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Anyamba TTC. "Trends in Low Cost Housing in Africa."; 1993.
Anyamba TJC, VDM V, Saarbrucken M. "Diverse Informalities."; 2008.
Anyamba, TJC KAK;. "Nairobi: From a Railway Yard to a Metropolis.". 1995.
Antony Rono, Ogutu C, Weke P. "On Compound Distributions for Natural Disaster Modelling in Kenya." International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences. 2020;2020. AbstractWebsite

Kenyan communities are exposed to natural disasters by an amalgamation of factors such as poverty, aridity, and settlements in areas susceptible to natural disasters or in areas with poor infrastructure. This is expected to increase due to the effects of climate change. In an attempt to explain some of these variabilities, we model the extreme damages from natural disasters in Kenya by developing a compound distribution that takes into account both the frequency and the severity of the extreme events. The resulting distribution is based on a threshold model and compound extreme value distribution. For frequency of events exceeding a threshold of 150,000, we found that it follows a negative binomial distribution, while severity of exceedance follows a generalized Pareto distribution. This distribution fits the data well and is found to be a better model for natural disasters in Kenya than the traditional extreme value threshold model.

Antony Rono, Ogutu C, Weke P. "On Compound Distributions for Natural Disaster Modeling in Kenya." International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences. 2020;2020. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Kenyan communities are exposed to natural disasters by an amalgamation of factors such as poverty, aridity, and settlements in areas susceptible to natural disasters or in areas with poor infrastructure. This is expected to increase due to the effects of climate change. In an attempt to explain some of these variabilities, we model the extreme damages from natural disasters in Kenya by developing a compound distribution that takes into account both the frequency and the severity of the extreme events. The resulting distribution is based on a threshold model and compound extreme value distribution. For frequency of events exceeding a threshold of 150,000, we found that it follows a negative binomial distribution, while severity of exceedance follows a generalized Pareto distribution. This distribution fits the data well and is found to be a better model for natural disasters in Kenya than the traditional extreme value threshold model.

Antonini A, Fagiolini M, Stryker MP. "Anatomical {Correlates} of {Functional} {Plasticity} in {Mouse} {Visual} {Cortex}." The Journal of Neuroscience. 1999;19:4388-4406. AbstractWebsite

Much of what is known about activity-dependent plasticity comes from studies of the primary visual cortex and its inputs in higher mammals, but the molecular bases remain largely unknown. Similar functional plasticity takes place during a critical period in the visual cortex of the mouse, an animal in which genetic experiments can readily be performed to investigate the underlying molecular and cellular events. The experiments of this paper were directed toward understanding whether anatomical changes accompany functional plasticity in the developing visual cortex of the mouse, as they do in higher mammals. In normal mice, transneuronal label after an eye injection clearly delineated the monocular and binocular zones of area 17. Intrinsic signal optical imaging also showed monocular and binocular zones of area 17 but revealed no finer organization of ocular dominance or orientation selectivity. In normal animals, single geniculocortical afferents serving the contralateral eye showed great heterogeneity and no clustering consistent with the presence of ocular dominance patches. Growth and elaboration of terminal arbor continues beyond postnatal day 40 (P40), after the peak of the critical period. After prolonged monocular deprivation (MD) from P20 to P60, transneuronal labeling showed that the projection serving the ipsilateral eye was severely affected, whereas the effect on the contralateral eye’s pathway was inconsistent. Optical imaging also showed profound effects of deprivation, particularly in the ipsilateral pathway, and microelectrode studies confirmed continued functional plasticity past P40. Reconstruction of single afferents showed that MD from P20 to P40 promoted the growth of the open eye’s geniculocortical connections without causing the closed eye’s contralateral projection to shrink, whereas MD from P20 to P60 caused an arrest of growth of deprived arbors. Our findings reveal numerous similarities between mouse and higher mammals in development and plasticity, along with some differences. We discuss the factors that may be responsible for these differences.

Antonini A, Stryker M. "Rapid remodeling of axonal arbors in the visual cortex." Science (New York, N.Y.). 1993;260:1819-21. Abstract
n/a
Antonini A, Fagiolini M, Stryker MP. "Anatomical {Correlates} of {Functional} {Plasticity} in {Mouse} {Visual} {Cortex}." The Journal of Neuroscience. 1999;19:4388-4406. AbstractWebsite

Much of what is known about activity-dependent plasticity comes from studies of the primary visual cortex and its inputs in higher mammals, but the molecular bases remain largely unknown. Similar functional plasticity takes place during a critical period in the visual cortex of the mouse, an animal in which genetic experiments can readily be performed to investigate the underlying molecular and cellular events. The experiments of this paper were directed toward understanding whether anatomical changes accompany functional plasticity in the developing visual cortex of the mouse, as they do in higher mammals. In normal mice, transneuronal label after an eye injection clearly delineated the monocular and binocular zones of area 17. Intrinsic signal optical imaging also showed monocular and binocular zones of area 17 but revealed no finer organization of ocular dominance or orientation selectivity. In normal animals, single geniculocortical afferents serving the contralateral eye showed great heterogeneity and no clustering consistent with the presence of ocular dominance patches. Growth and elaboration of terminal arbor continues beyond postnatal day 40 (P40), after the peak of the critical period. After prolonged monocular deprivation (MD) from P20 to P60, transneuronal labeling showed that the projection serving the ipsilateral eye was severely affected, whereas the effect on the contralateral eye’s pathway was inconsistent. Optical imaging also showed profound effects of deprivation, particularly in the ipsilateral pathway, and microelectrode studies confirmed continued functional plasticity past P40. Reconstruction of single afferents showed that MD from P20 to P40 promoted the growth of the open eye’s geniculocortical connections without causing the closed eye’s contralateral projection to shrink, whereas MD from P20 to P60 caused an arrest of growth of deprived arbors. Our findings reveal numerous similarities between mouse and higher mammals in development and plasticity, along with some differences. We discuss the factors that may be responsible for these differences.

Antonini A, Fagiolini M, Stryker MP. "Anatomical {Correlates} of {Functional} {Plasticity} in {Mouse} {Visual} {Cortex}." The Journal of Neuroscience. 1999;19:4388-4406. AbstractWebsite

Much of what is known about activity-dependent plasticity comes from studies of the primary visual cortex and its inputs in higher mammals, but the molecular bases remain largely unknown. Similar functional plasticity takes place during a critical period in the visual cortex of the mouse, an animal in which genetic experiments can readily be performed to investigate the underlying molecular and cellular events. The experiments of this paper were directed toward understanding whether anatomical changes accompany functional plasticity in the developing visual cortex of the mouse, as they do in higher mammals. In normal mice, transneuronal label after an eye injection clearly delineated the monocular and binocular zones of area 17. Intrinsic signal optical imaging also showed monocular and binocular zones of area 17 but revealed no finer organization of ocular dominance or orientation selectivity. In normal animals, single geniculocortical afferents serving the contralateral eye showed great heterogeneity and no clustering consistent with the presence of ocular dominance patches. Growth and elaboration of terminal arbor continues beyond postnatal day 40 (P40), after the peak of the critical period. After prolonged monocular deprivation (MD) from P20 to P60, transneuronal labeling showed that the projection serving the ipsilateral eye was severely affected, whereas the effect on the contralateral eye’s pathway was inconsistent. Optical imaging also showed profound effects of deprivation, particularly in the ipsilateral pathway, and microelectrode studies confirmed continued functional plasticity past P40. Reconstruction of single afferents showed that MD from P20 to P40 promoted the growth of the open eye’s geniculocortical connections without causing the closed eye’s contralateral projection to shrink, whereas MD from P20 to P60 caused an arrest of growth of deprived arbors. Our findings reveal numerous similarities between mouse and higher mammals in development and plasticity, along with some differences. We discuss the factors that may be responsible for these differences.

