloy targets have been studied. The sputtering was performed in Argon (Ar) and Oxygen (O_2) atmosphere and the substrate temperature varied up to 263 °C. The optical constants: refractive index, n, extinction coefficient, k, dielectric constant, ε, and absorption coefficient, α, at different oxygen partial pressure and substrate temperatures were determined from measured transmittance and reflectance data fitted in SCOUT software for wavelength range 200-2247 nm. The optical studies gave energy band gap of about 2.47 eV at 0.153 μbar Po2 and 3.7 eV at 263 °C substrate temperature. The values obtained for Urbach energy were 0.27-0.31 eV for samples prepared at Po2 between 0.153-0.187 μbar and 0.81-1.45 eV for those prepared at substrate temperature of 263 °C and as-grown film, respectively.

Alexandra Hiscox, Bruno Otieno, Anthony Kibet, Collins K Mweresa, Philemon Omusula, Martin Geier, Andreas Rose, Wolfgang R Mukabana, undefined. "Development and optimization of the Suna trap as a tool for mosquito monitoring and control." Malaria journal. 2014;13(1):257.
Alexandra Hiscox, Nicolas Maire, Ibrahim Kiche, Mariabeth Silkey, Tobias Homan, Prisca Oria, Collins Mweresa, Bruno Otieno, Margaret Ayugi, Teun Bousema, Patrick Sawa, Jane Alaii, Thomas Smith, Cees Leeuwis, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Takken W. "The SolarMal Project: innovative mosquito trapping technology for malaria control." Malaria Journal. 2012;11(1):O45 doi:10.1186/1475-2875-11-S1-O45.
Alexandra Hiscox, Tobias Homan, Corné Vreugdenhil, Bruno Otieno, Anthony Kibet, Collins K Mweresa, Ron van Lammeren, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Takken W. "Spatial heterogeneity of malaria vectors and malaria transmission risk estimated using odour-baited mosquito traps." Malaria journal. 2014;13(S1):P41.
Alexandra Hiscox, Nicolas Maire IKMSTHPOCMBOM. "The SolarMal Project: innovative mosquito trapping technology for malaria control." Malaria Journal 2012. 2012;11(1):O45 doi:10.1186/1475-2875-11-S1-O45.
Alexandra Hiscox, Tobias Homan, Collins K Mweresa, Nicolas Maire, Pasquale AD, Masiga D, Oria PA, Jane Alaii. "Mass mosquito trapping for malaria control in western Kenya: study protocol for a stepped wedge cluster-randomised trial." Trials. 2016;17(1):356.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. Exposure to pesticides through drinking water in a rural community in Kenya.". In: International& Family Health Seminar, School of Public Health, The University of Texas, Health Science Center at Houston. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1996. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "The Impact of Urbanization and Industrialization on Kenya.". In: Nairobi Journal of Medicine, 21: (1 ).15-17, 2002. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1989. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Simth, WCS and Mwanthi, MA: Tick borne disease .". In: Book Chapter in Medicine and Environment Text Book 2009).; Submitted. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Xerophthalmia among Kenyan children aged four to seven years in high risk using Conjuctival Impression Cytology and transfer. DESIGN: A cross sectional community based study. SETTING: Mathare slum in Nairobi and Tiva/Ithiani area of Kitui. SUBJECTS: Children aged four to seven years residing in the above areas were assessed for both clinical and cytological features of vitamin A deficiency. RESULTS: Of the 342 children included in this study, 316 (92.0%) were normal, five (1.5%) had XN, 19 (5.9% had XIA and two (0.6%) had XIB. No signs of corneal Xerophthalmia were seen in this study. Conjuctival impression cytology and transfer (CICT) was used to asses for squamous metaplastic changes associated with Vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Seventy five (23.1%) of the children were normal by CICT while 249 (76.9%) were abnormal. In comparing the two areas of study, only 13.2% of the children in Mathare had normal CICT compared to 50% in Kitui. For each of the age groups studied there was significant difference between the two areas with children from Mathare being more deficient than those from Kitui. CONCLUSION: VAD is a significant health problem in the high risk areas assessed by CICT in this study.
Alexander RMN, Jayes AS, Maloiy GMO, Wathuta EM. "Allometry of the leg muscles of mammals.". 2010. Abstract

Measurements have been made of the leg muscles of mammals ranging from shrews Sorex to an elephant Loxodonta. Allometric equations based on body mass have been calculated for muscle masses, fibre lengths and moment arms and the thickness of a tendon, in several groups of mammals. Departures from geometric similarity in mammals in general (excluding bipedal hoppers) are noted and discussed. Differences between primates; fissipedes, bovids and bipedal hoppers are also demonstrated.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. MPH Curriculum and Health.". In: Promotion Course, Dares-Salaam, Tanzania. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. A Proposal for Senior Manpower Development in Environmental Science in Kenya, International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 7:315-330, 1996.". In: International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 7:315-330, 1996. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1996. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Health hazards of pesticides. Mwanthi MA, Kimani VN. World Health Forum. 1990;11(4):430.". In: World Health Forum. 1990;11(4):430. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1990. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

Alexander RMN, Maloiy GMO. "Stride lengths and stride frequencies of primates.". 2009. Abstract

Stride lengths and stride frequencies of primates have been observed or collected from the literature. Data for Galago, various monkeys and apes, and man have been collected. The quadrupedal primates take longer strides, at any particular speed, than would be predicted for non-primates. When they gallop they use lower stride frequencies than non-primates of equal mass.

