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Amugune BK, Matu EN, Kirira PG, Kigondu EVM, Moindi E. "Antimicrobial activity of organic total extracts of three Kenyan Medicinal plants." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther.. 2012;1(1):14-18.
Amugune BK, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO. ". Liquid chromatographic separation of phenobarbitone, ethosuximide, phenytoin and carbamazepine on a polystyrene-divinyl benzene column." Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology. 2006;58(10) (supp/1 ):105.
Amugune NO. "Professor Jenesio I. Kinyamario.". 2011.
Amugune BK, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO. "Liquid Chromatographic Separation of phenobarbitone, ethosuximide, phenytoin and carbamazepine on a polystyrene-divinyl benzene column." Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2010;58 (S 105):A-39.abstract.pdf
Amugune NO, Gopalan HNB, Bytebier B. "Leaf disc regeneration of passion fruit." African Crop Science Journal. 1993;1(2):99-104.
Amugune BK, Verster GC. "Knowledge and attitude of postgraduate students in Kenya on ethics in mental health research. ." S Afr J Bioethics Law . 2016;9(2):65-68.
Amugune BK, Thoithi GN, Mwangi JW, L.K.Omosa, Kibwage IO. "Antimicrobial Activity and Bioactive Constituents of Alectras sessiliflora (Vahl) Kuntze Methanol Extract." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences . 2013;16 :61-68.amugune_et_al.pdf
Amugune NO, B Anyango B, Mukiama TK. Arobacterium-mediated transformation of common bean.; 2011.
Amugune BK, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO. "Liquid chromatographic analysis of phenobarbitone, ethosuximide, phenytoin and carbamazepine on a polystyrene-divinyl benzene column." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. 2006;9(1):19-25.
Amugune BK, Thoiti GN, Mwangi JW, Omosa LK, Kibwage IO. "Antimicrobial Activity and Bioactive Constituents of Alectra sessiliflora (Vahl) Kuntze Methanol Extract." 3. 2013;16(1026-552X):61-68.alectra_sessiliflora.pdf
Amthor F, Takahashi ES, Oyster CW. "Morphologies of rabbit retinal ganglion cells with concentric receptive fields." The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 1989;280:72-96. AbstractWebsite

Rabbit retinal ganglion cells with concentric receptive fields were intracellularly recorded and stained in the isolated superfused eyecup preparation to relate specific physiological response properties to dendritic morphology. Concentric ganglion cells, as traditionally defined, were those that had On or Off centers with antagonistic surrounds but lacked complex response properties such as direction or orientation selectivity. Concentric cells were classified into different groups by extracellular recordings of their On- or Off-center response sign, excitatory receptive field center size, linearity of spatial summation, and brisk vs. sluggish and transient vs. sustained responses to step changes in light intensity. The cells were then impaled, confirmed in identity during intracellular recording, and iontophoretically injected with horseradish peroxidase for histological analysis. Twenty-three concentric ganglion cells were recovered and morphometrically analyzed. Their physiological response properties were found to be related to a number of underlying two- and three-dimensional attributes of the cell's dendritic branching patterns. The dendrites of all 20 brisk concentric cells and two of the three sluggish cells were found to ramify narrowly in either the proximal or distal half of the inner plexiform layer, corresponding to whether they are On center or Off center, respectively. One of the sluggish concentric cells was found to have a more complex, partially bistratified ramification. Physiologically identified brisk-sustained-linear, brisk-transient-nonlinear, brisk-transient-linear, and at least two classes of sluggish concentric ganglion cells were stained. Each of these physiological classes appears to exhibit a distinct and identifiable dendritic branching pattern.

Amthor FR, Takahashi ES, Oyster CW. "Morphologies of rabbit retinal ganglion cells with complex receptive fields." The Journal of comparative neurology. 1989;280:97-121. Abstract

Ganglion cells that had complex receptive field properties, namely, On-Off and On direction-selective cells, orientation-selective cells, local edge detectors, and uniformity detectors (suppressed by contrast cells) were recorded in an isolated superfused rabbit eyecup preparation. Cells were first classified by their characteristic extracellular responses to manually controlled stimuli similar to those which have been used in previous in vivo studies. Ganglion cells were then impaled, confirmed in identity by intracellular recording, and iontophoretically injected with horseradish peroxidase for staining. Twenty-two ganglion cells, which included members of all the major classes mentioned above, were recovered from the visual streak or near periphery. All recovered cells were drawn in camera lucida from flat-mounted retinas and entered into a computer as two-dimensional stick figures; nearly all were three-dimensionally reconstructed to determine the level and manner of dendritic ramification in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). The location of ganglion cell dendrites in sublaminar regions of the IPL was found to be consistent with the hypothesis of a division of the IPL into excitatory On (proximal) and Off (distal) sublaminae, with some qualifications for particular classes. Each of the complex receptive field ganglion cell classes exhibited a distinctive three-dimensional dendritic arborization pattern uniquely associated with that physiological class.

Amthor FR, Takahashi ES, Oyster CW. "Morphologies of rabbit retinal ganglion cells with complex receptive fields." The Journal of comparative neurology. 1989;280:97-121. Abstract

Ganglion cells that had complex receptive field properties, namely, On-Off and On direction-selective cells, orientation-selective cells, local edge detectors, and uniformity detectors (suppressed by contrast cells) were recorded in an isolated superfused rabbit eyecup preparation. Cells were first classified by their characteristic extracellular responses to manually controlled stimuli similar to those which have been used in previous in vivo studies. Ganglion cells were then impaled, confirmed in identity by intracellular recording, and iontophoretically injected with horseradish peroxidase for staining. Twenty-two ganglion cells, which included members of all the major classes mentioned above, were recovered from the visual streak or near periphery. All recovered cells were drawn in camera lucida from flat-mounted retinas and entered into a computer as two-dimensional stick figures; nearly all were three-dimensionally reconstructed to determine the level and manner of dendritic ramification in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). The location of ganglion cell dendrites in sublaminar regions of the IPL was found to be consistent with the hypothesis of a division of the IPL into excitatory On (proximal) and Off (distal) sublaminae, with some qualifications for particular classes. Each of the complex receptive field ganglion cell classes exhibited a distinctive three-dimensional dendritic arborization pattern uniquely associated with that physiological class.

Amriika, V M. "The Poetics of Journeying and the Dilemma of Baggage in Moyez Vassanji’s No New Land and Amriika” J-STEM, J." ournal of Science, Technology and Education,. 2008;Vol. 2 Nos. 1&2, (ISSN. 1991-2889. ):Pp. 219-226.
Ampt FH, Mudogo C  , P G, Lim MSC, Manguro G, Chersich M, W J, Temmerman M, Laini M, Comrie-Thomson L, Stoové M, Agius PA, Hellard M, L'Engle K, S L. "WHISPER or SHOUT study: protocol of a cluster-randomised controlled trial assessing mHealth sexual reproductive health and nutrition interventions among female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya." BMJ Open. 2017;7(8):e017388.
Ampt FH, Lim MSC, Agius PA, Chersich MF, Manguro G, Gichuki CM, Stoové M, Temmerman M, Jaoko W, Hellard M, Gichangi P, Luchters S. "Use of long-acting reversible contraception in a cluster-random sample of female sex workers in Kenya." Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2019. Abstract

To assess correlates of long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) use, and explore patterns of LARC use among female sex workers (FSWs) in Kenya.

Amornkul, P.N; Vandenhoudt OMJONRVVMH; F; D. "HIV prevalence and associated risk factors among individuals aged 13-34 years in rural western.". 2009. Abstract

To estimate HIV prevalence and characterize risk factors among young adults in Asembo, rural western Kenya. Community-based cross-sectional survey. From a demographic surveillance system, we selected a random sample of residents aged 13-34 years, who were contacted at home and invited to a nearby mobile study site. Consent procedures for non-emancipated minors required assent and parental consent. From October 2003 - April 2004, consenting participants were interviewed on risk behavior and tested for HIV and HSV-2. HIV voluntary counseling and testing was offered. Of 2606 eligible residents, 1822 (70%) enrolled. Primary reasons for refusal included not wanting blood taken, not wanting to learn HIV status, and partner/parental objection. Females comprised 53% of 1762 participants providing blood. Adjusted HIV prevalence was 15.4% overall: 20.5% among females and 10.2% among males. HIV prevalence was highest in women aged 25-29 years (36.5%) and men aged 30-34 years (41.1%). HSV-2 prevalence was 40.0% overall: 53% among females, 25.8% among males. In multivariate models stratified by gender and marital status, HIV infection was strongly associated with age, higher number of sex partners, widowhood, and HSV-2 seropositivity. Asembo has extremely high HIV and HSV-2 prevalence, and probable high incidence, among young adults. Further research on circumstances around HIV acquisition in young women and novel prevention strategies (vaccines, microbicides, pre-exposure prophylaxis, HSV-2 prevention, etc.) are urgently needed.

Amornkul PN, Karita E, Kamali A, Rida WN, Sanders EJ, Lakhi S, Price MA, Kilembe W, Cormier E, Anzala O, Latka MH, Bekker L-G, Allen SA, Gilmour J, Fast PE. "Disease progression by infecting HIV-1 subtype in a seroconverter cohort in sub-Saharan Africa." AIDS. 2013;27(17):2775-86. Abstract

To describe immunologic, virologic, and clinical HIV disease progression by HIV-1 subtype among Africans with well documented estimated dates of HIV infection (EDIs).

AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "Trade Unionism and Colonial Authority; A Case Study of Sierra Leone, 1930-1945.". In: Transafrican Journal of History, Vol VII Nos. 1and 2, 1979.; 1979. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

AMOLO DROGADAPENINA. "A Case for Inheritance. In More Modern African Stories. Charles R. Larson (editor). Fontana Books, Great Britain.". In: Paper Submitted for review, Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1975. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "Towards the Definition of a British Colonial Labour Policy, Makerere Historical.". In: Journal Vol.4 No.2, 1990.; 1990. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

AMOLO DROGADAPENINA. "Rural African Women and Technology Literacy: Case Study in Uganda and Kenya. Paper Presented at Panel Discussion, AWID conference in Guadalajara, Mexico.". In: Paper Submitted for review, Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2002. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "With N. Senkomago: Themes in East African History.". In: University of Nairobi Press.; 1991. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "Proverty, Health and Race in a Colonial Setting: The Case of Maternal and Child Welfare Services.". In: In Nairobi 1928-62 in African Urban Quaterly.; 2000. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

Amolo M. BRP 318 : History of Christianity. Nairobi: University of Nairobi.; 2013.
AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "The Public Health Policies of the Nairobi Municipal/City Council 1945-63 in African Historians and African Voices: Essays Presented to Professor Bethwell A. Ogot on his Seventieth Birthday.". In: By E.A. Atieno-Odhiambo (ed), pp 145-183, Based, Switzerland, PSP Publishers.; 2000. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

Amolo EJA;, Rambo CM, Wafula CM. "Contingent capital and performance of hydroelectric energy projects in Kenya. ." International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science . 2020;9(4):134-142.
AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "“Public Health Policy in an Urban Setting: The Case of Maternal and Child Welfare in the First Ten Years of Moi’s Rule”, Proceedings of African Health and Illness Conference at University of Texas in Austin, USA.".; 2005. Abstract

Colonial Health Policies were characterized by strict racial segregation .  This described  residence, services and consequently the levels of health and the causes of death among the different races.  On the eve of independence , health services were  amalgamated  and the first post colonial government declared its intention of ensuing equality of services  for all and therefore greatly improved health and well being for those who had suffered discrimination before, namely Africans and poor Asians. This paper explores the policies and challenges of health delivery in the first fifteen years of post colonial rule, in   Nairobi, Kenya.  It bases its arguments from  data drawn  from and examination of maternal and child welfare policies and their implementations.  The central  argument is that intentions were laudable.  But  by the end of  Kenyatta’s regime the challenges  faced by the government were beginning to impact negatively on maternal and child welfare programmes in Nairobi.

AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "Women in Economic Activities - Laikipia District in Women and Development in Kenya - Laikipia District by G. Were, C. Suda and J. Olenja eds. Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi.". In: Journal Vol.4 No.2, 1990.; 1990. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

AMOLO DROGADAPENINA. "Gender Violence Knows no Cultural, Class or Educational Boundaries, presented at Gender and Diversity Brown Bag Series.". In: Paper Submitted for review, Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2002. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "Imperialism, Nationalism and Communalism; The Lessons of India in Proceedings of Seminar Commerating the Birth Centenary of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Nairobi.". In: Published by Were Press.; 1991. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

AMOLO DROGADAPENINA. "The Struggle for Survival Amongst Rural Women in Kenya: Deference to Culture vs Socio-Economic Needs Ph.D dissertation, Northeastern University, Hope Lewis, Chairman.". In: Paper Submitted for review, Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2003. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "A History of the Agricultural Society of Kenya 1901 - 1996 to be published by News Pack Series, Nairobi.". In: In Nairobi 1928-62 in African Urban Quaterly.; 2000. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

Amolo M. BRP 314 N ew religious movement in Africa. Nairobi: University of Nairobi.; 2013.
AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "Troubled to Death in Religion and Health by Kinot, H.W. and Getui, M. (eds.) Transafric Press, Nairobi.". In: By E.A. Atieno-Odhiambo (ed), pp 145-183, Based, Switzerland, PSP Publishers.; 2000. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "“Colonial Policy and Urban Health in Nairobi” in Azania, Journal of the British Institute in Eastern Africa Vol XXXVI – XXXVII – 2001 – 2002 by Andrew Burton (ed) British Institute in Eastern Africa, Nairobi.".; 2002. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "History of West Africa to 1800. University of Nairobi Press.". In: Journal Vol.4 No.2, 1990.; 1988. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

AMOLO DROGADAPENINA. "Land and Property ownership for Women in Kenya, presented at UN Women's Day Panel. Discussion, UN New York, March 4th.". In: Paper Submitted for review, Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1999. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "Labour Metropolitan Capital and the Colonial State.". In: Transafrican Journal of History Vol. 19, 1990.; 1990. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

AMOLO DROGADAPENINA. "Gender and Diversity Institute's Models for Change Collaboration with Institutions in Kenya and Costa Rica, Conference Paper AAUW International Symposium, Washington D.C.". In: Paper Submitted for review, Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2002. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "Women in Economic Activities - Siaya District in Women and Development in Kenya - Siaya District, by G. Were, C. Suda and J. Olenja, eds. Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi.". In: In Nairobi 1928-62 in African Urban Quaterly.; 1991. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

Amolo M. D ivination among the Luo community . Nairobi: University of Nairobi.; 1997.
AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "Preventive Health and Colonial African Urban.". In: Policies in Nairobi in African Urban Quarterly.; 2000. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "The Public Health Policies of the Nairobi Municipal/City Council 1945-63 in African Historians and African Voices: Essays Presented to Professor Bethwell A. Ogot on his Seventieth Birthday.". In: By E.A. Atieno-Odhiambo (ed), pp 145-183, Based, Switzerland, PSP Publishers, April.; 2000. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

Amolo EJA, Rambo CM, Wafula CM. "Credit Enhancement and Performance of Hydroelectric Energy Projects in Kenya." Journal of Finance & Banking Studies. 2020;9(4):47-57.
Amisi SK, Wilson VP, Kisumbi BK, Simila HO, Wamalwa PW. "Pre-extraction photographs in the selection of artificial teeth.". 2010. Abstract
n/a
Amisi SK, Wilson VP, Kisumbi BK, Simila HO, Wamalwa PW. "Pre-extraction photographs in the selection of artificial teeth.". 2010. Abstract

To explore the validity of using pre-extraction facial photographs in the selection of artificial anterior denture teeth. Design: A cross-sectional analytical study. Setting: Faculty of Dentistry and WHO Collaborating Centre for Oral Health, University of the Western Cape, Republic of South Africa Materials and Method: A convenient sample of thirty (30) dentate subjects, with sound healthy six (6) permanent maxillary anterior teeth, was used. Five (5) facial photographs of different views and sizes were taken for each subject. The principal investigator measured and compared actual and photographic dimensions ofthe maxillary anterior tooth widths, inter-iris distance and inner-canthal distance. The shapes of each subject's face, and maxillary central incisor, were traced on the full face anterior photograph and compared. Results: The central incisor tooth width calculated from full-face anterior view photographs of portrait (5' x 7') or postcard (4'x 6') size had an accuracy of between +0.2smm and + 1 mm when compared to actual tooth widths. Comparison of an individual's tooth and face shape found that sixteen (16) subjects (53.3%) had a face shape that was similar to their maxillary central incisor shape. Anterior tooth widths wii found to be greater in males than females. Conclusion: Photographs are reliable pre-extraction records when used during selection of artificial anterior tooth size and shape. Anterior full-face views of size 4'x6' and s'x?' can be used to calculate maxillary central incisor width to an accuracy of within 1 mm. The application of photographs during anterior tooth selection is limited by their availability.

Amisi SK, Wilson VJ, Kisumbi BK, Simila HO, Wamalwa PW. "Pre extraction photographs in selection of artificial teeth." JKDA. 2010;1(4):114-119.
Amiri S. "Naye Huyo M ’ me Mwenzangu.". In: Alidhani Kapata na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: EAEP; 2007.
Amiri S. M wongozo wa Kif o Kisimani. Nairobi: Longhorn Publishers; 2006.
Amiri S, TIMAMMY RAYYA. "“ A Thema t ic Analysis of Utendi wa Mwana Kupo na ; A Swahili/Islamic Perspective ”." Journal of Education and Practice. 2013;4(28):8-15.
Amiri S. "Pwaguzi.". In: Mayai Waziri wa Maradhi na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Focus Publishers; 2004.
Amiri S. "Natija ya Mapuza.". In: Kopo la Mwisho na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: EAEP Ltd; 2011.
Amiri S, Timamy R. "Characterization and the Construction of Gender Identity in John Habwe’s Maumbile si Huja." International Journal of Education and Research. 2013;1(9):1-181.
Amiri S. "Alidhani kapata.". In: Alidhani Kapata na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: EAEP; 2007.
Amiri S, Timamy R. "“ Androgyny and Women’s Identity in Ari Katini Mwachofi’s Mama Ee ”." International Journal of Education and Research. 2013;8(8):1-12.
Amir Y, Gitu P, Bhatt B, Njogu M, Salim A, Orata D. "1-Tetralinyl as carboxamine-protecting group for asparagine and application to N-a-t-Butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) solid-phase pentide synthesis of oxytocin." Chemistry and Materials Research. 2014. Abstract

Oxytocin, a nonapeptide amide, was synthesized on a benzhydryl-resin using the Boc strategy. Benzyl group was
used in the protection of sulfhydryl group of cysteine and tyrosine side-chain. Benzhydryl and tetralinyl groups were
used in the protection of glutamine and asparagine side-chains respectively. TFMSA-TFA-thioanisole-I,2-
ethanedithiol (2:20:2:1 v/v) was used on the peptide-resin under different cleavage conditions to obtain oxytocin in a
one-pot reaction. The cleavage at 40°C for two hours gave oxytocin quantitatively. Oxytocin could be isolated in
56% yield.

Amir Y, Gitu P, Bhatt B, Njogu M, Salim A, Orata D. "1-Tetralinyl as carboxamine-protecting group for asparagine and application to N-a-t-Butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) solid-phase pentide synthesis of oxytocin." Journal of chemistry and materials research. 2014;6(2):1-11. Abstractscan0013.pdf

Oxytocin, a nonapeptide amide, was synthesized on a benzhydryl-resin using the Boc strategy. Benzyl group was
used in the protection of sulfhydryl group of cysteine and tyrosine side-chain. Benzhydryl and tetralinyl groups were
used in the protection of glutamine and asparagine side-chains respectively. TFMSA-TFA-thioanisole-I,2-
ethanedithiol (2:20:2:1 v/v) was used on the peptide-resin under different cleavage conditions to obtain oxytocin in a
one-pot reaction. The cleavage at 40°C for two hours gave oxytocin quantitatively. Oxytocin could be isolated in
56% yield.

Amimo" "JO, Okoth" "E, Jung'a" "JO, Ogara" "WO, Njahira" "MN, Wang" "Q, Vlavosa" "AN, Saif" "LJ, Djikeng" "A. "Molecular detection and genetic characterization of kobuviruses and astroviruese in asymptomatic local pigs in East Africa." Arch Virol. 2013;10:00705-0013.
Amimo JO, Otieno TF, Okoth E, Onono JO, Bett B. "Risk factors for rotavirus infection in pigs in Busia and Teso subcounties, Western Kenya." Trop Anim Health Prod. 2017;49(1):105-112 . Abstract

We analysed data that were previously collected for molecular characterisation of rotavirus (RV) groups A and C in pigs from Teso and Busia subcounties in Kenya to determine risk factors for its infection. The data included records from 239 randomly selected piglets aged between 1 and 6 months raised in free range and backyard production systems. RV infection was confirmed by screening of fresh faecal samples by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); selected positive samples were subsequently sequenced and used for phylogenetic analysis. In this analysis, RV infection status was used as outcome variable, while the metadata collected at the time of sampling were used as predictors. A Bayesian hierarchical model which used integrated nested Laplace approximation (INLA) method was then fitted to the data. The model accounted for the spatial effect by using stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs). Of the 239 samples screened, 206 were available for the analysis. Descriptive analyses showed that 27.7 % (57/206) of the samples were positive for rotaviruses groups A and C, 18.5 % were positive for group A rotaviruses, 5.3 % were positive for group C rotaviruses, while 3.9 % had co-infections from both groups of rotaviruses. The spatial effect was insignificant, and a simple (non-spatial) model showed that piglets (≤4 months) and those pigs kept in free range systems had higher risk of exposure to rotavirus infection as compared to older pigs (>4 months) and those tethered or housed, respectively. Intervention measures that will target these high-risk groups of pigs will be beneficial to farmers.