Antonine Obiero, Jeremiah Kalai UO. "Strategies Used in Maintaining Students' discipline in Public Secondary Schools in Nairobi County, Kenya." International Journal of Social Science and Economic Research (IJSSER). . 2018;3(11):6346-6366.
ANTIPA MROKELOJASPER. "NGO's and Consumer Issues in Africa Today- in Voices From Africa, Issues Number 2, NGOs and Grassroots Development, Published by UN Non-Governmental Liaison Services, Geneva, Switzerland.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1972. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
ANTIPA MROKELOJASPER. "The African Entrepreneur- IDS Occasional Paper No. 6.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1972. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
ANTIPA MROKELOJASPER. "Privatization in Kenya, published by Basic Books(K)Ltd. (Nairobi 1998).". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1998. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
ANTIPA MROKELOJASPER. "NGO's and Consumer Issues in Africa Today- in Voices From Africa, Issues Number 2, NGOs and Grassroots Development, Published by UN Non-Governmental Liaison Services, Geneva, Switzerland.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1972. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
ANTIPA MROKELOJASPER. "Recurrent Costs of Public Investment and Budget Rationalization in Kenya, Proceedings of a Workshop organized by the Kenyan Economic Association. ( Co-edited with LewisOdhiambo of Kenya School of Journalism, University of Nairobi).". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1988. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
ANTIPA MROKELOJASPER. "Privatization in Africa, with Basic Books(K)Ltd.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 2007. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
ANTIPA MROKELOJASPER. "The Role of Credit: IDS Occasional Paper No. 6.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1972. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
ANTIPA MROKELOJASPER. "Problems of Rural Industries: A Case Study of Kakamega District, Western Province, Kenya- for the Annual Social Science Conference Of the Eastern African Universities, Dar-es-Salaam, December.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1973. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
ANTIPA MROKELOJASPER. "Privatization in Kenya, published by Basic Books(K)Ltd. (Nairobi 1998).". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1998. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
Anthony Egeru, Oliver Wasonga, MacOpiyo L, Mburu J, Tabuti JRS, Majaliwa MGJ. "Piospheric influence on forage species composition and abundance in semi-arid Karamoja sub-region, Uganda." Pastoralism. 2015;5:12. Abstract
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Anthony Egeru, Oliver Wasonga, Gabiri G, MacOpiyo L, Mburu J, JGMM. "Land Cover and Soil Properties Influence on Forage Quantity in a Semiarid Region in East Africa." Applied and Environmental Soil Science. 2019;2019.
Anthony Egeru, Oliver Wasonga, Mburu J, Yazan E, Majaliwa MGJ, MacOpiyo L, Bamutaze Y. "Drivers of forage availability: An integration of remote sensing and traditional ecological knowledge in Karamoja sub-region, Uganda." Pastoralism. 2015;5:19. Abstract
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Anthony Egeru, Osaliya R, MacOpiyo L, Mburu J, Oliver Wasonga, Barasa B, Said M, Aleper D, Majaliwa Mwanjalolo G-J. "Assessing the spatio-temporal climate variability in semi-arid Karamoja sub-region in north-eastern Uganda." International Journal of Environmental Studies. 2014;71:490-509. Abstract
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Anthony Egeru, Oliver Wasonga, MacOpiyo L, Mburu J, Majaliwa MGJ. "Abundance and diversity of native forage species in pastoral Karamoja sub-region, Uganda.". 2015. Abstract
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Anthony Egeru, Oliver Wasonga, Joseph Kyagulanyi, GJ Mwanjalolo Majaliwa, MacOpiyo L, Mburu J. "Spatio-temporal dynamics of forage and land cover changes in Karamoja sub-region, Uganda." Pastoralism. 2014;4:6. Abstract
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Anthon S, Lund JF, Helles F. "Targeting the poor: taxation of marketed forest products in developing countries.". 1982. Abstract

In this article, we investigate whether taxation of households’ production of marketed forest products in developing countries is likely to assist in achieving the general development objectives of resources conservation and poverty alleviation. Based on an empirical study on such taxation in a village in Tanzania, we develop and solve a theoretical analytical model to analyse taxation, when households’ access to alternative income generating opportunities is heterogeneous. Findings are that taxation adversely affects income equality and has an ambiguous effect on the level of resource utilisation.

Anteby M, Garip F, Martorana PV, Lozanoff S. "Individuals’ {Decision} to {Co}-{Donate} or {Donate} {Alone}: {An} {Archival} {Study} of {Married} {Whole} {Body} {Donors} in {Hawaii}." PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42673. AbstractWebsite

BackgroundHuman cadavers are crucial to numerous aspects of health care, including initial and continuing training of medical doctors and advancement of medical research. Concerns have periodically been raised about the limited number of whole body donations. Little is known, however, about a unique form of donation, namely co-donations or instances when married individuals decide to register at the same time as their spouse as whole body donors. Our study aims to determine the extent of whole body co-donation and individual factors that might influence co-donation.Methods and FindingsWe reviewed all records of registrants to the University of Hawaii Medical School’s whole body donation program from 1967 through 2006 to identify married registrants. We then examined the 806 married individuals’ characteristics to understand their decision to register alone or with their spouse. We found that married individuals who registered at the same time as their spouse accounted for 38.2 percent of married registrants. Sex differences provided an initial lens to understand co-donation. Wives were more likely to co-donate than to register alone (p = 0.002). Moreover, registrants’ main occupational background had a significant effect on co-donations (p = 0.001). Married registrants (regardless of sex) in female-gendered occupations were more likely to co-donate than to donate alone (p = 0.014). Female-gendered occupations were defined as ones in which women represented more than 55 percent of the workforce (e.g., preschool teachers). Thus, variations in donors’ occupational backgrounds explained co-donation above and beyond sex differences.ConclusionsEfforts to secure whole body donations have historically focused on individual donations regardless of donors’ marital status. More attention needs to be paid, however, to co-donations since they represent a non-trivial number of total donations. Also, targeted outreach efforts to male and female members of female-gendered occupations might prove a successful way to increase donations through co-donations.