Alexander RMN, Maloiy GMO, Ker RF, Jayes AS, Warui CN. "The role of tendon elasticity in the locomotion of the camel (Camelus dromedarius).". 2009. Abstract

Several ofthe distal leg muscles ofcamels have very short or even rudimentary muscle fibres. This makes it possible to calculate the elastic extensions of tendons that occur in running, from the leg positions observed in films. A series of experiments have been performed for this purpose on the dissected legs of a camel. The initial conclusions derived from them are modified in the light of estimates of the forces that act on the tendons, and of measurements of the elastic properties of one tendon. Evidence for movement at the intertarsal and tarso-metatarsal joints. and the corresponding joints of the fore leg, is examined. The importance of the various tendons as elastic energy stores in running is assessed.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Prevalence of Intestinal Worm Infections Among Primary School Children in Nairobi City. Mwanthi, M.A., Kinoti .M; et al.". In: East African Journal of Public Health, Vol. 5. NO. 2. 2008. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2008. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A., Essien, E.J., Muchunga, E., Austin, J. and El Gamal, Y. Emerging effects of industrialization on health and environment in developing countries. Health Line: A Journal of Health, 5: (2). 26-29, 2001.". In: Health Line: A Journal of Health, 5: (2). 26-29, 2001. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2001. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. Emerging effects of industrial revolution on 29 1993 Health and environment in developing countries.". In: Tanzania Public Health Association & the East Southern and Central Africa Public Health Association, Arusha, Tanzania. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1993. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

Alexander O’o J, Shitandi OB, Kerubuo MM, Ngure KB. "Pattern of stroke in a rural Kenyan hospital." Malawi Medical Journal . 2019;31(1):50-55. Abstractpattern_of_stroke_in_a_rural_kenyan_hospital.pdfCC BY-NC-ND

Background
The pattern of stroke in rural population differs from that in urban ones. Although there are many studies on this condition in sub-Saharan Africa, few studies about stroke pattern in a Kenyan rural area exist.. This study therefore aims at describing the characteristics of stroke in a rural Kenyan hospital.
Patients and Methods
The study was conducted on 227 consecutive patients admitted with a World Health Organization (WHO) diagnosis of stroke in Kangundo Hospital, a level IV facility in Machakos, Eastern Kenya, between April 2015 and September 2016. The sub-type and anatomical distribution of stroke as well as the age, gender of the patients were recorded prospectively. Diagnosis was made through physical neurological examination and confirmed by Computerized Tomography (CT) scan imaging. Only those with complete bio-data, past medical and social history, clinical and physical findings of the patients and imaging results were included. The data were entered into a pre-formatted questionnaire, analysed for means, standard deviations and frequencies, and are presented in tables and bar charts.
Results
Out of 3200 medical admissions, 227 (7.09%) had a confirmed diagnosis of stroke. Ischaemic stroke was more common (67.4%) than haemorrhagic stroke (32.6%). It affected mainly the anterior circulation, especially the middle cerebral artery (39%). The mean age of patients was 68.8 years, (Range 32 – 96). It was more common in females (62%) than in males (38%). Hypertension was the most common (74%) risk factor followed by alcohol abuse (63%), tobacco smoking (48%) and diabetes mellitus (42%).
Conclusion
Ischaemic stroke was the more common major cause of morbidity in the rural hospital studied in Kenya. It occurred most commonly among elderly females, with the most frequent comorbidities being hypertension. In addition, modifiable lifestyle factors like alcohol abuse and cigarette smoking contributed to the prevalence; hence we recommend the control of blood pressure and glucose as well as lifestyle modification to reduce the scourge in our studied population.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. MBChB Community Health Diagnosis Programme Perspective.". In: University of Aberdeen International Seminar, June 2009. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2009. Abstract
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ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Proposed Procedures for Management of Waste Generated by Health Care Facilities. .Mwanthi, M. A. and Mutua, G. N.". In: African Journal of Environmental Assessment and Management, 4: (1). 39-45, 2002. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A and Nyabola, L.O.; Tenambergen, T. The present and future status of municipal solid waste management in Nairobi. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 7:345-353, 1997.". In: International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 7:345-353, 1997. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1997. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. and Kimani, V.N. Patterns of agrochemical handling and community response in Central Kenya. Journal of Environmental Health, 55:11-16, 1993.". In: Journal of Environmental Health, 55:11-16, 1993. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1993. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Rose O. Opiyo, Mutuku A. Mwanthi, Mary K. Kinoti, Prescilla S. Migori. Intestinal Worm Infections and Nutritional Status of School Children in Nairobi Province, Kenya.". In: African Journal for Community Health and Development. Vol. 1; NO.1. 52-56, 2009. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2010. Abstract

.Helminthic infections among children are subtle and insidious constraints on normal physical development. They impact negatively on children's genetic potential growth, with clinical consequences of iron.deficiency anaemia and other nutritional deficiencies (Awasthi et al., 2003). School-age children are particularly at risk of parasitic infections and under-nutrition, yet they have not been the focus of nutritional surveys. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Nairobi among school children 5-14 years in early 2006 from 39 randomly selected schools. 32 were public, five were private and two were informal schools. Stool samples from 1632 pupils were microscopically examined (Katz et a!. 1972) to establ ish the presence or absence of soil transmitted helminthic eggs and Schistosoma manson; while nutritional status data were analysed for 1574 pupils because their anthropometry data were correctly recorded. i, The prevatenceof .chton ic malnutrition .. (stunting) among the children was determined using Height-for-Age nutrition status indicator while being underweight or overweight was determined using the BMI-for-Age indicator. 12.8% of the children were infected by at least one of the three soil transmitted helminths (STHs) and S. mensoni. 33% were underweight while 10.7% were stunted. Children with parasitic infections were three times more likely to be underweight than those without infections (p>O.OS). Children with over one parasitic infections were 1.6 times more likely to be underweight than those exposed to one type. Exposure to parasitic infection contributes to both underweight and stunting among school children ..