Amimo JO, Njuguna JN, Machuka E, Okoth E, Djikeng A. "First Complete Genome Sequence of Porcine Bocavirus Strains from East Africa." Genome Announcement. 2017.
Amimo JO, Okoth E, Owino JJ, Ogara WO, Njahira M, Vlasova AN, Saif LJ, Djikeng A. "Molecular detection and genetic characterization of kobuviruses and astroviruses in asymptomatic local pigs in East Africa." Archives of Virology. 2014;159:1313-1319.
Amimo JO, Saif LJ, Junga J, Vlasova AN, Okoth EA, Njahira MN, Ogara WO, Djikeng A. "Detection and molecular characterization of selected swine enteric viruses in smallholder farms in Kenya and Uganda.". In: 9th Biennial Conference and exhibition of the faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Upper Kabete Campus, Nairobi; 2014.detection_and_molecular_characterization_of_selected_swine_enteric_viruses_in_smallholder_farms_in_kenya_and_uganda__9thbiennial_jamimo-18-08-2014_final.pdf
Amimo JO, El Zowalaty ME, Githae D, Wamalwa M, Djikeng A, Nasrallah GK. "Metagenomic analysis demonstrates the diversity of the fecal virome in asymptomatic pigs in East Africa." Archives of Virology. 2016;161(4):887-897.
Amimo JO, Junga JO, W. O. Ogara, Vlasova AN, Njahira MN, Maina S, Okoth EA, Bishop RP, Saif LJ, Djikeng A. "Detection and genetic characterization of porcine group A rotaviruses in asymptomatic pigs in smallholder farms in East Africa: Predominance of P[8] genotype resembling human strains." Veterinary Microbiology. 2015;175(2-4):195-210.
Amimo JO, Otieno TF, Okoth E, Onono JO, Bett B. "Risk factors for rotavirus infection in pigs in Busia and Teso sub-counties, Western Kenya." Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2016:DOI 10.1007/s11250-016-1164-9.
Amimo JO, Raev SA, Chepngeno J, Mainga AO, Guo Y, Saif L, Vlasova AN. "Rotavirus Interactions With Host Intestinal Epithelial Cells." . Frontiers in immunology. 2021;12.
Amimo JO, Wakhungu JW, Inyangala BO, Mosi RO. "The effects of non-genetic factors and estimation of genetic and phenotypic parameters and trends for milk yield in Ayrshire cattle in Kenya.". 2007. Abstract

Dairy cattle production in Kenya has been growing into an important agricultural sector, but it still faces numerous difficulties in environmental constraints. The purpose of this study was to identify significant non-genetic effects on milk production to give advices for farm management and estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters for milk traits. Data consisting of 4475 lactation records from 10 large-scale Ayrshire herds collected from 1980 to 2005 were used to evaluate effects of non-genetic factors and determine genetic and phenotypic parameters and trends of 305 d milk yield (305d MY). The data analyses using least square techniques of Proc GLM of SAS identified significant sources of variation by herd, parity and year of calving on 305d MY. The overall mean for 305d MY was 3009.8 ±1098 kg, with the corresponding heritability and repeatability estimates of 0.12 ±0.05 and 0.35 ± 0.01 respectively. Genetic trend for 305d MY was -2.1 kg/yr and statistically significant (P<0.01) indicating annual decrease in breeding values over the study period. The high variation as indicated by both large standard errors and low heritabilities of the milk trait indicate that much improvement in this trait could be achieved through improved management. The negative annual genetic changes in milk yield observed could largely be due to ineffective breeding strategies both at herd and national level.

Amiga KK, Kola BO. Development of a computer graphics interface. Nairobi, Kenya: Kenya National Association of Physicists; 1988.
Amiga KK, Kola BO. "Graphics display unit for simulation on personal computers." African Journal of Science & Technology, Series A. 1995;11(1):29-33.
Ameyaw MM, Regateiro F, Li T, Liu X, Tariq M, Mobarek A, Thornton N, Folayan GO, Githang'a J, Indalo A, Ofori-Adjei D, Price-Evans DA, McLeod HL. "MDR1 pharmacogenetics: frequency of the C3435T mutation in exon 26 is significantly influenced by ethnicity." Pharmacogenetics. 2001;11(3):217-21. Abstract

P-glycoprotein (PGP), the product of the multidrug resistance gene (MDR1), acts as an energy-dependent efflux pump that exports its substrates out of the cell. PGP expression is an important factor regulating absorption of a wide variety of medications. It has also been associated with intrinsic and acquired cross resistance to a number of structurally unrelated anticancer drugs. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in exon 26 of the MDR1 gene, C3435T, was recently correlated with PGP protein levels and substrate uptake. Individuals homozygous for the T allele have more than four-fold lower PGP expression compared with CC individuals. As overexpression of PGP has been associated with altered drug absorption, therapy-resistant malignancies, and lower concentrations of HIV-1 protease inhibitors, this SNP may provide a useful approach to individualize therapy. To facilitate clinical application throughout the world, 1280 subjects from 10 different ethnic groups were evaluated for this SNP using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay and the genotype and allele frequency for each group were ascertained. Marked differences in genotype and allele frequency were apparent between the African populations and the Caucasian/Asian populations (P < 0.0001). The Ghanaian, Kenyan, African American and Sudanese populations studied had frequencies of 83%, 83%, 84% and 73%, respectively, for the C allele. The British Caucasian, Portuguese, South-west Asian, Chinese, Filipino and Saudi populations had lower frequencies of the C allele compared to the African group (48%, 43%, 34%, 53%, 59%, and 55%, respectively). The high frequency of the C allele in the African group implies overexpression of PGP and may have important therapeutic and prognostic implications for use of PGP dependent drugs in individuals of African origin.

Amenya HZ, Gathumbi PK, Mbaria JM, Thaiyah AG, Thoithi GN. "Sub-acute toxicity of the chloroformic extract of Rapanea melanophloeos (L.) Mez in rats." Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2015.
Amenya HZ, Gathumbi PK, Mbaria JM, Thaiyah AG, Thoithi GN. "Sub-acute toxicity of the chloroformic extract of Rapanea melanophloeos (L.) Mez in rats." Jpounal of ethnopharmacology. 2014;154(3 july):593-599.
Amenya HA, Gathumbi PK, Mbaria JM, Thaiyah AG, Thoithi GN. "In vitro and acute in vivo toxicity of the aqueous and chloroformic extracts of Rapanea melanophloeos (L) Mez." The Kenya Veterinarian . 2012;35(2):77-85.
Amenya HZ, Mbaria JM, Thaiyah AG, Thoithi GN, Gathumbi PK. "A 56-Day Oral Toxicity Study of the Aqueous Extract of Rapanea melanophloeos (L.) Mez in Ratsb." Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2016;Volume 2016(Article ID 7403087, 10 pageshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7403087).
Amenya HA, Thoithi GN, Thaiyah AG, Mbaria JM, Gathumbi PK. "In vitro and acute in vivo toxicity of the aqueous and chloroformic extracts of Rapanea melanophloeos (L) Mez." Kenya veterinarian. 2013;35(2).
Amecha SC, Njue PN. "Agile Risk Management as a Solution to the Failure of Kenyan Public Projects." American Journal of Engineering and Technology Management. 2021;6(3):35-40.
Ambuko J, Wanjiru F, Chemining’wa GN, Owino WO, Mwachoni E. "Preservation of postharvest quality of leafy amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) vegetables using evaporative cooling." Journal of Food Quality. 2017;2017. Abstract
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Ambuko JL, Sekozawa Y, Sugaya S, Zanol G, Gemma H. "Effect of postharvest hot air treatments on ripening and soluble sugars in banana fruits, Musa spp.'Williams'.". In: XXVIII International Horticultural Congress on Science and Horticulture for People (IHC2010): International Symposium on 934.; 2010:. Abstract
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Ambuko JL, Sekozawa Y, Sugaya S, Itoh F, Nakamura K, Gemma H. "Effect of seasonal variation, cultivar and production system on some postharvest characteristics of the banana.". In: IV International Conference on Managing Quality in Chains-The Integrated View on Fruits and Vegetables Quality 712.; 2006:. Abstract
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Ambuko JL, Sekozawa Y, Sugaya S, ITOH F, NAKAMURA K, Gemma H. "Postharvest characteristics of bananas cultivated under low chemical and conventional production systems in Ecuador." Tropical Agriculture and Development. 2008;52:43-49. Abstract
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Ambuko J, Chemining'wa GN, Mwachoni E, Wanjiru F, Owino WO, Nenguwo N, others. "Evaporative cooling technologies: simple and effective cooling alternatives for smallholder horticultural farmers.". In: The 1st All Africa Post Harvest Congress & Exhibition, Reducing food losses and waste: sustainable solutions for Africa, 28th-31st March 2017, Nairobi, Kenya. Conference Proceedings. University of Nairobi; 2017:. Abstract
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Ambuko J. "Advances in Ethylene Signal Transduction in Fruits and Vegetables.". In: Postharvest Ripening Physiology of Crops. CRC Press; 2016:. Abstract
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Ambuko J, Onsongo NK, Hutchinson MJ, Owino WO. "Response of'Apple'mango fruit to 1-methylcyclopropene as affected by agro-ecological zone and maturity stage.". In: XXIX International Horticultural Congress on Horticulture: Sustaining Lives, Livelihoods and Landscapes (IHC2014): IV 1111.; 2014:. Abstract
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Ambuko J, Githiga RW, Hutchnison MJ, Gemma H, Owino WO. "Effect of maturity stage and cultivar on the efficacy of 1-MCP treatments in mango fruits.". In: II All Africa Horticulture Congress 1007.; 2012:. Abstract
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Ambuko J, Karithi E, M. Hutchinson, Wasilwa L, Hansen B, Owino W. "Postharvest shelf life of mango fruits stored in a CoolbotTM cold room." Acta Horticulturae . 2018:193-197.abstract.pdf
Ambuko J, Karithi E, Hutchinson M, Wasilwa L, Hansen B, Owino W. "Postharvest shelf life of mango fruits stored in a CoolbotTM cold room.". In: III All Africa Horticultural Congress 1225.; 2016:. Abstract
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Ambuko J, others. "Food losses and waste in the context of sustainable food systems.". In: RUFORUM Fourth Biennial Conference, Maputo, Mozambique, 19-25 July 2014. RUFORUM; 2014:. Abstract
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Ambuko J, Karithi E, Hutchinson M, Owino W, Wasilwa L, Hansen B, others. "The CoolbotTM: a low-cost cold storage alternative for smallholders in developing countries.". In: The 1st All Africa Post Harvest Congress & Exhibition, Reducing food losses and waste: sustainable solutions for Africa, 28th-31st March 2017, Nairobi, Kenya. Conference Proceedings. University of Nairobi; 2017:. Abstract
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Ambuko J, Zanol GC, Sekozawa Y, Sugaya S, Gemma H. "Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging in hot air preconditioning mediated alleviation of chilling injury in banana fruits." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2013;5:319. Abstract
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Ambuko J, Muoki P, Nyikal RA, Owino W, Angelone-Alasaad S, Ateka EM, Atieno L, Buruchara RA, Chemining'wa G, Policy UNQ. "Specifications for Artisanal Aluminum Cookware in Nairobi.". 1997. Abstract
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Ambuko J, Yumbya MP, Shibairo S, Owino WO. "Efficacy of 1–methylcyclopropene in purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) as affected by dosage and maturity stage." International Journal of Postharvest Technology and Innovation. 2014;4:126-137. Abstract
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Ambuko J, Yumbya PM, Hutchinson MJ, Shibairo SI, Gemma H, Owino WO. "Efficacy of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) in Purple Passion (Passiflora edulis Sims) Fruits as Affected by Dosage and Maturity Stage.". In: HORTSCIENCE. Vol. 48. AMER SOC HORTICULTURAL SCIENCE 113 S WEST ST, STE 200, ALEXANDRIA, VA 22314 …; 2013:. Abstract
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Ambuko J, Onsongo NK, Hutchinson MJ, Owino WO. "A Comparative Evaluation of Quality and Sensory Characteristics of 'Apple' Mango Fruits produced under Different Agro-ecological zones in Kenya." Acta Horticulturae. 2016; 10(10.17660/ActaHortic.2016.1120.66):1120.66.
Ambuko J, Onsongo NK, Hutchinson MJ, Owino WO. "A comparative evaluation of quality and sensory characteristics of'Apple'mango fruits produced under different agro-ecological zones in Kenya.". In: XXIX International Horticultural Congress on Horticulture: Sustaining Lives, Livelihoods and Landscapes (IHC2014): 1120.; 2014:. Abstract
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Ambuko J, Wanjiru F, Karithi E, Hutchinson M, Chemining'wa G, Mwachoni E, Hansen B, Wasilwa L, Owino W, Nenguwo N. "Cold chain management in horticultural crops value chains: options for smallholder farmers in Africa.". In: III All Africa Horticultural Congress 1225.; 2016:. Abstract
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Ambuko J, Maloba S, Hutchinson M, Owino WO, others. "Application of off-season flower induction chemicals to address seasonality in mango fruiting and the associated postharvest losses.". In: The 1st All Africa Post Harvest Congress & Exhibition, Reducing food losses and waste: sustainable solutions for Africa, 28th-31st March 2017, Nairobi, Kenya. Conference Proceedings. University of Nairobi; 2017:. Abstract
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Ambuko J, Sekozawa Y, Sugaya S, Gemma H, others. "A comparative evaluation of postharvest quality attributes of two banana (Musa spp) varieties as affected by preharvest production conditions." Journal of Agricultural Science (Toronto). 2013;5:170-178. Abstract
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Ambrose SH, Hlusko LJ, Kyule MD, Deino A, Williams MJ. "Lemudong’o: a new 6 Ma paleontological site near Narok, Kenya Rift Valley." Journal of Human Evolution . 2004;44:737-742. AbstractWebsite