Anselm OJ. The philosophy of the near death experience . Pune india; 1996.
Anselm OJ. "The Unreasonable Defense Of Terrorism And Government Obligations ." World Peace, Problems Of Global Understanding And Prospects Of Harmony. 2005;I.
Anselm OJ. “Responsibility and Development”, . Catholic Univeersity of Eastern Africa Nairobi; 2006.
Anselm OJ. "Justification Of Legal Justice ." Hekima Vol II No. 1 . 2003;Vol II No. 1.
Anselm OJ. "Common Good as a Mean To Peace ." Culture And Quest . 2001;Sept.
Anselm OJ. "“Reducing War and Terrorism by Mitigation through Knowledge”, .". In: at the Second Annual CUEA Philosophy Conference, Philosophy of War and Peace, 15-17 November 2007. CUEA Nairobi; 2007.
Anselm OJ. 1. Being And Meaning .; 1991.
Anselm OJ. "The Notion Of Freedom From An African Cultural Perspective ." Culture And Quest . 1997.
Anselm OJ. "Notes On Context ." The South African Journal Of Philosophy . 1996;Vol15 No. 2.
Anselm OJ. "“Accountability Responsibility, and Integrity In Development: The Ethical Challenges In Sub-Sahara Africa And Beyond” .". In: The Ethical Challenges In Sub-Sahara Africa And Beyond. Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda, ; 2006.
and Another FM. "Planning for Neutral Money Supply in African Economies with Special Application to Kenya." The Indian Economic Journal. 1993;41(1).
Anonymous. "Traditional remedies for tick-borne cattle diseases in Kenya.". In: A field manual of traditional animal health care practices. Nairobi: ITDG and IIRR; 1996.
Anne Wanjiru Mbwayo, Mathai M, Lincoln. I Khasakhala, Mary Wangari Kuria, Vander Stoep A. "Mental Health in Kenyan Schools: Teachers’ Perspectives." Global Social Welfare. 2019;7:157-163.
Anne Wanjiku Ngari. A study of supply chain management practices at the University of Nairobi. UNES Chiromo Conference Center; Forthcoming.abstract_scm.pdf
Anne W Muohi, Gerd‐Peter Zauke, Hans‐Jurgen Brumsack, Mavuti KM. "Bioaccumulation of trace elements in Arthrospira fusiformis algal blooms in Lakes Bogoria and Sonachi, Kenya: Evaluation and verification of toxicokinetic models." Lakes & Reservoirs: Research & Management. 2018;23(4):277-286.
and Anne Hellum IIPK-M. "TURNING THE TIDE: ENGENDERING THE HUMAN RIGHT TO WATER AND SANITATION." IELRC. 2015:32-80.
Anne Fischer, Ivette Santana-Cruz, Wambua L, Cassandra Olds, Charles Midega, Matthew Dickinson, Praphat Kawicha, Zeyaur Khan, Masiga D, Joerg Jores, Bernd Schneider. "Draft genome sequence of “Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae” strain Mbita1, the causative agent of Napier grass stunt disease in Kenya." Genome announcements. 2016;4(2):e00297-16.
Anne H, Henriette SA. "‘Pulling Apart? Treatment of Pluralism in CEDAW and Maputo Protocol’ .". In: Women’s Human Rights: CEDAW in International, Regional and National Law . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2013.
Anne N, David M, Naomi G, Grace N. "Training ECD in-service Teachers in ICT skills:First foot forward.". In: Utilization of open and distance learning in addressing educational challenges in kenya towards fulfilment of the vision 2030. University of Nairobi, kenya; 2013. Abstract

Kenya government developed vision 2030 with the aim of transforming Kenya into a middle-income industrialized country. This vision is likely to be an illusion unless Kenya invests in education and training. Countries that have succeeded in harnessing the potential of ICT have been said to have taken a positive step towards a greatly expanded economic growth, improved human welfare and stronger forms of democratic governance. ICT has been correlated with enhanced human development and a major driving force of national growth. Kenya government has invested a lot of funds in the development of ICT infrastructure. This investment is likely not to bear fruits unless the training of teachers is put on the forefront. There should therefore be an emphasis of training teachers in ICT because they are the central forces in tapping the learning potentials created by ICT. Teachers for all levels from pre-primary to university must be trained in ICT if the vision is to be realized. Support for the pre-school education from the government is a recent phenomenon especially in curriculum development. This is because this level of education has been taught by untrained teachers for a long time therefore resulting to poor quality of education. The first effort noted towards this end was the experimental preschool education project that was carried out by the Ministry of education Science and Technology and the Bernard Van Leer Foundation between 1972 and 1982. A later development was on the National Early Childhood Development Policy Framework of 2006 which provided coordination of the different stakeholders in ECD at all levels. As the government continues to support this level of education, it is important to find out the part that it is playing in ensuring that this education is relevant to the changing needs of the students. This will only be possible if the government ensures that teachers have effective techniques, tool and assistance that can help them develop ICT activities that are able to improve student learning. The purpose of this study was to explore the ICT skills possessed by the ECD teachers. Further, the study explored the integration of ICT in teaching and learning of preschool children in selected Kenyan preschools. A researcher developed questionnaire was used to gather the required information from the ECD teachers who were in their training sessions. The sample consisted of 395 pre-school teachers. The findings indicated that only (39.17%) of the teachers had any knowledge in ICT. Most of the teachers (86.99) reported that there they had not attended any government sponsored ICT workshop during their teaching professions. All the teachers felt that their teaching would be highly enhanced by ICT integration in teaching and learning. They also expressed their interest in availing themselves for ICT training should an opportunity arise. Based on these findings, it was recommended that there is need for the government to invest more in the training of pre-school teachers in ICT integration.
Key words: information and communication technology (ICT), pre-school children, Pre-school teachers, Teacher training

Anne K, Ken M. "The Motorcycle and Mobility: A Blessing or A Curse.". In: Eastern Africa Transport Conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2015.abstract-_motorcyles_a_blessing_or_a_curse.pdf
Anjili CO, Ngumbi PM, Kaburi JC, Irungu LW. "The phlebotomine sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) of Kenya." Journal of vector borne diseases. 2011;48(4):183-189. AbstractJournal of vector borne diseases

Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniases are endemic in some parts of Kenya, where they are transmitted by phlebobotomine sandflies of genus Phlebotomus. This review is a compilation of the currently known distribution of phlebotomine sandflies in the parts of Kenya that have been studied, from the time sandflies were first reported in the country. So far 48 species of sandflies have been identified falling in the genera Phlebotomus Rondani & Berte and Sergentomyia Franca & Parrot. Genus Phlebotomus in Kenya is represented in five subgenera, namely Phlebotomus, Larroussius, Synphlebotomus, Paraphlebotomus and Anaphlebotomus. Genus Sergentomyia has the largest number of sandflies, and is represented in four subgenera, namely Sergentomyia, Sintonius, Grassomyia and Parvidens.