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. and Mutua, G. N. Proposed Procedures for Management of Waste Generated by Health Care Facilities. African Journal of Environmental Assessment and Management, 4: (1). 39-45, 2002.". In: African Journal of Environmental Assessment and Management, 4: (1). 39-45, 2002. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. A safe adequate water supply and basic sanitation.". In: Health for All at The Year 2000: Wishful Thinking or Realistic Goal, 5-7 April 2000, Silver Springs, Nairobi. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2000. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. Justification for senior environmental health specialists in Kenya.". In: International Seminar on "Environmental,Sustainable Development and Human Health". Banaras, Hindu University,India. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1995. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. The Role of Employers and Stakeholders in Control of Occupational Hazards. Submitted in January 2010 to African Journal for Community Health and Development.". In: Book Chapter in Medicine and Environment Text Book 2009). Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2010. Abstract
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ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Omutanyi, M and Mwanthi, M.A. Determinants of Immunization Coverage in Butere-Mumiasi District. East African Medical Journal, 82:(10). 501-505, 2005.". In: East African Medical Journal, 82:(10). 501-505, 2005. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
Alexander RMN, Maloiy GMO, Njau R, Jayes AS. "Mechanics of running of the ostrich (Struthio camelus).". 2009. Abstract

Ostriches have been filmed running fast in their natural habitat. A female ostrich has been dissected and the principal bones, muscles and tendons in a leg have been measured. It is calculated that stresses up to 240 kN m−2 and 40 MN m−2, respectively, act in the digital flexor muscles and their tendons during running. Tensile and compressive stresses up to about 70MNm−2 and 110 MNm−2 act in the tibiotarsus. A large proportion of the energy which would otherwise be required for running is probably saved by elastic storage in tendons. Comparisons are made with the legs of flying birds and of antelopes

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Kimani, V.N. and Mwanthi, M.A. Agrochemicals exposure and health implications in Githunguri Location, Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1995 Aug;72(8):531-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Aug;72(8):531-5. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1995. Abstract
A study conducted in a rural agricultural community (Githunguri location) in Kenya between 1987 and 1990 investigated the extent of use of agrochemicals, especially pesticides, by the farmers; their level of awareness of the dangers posed by these chemicals and their attitudes towards agricultural chemicals in general. The findings showed that more than 95% of the farmers used pesticides extensively. More women than men were found to be at risk of agrochemicals exposure, while babies and children were at more risk of agrochemicals exposure than the women. In this community, knowledge and awareness regarding safety in handling and storage of agrochemicals was to some extent limited. For instance, many had no knowledge of an antidote in case of accidental poisoning. Additionally, suicidal attempts by ingestion of agrochemicals was prevalent. Improper handling of the agrochemicals by the community members was implicated to have adverse health effects. These health effects were reported in form of complaints. They ranged from acute to chronic conditions. Consequently, an intervention programme was launched with the women as the key players. It is envisaged that community participation in the on going intervention programme is saving babies, children, women and the community at large from agrochemicals hazards.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. Occurrence of three pesticides in community water supplies, Kenya.". In: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 60:601-608, 1998. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1989. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "A Community Health Worker Program for the Prevention of Malaria in Eastern Kenya.". In: Book Chapter in Medicine and Environment Text Book 2009). Stromberg DG, Frederiksen J, Hruschka J, Tomedi A, Mwanthi M.; 2011. Abstract
Objective: To assess whether the development and implementation of a community health worker (CHW) project in rural Kenya was associated with an increase in knowledge about malaria and the use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in children under five years of age.Methods: A baseline knowledge and behavior questionnaire, adopted from the Kenyan Demographic Health Survey, was conducted in August 2007 by Kenyan health officials in 75 villages. Two CHWs were chosen from each village and trained in appropriate use of ITNs. The CHWs provided educational sessions and ITNs to mothers in their respective villages. A follow-up survey was conducted in March 2008 of all families with children less than five years of age within randomly selected villages. The main questions addressed during the follow-up survey included knowledge about malaria and the practice of correctly using ITNs.Findings: There were 267 surveys compiled for knowledge assessment before the intervention and 340 in the post-intervention analysis with an approximate 99% family participation rate. Of the families surveyed, 81% correctly knew the cause for malaria before the study and 93% after the CHW intervention (p < 0.01). Of those surveyed before the intervention, 70% owned and correctly used mosquito nets compared with 88% after the CHW intervention (p < 0.01).Conclusions: There was a significant increase in knowledge about malaria and use of ITNs after the implementation of the CHW program. Keywords: Community health aides, insecticide-treated bednets, malaria/diagnosis, malaria/prevention andcontrol, Kenya, rural health services, infant, child/preschool, questionnaires
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. The Status and Future of Applied Epidemiology Course for Anglophone (African) countries.". In: Benin. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. A Proposal for Senior Manpower Development in Environmental Science in Kenya, International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 7:315-330, 1996.". In: International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 7:315-330, 1996. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1996. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. and Kimani, N.V. Pesticides hazards.". In: An International Journal of Health Development WHO; Geneva, 11:430, 1990. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1990. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

Alexander RMN, Maloiy GMO, Ker RF, Jayes AS, Warui CN. "The role of tendon elasticity in the locomotion of the camel (Camelus dromedarius).". 2009. Abstract