Lemudong’o is located on the western margin of the southern Rift Valley approximately 100 km west of Nairobi (Fig. 1), an area deeply incised by three major permanent river systems. Stratified lavas, air-fall and water-laid tuffs, alluvial, and fluviolacustrine sediments, and paleosols of Late Miocene to Late Pleistocene age crop out over a w25 50 km area. Wright (1967) reconstructed three paleolakes and shoreline facies, assumed to be Plio-Pleistocene in age, in the vicinity of an isolated Basement Complex inselberg. Radio- metric dating demonstrates the paleolake deposits exposed at Lemudong’o are Late Miocene in age. During archaeological surveys and excavations in this region in 1995-96 (Kyule et al., 1997) and 1999–2002 (Ambrose et al., 2000; 2002; Hlusko et al., 2002), 55 new archaeological sites (Acheulean, Middle Stone Age, Later Stone Age, Neolithic and Iron Age), and several paleontological occurrences were discovered. Here we describe the preliminary results from research at the Late Miocene fossil site of Lemudong’o. The most productive Late Miocene paleontological site in the area is exposed in Lemudong’o Gorge, GvJh15, GvJh32 (Figs. 2 and 3). Lithologic units include paludal (marsh) and lake margin claystones, lacustrine diatoma- ceous silts and claystones, and coarser alluvial deposits with interstratified tuffs. Similar ex-posures occur within tens of kilometers, though their correlation to the Lemudong’o strata is not yet confirmed, and fossils are scarce and taxonomically non-diagnostic. Lemudong’o Gorge is a fault-controlled, deeply incised gully system bounded on the east by the Enkoria fault (Wright, 1967). Fossiliferous sedi- ments are exposed at two localities approximately 500 m apart. Locality 1 (Lemudong’o 1, GvJh15, coordinates: 1(18.19S, 35(58.74E, approximate elevation 1600–1620 m) was discovered in 1994, and is located in the upper reaches of the main gully. It contains the higher levels of the depo- sitional sequence, and the main fossiliferous horizons. Locality 2 (Lemudong’o 2, GvJh32, coordinates: 1(17.98S, 35(59.04E) was discovered in 1999 and includes lower strata and a poorly- exposed horizon with sparse, generally non- diagnostic fossil material. No significant unconformities occur in the main sedimentary sequence.

Ambrose SH, Deino A, Mwanzia D. Kyule, Steele I, Williams MAJ. "The emergence of modern human behavior during the Late Middle Stone Age in the Kenya Rift Valley.". In: Paleoanthropology Society Meetings. Adam’s Mark Hotel, Denver, Colorado, U.S.A; 2002. Abstract

Archaeological evidence suggests modern human behavior patterns emerged during the late Middle Stone Age (MSA) and early Later Stone Age (LSA) in Africa between 50 and 100 ka. Sites of this age are scarce and their chronologies are ambiguous. We report on excavations at new archaeological sites in the central and southern Kenya Rift Valley that contain late MSA and early LSA occurrences with stratified volcanic ashes (tephra) that are being dated by the 40Ar/39Ar technique and chemically fingerprinted for regional tephrostratigraphic correlation. Obsidian artifacts are being sourced to study mobility and interaction patterns.Marmonet Drift (GtJi15) is located in the Naivasha-Nakuru basin close to the main obsidian sources. Four main MSA horizons and twelve tephra are stratified in a 21 m paleosol sequence. Assemblages from the three earliest horizons contain radial cores and faceted platform flakes. The youngest horizon contains retouched points and has the most distant obsidian sources.Sites on the western margin of the southern Rift are 60-90 km from the major central Rift obsidian sources. Ntuka River 4 (Norikiushin, GvJh12) contains a 2.5 m sequence with large obsidian backed ‘‘microliths’’, blades with faceted platforms and points from radial cores, stratified above and between two tephra. Ntuka River 3 (Ntumot, GvJh11) contains a 9 m sequence with two stratified tephra. Obsidian bifacial points and narrow backed microliths are stratified 1-3 m below the lowest tephra. Three major LSA horizons lie 3-5 m above this tephra. The youngest LSA is dated 29,975 bp. In the central and southern Rift the highest frequencies of non-local lithic raw materials occur in the youngest MSA and in MSA/LSA occurrences. Lithic source distance data indicate increased range size and/or intensification of regional exchange networks. Dramatic changes in socio-territorial organization may have accompanied the MSA/LSA transition. Supported by grants from the National Science Foundation (BCS-0113565) and the L.S. B. Leakey Foundation.

Ambrose SH, Hlusko LJ, Kyule MD, Deino A, Williams MAJ. "Lemodong'o A late Miocene fossil site in southern Kenya." American Journal of Physical Anthropology. . 2002;Supplement 34.:37.
Ambrose SH, Kyule MD, Muia M, Deino A, Williams MAJ. "Dating the MSA/ LSA transition in Southwest Kenya." Society for American Anthropology. 2000:33.
Ambrose SH, Kyule MD. "The evolution of modern human behavior in East Africa.". In: International Council of African Museums. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2004. Abstract

Genetic evidence suggests an African origin for modern human ANATOMY, and archaeological evidence suggests a subSaharan African origin for modern
human BEHAVIOR. Testing the latter hypothesis requires a reliable, precise and accurate chronology for the first appearance of innovations considered hallmarks of the origin of modern human behavior, including ground bone tools, art, ornamanentation, sophisticated stone tool technologies and resource exploitation patterns, and systematic trade over long distances. These innovations are conventionally associated with the transition from the Middle to the Later Stone Age. This transition may be earlier than the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition in N. Africa and W. Eurasia, but this is difficult to prove because most chronometric techniques that can be used in this time range (40-100,000 years ago) are highly unreliable, particularly radiocarbon dating.

Advances in techniques of radiogenic argon dating (40Ar/39Ar) by single crystal laser fusion dating of volcanic tephra make it possible to obtain accurate and precise dates on eruptions as young as 2000 years old. The central and southern Rift Valley regions of Kenya have many Middle and early Later Stone Age sites with stratified volcanics. The primary sources of traded obsidian are in the central Rift and the southern Rift sites often have excellent bone preservation. Several archaeological sites with multiple stratified volcanic horizons have now been sampled in both areas of the Rift. In the southern Rift, test excavations have been conducted at four sites that have MSA and/or early horizons. Each site has two to four volcanic layers stratified within the archaeological deposits. Argon dating will be performed by Dr. Alan Deino at the Berkeley Geochronology Center, USA. Amino acid racemization of ostrich eggshell provides an additional means of dating archaeological sites. Dr. Gifford Miller of the University of Colorado, Boulder, has dated the top of an 8-meter thick Early LSA to MSA sequence to 32,000 BP. The shell also produced a radiocarbon date of 29,975 BP. The MSA/LSA transition occurs approximately 7 meters below this date, and one meter below a volcanic ash. The late MSA and transitional horizons have high frequencies of traded obsidian. The results of chronometric dating on the tephra from the transitional industries at two of these sites should make it possible to test the hypothesis for an east African origin for modern human behavior.