Ang’u C, Muthama NJ, Mutai BK. "Aerosol optical depth patterns associated with urbanization and weather in Nairobi and Lamu." J. Meteorol. Related. Sci.. 2016;8:26-40.Website
Ang’u C, Muthama NJ, Oludhe C, Kong’ani LNS. "Effects of civil conflicts on global oil prices and their impact on the energy sector." Journal of Sustainability, Environment and Peace. 2019;1(1):12-18.
Angwere OW, Koech OK. "ASSESSING THE EFFECT OF CHARCOAL PRODUCTION AND USE ON THE TRANSITION TO A GREEN ECONOMY IN KENYA." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2016;19(2016):327-335.
Angu C, Muthama JN, Mutai BK. The Interconnection among Aerosols, Urbanization and Weather. Lambert Academic Publishing; ISBN-10:3330026537; 2017.
Angima C B, Mwangi M. "Actuarial Risk Management Practices and Financial Performance of Property and Casualty Insurance Firms: Identification of a Moderating Variable." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2016;6(2):126-132.
Angima, C., Mwangi, J.W., Kaijage, Ogutu M. "Actuarial risk management practices, underwriting, risk and performance of P & C insurance firms in East Africa." European Scientific Journal. 2017;13(22):207-226.
Angima C. "Do size and age affect performance of general insurance firms in East Africa?" International Journal of Arts and Commerce. 2018;7(7):8-18.
Angima, C., A M. "Nature of fraud and its effects in the medical insurance sector in Kenya." DBA Africa Management Review. 2016;6(2):33-44.
Angima, C., Mwangi, J.W., Kaijage, Ogutu M. "Effects of pricing and reinsurance practices on performance of general insurance firms in East Africa." International Journal of Science Arts and Commerce. 2017;2(7):28-40.
Angima C, Wakobwa AM. "Risk management practices and marine premium growth of insurance firms in Kenya." nternational Journal of Creative Research And Studies. 2018;2(11):51-61.
Angeyoa KH, Garib S, Mustapha AO, Mangala JM. "Feasibility for direct rapid energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and scattering analysis of complex matrix liquids by partial least squares.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

The greatest challenge to material characterization by XRF technique is encountered in direct trace analysis of complex matrices. We exploited partial least squares (PLS) in conjunction with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) spectrometry to rapidly (200 s) analyze lubricating oils. The PLS–EDXRFS method affords non-invasive quality assurance (QA) analysis of complex matrix liquids as it gave optimistic results for both heavy- and low-Z metal additives. Scatter peaks may further be used for QA characterization via the light elements.

Angeyo, H.K, Mukhono, P.M, Musyoka, D., Dehayem-Massop A, Kaduki KA. "Trace Quantitative and Exploratory Analysis by Multivariate Chemometric Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometry Applied to Malaria and Radiogeothermic Diagnostics.". In: RIAO/OPTILAS 2013 VIII Iberoamerican Conference on Optics and XI Latin-american Meeting on Optics, Lasers and Applications. 22; 2013. Abstract
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Angeyo KH, Patel JP, Mangala JM, Narayana DGS. "Measurement of trace element levels in Kenyan cigarettes with the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy technique." Journal of trace and microprobe techniques. 1998;16:233-246. Abstract
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Angeyo KH, Kaniu MI. "Challenges in rapid soil quality assessment and opportunities presented by multivariate chemometric energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering spectroscopy." Geoderma. 2015;241–242:32-40. Abstract

There is, especially in precision agriculture, an increasing demand world over for affordable sensors for in situ (field deployable) soil quality assessment (SQA) applicable at an ecological scale due to the interplay between soil quality and environmental degradation. Although spectrometric (particularly optical) techniques offer the opportunity to meet this demand due to their high analytical versatility, their utility in rapid SQA is limited by the complexity of the soil matrix, and the interpretation of the resulting spectra and (usually) multivariate quality assurance (i.e. SQA) data. In this paper, we examine the utility of spectrometric techniques for soil analysis and critique their applicability to rapid SQA; in particular, we appraise their potential for development towards intelligent portable SQA systems for in situ application. We then evaluate in this perspective the applicability of a new method we have recently developed namely chemometrics energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering spectrometry (EDXRFS) for SQA, emphasizing its potential for realizing rapid intelligent sensor architecture for in situ SQA. We conclude that a point of care soil sensor that infers soil properties, and intelligently modulates precision agriculture may be realized by integrating the EDXRFS spectroscopy method to a portable XRF spectrometer.

Angeyo HK, Dehayem-Massop A, Kaduki. "Development of Laser Education and Research Towards Biophotonics at Nairobi.". In: 12th International conference on Education and Training in Optics and Photonics. 22; 2013. Abstract
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Angeyo KH, Bhatt B, Dehayem-Kamadjeu A. "Rapid nuclear forensics analysis via machine-learning-enabled laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).". 2018;(Published Online: 03 June 2019). Abstract

Nuclear forensics (NF) is an analytical methodology that involves analysis of intercepted nuclear and radiological materials (NRM) so as to establish their nuclear attribution. The critical challenge in NF currently is the lack of suitable microanalytical methodologies for direct, rapid, minimally invasive detection and quantification of NF signatures. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has the potential to overcome these limitations with the aid of machine-learning (ML) techniques. In this paper, we report the development of ML-enabled LIBS methodology for rapid NF analysis and attribution in support of nuclear security. The atomic uranium lines at 385.464 nm, 385.957 nm, and 386.592 nm were identified as NF signatures of uranium for rapid qualitative detection of trace uranium concealed in organic binders and uranium-bearing mineral ores. The limit of detection of uranium using LIBS was determined to be 34 ppm. A multivariate calibration strategy for the quantification of trace uranium in cellulose and uranium-bearing mineral ores was developed using an artificial neural network (ANN, a feed forward back-propagation algorithm) and spectral feature selection: (1) uranium lines (348 nm to 455 nm), (2) uranium lines (380 nm to 388 nm), and (3) subtle uranium peaks (UV range). The model utilizing category 2 was able to predict the 48 ppm of uranium with a relative error prediction (REP) of 10%. The calibration model utilizing subtle uranium peaks, that is, category 3, could predict uranium in the pellets prepared from certified reference material (CRM) IAEA-RGU-1, with an REP of 6%. This demonstrates the power of ANN to model noisy LIBS spectra for trace quantitative analysis. The calibration model we developed predicted uranium concentrations in the uranium-bearing mineral ores in the range of 54–677 ppm. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the LIBS spectra (200–980 nm) utilizing feature selection of the uranium-bearing samples collected from different regions of Kenya clustered into groups related to their geographic origins. The PCA loading spectrum revealed that the groupings of these samples were mainly due to rare earth elements, namely, cerium, dysprosium, praseodymium, promethium, neodymium, and samarium. ML-enabled LIBS therefore has utility in field NF analysis and attribution of uranium in NRM under concealed conditions.