Several ofthe distal leg muscles ofcamels have very short or even rudimentary muscle fibres. This makes it possible to calculate the elastic extensions of tendons that occur in running, from the leg positions observed in films. A series of experiments have been performed for this purpose on the dissected legs of a camel. The initial conclusions derived from them are modified in the light of estimates of the forces that act on the tendons, and of measurements of the elastic properties of one tendon. Evidence for movement at the intertarsal and tarso-metatarsal joints. and the corresponding joints of the fore leg, is examined. The importance of the various tendons as elastic energy stores in running is assessed.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "MPH Curriculum and Health Promotion Course.". In: Promotion Course, Dares-Salaam, Tanzania. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A., Essien, E.J., Muchunga, E., Austin, J. and El Gamal, Y.Emerging effects of industrialization on health and environment in developing countries. Health Line:.". In: A Journal of Health, 5: (2). 26-29, 2001. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2001. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. Africa: The changing Environment and Health. International.". In: Journal of Environmental Health Research, 2:84-88, 1992. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1992. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Odindo MA, Mwanthi MA.Role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among HIV/AIDS persons in Kibera, Kenya.East Afr J Public Health. 2008 Apr;5(1):1-5.". In: East Afr J Public Health. 2008 Apr;5(1):1-5. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2008. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Elizabeth Ngugi, Violet Kimani, Mutuku Mwanthi and Joyce Olenja, Community Based Care in Resource Limited Settings:.". In: A Framework for Action,WHO (Book publication ). Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A; Nyabola, L. O; Tenambergen, T. Solid Waste Management in Nairobi City: Knowledge and Attitudes.". In: Journal of Environmental Health, 60:23-29, 1997. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1997. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. and Kimani, V.N. Agrochemicals pose health risks to coffee factory workers in Githunguri, Kenya.". In: International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 3:73-81, 1993. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1993. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "BloodLead Levels and Potential Environmental Exposures Among Children under five years in Kibera, Nairobi. Olewe T, Mwanthi. M, Wang.". In: Journal of Applied Biosciences, (2009), Vol. 13:688-694. ISSN 1997-5902:. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2009. Abstract
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ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Elizabeth, N., Kimani, V.N., Mwanthi, M.A. and Joyce O.Community Based Care in Resource Limited Settings: A Framework for Action, WHO (Book Publication).". In: A Framework for Action, WHO (Book Publication). 2002. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. Occurrence of three pesticides in community water supplies, Kenya. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 60:601-608, 1998.". In: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 60:601-608, 1998. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1998. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. Agrochemicals: Potential health hazards in Africa.". In: Africa Health,6:18-19, 1994. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1994. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Hruschka, JA, Tomedi AJ, Broudy BW, Frederickson J, Stromberg DG, Schmitt, C L and Mwanthi, MA. Effectiveness of Community Health Care Workers in the Prevention of Diarrhea in Rural Kenya. Journal of Investigative Medicine, Vol.58. NO.1, Jan 2010.". In: Book Chapter in Medicine and Environment Text Book 2009). Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2010. Abstract
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ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Determinants of Immunization Coverage in Butere-Mumiasi District. Omutanyi, M and Mwanthi, M.A.". In: East African Medical Journal, 82:(10). 501-505, 2005. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
Alexander RMN, Maloiy GMO, Hunter B, Jayes AS, Nturibi J. "Mechanical stresses in fast locomotion of buffalo (Syncews coffer) and elephant (Loxodonta africana).". 2009. Abstract

Films of buffalo and elephant running, and detailed measurements on dissected legs, have been used to estimate the maximum stresses which occur in locomotion, in certain muscles, tendons and bones. These stresses are similar to stresses previously determined for some other, smaller mammals.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Control of spread of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Burns Units. Muthotho JN, Waiyaki PG, Mbalu M, Wairugu A, Mwanthi B, Odongo B. Afr J Health Sci. 1995 Feb;2(1):232-235.". In: Afr J Health Sci. 1995 Feb;2(1):232-235. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1995. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Feasibility and effectiveness of supplementation with locally available foods in prevention of child malnutrition in Kenya.". In: Book Chapter in Medicine and Environment Text Book 2009). Angelo Tomedi, Felisha Rohan-Minjares, Kate McCalmont, Rebecca Ashton, Rose Opiyo, Mutuku M; 2011.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. Role of Governmental and Non-Governmental Organizations in Mitigation of Stigma and Discrimination Among HIV/AIDS Persons in Kibera, Kenya,.". In: Nairobi. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. Presence of three pesticides in rural drinking water sources in Kenya.(.". In: A doctoral dissertation, April 1996) School of Public Health Library, The University of Texas, Health Science Center at Houston. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1996. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. Environmental Pollution and its Impact on Eastern Africa.". In: Dar-es Salaam, Tanzania. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1989. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. Challenges on Attaining the Millennium Development Goals in Africa at the African management Communication.". In: Hilton Hotel, Nairobi. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A; Nyabola, L. O; Tenambergen, T. The present and future status of municipal solid waste management in Nairobi.". In: International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 7:345-353, 1997. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1997. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. "Kenya: An Assessment of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Pesticide Handling at community level,".". In: International Family Health Seminars at The University of Texas, School of Public Health, USA. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1992. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Evaluation of a Portable Blood Lead Analyzer as an Alternative to Graphite Furnace AtomicAbsorption SpectrophotometerTom M. Olewe*; Mutuku A. Mwanthi; Joseph K. Wang.". In: Journal of Applied Biosciences, (2008), Vol. 10:483-487. ISSN 1997-5902:. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2008. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. Pesticides as Occupational Health Hazards in the Kenya Flower Industry.". In: Workshop Organized by the International Labor Organization, Kenya Human Rights Commission and The Workers Rights Organization, Pan Afric Hotel, Nairobi. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. and Kimani, V.N. Patterns of agrochemical handling and community response in Central Kenya.". In: Journal of Environmental Health, 55:11-16, 1993. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1993. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A.Factors Contributing to Recurrent Water Shortages in Nairobi City.". In: University of Aberdeen International Seminar, June 2009. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2009. Abstract
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ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. The Impact of Urbanization and Industrialization on Kenya.". In: Nairobi Journal of Medicine, 21: (1).15-17, 2002. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A; Nyabola, L.O.; Tenambergen, T. Solid Waste Management in Nairobi City: Knowledge and Attitudes. Journal of Environmental Health, 60:23-29, 1997.". In: Journal of Environmental Health, 60:23-29, 1997. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1997. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. and Kimani, V.N. Agrochemicals pose health risks to coffee factory workers in Githunguri, Kenya. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 3:73-81, 1993.". In: International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 3:73-81, 1993. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1993. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Blood Lead Levels and Potential Environmental Exposures Among Children under five years in Kibera, Nairobi. Olewe T, Mwanthi. M, Wang.". In: Journal of Applied Biosciences, (2009), Vol. 13:688-694. ISSN 1997-5902:. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2009. Abstract

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ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Omutanyi, M. and Mwanthi, M.A. Determinants of Immunization Coverage in Butere-Mumias District. East Afr Med J. 2005 Oct;82(10):501-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Oct;82(10):501-5. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. Occupational Diseases and Other Related Health conditions.". In: Workshop Organised by Kenya Medical Association, Serena Hotel, Nairobi. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2001. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Kimani, V.N. and Mwanthi, M.A. Agrochemicals exposure and health implications in Githunguri Location, Kenya.". In: East African Medical Journal, 72:531-535, 1995. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1995. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