We thank the Office of the President for research clearance, the L.S.B. Leakey Foundation, the University of Illinois Graduate College and Research Board, and the National Museums of Kenya, for financial and/or logistical support for this research.

Ambrose SH, Kyule MD, Muia M. "MSA, MSA/LSA and LSA sites in the south of Narok District of Kenya.". In: The Middle Stone Age of East Africa and Modern Human Origins conference. National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya (17-21, July) and National Museums of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia ; 2005.
Ambole A, Musango JK, Buyana K, Ogot M, Anditi C, Mwau B, Kovacic Z, Smit S, Lwasa S, Nsangi G, others. "Mediating household energy transitions through co-design in urban Kenya, Uganda and South Africa." Energy Research & Social Science. 2019;55:208-217. Abstract

Approaches to providing sustainable energy in cities have generated considerable interest in academic and policy circles. The development of this body of work, however, has not shed much light on the modes of intermediation that are needed to reconfigure urban energy systems towards sustainability in energy-poor countries. This paper focuses on the role of academics as knowledge intermediaries who can trigger cross-sector collaborations around innovations for a sustainable energy transition in African cities. The research presented here was generated by an interdisciplinary research team made up of partners in Kenya, Uganda and South Africa. The research partners set out to better understand how sustainable energy transitions can be achieved through collaborative efforts between community members, experts and policy actors in the three countries. This paper provides evidence-based reflections on how the research partners used participatory methods to facilitate solution co-design and knowledge co-production over a period of two years under the Leading Integrated Research for Agenda 2030 in Africa (LIRA 2030) program. A key knowledge outcome of the research partnership is an improved understanding of how transdisciplinary research across the sub-region can be used to unearth the socio-spatial, cultural and political dimensions of energy in relation to other urban services such as health and housing. Based on this understanding, the paper proposes transdisciplinary co-design as a promising approach to providing sustainable energy in urban informal settlements in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Ambetsa MO, Makori JO, Osanjo GO, Oluka MN, Maitai CK, Guantai AN, McClelland S, Okalebo FA. "Incidence and Risk Factors of Renal Dysfunction in Patients on Nevirapine-Based Regimens at a Referral Hospital in Kenya." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther.. 2015;4(2):48-58. Abstractambetsa_et_al_2015.pdf

Introduction: Nevirapine-based regimens are the most commonly used ART in Kenya. There is little literature on the renal toxicity of NNRTIS in Kenyan settings. Some studies in Asia have demonstrated an association of NNRTIs and renal toxicity. Given that NNRTIs may cause renal toxicity, clinical studies on their contribution to the same are required.
Objectives: To evaluate the incidence and risk factors for renal dysfunction in HIV adult patients on Nevirapine based regimens.
Methodology: The design was a descriptive (right censored arm) hospital based retrospective cohort study carried out at a national referral hospital. Ethical approval was obtained. The study population was patients on Nevirapine based regimens seen between May and August, 2014. Convenient sampling was used to recruit 241 patients. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula. Patients with eGFR < 50ml/min/1.73m2 were considered to have renal dysfunction. Data obtained by the patient interviews and abstraction of patient files and was analyzed using STATA software. Ordered Logistic regression was used to identify covariates that determine the severity of renal dysfunction.
Results: The incidence of renal dysfunction was 4.3% (95% C.I, 1.68-6.94).Five (2.1%) patients had a low eGFR at baseline, while ten (8.3%) patients had elevated serum creatinine (above 120μg/l). None of the patients developed severe renal dysfunction. Seventy (32%) and ten (4.6%) had mild and moderate renal dysfunction respectively. The females had a higher risk of developing renal dysfunction (adjusted O.R 0.48 (95% C.I 0.24-1.04; p=0.04). Alcohol consumption was a significant predictor of renal dysfunction (adjusted O.R 1.84 (95% C.I 1.01-3.29; p=0.04). All fifteen patients with a BMI of over 18.5 had elevated eGFR of below 50ml/min/1.73m2. Patients who had been initiated on stavudine based regimens had the highest incidence of renal dysfunction.
Conclusion: Routine eGFR calculations should be done at each clinical visit. Early detection of risk factors and systematic screening should be advocated for improved patient care.
Key Words: Body Mass Index, Renal dysfunction, Stavudine, Nevirapine

Ambetsa MO, Makori JO, Osanjo GO, Oluka M, Maitai CK, Guantai AN, McClelland S, Okalebo FA. "Incidence and Risk Factors of Renal Dysfunction in Patients on Nevirapine-Based Regimens at a Referral Hospital in Kenya." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2015;4(2):48-58. Abstract2015_-_incidence_of_risk_factors_of_renal_dysfunction--nevirapine.pdf

Introduction: Nevirapine-based regimens are the most commonly used ART in Kenya. There is little literature on the renal toxicity of NNRTIS in Kenyan settings. Some studies in Asia have demonstrated an association of NNRTIs and renal toxicity. Given that NNRTIs may cause renal toxicity, clinical studies on their contribution to the same are required.

Objectives: To evaluate the incidence and risk factors for renal dysfunction in HIV adult patients on Nevirapine based regimens.

Methodology: The design was a descriptive (right censored arm) hospital based retrospective cohort study carried out at a national referral hospital. Ethical approval was obtained. The study population was patients on Nevirapine based regimens seen between May and August, 2014. Convenient sampling was used to recruit 241 patients. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula. Patients with eGFR < 50ml/min/1.73m2 were considered to have renal dysfunction. Data obtained by the patient interviews and abstraction of patient files and was analyzed using STATA software. Ordered Logistic regression was used to identify covariates that determine the severity of renal dysfunction.

Results: The incidence of renal dysfunction was 4.3% (95% C.I, 1.68-6.94).Five (2.1%) patients had a low eGFR at baseline, while ten (8.3%) patients had elevated serum creatinine (above 120μg/l). None of the patients developed severe renal dysfunction. Seventy (32%) and ten (4.6%) had mild and moderate renal dysfunction respectively. The females had a higher risk of developing renal dysfunction (adjusted O.R 0.48 (95% C.I 0.24-1.04; p=0.04). Alcohol consumption was a significant predictor of renal dysfunction (adjusted O.R 1.84 (95% C.I 1.01-3.29; p=0.04). All fifteen patients with a BMI of over 18.5 had elevated eGFR of below 50ml/min/1.73m.2Patients who had been initiated on stavudine based regimens had the highest incidence of renal dysfunction.

Conclusion: Routine eGFR calculations should be done at each clinical visit. Early detection of risk factors and systematic screening should be advocated for improved patient care.

Key Words: Body Mass Index, Renal dysfunction, Stavudine, Nevirapine

Ambale CA, Sinei KA, Amugune BK, Oluka MN. "Accessibility of medicines used in the management of substance use disorders in selected hospitals in Nairobi." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther.. 2017;6(2):102-108.
Ambale 1. CA, Sinei KA, Amugune BK, Oluka MN. "Accessibility of medicines used in the management of substance use disorders in selected hospitals in Nairobi." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2017;6(2):102-108.
Amayo AA, Wambua JV ODAO. "Cyclosporin monitoring in Kenya: External Quality Assurance Performance." Proc XVI ICC. 1996:506.
Amayo AA, Wambua JV ODAO. "Therapeutic Drug monitoring – The Kenyan experience." Proc XVI ICC . 1996:109.
Amayo EO, Otieno CF, OGOLA EN, Vaghela V. "Patterns of homocysteine in Kenyans with type 2 diabetes without overt cardiovascular disease at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East Afr Med J. . 2005;82(12):180-183. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND: Increased total homocysteine (tHcy) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The measurement of tHcy in blood is therefore of potential great importance especially in patients with type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: To determine the total homocysteine levels in ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, prospective study. SETTING: Outpatient diabetic clinic of the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Ambulatory patients with Type 2 diabetes without overt cardiovascular, renal, liver or other chronic disease. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum levels of tHcy, HbA1c, lipids and socio-demographic characteristics. RESULTS: A total of 115 patients, 48% males, with type 2 diabetes were included in the study. The mean (sd) age of the males was 56.85 (8.96) years and of the females was 55.68 (8.93) years. The mean (sd) total serum homocysteine for males of 12.97 (6.06) micromol/l was significantly higher than that of the females of 10.64 (4.41) micromol/l. The cholesterol, glycated haemoglobin, the body mass index and blood pressure of the study subjects did not show any statistically significant influence on their homocysteine levels. However, increasing age and duration of diabetes showed a significant linear relationship with rising level of total serum homocysteine. Some study participants reported smoking habit but unreliably. CONCLUSION: There was a significant proportion of the study patients with high levels of serum homocysteine, although most of them were of low to intermediate risk category. It may be prudent to assay homocysteine levels in patients with type 2 diabetes who are either older or have had diabetes for long duration for potential intervention.

Amayo EO. Clinical manifestation of Acquired Immune Deficiency Sydrome in adults as seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital.; 1988. Abstract

50 confirmed AIDS patients admitted in the medical wards between March to December, 1987 were studied. Male to female ratio was 1:5:1. The mean age was 31 - 7 years. Females had an earlier peak at 21 - 25 years as compared to the males at 26 - 30 years. The commonest risk factor was heterosexual contact with multiple partners in 80% of the cases. The patients were of low socio-economic status. The commonest general signs and symptoms were unexplained weight loss in 92%, fever in 66% and generalized lymphnode enlargement in 24% of the cases. In the gastrointestinal system the cornnonestsigns and symptoms were oral thrush 66%, chronicdiarrhoea 60% and dysphagia in 50%, of the cases. 46% of the patients had chronic cough. The most significant radiological finding in the abnormalchest x-ray was pleural effussion in 50% of the cases. The central nervous system was involved in 36% of cases with meningitis being the commonest sign accounting for 28% of all the central nervous system signs.10% of the cases had Kaposi's sarcoma on histology of which 60% were of the aggressive form. The commonest skin manifestation was maculo-papular pruritic skin rash 56% of all the patients had hemoglobin less than 10g.dl.