Angeyo HK, Dehayem-Massop A, Kaduki KA. "Analysis and Spectral Imaging Approaches to Disease Diagnostics: Forays into Malaria and Cancer.". In: LAM 10 International Workshop: Optics Photonics and Lasers in Science and Technology for Sustainable Development. 13-18 January 2014, Dakar, Senegal; 2014. Abstract
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Angeyo HK, Kaduki KA, Bulimo DW, Dehayem-Massop A. "Developments in Medical Elementology and Spectral Diagnostics of Disease via Chemometrics and Machine Learning Assisted Trace Spectroanalytics and Imaging Towards Applications in Nanomedicine.". In: First Pan-African Summer School in Nanomedicine. Pretoria, South Africa; 2012.
Angeyo KH, Bhatt B, Dehayem-Kamadjeu A. "Rapid nuclear forensics analysis via machine-learning-enabled laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)." AIP Conference Proceedings 2109. 2019;2019(1). Abstract

Nuclear forensics (NF) is an analytical methodology that involves analysis of intercepted nuclear and radiological materials (NRM) so as to establish their nuclear attribution. The critical challenge in NF currently is the lack of suitable microanalytical methodologies for direct, rapid, minimally invasive detection and quantification of NF signatures. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has the potential to overcome these limitations with the aid of machine-learning (ML) techniques. In this paper, we report the development of ML-enabled LIBS methodology for rapid NF analysis and attribution in support of nuclear security. The atomic uranium lines at 385.464 nm, 385.957 nm, and 386.592 nm were identified as NF signatures of uranium for rapid qualitative detection of trace uranium concealed in organic binders and uranium-bearing mineral ores. The limit of detection of uranium using LIBS was determined to be 34 ppm. A multivariate calibration strategy for the quantification of trace uranium in cellulose and uranium-bearing mineral ores was developed using an artificial neural network (ANN, a feed forward back-propagation algorithm) and spectral feature selection: (1) uranium lines (348 nm to 455 nm), (2) uranium lines (380 nm to 388 nm), and (3) subtle uranium peaks (UV range). The model utilizing category 2 was able to predict the 48 ppm of uranium with a relative error prediction (REP) of 10%. The calibration model utilizing subtle uranium peaks, that is, category 3, could predict uranium in the pellets prepared from certified reference material (CRM) IAEA-RGU-1, with an REP of 6%. This demonstrates the power of ANN to model noisy LIBS spectra for trace quantitative analysis. The calibration model we developed predicted uranium concentrations in the uranium-bearing mineral ores in the range of 54–677 ppm. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the LIBS spectra (200–980 nm) utilizing feature selection of the uranium-bearing samples collected from different regions of Kenya clustered into groups related to their geographic origins. The PCA loading spectrum revealed that the groupings of these samples were mainly due to rare earth elements, namely, cerium, dysprosium, praseodymium, promethium, neodymium, and samarium. ML-enabled LIBS therefore has utility in field NF analysis and attribution of uranium in NRM under concealed conditions.

Angeyo KH, Mukhono PM, Dehayem-kamadjeu A, Kaduki KA. "Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and characterization of environmental matrices utilizing multivariate chemometrics." Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy. 2013;87. Abstract

We exploited multivariate chemometric methods to reduce the spectral complexity and to retrieve trace heavy metal analyte concentration signatures directly from the LIBS spectra as well as, to extract their latent characteristics in two important environmental samples i.e. soils and rocks from a geothermal field lying in a high background radiation area (HBRA). As, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ti were modeled for direct trace (quantitative) analysis using partial least squares (PLS) and artificial neural networks (ANNs). PLS performed better in soils than in rocks; the use of ANN improved the accuracies in rocks because ANNs are more robust than PLS at modeling spectral non-linearities and correcting matrix effects. The predicted trace metal profiles together with atomic and molecular signatures acquired using single ablation in the 200–545 nm spectral range were utilized to successfully classify and identify the soils and rocks with regard to whether they were derived from (i) a high background radiation area (HBRA)-geothermal, (ii) HBRA-non-geothermal or (iii) normal background radiation area (NBRA)-geothermal field using principal components analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA).

Angeline W Maina, John M Wagacha FMJMCWBWP. "Postharvest Practices of Maize Farmers in Kaiti District, Kenya and the Impact of Hermetic Storage on Populations of Aspergillus Spp. and Aflatoxin Contamination.". 2016. Abstracthttps://profiles.uonbi.ac.ke/mainawagacha/

Aflatoxin contamination in maize by Aspergillus spp. is a major problem causing
food, income and health concerns. A study was carried out in Kaiti District in Lower Eastern
Kenya to evaluate the effect of three months storage of maize in triple-layer hermetic
(PICS™) bags on the population of Aspergillus spp. and levels of aflatoxin. Postharvest
practices by maize farmers including time of harvesting, drying and storage methods were
obtained with a questionnaire. Aspergillus spp. in soil and maize were isolated by serial …

Angeline W Maina, John M Wagacha FBMJMCWWP. "Assessment of Farmers Maize Production Practices and Effect of Triple-Layer Hermetic Storage on the Population of Fusarium Spp. and Fumonisin Contamination.". 2016. AbstractWebsite

Fumonisin contamination of maize by Fusarium spp. is a major risk in food security, human
and animal health. A study was carried out in Kaiti District, Makueni County in Kenya, to
assess the effectiveness of triple-layer hermetic (PICS™) bags in the management of
Fusarium spp. and fumonisin contamination of stored maize grains. Maize production
practices including scale of production, methods of land preparation, variety grown and
storage methods were obtained with a questionnaire. Fusarium spp. in soil and maize …

Angeline Anyona Aywak1*, Timothy Musila Mutala1, Purity Ndaiga1, Callen Onyambu1, Raza2 S. "Breast Cancer Prevalence Among Patients Referred for Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." The Journal of Global Radiology. 2018;4(1):1-7.
Angeline Anyona Aywak, Mutala TM, Ndaiga P, Onyambu C, S. R. "Breast Cancer Prevalence Among Patients Referred for Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." The Journal of Global Radiology. 2018;4(1):1-7.Website
ANGELINE DRAYWAK. "Nguku SW, Wanyoike-Gichuhi J, Aywak AA.Biophysical profile scores and resistance indices of the umbilical artery as seen in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension. East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):96-101.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):96-101.; 2006. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The role of Biophysical Profile Score and resistive index of the umbilical artery for monitoring pre-eclampsia patients. DESIGN: Descriptive prospective study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital and Mater Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: One hundred and ten cases during a three month period. RESULTS: Normal biophysical profile scores were found in 93 (84.5%), and 17 (17.5%) cases had abnormal scores ranging from mild to severe foetal distress. Resistive index of umbilical artery (RI-UA) were normal in 72 (66.1%) and high resistive index accounted for 33.9%. Intra-Uterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) was a prominent finding accounting for 30.5%. A positive relationship was shown to exist between IUGR and RI-UA and also with severity of hypertension with P-values < 0.05. Resistive index of umbilical artery was positively related to the duration of illness confirming its dependence on chronicity (P = 0.004). Resistive index of umbilical artery proved to be an earlier indicator of foetal compromise before any foetal distress becomes obvious. CONCLUSION: Regular obstetrical ultra sound foetal surveillance in pre-eclampsia patients is important for foetal wellbeing. Doppler evaluation of high risk patients is more sensitive test than the biophysical profile score. PMID: 16771106 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
ANGELINE MRSCHEPHIRCHIR, JAMES DRMWAURA. "Dr. James Mwaura, Anne Mwikali Mawia, Angeline Chepchirchir Relationship Between Male Alcoholism and Intimate Partner Violence in Kenya. African Journal of Midwifery, October 2008 Issue.". In: African Journal of Midwifery, October 2008 Issue. National Nurses Association of Kenya; 2008.
ANGELINE DRAYWAK. "Aywak AA, Mwanda OW, Adamali NE.Radiological features of Burkitt's lymphoma.". In: East Afr Med J. 2004 Aug;(8 Suppl):S104-10.; 2004. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diagnostic radiology investigations play important roles in the management of Burkitt's Lymphoma. OBJECTIVES: To document the various radiological manifestations of Burkitt's lymphoma as seen in patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Prospective study of Burkitt's Lymphoma cases admitted to the paediatric and Ear, Nose and Throat Wards. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All histological proven cases of BL had the following documented; Age sex, tribe, geographical (province) of origin, full medical evaluation results, presenting site of tumour, radiological findings and results of chest X-ray, abdominal ultrasound occipital frontal view of the skull X-ray. computerised tomography, myelography and orthopantomograms. RESULTS: In the period between April 1991 and March 1992 this study registered 49 patients age range 2 to 14 years. These were males 34 (69%) and females 15 (31%). The commonest radiological findings was associate with intra abdominal lymphoma seen in 65.2% of the cases, the least findings associated with cervical adenopathy and pleural effusion each 3.3% of cases. Twenty (41%) of the disease was clinically confined to the facial area while radiologically 25% of these were demonstrated to extend to the abdomen as well. CONCLUSION: Disease extent on radiological examination was found to be more extensive compared to clinical evaluation alone. The observation emphasised the role of radiological investigation in the management of lymphomas in this setting.East Afr Med J. 2004 Aug;(8 Suppl):S104-10. PMID: 15617420 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