Alexander RM;, Maloiy GMO. "Locomotion of African mammals."; 1989.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "What is the appropriate age range of individuals to be included in a survey to estimate the prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis?". In: Book Chapter in Medicine and Environment Text Book 2009). Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2011.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. .". In: UNIDO-RENPAP Workshop, BOGOR, INDONESIA, 18-20 Sept.2006. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2006. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
Alex Awuor Ogacho, Ajuoga P, Aduda BO. "International Journal for Innovation Education and Research." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research. 2015;3(6):140-146. AbstractJournal Article Website

The effects of niobium doping (for doping concentrations: 0.02 – 0.06 at. % Nb5+) on the crystal structure of
TiO2 prepared by high temperature diffusion method were investigated. The samples were characterized using
energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and X- ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy to investigate the
chemical compositions, phase compositions and crystallinity of the thin films respectively. Despite the expected
high reutilization at high temperatures (>600oC), XRD results confirmed a significant suppression of anatase to
rutile phase transformation at even a higher synthesis (850oC) temperature. Grain growth retardation was also
observed in niobium doped TiO2, results which were attributed to Nb5+ substitution of lattice Ti4+.
Key words: Anatase, rutile, phase transformation, grain growth

Aleri JW, Mogoa EM, Mulei CM. "Welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder (zero-grazing) production systems in Nairobi and its environs.". 2012. Abstract

Animal welfare is defined as the ability of an animal to interact comfortably with its environment through its physiological, psychological and behavioural systems. About 70% of dairy production in Kenya is from the smallholder production systems. These production systems are negatively impacted by a number of factors including poor nutrition, substandard husbandry and management practices, lack of appropriate farm inputs, diseases and low incomes. These factors influence the welfare of dairy cattle, hence their importance for its evaluation. This study was therefore designed with the following objectives: 1. to determine the welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder production units in Nairobi and its environs, 2. to determine the risk factors contributing to poor welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder production units, 3. to determine the indicators of poor welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder production units, 4. to determine the farmers’ and stockmen’s perspectives of animal welfare. These objectives were achieved through a cross-sectional study carried out in 80 smallholder dairy units purposively selected in Nairobi and its environs, in which 306 dairy cows were examined. The welfare of cattle in these dairy units was evaluated through several methods which included: visual observations for animal- and farm-level factors that indicate poor welfare of cattle; taking measurements of dairy housing unit dimensions such as cubicle, walk-alley, kerb and feeding bunk; and using a structured questionnaire to interview farmers and stockmen on nutritional regimes and other management practices such as removal of slurry, milking techniques, record keeping and disease control. These factors were recorded and later analyzed. Analyses included descriptive statistics, and simple associations using chi-square at p< 0.05 significance level. Over 80% of these smallholder units had factors that contributed to poor welfare of dairy cattle. These factors included under-size cubicles, small walk-alleys, too high feeding bunks with traumatic edges, too low positioning of neck rails at the feed bunks, sharp objects and edges within the housing units and dilapidated housing structures. The main evidence of poor welfare was injuries on the animals. The body condition score (BCS) of the cows was the main indicator of welfare relating to feeding. Presence of injuries or scars on the skin at various parts of the body was considered a positive indicator of poor welfare either associated with housing structures, management practices or animal interactions. Other causes of poor welfare of the cows were hind-limb tying during milking, teat pulling during hand-milking, more than 24-hour delay before sick cows were treated, and mixing of cattle of different age-groups in the same compartment. Cow-human interaction was poor as evidenced by fearful response and long avoidance distance. This study concludes that poor welfare of dairy cattle exists in all the smallholder units evaluated, which is mainly caused by improper housing and management. Training of farmers and stockmen on animal welfare issues would therefore be a prerequisite to the improvement of dairy cattle welfare. Research on the physiological response to poor welfare of dairy cows in the smallholder units needs to be carried out to enhance the understanding of the impact of these risk factors on smallholder dairy animals.

Aleri JW, Mutembei HM, Mulei CM, Gakombe JW;, MBUGUA SM. "A Retrospective Study of Reproductive Conditions in Bitches in Nairobi.". 2010. Abstract

A twenty year retrospective study was carried out in the Small Animal Clinic, University of Nairobi, Kenya and in a private Small Animal Clinic in Nairobi between the years 1988 to 2008. A total of 6548 bitches had been presented with reproductive problems. The cases were categorically grouped according to the type of infertility diagnosed. Non-infectious infertilities were sixty nine percent and infectious types were thirty one percent. Only two percent of the latter were confirmed in one clinic. 23.20 % of non-infectious infertility were managerial, 29.1% anatomical and 7.80% physiological types while 39.80 % were unclassified miscellaneous cases. The cases classified under infectious infertility consisted of; vaginitis/endometritis/metritis (36.3%), pyometra (25.3%), abortions (21.5%), vaginal discharges (11.7%) and miscarriages (5.1%). The incidence of infertilities was highly common in breeds of German shepherd (39%), Doberman (6%), Rottweiler (12%) and their crosses (43%). The percentage of the reproductive cases presented in both clinics had no statistical difference at (p<0.05). It was evident from the results of this study that infectious infertility exists among the bitches in Kenya and it would be beneficial to do further studies to establish the causative agents to avert any possible outbreaks of zoonotic diseases.

ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Rabies and Population Control of Stray Dogs and Cats in Nairobi Slums. WVS-CSD Initiative (2011). Muraya, J., Aleri, J.W. Mutembei, H.M and Mulei, C.M.". In: Rabies Workshop 26th September,2011 held in Machokas. KVA; 2011. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Aleri JW;, Nguhiu JM;, Mogoa, E.M; Mulei CM, Mogoa, E.M; Mulei CM. "Challenges In The Smallholder (zero - Grazing) Production Systems Of Nairobi And Its Environs: A Welfare Perspective.".; 2012.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Promoting Animal and Human Welfare in Disasters: The Role of Veterinary Professionals (2011). Aleri, J.W and Mogoa, E.M.". In: 45th Kenya Veterinary Association Conference in Kisumu 2011. KVA; 2011. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Welfare of Dairy Cattle in the Smallholder (Zero-grazing) Production Systems of Nairobi and its Environs (2011). Aleri, J.W.". In: Faculty of veterinary medicine 8th Biennal scientific conference and the 46th KVA annual Scientific conference 25 . University of Nairobi Thesis; 2011. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Situational Analysis of Canine Infertility in Nairobi and its Environs. Departmental Seminar 2008.". In: Departmental Seminar . Departmental seminar; 2008. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Aleri JW, Abuom TO, Mulei CM. "A typical actinobacillosis in an adult friesian cow.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