Amayo EO. "Neurological letter from Kenya." Practical neurology . 2006;6:261-262.
Amayio DG, Abong GO, Okoth MW. "A Review of Occurrence of Glycoalkaloids in Potato and Potato Products." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science. 2016;4(3):196-202.omayio_2016a_a_review_glycoalkaloids_potato_prducts.pdf
Amatsimbi M, Wambui K. "Media Veterans in Kenya: Archival Records.". In: Voices of Media Veterans: Reflections over 70 Years on Communication and Media in Kenya . University of Nairobi & Ford Foundation; Forthcoming.
and Amatsimbi WKM. "Media Developments and Uses in the Colonial Era.". In: The Media in Kenya: Evolution, Effects and Challenges. Nairobi: University of Nairobi & Ford Foundation; 2011.
Amato R, Miotto O, Woodrow C, Almagro-Garcia J, Sinha I, Campino S, Mead D, Drury E, Kekre M, Sanders M, Amambua-Ngwa A, Amaratunga C, Amenga-Etego L, Anderson TJC, Andrianaranjaka V, Apinjoh T, Ashley E, Auburn S, Awandare GA, Baraka V, Barry A, Boni MF, Borrmann S, Teun Bousema, Branch O, Bull PC, Chotivanich K, Conway DJ, Craig A, Day NP, Djimdé A, Dolecek C, Dondorp AM, Drakeley C, Duffy P, Echeverri-Garcia DF, Egwang TG, Fairhurst RM, Faiz MA, Fanello CI, Hien TT, Hodgson A, Imwong M, Ishengoma D, Lim P, Lon C, Marfurt J, Marsh K, Mayxay M, Mobegi V, Mokuolu O, Montgomery J, Mueller I, Kyaw MP, Newton PN, Nosten F, Noviyanti R, Nzila A, Ocholla H, Oduro A, Onyamboko M, Ouedraogo J-B, Phyo AP, Plowe CV, Price RN, Pukrittayakamee S, Randrianarivelojosia M, Ringwald P, Ruiz L, Saunders D, Shayo A, Siba P, Takala-Harrison S, Thanh T-NN, Thathy V, Verra F, White NJ, Htut Y, Cornelius VJ, Giacomantonio R, Muddyman D, Henrichs C, Malangone C, Jyothi D, Pearson RD, Rayner JC, McVean G, Rockett K, Miles A, Vauterin P, Jeffery B, Manske M, Stalker J, MacInnis B, Kwiatkowski DP,, J.N Kiiru. "Genomic epidemiology of the current wave of artemisinin resistant malaria." bioRxiv. 2015. AbstractWebsite

Artemisinin resistant Plasmodium falciparum is advancing across Southeast Asia in a soft selective sweep involving at least 20 independent kelch13 mutations. In a large global survey, we find that kelch13 mutations which cause resistance in Southeast Asia are present at low frequency in Africa. We show that African kelch13 mutations have originated locally, and that kelch13 shows a normal variation pattern relative to other genes in Africa, whereas in Southeast Asia there is a great excess of non‐synonymous mutations, many of which cause radical amino‐acid changes. Thus, kelch13 is not currently undergoing strong selection in Africa, despite a deep reservoir of standing variation that could potentially allow resistance to emerge rapidly. The practical implications are that public health surveillance for artemisinin resistance should not rely on kelch13 data alone, and interventions to prevent resistance must account for local evolutionary conditions, shown by genomic epidemiology to differ greatly between geographical regions.

Amare GG, Degu A, Njogu P, Kifle ZD. "Evaluation of the antimalarial activity of the leaf latex of Aloe weloensis (Aloaceae) against plasmodium parasites." Evid-based Complem. Altern. Med. 2021;2021:6664711.
AMAKOVE DRWALAELIZABETH. "Flumazenil oral absorption in dogs. Wala E, McNicholas LF, Sloan JW, Martin WR.Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1988 Aug;30(4):945-8.". In: Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1988 Aug;30(4):945-8. Kisipan, M.L.; 1988. Abstract
Flumazenil is rapidly absorbed after oral or gastric fistula administration to the dog reaching peak plasma concentrations in about an hour. Plasma level decrease rapidly thereafter reaching barely detectable levels by four hours. The onset of signs of flumazenil precipitated abstinence in diazepam-dependent dogs is well correlated with the rise of flumazenil plasma levels, however, precipitated abstinence seizures occur when plasma levels have markedly decreased. Oral dosing is a more efficient way of administering flumazenil than gastric fistula dosing.
AMAKOVE DRWALAELIZABETH. "Effect of the chronic dose of diazepam on the intensity and characteristics of the precipitated abstinence syndrome in the dog. Sloan JW, Martin WR, Wala E.J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1993 Jun;265(3):1152-62.". In: J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1993 Jun;265(3):1152-62. Kisipan, M.L.; 1993. Abstract
The ability of different chronic doses of diazepam to produce dependence was studied in groups of six dogs who received diazepam p.o. (0.05625, 0.225, 0.5625, 4.5, 9 or 36 mg/kg/day) every 8 hr. After 5 to 6 weeks of stabilization, the intensity of precipitated abstinence was measured by benzodiazepine-precipitated abstinence scores (BPAS) after the p.o. administration of graded doses of the benzodiazepine antagonist, flumazenil (0.66, 2, 6, 18, 36 and 72 mg/kg or a placebo). A modified Latin square design was used. Dogs receiving the two lowest stabilization doses of diazepam showed only liminal signs of precipitated abstinence even with 72 mg/kg of flumazenil. The intensity of the precipitated abstinence syndrome increased with the stabilization dose of diazepam. There was also a dose-related increase in BPAS for increasing doses of flumazenil for all doses of diazepam except the 9-mg/kg/day dose. Not only were quantitative differences observed in precipitated abstinence signs for different levels of diazepam dependence, but the pattern of abstinence signs differed also. Dogs dependent on high doses of diazepam were more sensitive to flumazenil than those dependent on lower doses. Furthermore, seizure activity was seen only in dogs dependent on 9 and 36 mg/kg/day of diazepam. BPAS increased linearly with plasma and brain total and free levels of the sum of diazepam and its metabolites (oxazepam and nordiazepam), but not with free plasma and brain levels of diazepam.
AMAKOVE DRWALAELIZABETH. "The comparative binding characteristics of nicotinic ligands and their pharmacology. Sloan JW, Martin WR, Bostwick M, Hook R, Wala E. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1988 May;30(1):255-67.". In: Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1988 May;30(1):255-67. Kisipan, M.L.; 1988. Abstract
Five drugs [(-)- and (+)-nicotine, (-)-lobeline, (-)-anabasine and (-)-cytisine] were infused IV into the urethane-pentobarbital anesthetized rat. Changes in heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, minute and tidal volume, which appeared to be largely centrally mediated, were studied. Each of these compounds produced different pharmacologic profiles. The nature of these dissimilarities is not readily explained on the basis of pharmacokinetic considerations suggesting that the drugs have different mechanisms of action. Binding data obtained with these compounds using the rat brain P2 preparation also show differences. (-)-Lobeline and (-)-anabasine, like the nicotinic antagonists mecamylamine and hexamethonium, bind predominantly to low affinity sites with KDs in the micromolar range whereas (-)-cytisine binds only to a single high affinity site with a KD in the nanomolar range. Further, the binding patterns of these drugs are different from (-)- and (+)-nicotine which bind to both high and low affinity sites but differ from each other in binding characteristics. Thus the binding data are consistent with the pharmacologic data in suggesting that the drugs have different modes of action and support the concept that the low affinity site has an important role in the central nervous system action of these compounds.
AMAKOVE DRWALAELIZABETH. "Chronic administration of and dependence on halazepam, diazepam, and nordiazepam in the dog. Sloan JW, Martin WR, Wala E, Dickey KM. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1991 Oct;28(3):249-64.". In: Drug Alcohol Depend. 1991 Oct;28(3):249-64. Kisipan, M.L.; 1991. Abstract
produced physical dependence which was revealed by a flumazenil precipitated abstinence syndrome and measured by the Nordiazepam Precipitated Abstinence Scale score (NPAS) (McNicholas et al., 1988; Sloan et al., 1990). This abstinence as measured by the NPAS score was more severe in diazepam- and halazepam-dependent than in nordiazepam-dependent dogs whereas the incidence of precipitated clonic seizures was greater in the diazepam- and nordiazepam-dependent than in the halazepam-dependent dogs. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that in the dog the major conversion of halazepam, like diazepam, was to nordiazepam and an oxazepam conjugate. Appreciable quantities of oxazepam, 3-OH halazepam and its conjugated metabolite were also identified in plasma. The NPAS score obtained in the halazepam-dependent dogs, however, was greater than the NPAS score obtained in nordiazepam-dependent dogs who had nordiazepam plasma levels over three times higher than those obtained in the halazepam-dependent dogs. Further, the precipitated abstinence observed in the halazepam-, diazepam- and nordiazepam-dependent dogs differed in qualitative as well as in quantitative aspects including marked differences in the time course of abstinence signs. These data argue that the different dependencies produced by halazepam, diazepam and nordiazepam are not due solely to either the parent compound or to a single metabolite but most likely to their combined effects.
AMAKOVE DRWALAELIZABETH. "Precipitation of abstinence in nordiazepam- and diazepam-dependent dogs. McNicholas LF, Martin WR, Sloan JW, Wala E.J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1988 Apr;245(1):221-4.". In: J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1988 Apr;245(1):221-4. Kisipan, M.L.; 1988. Abstract
Dogs were made dependent on p.o. administered diazepam (24 or 36 mg/kg/day) or nordiazepam (18 mg/kg/day). Flumazenil (2, 6 or 18 mg/kg) administered p.o. once a week according to a Latin Square design precipitated abstinence in both groups of dogs. Abstinence was evaluated using a Nordiazepam Precipitated Abstinence Scale (NPAS) of various signs of abstinence and by counting seizure episodes. Flumazenil caused dose-related increases in the NPAS scores of both diazepam- and nordiazepam-dependent dogs; the slopes of the two dose-response lines were not different. Both groups of dogs also had both clonic and tonic-clonic seizures after flumazenil administration. CGS-8216 (2, 6 or 18 mg/kg) administered p.o. did not cause a dose-related elevation in NPAS scores for either group of dogs but clonic and tonic-clonic seizures were seen. Thus, flumazenil precipitates the benzodiazepine abstinence syndrome, as evidenced by tremors, tachypnea and other signs, including seizures, whereas CGS-8216 may have some selectivity in precipitating seizures without other signs of abstinence.
AMAKOVE DRWALAELIZABETH. "Precipitated abstinence in orally dosed benzodiazepine-dependent dogs. Martin WR, Sloan JW, Wala E.J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1990 Nov;255(2):744-55.". In: J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1990 Nov;255(2):744-55. Kisipan, M.L.; 1990. Abstract
The ability of graded doses of flumazenil (2, 6, 18, 36 and 72 mg/kg) and a lactose placebo to precipitate abstinence was studied in dogs treated chronically with diazepam, nordiazepam, flunitrazepam, alprazolam, oxazepam, halazepam and lorazepam by oral dosing. A scale comprised of 10 precipitated abstinence signs, the Benzodiazepine Precipitated Abstinence Scale, was developed, which yielded linear flumazenil log-dose response lines with significant slopes in dogs dependent on diazepam, nordiazepam and flunitrazepam. The effects of 18, 36 and 72 mg/kg of flumazenil in otherwise drug naive dogs were studied. In naive dogs, the most prominent effect of flumazenil was to reduce activity. All benzodiazepines studied produced dependence that was characterized by signs of precipitated abstinence; however, the intensity and quality of abstinence varied from one benzodiazepine to another. Precipitated abstinence in dogs treated chronically with diazepam and flunitrazepam was characterized by a dose-related increase in clonic convulsions and Benzodiazepine Precipitated Abstinence Scale scores. This pattern differed from that seen in nordiazepam- and alprazolam-dependent dogs, which showed a comparable flumazenil dose-related increase in clonic convulsion but only a modest increase in Benzodiazepine Precipitated Abstinence Scale scores. Oxazepam and lorazepam produced dependence that was less intense than that seen with the other benzodiazepines. Plasma levels of the benzodiazepines and their metabolites were repeatedly determined after single doses and during addiction cycles. Nordiazepam accumulated in diazepam- and nordiazepam-dependent dogs and alpha-OH alprazolam accumulated in alprazolam-dependent dogs. Other drugs and metabolites did not. These observations suggest that: 1) different benzodiazepines or their metabolites produce different types of physical dependence, suggesting that they or their metabolites have different mechanisms and sites of action; 2) plasma cumulation of the benzodiazepines or their active metabolites is an important factor in the genesis of physical dependence; and 3) metabolism of benzodiazepines plays an important role in their dependence-producing capacity, and because of differences in the way species metabolize benzodiazepines, the type of dependence produced in different species may differ.
Amadi JA, Olago DO, Ong’amo GO, Oriaso SO, Nanyingi M, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. "Sensitivity of vegetation to climate variability and its implications for malaria risk in Baringo, Kenya." PloS one. 2018;13(7):e0199357.
Amadi JA, Olago DO, Ong’amo GO, Oriaso SO, Nanyingi M, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. Sensitivity of vegetation to climate variability and its implications for malaria risk in Baringo, Kenya.; 2018. Abstractjournal.pone_.0199357.pdfWebsite