ANGELINE MRSCHEPHIRCHIR, JAMES DRMWAURA. "Dr. James Mwaura, Anne Mwikali Mawia, Angeline Chepchirchir Relationship Between Male Alcoholism and Intimate Partner Violence in Kenya. African Journal of Midwifery, October 2008 Issue.". In: African Journal of Midwifery, October 2008 Issue. National Nurses Association of Kenya; 2008.
ANGELINE DRAYWAK. "Aywak AA, Masesa JV.Comparison of sonography with venography in the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis.East Afr Med J. 2007 Jul;84(7):304-11.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 Jul;84(7):304-11.; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To compare the findings of venous sonography with contrast venography in the detection of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the lower limbs. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: The Kenyatta National Hospital, a teaching and referral hospital in Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Fifty five limbs in 44 patients with clinical suspicion of DVT were evaluated during the seven months study period (October 2002-April 2003). The ethics committee in the institution granted approval for the study and participants gave written informed consent. INTERVENTION: Venous sonography in which a three step protocol involving B-mode gray scale compression sonography, colour and colour Doppler sonography was obtained after contrast venography in patients with clinical suspicion of DVT. The ultrasound examination was done within 24 hours of the contrast venogram. RESULTS: The overall sensitivity of venous sonography was 88.9%, specificity 91.8% and accuracy 90.9%. Considering only DVT above the calf, the sensitivity improved to 100%. An alternative diagnosis was found by ultrasound in 48.6% of the negative for DVT cases. CONCLUSION: The accuracy of venous sonography as done locally is high and comparable to that in developed countries. We recommend that for patients with clinical suspicion of DVT, venous sonography be done as the initial imaging investigation and venography be reserved for those patients with equivocal or inadequate sonography results. PMID: 17886423 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE
Ang'u C, Muthama NJ, Kong'ani LNS. "Towards Replacing Kerosene with Bioethanol in Developing Countries: A Review.". In: Conference on the Status of African Women. University of Nairobi; 2019.
Ang'u C, Muthama NJ, Oludhe C, Chitedze I. "The role of diversity, reserve margin and system structure on retail electricity tariffs in Kenya." Heliyon. 2020;6(8):1-11.
Ang'u C, Muthama NJ, Mutai BK. "Aerosol Optical Depth Patterns Associated with Urbanization and Weather in Nairobi and Lamu." Journal of Meteorology and Related Sciences. 2015;8(3):26-40.
Ang'u C, Muthama NJ, Oludhe C, Kong'ani LNS. "Effects of civil conflicts on global oil prices and their impact on the energy sector." Journal of Sustainability, Environment and Peace. 2019;1(1):12-18.
Andrew B. "‘“Sitting on her Husband’s Back with Her Hands in His Pockets”: Trends in Judicial Decision-Making on Marital Property in Kenya’.". In: The International Survey of Family Law. Bristol: Jordan Publishing; 2002.
Andreieva IO, Konstantynovska O, Midulla F, Marangu D, Mchedlishvili N. "Summer schools of adult and paediatric respiratory medicine: course report." Breathe (Sheff). 2018;14(1):9-12. Abstract
Andreeva-Grigorovich AS, Waga DD. Paleocene-Eocene calcareous nannofossil biozonation of the Northern Precaucasus region. Tbilisi, Georgia; 2010.
Andreeva-Grigorovich AS, Berezovskiy AA, Waga DD. Nannoplankton and Mollusks from Eocene deposits from Krivoy Rog iron-ore deposit..; 2003.
Andreeva-Grigorovich AS, Waga DDO. "Calcareous nannofossils from the Paleogene deposits of the Northern Forecaucasus (Russia) and South-Eastern Part of Great Donbas (Ukraine)." International Journal of Algae. 2012;14(1. 80):93-106.
Andreeva-Grigorovich AS, Suprun IS, Waga DD. A comparison analysis of the Paleogene calcareous nannofossils from the Ukrainian Carpathians and Zeravshan region of Tajikistan.. Lviv, Ukraine: Institute of Geological Sciences of the NAS of Ukraine (IGS NAS of Ukraine); 2014.
Andreeva-Grigorovich AS, Waga DD. Nannofossil biostratigraphy of the Paleogene sediments of the Crimea-Caucasus region (southern Ukraine and Russia). Paris, France: French Congress on Stratigraphy; 2010.
Andreassen BA, Ndohvu JB,(Eds) TB. Poverty and Human Rights: East African Experiences. Nairobi: Focus Publishers ltd; 2017.
Andollo AA. Influence of Quality Management Systems on Service Provision in the University of Nairobi, Kenya. C.M. DR, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2011.
Andollo AA, M RC, F. M. "Influence of Quality Management Systems on Service Provision in the University of Nairobi, Kenya." African Journal of Business and Management (AJBUMA). 2013;VOL III, 2013 (ISBN: 978-9966-1570-3-4).
Andima M, Coghi P, Yang LJ, Wong VKW, Ngule CM, Heydenreich M, Ndakala AJ, Yenesew A, Derese S. "Antiproliferative Activity of Secondary Metabolites from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides Lam: In vitro and in silico Studies." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2020;10(1). AbstractPharmacognosy Communications

Description
Background: Plant derived compounds have provided proming leads in search for safer anticancer chemotherapies. Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides is a common medicinal plant in Uganda whose bioactive composition has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative potential of compounds isolated from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and their probable in silico anticancer mechanisms of action. Methods: Column chromatography was used to isolate compounds from MeOH: CH2Cl2 (1: 1) extract of the stem bark extract of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by NMR and MS analyses. MTT assay was used to measure cell viability. Using in silico docking, the interaction of the compounds with key target proteins in the p53 pathway was determined. Results: From the root bark of this plant five compounds were isolated, namely; dihydrochelerythrine (1), skimmianine (2), tridecan-2-one (3), sesamin (4) and hesperidin (5). Dihydrochelerythrine (1) inhibited proliferation of liver cancer (HCC) cells (IC50 21.2), breast cancer (BT549) cells,(IC50 21.2 μM). Similarly, sesamin (4) exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against BT549 cancer cells (IC50 47.6 μM). Hesperidin (5) showed low inhibitory activity against A549 and HEp2 (Larynx) cells but was significantly toxic to normal liver and lung cells.
In silico docking studies showed that all the compounds strongly bind to cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK2 and CDK6) and weakly bind to caspases 3 and 8 suggesting that they inhibit cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Conclusion: This study indicates …