Actinobacillosis due to Actinobacillus lignieresi, has been reported in domestic animals including cattle, sheep, goats, buffalo, horses and dogs (Carmalt et al., 1999; Kennerman et al., 2006; Muhammad et al., 2006; Brown et al., 2007). The causative agent is a gram-negative aerobic rod and a normal inhabitant of the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants (Radostits et al., 2007; Smith, 2009). The most frequent clinical presentation is granulomatous or pyogranulomatous lesion of the tongue or subcutaneous tissues in the head and neck region. A typical manifestation of the disease have been reported affecting other body tissues / organs usually associated from lacerations, dehorning, nose-rings, intravenous injections and lymphadenitis (Aslani, et al., 1995; Holzhauer and Roumen, 2002). Outbreaks of the disease have also been reported (Campbell et al., 1975; Nakazawa and Azuma 1977). This paper outlines an atypical case of actinobacillosis of soft tissue swelling of the head in a cow without any exudation from the lesion, which is a challenge to confirming the etiological agent and treatment.

ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "A Typical Actinobacillosis in an Adult Friesian Cow (2012). AG Thaiyah, JW Aleri, TO Abuom, CM Mulei.". In: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa > Vol 60, No 1 (2012). Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa > Vol 60, No 1 (2012); 2012. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Retrospective Study on Canine Infertility in Nairobi and its Environs (2010). Aleri, J.W., Mutembei, H.K., Mulei, C.M., Mbugua, S.M. and Gakombe, J.W.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 7th Biennial Scientific Conference 2010. KVA; 2010. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Aleri JW, Mogoa EM, Mulei CM. "Welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder (zero-grazing) production systems in Nairobi and its environs.". 2012. Abstract

Animal welfare is defined as the ability of an animal to interact comfortably with its environment through its physiological, psychological and behavioural systems. About 70% of dairy production in Kenya is from the smallholder production systems. These production systems are negatively impacted by a number of factors including poor nutrition, substandard husbandry and management practices, lack of appropriate farm inputs, diseases and low incomes. These factors influence the welfare of dairy cattle, hence their importance for its evaluation. This study was therefore designed with the following objectives: 1. to determine the welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder production units in Nairobi and its environs, 2. to determine the risk factors contributing to poor welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder production units, 3. to determine the indicators of poor welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder production units, 4. to determine the farmers’ and stockmen’s perspectives of animal welfare. These objectives were achieved through a cross-sectional study carried out in 80 smallholder dairy units purposively selected in Nairobi and its environs, in which 306 dairy cows were examined. The welfare of cattle in these dairy units was evaluated through several methods which included: visual observations for animal- and farm-level factors that indicate poor welfare of cattle; taking measurements of dairy housing unit dimensions such as cubicle, walk-alley, kerb and feeding bunk; and using a structured questionnaire to interview farmers and stockmen on nutritional regimes and other management practices such as removal of slurry, milking techniques, record keeping and disease control. These factors were recorded and later analyzed. Analyses included descriptive statistics, and simple associations using chi-square at p< 0.05 significance level. Over 80% of these smallholder units had factors that contributed to poor welfare of dairy cattle. These factors included under-size cubicles, small walk-alleys, too high feeding bunks with traumatic edges, too low positioning of neck rails at the feed bunks, sharp objects and edges within the housing units and dilapidated housing structures. The main evidence of poor welfare was injuries on the animals. The body condition score (BCS) of the cows was the main indicator of welfare relating to feeding. Presence of injuries or scars on the skin at various parts of the body was considered a positive indicator of poor welfare either associated with housing structures, management practices or animal interactions. Other causes of poor welfare of the cows were hind-limb tying during milking, teat pulling during hand-milking, more than 24-hour delay before sick cows were treated, and mixing of cattle of different age-groups in the same compartment. Cow-human interaction was poor as evidenced by fearful response and long avoidance distance. This study concludes that poor welfare of dairy cattle exists in all the smallholder units evaluated, which is mainly caused by improper housing and management. Training of farmers and stockmen on animal welfare issues would therefore be a prerequisite to the improvement of dairy cattle welfare. Research on the physiological response to poor welfare of dairy cows in the smallholder units needs to be carried out to enhance the understanding of the impact of these risk factors on smallholder dairy animals.

ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Entrenching Animal welfare in Policy and Legislations Frameworks: Is Africa ready? (2010). Mogoa, E.M. and Aleri, J.W.". In: Africa Animal Welfare Action (AAWA) Conference 2010 . AAWA; 2010. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Aleri JW;, Mutembei HK;, Mulei CM;, Mbugua SM;, Gakombe JW. "Retrospective Study On Canine Infertility In Nairobi And Its Environs (2010)."; 2010.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Retrospective study on Reproductive conditions in Bitches in Nairobi (2010). Aleri, J.W., Mutembei, H.K., C.M. Mulei., Gakombe, J.W. and Mbugua, S.M.". In: The Kenya Veterinarian 34: 29-31. http://www.ajol.info/index.php/kenvet/article/view/68400. KVA; 2010. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Risk factors for body injuries and poor welfare in cattle within smallholder units in periurban areas of Nairobi, Kenya (2011). Aleri, J.W., Nguhiu-Mwangi, J., Mogoa, E.M and Mulei, C.M.". In: 45th Kenya Veterinary Association Conference in Kisumu 2011. KVA; 2011. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Aleri JW, Mogoa EGM, Mulei CM, Mande JD. "Animal Welfare The Impact of Customized Lectures on Knowledge and Perceptions of Veterinary Students on Animal Welfare and Related Legislations.". 2009. Abstract

A study was designed to investigate the knowledge and perceptions of animal welfare and related legislations among graduating Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine students from the University of Nairobi, Kenya. A questionnaire was designed and administered to assess understanding, poor attributes, good provisions, legislations’, knowledge and sources of general information on animal welfare. The percentage responses to the questions before and after the customized lecture series were determined and differences compared using a paired t test. The level of awareness of animal welfare issues among students before and after the customized lectures was 33.11% and 68.03% respectively. Significant differences at p ≤ 0.05 on all the attributes assessed was observed. p=0.0056 on the understanding of animal welfare, p=0.0232 on what constitutes poor animal welfare and p=0.025 on conditions necessary to ensure a state of good animal welfare. A 50% increase in awareness of legislations on animal welfare was recorded after the lecture series. The major source of information on animal welfare was from the lecture series offered. This study confirms that inclusion of the customized lectures on animal welfare in training veterinary students was effective in promoting awareness on animal welfare. The contents of these lectures should be included in relevant subjects taught to students at the Faculties of Veterinary Medicine.

ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Housing-design as a predisposing factor for injuries and poor welfare in cattle within smallholder units in periurban areas of Nairobi, Kenya (2011). J W Aleri, J Nguhiu-Mwangi and E M Mogoa.". In: Livestock research for rural development 23 (3) 2011. Livestock research for rural development 23 (3) 2011; 2011. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "The Status of Animal welfare in Kenya. Departmental Seminar .". In: Department of Clinical Studies University of Nairobi 2008. Departmental seminar; 2008. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Aleri JW, Thaiyah AG, Abuom TO, Mulei CM. "A typical actinobacillosis in an adult friesian cow.". 2011.
Aleri JW, Kipyegon AN, Mulei CM, Karanja DN. "Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Due to Babesiosis in a Dog: Case Report.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

Abstract: A case of acute respiratory distress syndrome due to babesiosis is reported in a 5 years old male Japanese sptiz. The patient was noticed to have developed sudden dyspnoea. The main presenting clinical signs included laboured breathing, broad-base stance but preferred recumbency, pallour and seizures. Blood smears from the ear tips revealed presence of multiple Babesia parasites in the erythrocytes. Hematology results showed slight leucocytosis, severe anemia and thrombocytopenia. Additionally, urinalysis revealed renal pathology and presence of leucocytes in urine. Despite aggressive measures to stabilize the patient, it died within an hour. Autopsy results also confirmed Babesiosis with generalized icterus.

ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome due to Babesiosis in a dog (2012). Aleri, J. W., Kipyegon, A.N., Mande, J.D., Mulei, C.M. and Karanja, D.N.". In: Departmental seminar. Departmental seminar; 2012. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "An Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome due to Babesiosis in a dog (2010). Aleri, J. W., Kipyegon, A.N., Mande, J.D., Mulei, C.M. and Karanja, D.N.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 7th Biennial Scientific Conference 2010. KVA; 2010. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Clinical presentation, treatment and management of some rabbit conditions in Nairobi (2012). Aleri J W, Abuom T O, Kitaa J M, Kipyegon A N and Mulei C M.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr (2012) 60. 149 - 152. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr (2012) 60. 149 - 152; 2012. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Aleri JW, T.O. A, Kitaa JM, Kipyegon AN, Mulei CM. "Clinical presentation, treatment and management of some rabbit conditions in Nairobi ." Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr . 2012;60:149-152.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Major Causes of Calf Mortality in Peri-urban areas of Nairobi, (2010). Gitau, G.K., Aleri, J.W., Mbuthia, P.G. and Mulei, C.M.". In: Kenya. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 7th Biennial Scientific Conference 2010. KVA; 2010. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Aleri JW;, Mutembei HK;, Mulei CM;, Mbugua SM;, Gakombe JW. "Retrospective Study On Canine Infertility In Nairobi And Its Environs (2010)."; 2010.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Causes of Calf Mortality in Peri-urban areas of Nairobi, Kenya (2010). Gitau, G.K., Aleri, J.W., Mbuthia, P.G. and Mulei, C.M.". In: Journal of Tropical Animal Health and Production. 42: 1643 . KVA; 2010. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "An overview of rabbit conditions presented to the Small Animal Clinic, University of Nairobi (2011). Aleri, J.W., Abuom, T.O., Kitaa, J.M., Kipyegon, A.N and Mulei, C.M.". In: 45th Kenya Veterinary Association Conference in Kisumu 2011. KVA; 2011. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Tick-borne diseases a threat in the kennels (2011). Aleri, J.W. and Muiruri, M.N.". In: Kennel club Annual Newsletter March 2011. Kennel club; 2011. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Aleri JW, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM. "Welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder (zero-grazing) production systems in Nairobi and its environs.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Animal welfare is defined as the ability of an animal to interact comfortably with its environment through its physiological, psychological and behavioural systems. About 70% of dairy production in Kenya is from the smallholder production systems. These production systems are negatively impacted by a number of factors including poor nutrition, substandard husbandry and management practices, lack of appropriate farm inputs, diseases and low incomes. These factors influence the welfare of dairy cattle, hence their importance for its evaluation. This study was therefore designed with the following objectives: 1. to determine the welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder production units in Nairobi and its environs, 2. to determine the risk factors contributing to poor welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder production units, 3. to determine the indicators of poor welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder production units, 4. to determine the farmers’ and stockmen’s perspectives of animal welfare. These objectives were achieved through a cross-sectional study carried out in 80 smallholder dairy units purposively selected in Nairobi and its environs, in which 306 dairy cows were examined. The welfare of cattle in these dairy units was evaluated through several methods which included: visual observations for animal- and farm-level factors that indicate poor welfare of cattle; taking measurements of dairy housing unit dimensions such as cubicle, walk-alley, kerb and feeding bunk; and using a structured questionnaire to interview farmers and stockmen on nutritional regimes and other management practices such as removal of slurry, milking techniques, record keeping and disease control. These factors were recorded and later analyzed. Analyses included descriptive statistics, and simple associations using chi-square at p< 0.05 significance level. Over 80% of these smallholder units had factors that contributed to poor welfare of dairy cattle. These factors included under-size cubicles, small walk-alleys, too high feeding bunks with traumatic edges, too low positioning of neck rails at the feed bunks, sharp objects and edges within the housing units and dilapidated housing structures. The main evidence of poor welfare was injuries on the animals. The body condition score (BCS) of the cows was the main indicator of welfare relating to feeding. Presence of injuries or scars on the skin at various parts of the body was considered a positive indicator of poor welfare either associated with housing structures, management practices or animal interactions. Other causes of poor welfare of the cows were hind-limb tying during milking, teat pulling during hand-milking, more than 24-hour delay before sick cows were treated, and mixing of cattle of different age-groups in the same compartment. Cow-human interaction was poor as evidenced by fearful response and long avoidance distance. This study concludes that poor welfare of dairy cattle exists in all the smallholder units evaluated, which is mainly caused by improper housing and management. Training of farmers and stockmen on animal welfare issues would therefore be a prerequisite to the improvement of dairy cattle welfare. Research on the physiological response to poor welfare of dairy cows in the smallholder units needs to be carried out to enhance the understanding of the impact of these risk factors on smallholder dairy animals.

ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Challenges in the Smallholder (zero-grazing) Production Systems of Nairobi and its Environs: A Welfare Perspective (2012). J.W. Aleri., J.M. Nguhiu., E.M. Mogoa and C.M. Mulei.". In: Faculty of veterinary medicine 8th Biennal scientific conference and the 46th KVA annual Scientific conference 25 . KVA; 2012. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "The Impact of Customized Lectures on Knowledge and Perceptions of Veterinary Students on Animal Welfare and Related Legislations (2009). Aleri, J.W., Mogoa, E.G.M., Mulei, C.M. and Mande, J.D.". In: The Kenya Veterinarian 33: 23 - 30. http://www.ajol.info/index.php/kenvet/article/view/55770. KVA; 2009. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Aleri JW, Kipyegon AN, Mande JD, Mulei CM, Karanja DN. "Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Due to Babesiosis in a Dog: Case Report.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

Abstract: A case of acute respiratory distress syndrome due to babesiosis is reported in a 5 years old male Japanese sptiz. The patient was noticed to have developed sudden dyspnoea. The main presenting clinical signs included laboured breathing, broad-base stance but preferred recumbency, pallour and seizures. Blood smears from the ear tips revealed presence of multiple Babesia parasites in the erythrocytes. Hematology results showed slight leucocytosis, severe anemia and thrombocytopenia. Additionally, urinalysis revealed renal pathology and presence of leucocytes in urine. Despite aggressive measures to stabilize the patient, it died within an hour. Autopsy results also confirmed Babesiosis with generalized icterus.

ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder (zero-grazing) production systems in Nairobi and its environs (2012). J W Aleri, J Nguhiu-Mwangi, E M Mogoa and C M Mulei.". In: Livestock research for rural development 24 (9) 2012. Livestock research for rural development 24 (9) 2012; 2012. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Aleri JW, Abuom TO, Kitaa JM, Kipyegon AN, Mulei CM. "An overview of Rabbit conditions presented to the Small Animal Clinic University of Nairobi Kenya.". In: 45th Annual Scientific Conference of the Kenya Veterinary Association. Kisumu Hotel, Kisumu Kenya; 2011.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "The Impact of Customized Lectures on Knowledge and Perceptions of Veterinary Students on Animal Welfare and Related Legislations (2010). Aleri, J.W., Mogoa, E.G.M., Mulei, C.M. and Mande, J.D.". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Conference in Garissa 2010. KVA; 2010. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Aleri JW, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mulei CM. "Welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder (zero-grazing) production systems in Nairobi and its environs.". 2012. Abstract

Animal welfare is defined as the ability of an animal to interact comfortably with its environment through its physiological, psychological and behavioural systems. About 70% of dairy production in Kenya is from the smallholder production systems. These production systems are negatively impacted by a number of factors including poor nutrition, substandard husbandry and management practices, lack of appropriate farm inputs, diseases and low incomes. These factors influence the welfare of dairy cattle, hence their importance for its evaluation. This study was therefore designed with the following objectives: 1. to determine the welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder production units in Nairobi and its environs, 2. to determine the risk factors contributing to poor welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder production units, 3. to determine the indicators of poor welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder production units, 4. to determine the farmers’ and stockmen’s perspectives of animal welfare. These objectives were achieved through a cross-sectional study carried out in 80 smallholder dairy units purposively selected in Nairobi and its environs, in which 306 dairy cows were examined. The welfare of cattle in these dairy units was evaluated through several methods which included: visual observations for animal- and farm-level factors that indicate poor welfare of cattle; taking measurements of dairy housing unit dimensions such as cubicle, walk-alley, kerb and feeding bunk; and using a structured questionnaire to interview farmers and stockmen on nutritional regimes and other management practices such as removal of slurry, milking techniques, record keeping and disease control. These factors were recorded and later analyzed. Analyses included descriptive statistics, and simple associations using chi-square at p< 0.05 significance level. Over 80% of these smallholder units had factors that contributed to poor welfare of dairy cattle. These factors included under-size cubicles, small walk-alleys, too high feeding bunks with traumatic edges, too low positioning of neck rails at the feed bunks, sharp objects and edges within the housing units and dilapidated housing structures. The main evidence of poor welfare was injuries on the animals. The body condition score (BCS) of the cows was the main indicator of welfare relating to feeding. Presence of injuries or scars on the skin at various parts of the body was considered a positive indicator of poor welfare either associated with housing structures, management practices or animal interactions. Other causes of poor welfare of the cows were hind-limb tying during milking, teat pulling during hand-milking, more than 24-hour delay before sick cows were treated, and mixing of cattle of different age-groups in the same compartment. Cow-human interaction was poor as evidenced by fearful response and long avoidance distance. This study concludes that poor welfare of dairy cattle exists in all the smallholder units evaluated, which is mainly caused by improper housing and management. Training of farmers and stockmen on animal welfare issues would therefore be a prerequisite to the improvement of dairy cattle welfare. Research on the physiological response to poor welfare of dairy cows in the smallholder units needs to be carried out to enhance the understanding of the impact of these risk factors on smallholder dairy animals.

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