The global increase in vector borne diseases has been linked to climate change. Seasonal vegetation changes are known to influence disease vector population. However, the relationship is more theoretical than quantitatively defined. There is a growing demand for understanding and prediction of climate sensitive vector borne disease risks especially in regions where meteorological data are lacking. This study aimed at analyzing and quantitatively assessing the seasonal and year-to-year association between climatic factors (rainfall and temperature) and vegetation cover, and its implications for malaria risks in Baringo County, Kenya. Remotely sensed temperature, rainfall, and vegetation data for the period 2004–2015 were used. Poisson regression was used to model the association between malaria cases and climatic and environmental factors for the period 2009–2012, this being the period for which all datasets overlapped. A strong positive relationship was observed between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and monthly total precipitation. There was a strong negative relationship between NDVI and minimum temperature. The total monthly rainfall (between 94 -181mm), average monthly minimum temperatures (between 16–21°C) and mean monthly NDVI values lower than 0.35 were significantly associated with malaria incidence rates. Results suggests that a combination of climatic and vegetation greenness thresholds need to be met for malaria incidence to be significantly increased in the county. Planning for malaria control can therefore be enhanced by incorporating these factors in malaria risk mapping.

Amadi JA, Olago DO, Ong’amo GO, Oriaso SO, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. "“We don’t want our clothes to smell smoke”: changing malaria control practices and opportunities for integrated community-based management in Baringo, Kenya." BMC public health. 2018;18(1):609. AbstractFull Text

Background

The decline in global malaria cases is attributed to intensified utilization of primary vector control interventions and artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). These strategies are inadequate in many rural areas, thus adopting locally appropriate integrated malaria control strategies is imperative in these heterogeneous settings. This study aimed at investigating trends and local knowledge on malaria and to develop a framework for malaria control for communities in Baringo, Kenya.

Methods

Clinical malaria cases obtained from four health facilities in the riverine and lowland zones were used to analyse malaria trends for the 2005–2014 period. A mixed method approach integrating eight focus group discussions, 12 key informant interviews, 300 survey questionnaires and two stakeholders’ consultative forums were used to assess local knowledge on malaria risk and develop a framework for malaria reduction.

Results

Malaria cases increased significantly during the 2005–2014 period (tau = 0.352; p < 0.001) in the riverine zone. March, April, May, June and October showed significant increases compared to other months. Misconceptions about the cause and mode of malaria transmission existed. Gender-segregated outdoor occupation such as social drinking, farm activities, herding, and circumcision events increased the risk of mosquito bites. A positive relationship occurred between education level and opinion on exposure to malaria risk after dusk (χ2 = 2.70, p < 0.05). There was over-reliance on bed nets, yet only 68% (204/300) of respondents owned at least one net. Complementary malaria control measures were under-utilized, with 90% of respondents denying having used either sprays, repellents or burnt cow dung or plant leaves over the last one year before the study was conducted. Baraza, radios, and mobile phone messages were identified as effective media for malaria information exchange. Supplementary strategies identified included unblocking canals, clearing Prosopis bushes, and use of community volunteers and school clubs to promote social behaviour change.

Conclusions

The knowledge gap on malaria transmission should be addressed to minimize the impacts and enhance uptake of appropriate malaria management mechanisms. Implementing community-based framework can support significant reductions in malaria prevalence by minimizing both indoor and outdoor malaria transmissions.

Keywords

Local knowledgeMalaria trendsCommunity-based strategiesFramework

Amadi JA, Ong'amo GO, Olago DO, Oriaso SO, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. "Mapping potential Anopheles gambiae s.l. larval distribution using remotely sensed climatic and environmental variables in Baringo, Kenya." Medical and veterinary entomology. 2018.
Amadi H. "Local Government Functions in a Societal Perspective: Evolution of Government-Society Relations in Kenya".". In: Local Government: A Global Perspective.; Forthcoming.
Ama, N.O. and Oucho JO. "A Multivariate Approach to Determinants of Contraceptive Use among Migrants and Refugees in Botswana." The Journal of Family Welfare . 2007;53(2):26-42.
Ama, N.O. and Oucho JO. "Access to Reproductive Health Services among Immigrants and Refugees in Botswana." The Journal of Family Welfare . 2008;54(1):47-61.
AM K, TJ M. "Bilateral second premolars agenesis together with a unilateral canine radiculomegaly." Contemp Clin Dent. 2017;2017; 8(2017; 8):2017; 8.
AM K. "Paediatric oral health and climate change." Edorium J Dent. 2019;2019; 7:(2019; 7:):2019; 7:.
AM G. "Pedagogical Integration of ICT: An Evaluation of Programmes and Software usage for teaching and learning in selected institutions in Kenya.". In: The Academic Conference in the School of Continuing and Distance Education 2013. Kikuyu Campus; 2013. Abstract

Abstract
The paper is based on the findings the Panafrican Research Agenda The purpose of the Panafrican Research Agenda on the Pedagogical Integration of ICT was to contribute to the broadening of knowledge of ICT usage in learning institutions. The research project aimed at enabling stakeholders better understand how the pedagogical integration of ICT can improve the quality of teaching and learning in Africa. This paper therefore presents an analysis of data collected in 10 Kenyan institutions. The paper focuses on the programmes and software usage and the impact on teaching and learning. It aims at exploring in detail the current impact of ICT usage in schools exploring the computer programmes, software and packages used in teaching and learning. A multi -case approach was used where by ten institutions were selected using similar procedures to allow comparison between the cases. The study used a mixed method approach. This approach borrows from diverse methodologies and facilitates triangulation of data. For every indicator understudy, information was gathered using three different questionnaires and directed interview schedules: The educator questionnaire for teachers, the administrative questionnaire for institutional heads the learner interview schedule and the parent’s interview schedule. The questionnaires and interviews were followed by focus group discussions with the respondents. The interviews and discussions were recorded while the videotaped classroom observations later encoded and analyzed. Data was then validated by a national team before it was uploaded to the Panafrican observatory. The findings presented in this paper are based on data uploaded on the Panafrican Research Agenda Observatory
.
Keywords: ICT in education, pedagogical integration,

AM K. "Renaissance or dimming hope – the dilemma of managing multi-surface dental carious lesions in primary dentition using atraumatic restorative treatment (ART)." Brazilian Res Paediatr Dent Integrated Clin. 2014;2014; 14(1): 65-69(2014; 14(1): 65-69):2014; 14(1): 65-69.
AM K, WO O. "Exploring the intricacies of contemporary PhD research process." East Afri Med J. 2015;2015; 92 (6): 308-314(2015; 92 (6): 308-314):2015; 92 (6): 308-314.
AM K. "Managing dental fluorosis: Traditional healer versus clinic approaches." JSM Dent. 2017;2017; 5(2): 1085(2017; 5(2): 1085):2017; 5(2): 1085.
AM J, CAZ J, AEB H, JA O’o. "Bilateral Ligation of the Anterior Branch of the Hypogastric Artery in Massive Obstetric Hemorrhage Secondary to Septic Abortion (Case Report)." J Gynecol Obstet. 2021;3(9):92-99. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Hemorrhage is the main cause of Maternal Mortality (MM) (27%) followed by hypertensive disorders and sepsis (12%). Septic abortion is considered an intermediate risk factor for the development of Massive Obstetric Hemorrhage (MOH). The algorithm for the management of postpartum hemorrhage due to uterine atony that includes systematic pelvic devascularization has been described, but this management is really planned for resolution of the pregnancy after the 20th week of gestation, since an HMO due to abortion is un usual. We present the case of a 21-year-old patient who self-medicates a prostaglandin analog at 2 months of pregnancy, achieving only a threat of abortion, goes to the emergency room 3 months later with a diagnosis of septic shock, USG and MRI are performed with altered results, only of hepatomegaly, delayed abortion of 8 weeks of evolution and gestational trophoblastic disease. Emergency MVA was performed due to profuse bleeding, placement of a Bakri balloon and clamping of the uterine arteries without results, for which an emergency exploratory laparotomy (LAPE) was performed with ligation of the anterior trunk of the internal iliac artery, being a successful procedure, without the need for Obstetric Hysterectomy (HO). The patient is managed in intensive care and in the end the diagnosis of TSG is ruled out. Bilateral Hypogastric Artery Ligation (BHAL) in the case of Massive Obstetric Hemorrhage (MOH) secondary to delivery or cesarean section is commonly used, however it is not a technique to report when bleeding is secondary to abortion. In these cases, it is also a viable, successful, fertility-preserving surgical procedure, and an alternative to Obstetric Hysterectomy (OH) when other less invasive methods such as uterine artery clamping or Bakri balloon have failed.