Andima M, Ndakala A, Derese S, Biswajyoti S, Hussain A, Yang LJ, Akoth E, Coghi P, Pal C, Heydenreich M, Wong VK-W, Yenesew A. "Antileishmanial and Cytotoxic Activity of Secondary Metabolites from Taberneamontana ventricosa and Two Aloe Species." Natural Product Research. 2021.
Andima M, Costabile G, Isert L, Ndakala AJ, Derese S, Merkel OM. "Evaluation of β-Sitosterol loaded PLGA and PEG-PLA nanoparticles for effective treatment of breast cancer: Preparation, physicochemical characterization, and antitumor activity." Pharmaceutics. 2018;10(2):232. AbstractPharmaceutics

Description
β-Sitosterol (β-Sit) is a dietary phytosterol with demonstrated anticancer activity against a panel of cancers, but its poor solubility in water limits its bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy. In this study, poly (lactide-co-glycolic acid)(PLGA) and block copolymers of poly (ethylene glycol)-block-poly (lactic acid)(PEG-PLA) were used to encapsulate β-Sit into nanoparticles with the aim of enhancing its in vitro anticancer activity. β-Sitosterol-loaded PLGA and PEG-PLA nanoparticles (β-Sit-PLGA and β-Sit-PEG-PLA) were prepared by using a simple emulsion-solvent evaporation technique. The nanoparticles were characterized for size, particle size distribution, surface charge, and encapsulation efficiency. Their cellular uptake and antiproliferative activity was evaluated against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells using flow cytometry and MTT assays, respectively. β-Sit-PLGA and β-Sit-PEG-PLA nanoparticles were spherical in shape with average particle sizes of 215.0±29.7 and 240.6±23.3 nm, a zeta potential of− 13.8±1.61 and− 23.5±0.27 mV, respectively, and with narrow size distribution. The encapsulation efficiency of β-Sit was 62.89±4.66 and 51.83±19.72% in PLGA and PEG-PLA nanoparticles, respectively. In vitro release in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and PBS/with 0.2% Tween 20 showed an initial burst release, followed by a sustained release for 408 h. β-Sit-PLGA nanoparticles were generally stable in a protein-rich medium, whereas β-Sit-PEG-PLA nanoparticles showed a tendency to aggregate. Flow cytometry analysis (FACS) indicated that β-Sit-PLGA nanoparticles were efficiently taken up by the cells in contrast to β …

Andima M, Coghi P, Yang LJ, Wong VKW, Ngule CM, Heydenreich M, Ndakala AJ, Yenesew A, Derese S. "Antiproliferative Activity of Secondary Metabolites from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides Lam: In vitro and in silico Studies." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2020;10(1). AbstractPharmacognosy Communications

Description
Background: Plant derived compounds have provided proming leads in search for safer anticancer chemotherapies. Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides is a common medicinal plant in Uganda whose bioactive composition has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative potential of compounds isolated from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and their probable in silico anticancer mechanisms of action. Methods: Column chromatography was used to isolate compounds from MeOH: CH2Cl2 (1: 1) extract of the stem bark extract of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by NMR and MS analyses. MTT assay was used to measure cell viability. Using in silico docking, the interaction of the compounds with key target proteins in the p53 pathway was determined. Results: From the root bark of this plant five compounds were isolated, namely; dihydrochelerythrine (1), skimmianine (2), tridecan-2-one (3), sesamin (4) and hesperidin (5). Dihydrochelerythrine (1) inhibited proliferation of liver cancer (HCC) cells (IC50 21.2), breast cancer (BT549) cells,(IC50 21.2 μM). Similarly, sesamin (4) exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against BT549 cancer cells (IC50 47.6 μM). Hesperidin (5) showed low inhibitory activity against A549 and HEp2 (Larynx) cells but was significantly toxic to normal liver and lung cells.
In silico docking studies showed that all the compounds strongly bind to cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK2 and CDK6) and weakly bind to caspases 3 and 8 suggesting that they inhibit cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Conclusion: This study indicates …

Andima M, Ndakala A, Derese S, Biswajyoti S, Hussain A, Yang LJ, Akoth OE, Coghi P, Pal C, Heydenreich M, Wong VK-W, Yenesew A. "Antileishmanial and cytotoxic activity of secondary metabolites from Taberneamontana ventricosa and two aloe species." Natural Product Research. 2021:1-5. AbstractNatural Product Research

Description
In this study, the antileishmanial and cytotoxic activities of secondary metabolites isolated from Tabernaemontana ventricosa Hochst. ex A. DC., Aloe tororoana Reynolds, and Aloe schweinfurthii var. labworana Reynolds were investigated. Overall, nineteen known compounds were isolated from the three plant species. The compounds were characterized based on their spectroscopic data. Voacristine and aloenin were the most active compounds against promastigotes of antimony-sensitive Leishmania donovani (IC50 11 ± 5.2 μM and 26 ± 6.5 µM, respectively) with low toxicity against RAW264.7, murine monocyte/macrophage-like cells. The in silico docking evaluation and in vitro NO generation assay also substantially support the antileishmanial effects of these compounds. In a cytotoxicity assay against cancer and normal cell lines, ursolic acid highly inhibited proliferation of lung cancer cells, A549 …

ANDETO WANAMBISITHOMAS. TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECTS OF DIVORCE ON THE FAMILY AS A UNIT. NAIROBI: JKUAT; 2011. Abstract

The purpose of this research is to get to the knowledge of how divorce affects the family according to the Kenyan society. It looks at the family’s life, living habits and through this, point out a few highlights of how the family is affected by divorce.
The target population is the whole Kenyan society regardless of race, religion and sex.
The data gathered will be analyzed using tables, pie charts, graphs among others. The results from this study will provide an insight on divorce among Kenyans.