AM K, Waudo J, Were G. "Nutrition status of adolescents in Kenya.". In: Nutrition status of adolescents in Kenya. Nairobi: Williams Publishers ltd; 2021.
AM K. "Raising the awareness of infant oral mutilation - the myths and the facts." Contemp Clin Dent. 2015;2015; 6:S137-8(2015; 6:S137-8):2015; 6:S137-8.
AM K, F C. "Applying Bayesian model to predict socio-demographic and occlusal determinats of early childhood caries (ECC)." Brazilian Research in Paed Dent Intergr Clin.. 2017;2017; 17(1): e3452(2017; 17(1): e3452):2017; 17(1): e3452.
AM K, IA O. "A fatal case of infant oral mutilation." Contemp Clin Dent. 2021;2021; 12:76-80(2021; 12:76-80):2021; 12:76-80.
AM G, M W, M M, Z Q, G P. "Active management of the third stage of labour without controlled cord traction: a randomized non-inferiority controlled trial." Reprod Health. 2009;6(2). Abstract

BACKGROUND:
The third stage of labour refers to the period between birth of the baby and complete expulsion of the placenta. Some degree of blood loss occurs after the birth of the baby due to separation of the placenta. This period is a risky period because uterus may not contract well after birth and heavy blood loss can endanger the life of the mother. Active management of the third stage of labour (AMTSL) reduces the occurrence of severe postpartum haemorrhage by approximately 60-70%. Active management consists of several interventions packaged together and the relative contribution of each of the components is unknown. Controlled cord traction is one of those components that require training in manual skill for it to be performed appropriately. If it is possible to dispense with controlled cord traction without losing efficacy it would have major implications for effective management of the third stage of labour at peripheral levels of health care.

OBJECTIVE:
The primary objective is to determine whether the simplified package of oxytocin 10 IU IM/IV is not less effective than the full AMTSL package.

METHODS:
A hospital-based, multicentre, individually randomized controlled trial is proposed. The hypothesis tested will be a non-inferiority hypothesis. The aim will be to determine whether the simplified package without CCT, with the advantage of not requiring training to acquire the manual skill to perform this task, is not less effective than the full AMTSL package with regard to reducing blood loss in the third stage of labour.The simplified package will include uterotonic (oxytocin 10 IU IM) injection after delivery of the baby and cord clamping and cutting at approximately 3 minutes after birth. The full package will include the uterotonic injection (oxytocin 10 IU IM), controlled cord traction following observation of uterine contraction and cord clamping and cutting at approximately 3 minutes after birth. The primary outcome measure is blood loss of 1000 ml or more at one hour and up to two hours for women who continue to bleed after one hour. The secondary outcomes are blood transfusion, the use of additional uterotonics and measure of severe morbidity and maternal death.We aim to recruit 25,000 women delivering vaginally in health facilities in eight countries within a 12 month recruitment period.

MANAGEMENT:
Overall trial management will be from HRP/RHR in Geneva. There will be eight centres located in Argentina, Egypt, India, Kenya, Philippines, South Africa, Thailand and Uganda. There will be an online data entry system managed from HRP/RHR. The trial protocol was developed following a technical consultation with international organizations and leading researchers in the field. EXPECTED OUTCOMES: The main objective of this trial is to investigate whether a simplified package of third stage management can be recommended without increasing the risk of PPH. By avoiding the need for a manual procedure that requires training, the third stage management can be implemented in a more widespread and cost-effective way around the world even at the most peripheral levels of the health care system. This trial forms part of the programme of work to reduce maternal deaths due to postpartum haemorrhage within the RHR department in collaboration with other research groups and organizations active in the field.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:
ACTRN12608000434392

AM K. "Global disparity in childhood dental caries: is there a remedy? ." East Afr Med J, . 2013;90(1):: 1-6.
Alzaraa A, Chaudhry S. "An unusually long appendix in a child: a case report." Cases Journal. 2009;2:7398. AbstractWebsite

Appendicitis is the most common surgical emergency, but its diagnosis in children can be a challenge to the treating surgeon. PMID: 19829951

Aly S, Ogot M, Pelz R, Siclari M. "A decoupled stochastic approach to the jig-shape aeroelastic wing design problem.". In: 36th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit.; 1998:. Abstract

A novel approach to the jig-shape aeroelastic wing design problem is presented
in this paper. Unlike previous design efforts were the aerodynamic analyses where coupled
to the structural analyses throughout the optimization process, this work presents a truly
decoupled approach. The developed twolevel methodology performs aerodynamic shape
optimization at Level I to determine an optimal configuration, followed by structural shape
optimization at Level n to find the corresponding jig-shape. During Level n optimization, no …

Aly S, Ogot M, Pelz R, Marconi F, Siclari M. "Stochastic optimization applied to CFD shape design.". In: 12th Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference.; 1995:. Abstract

Simulated Annealing (SA), a stochastic optimization method, is applied to aerodynamic
shape design in which at least one CFD solve is required for each evaluation of the
objective function. A simple, short algorithm, SA is used as an outer loop and calls the CFD
solvers. It is found that objective functions which involve CFD in shape design, have small-
scale roughness due to discretization errors and incomplete convergence. SA is more robust
than the gradient-based methods, in the sense that the roughness creates difficulties for …

Aly S, Ogot M, Pelz R, Siclari M. "Jig-shape static aeroelastic wing design problem: a decoupled approach." Journal of aircraft. 2002;39:1061-1066. Abstract

THE design of modern, high-speed performance aerospace vehicles is characterized by
unprecedented levels of multidisciplinary interactions of a number of technical disciplines
such as structures, aerodynamics, controls engineering, and manufacturing. These
disciplines, among others, can impose considerable constraints on the dynamic stability and
controls performance margins required for ight safety. One of the many phenomenathat
exists in complex aircraft design is aeroelasticity: the study of the mutual interaction among …

Aly S, Ogot M, Pelz R, Siclari M. "A decoupled stochastic approach to the jig-shape aeroelastic wing design problem.". In: 36th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit.; 1998:. Abstract

A novel approach to the jig-shape aeroelastic wing design problem is presented
in this paper. Unlike previous design efforts were the aerodynamic analyses where coupled
to the structural analyses throughout the optimization process, this work presents a truly
decoupled approach. The developed twolevel methodology performs aerodynamic shape
optimization at Level I to determine an optimal configuration, followed by structural shape
optimization at Level n to find the corresponding jig-shape. During Level n optimization, no …

Aly S, Ogot M, Peltz R. "Stochastic approach to optimal aerodynamic shape design." Journal of Aircraft. 1996;33:956-961. Abstract

COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS (CFD) has be-gun to play an increasingly important
role in the aircraft industry because of its ability to produce detailed insights into complex
flow phenomena and its ease of parameterization, which can help identify the cause of weak
aerodynamic performance. Some of the earlier uses of CFD in the design process were
based on the cut-and-try approach. Here the designer iteratively modifies and evaluates a
design. 1 While considerable gains in aerodynamic performance can be achieved by this …

Aluvaala J, Nyamai R, Were F, Wasunna A, Kosgei R, Karumbi J, Gathara D, English M. "Assessment of neonatal care in clinical training facilities in Kenya.". 2014;10(306423):42-47. Abstractassessment_of_neonatal_care_in_clinical_training_facilities_in_kenya..pdf

Objective
An audit of neonatal care services provided by clinical training centres was undertaken to identify areas requiring improvement as part of wider efforts to improve newborn survival in Kenya.
Design
Cross-sectional study using indicators based on prior work in Kenya. Statistical analyses were descriptive with adjustment for clustering of data.
Setting Neonatal units of 22 public hospitals.
Patients Neonates aged <7 days.
Main outcome measures
Quality of care was assessed in terms of availability of basic resources (principally equipment and drugs) and audit of case records for documentation of patient assessment and treatment at admission.
Results
All hospitals had oxygen, 19/22 had resuscitation and phototherapy equipment, but some key resources were missing—for example kangaroo care was available in 14/22. Out of 1249 records, 56.9% (95% CI 36.2% to 77.6%) had a standard neonatal admission form. A median score of 0 out of 3 for symptoms of severe illness (IQR 0–3) and a median score of 6 out of 8 for signs of severe illness (IQR 4–7) were documented.
Maternal HIV status was documented in 674/1249
(54%, 95% CI 41.9% to 66.1%) cases. Drug doses
exceeded recommendations by >20% in prescriptions for
penicillin (11.6%, 95% CI 3.4% to 32.8%) and
gentamicin (18.5%, 95% CI 13.4% to 25%),
respectively.
Conclusions
Basic resources are generally available, but there are deficiencies in key areas. Poor documentation limits the use of routine data for quality improvement. Significant opportunities exist for improvement in service delivery and adherence to guidelines in hospitals providing professional training.

Aluvaala J, Nyamai R, Were F, Wasunna A, Kosgei R, Karumbi J, Gathara D, English M. "Assessment of neonatal care in clinical training facilities in Kenya." Arch Dis Child. 2016;(100):42-47. Abstractassessment_of_neonatal_care_in_clinical_training_facilities_in_kenya.pdf

Objective: An audit of neonatal care services provided by clinical training centres was undertaken to identify areas requiring improvement as part of wider efforts to improve newborn survival in Kenya.
Design: Cross-sectional study using indicators based on prior work in Kenya. Statistical analyses were descriptive with adjustment for clustering of data. Setting Neonatal units of 22 public hospitals. Patients Neonates aged <7 days.
Main outcome measures: Quality of care was assessed in terms of availability of basic resources (principally equipment and drugs) and audit of case records for documentation of patient assessment and treatment at admission.
Results: All hospitals had oxygen, 19/22 had resuscitation and phototherapy equipment, but some key resources were missing—for example kangaroo care was available in 14/22. Out of 1249 records, 56.9% (95% CI 36.2% to 77.6%) had a standard neonatal admission form. A median score of 0 out of 3 for symptoms of severe illness (IQR 0–3) and a median score of 6 out of 8 for signs of severe illness (IQR 4–7) were documented. Maternal HIV status was documented in 674/1249 (54%, 95% CI 41.9% to 66.1%) cases. Drug doses exceeded recommendations by >20% in prescriptions for penicillin (11.6%, 95% CI 3.4% to 32.8%) and gentamicin (18.5%, 95% CI 13.4% to 25%), respectively.
Conclusions: Basic resources are generally available, but there are deficiencies in key areas. Poor documentation limits the use of routine data for quality improvement. Significant opportunities exist for improvement in service delivery and adherence to guidelines in hospitals providing professional training.

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