Andersson M, De Benoist B, Rogers L. "Epidemiology of iodine deficiency: salt iodisation and iodine status." Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2010;24:1-11. AbstractWebsite
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ANDERSON MRMIRITIEVANS, W DRGETAOKATHERINE. "Process For Building A Kiswahili Corpus From The World Wide Web.". In: Proceedings of the 1st Annual International Conference and Workshop on Sustainable ICT capacity in developing countries 2005. Makerere University, Kampala, pp 148-152. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 2005.
Anderson TR, Slotkin TA. "Maturation of the adrenal medulla--IV. Effects of morphine." Biochem. Pharmacol.. 1975;24(16):1469-74.
Anderson TR, Slotkin TA. "Maturation of the adrenal medulla--IV. Effects of morphine." Biochem. Pharmacol.. 1975;24(16):1469-74.
ANDERSON MRMIRITIEVANS, W DRGETAOKATHERINE. "Process For Building A Kiswahili Corpus From The World Wide Web.". In: Proceedings of the 1st Annual International Conference and Workshop on Sustainable ICT capacity in developing countries 2005. Makerere University, Kampala, pp 148-152. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005.
Andayi AW, Yenesew A, Derese S, Midiwo JO, Gitu PM, Jondiko OJI, Akala H, Liyala P. "Antiplasmodial Flavonoids from Erythrina sacleuxii.". 2006.Website
Andayi V, Migosi J. "Influence of Farmer Knowledge and Skills on Performance of Fish Farming in Kwanza Constituency, Trans-Nzoia County, Kenya." The International Journal of Business & Management. 2018;6(8):35-39.
Andayi AW, Yenesew A, Derese S, Midiwo JO, Gitu PM, Jondiko OJI, Akala H, Liyala P. "Antiplasmodial Flavonoids from Erythrina sacleuxii.". 2006.Website
Andanje M, Gitonga ER. "Leisure sports participation patterns of post – graduate students. The case of Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya." African Journal of Educational Research and development. 2009;4(2):111-117.
Andang’o HA, Ouma JO, Muthama NJ, Opere AO, Hezron A’o A. "Investigating the Homogeneity of Monthly Rainfall Records in Kenya." J. Meteorol. 2016;9:48-54. Abstractinvestigating_the_homogeneity_of_monthly_rainfall_records_in_kenya.pdfJ. Meteorol

Homogenization of climate data is of major importance because non-climatic factors make avail-able data unrepresentative of the actual climate variation, and thus the conclusions of climatic and hydrological studies are potentially biased. A great deal of effort has been made to develop proce-dures to identify and remove non-climatic in-homogeneities. This paper first reviews several widely used statistical techniques then applies statistical simulation approach to precipitation data from different monitoring stations located in Kenya (1950-2006).
Analyses were carried out on several rainfall series in the 12 climatic zones of Kenya. The results of both the Standard Normal Homogeneity Tests (SNHT) and the Buishand Range Test (BR) tests show that, at the 5% significance level, the monthly series have statistically significant trend.
Findings from the Standard Normal Homogeneity Test (SNHT) showed that all the monthly rain-fall records from the selected synoptic stations were useful and hence could be used for any further analysis. From the Buishand Range (BR) Test done, seven out of the twelve stations were useful while the rest of the stations were doubtful. From the results of the Tests performed it is clear that the Buishand Range (BR) Test was able to detect breaks at the beginning middle and the end of the series. This method was thus recommended for homogeneity testing.
Promising results from the case study open new research perspectives on the homogenization of the Kenyan climate data time series.

Andago A, Imungi J, Mwangi A, Lamuka P, Ruth Nduati. "Developemnt of a bovine blood enriched porridge flour for alleviation of anaemia among young children in Kenya." Food Science and Quality Management. 2015;39:73-83.
and KLW, Kibera F. " “Guidelines for Writing Academic Research Projects”. ." Fountain. Journal of Faculty of Education. 2011:117-129.
and AA, Bocquier P. "An Event History Analysis of Factors influencing entry into Parenthood in Nairobi." : African Population Studies . 2004;19(2):42-62. AbstractWebsite

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with and SH, Brouder A-M. " `Food Safety Requirements and Food Exports from Developing Countries: The Case of Fish Exports from Kenya to the European Union’ ." American Journal of Agricultural Economics. Submitted;82(5) Number 5, :1159-1169.
and AA, Odipo G. "Drivers of migration in East African Community.". In: the Regional meting of The Research Consortium Migration out of Poverty.; 2011.
and NNH, Gichuki NN. "Effects of plant structure on butterfly diversity in Mt. Marsabit Forest, northern Kenya." African Journal of Ecology. 2010;(48):304-312.
and AOTA, Odipo G. "The Issue of non-numeric Responses to Questions on Desired family Size." Population Association of Kenya, Occasional Publication . 2003;(3):21-32.
and GKN, Mochoge BO. "Nitrogen Mineralization Potential (No) in Three Kenyan Soils, Nitisols, Ferralsols and Luvisols." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;10(4).
and FJK, Anne.A. A. "The role of information communication and technology (ICT) on poverty reduction amongst the businesswomen in Marakwet west district, Kenya." Hekima biannual Journal of the College of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Nairobi. 2011.
and DMC,. JM. "Innovation Hubs and Small and Medium Enterprises in Africa: A Critical Review of Issues.". In: African Development Bank Annual Meeting. Revised version presented at the African Intern. Nairobi; 2011.
and CRM, Kinyamario JI. "Growth response of woody species to elephant foraging in Mwea National Reserve, Kenya." Afr. J. Ecol.. 2009;47:598-605.
Anathan J, Cunningham E, Foradori L, Stuart-Shor E, Sayeed S, Kerry V. "Cultivating the Next Generation of Health Care Providers in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Global Health Service Partnership–Update 2016." Annals of Global Health. 2017;83. Abstract
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Anastacia K, Ibrahim K. "Effect of Pupil-Teacher Ratio on Graduation Rate of Early Childhood Development and Education in Embu County Public Primary Schools, Kenya." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice. 2020;1(1):18-21.
Anangwe D, Saidi H, Ogeng'o J, Awori KO. "Anatomical variations of the carotid arteries in adult Kenyans.". 2008. AbstractWebsite

OBJECTIVE:
To describe the topography and anatomical variations of the carotid arteries among Kenyans.
DESIGN:
A descriptive cross-sectional study.
SETTING:
Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi.
SUBJECTS:
Eighty carotid arteries of forty cadavers were dissected.
RESULTS:
The bifurcation of the commonest carotid artery was high (above the reference points) in 63.8% of vessels and the external carotid was antero-lateral to the internal carotid artery in 30% of the vessels. A linguo-facial trunk was the most common variation of the external carotid artery. The origin of the right common carotid artery was high and low in 10% and 2.6% of vessels respectively.
CONCLUSION:
The carotid arteries show important variability and thus emphasise caution for clinicians during surgical procedures in the neck

Anangwe D, Saidi H, Ogeng'o J, Awori KO. "Anatomical variations of the carotid arteries in adult Kenyans." East Afr Med J. 2008;85(5):244-7. Abstract

To describe the topography and anatomical variations of the carotid arteries among Kenyans.

Ananga AA, Georgiev V, Ochieng JW, Phills B, Tsolova V. "Production of Anthocyanins in Grape Cell Cultures: A potential Source of Raw Material for Pharmaceutical, Food, and Cosmetic Industries.". In: The Mediterranean Genetic Code - Grapevine and Olive. INTECH; 2013.2013_anthocyanins_by_intech.pdf
Ananga AO, Cebert E, Soliman K, Kantety R, Konan K, Ochieng JW. "Phylogenetic relationships within and among Brassica species from RAPD Loci associated with blackleg resistance." Afr. Journal of Biotechnology . 2008;7(9):1287-1293.2008_ananga_et_al_ajb.pdf
Ananga A, Obuya J, Ochieng J, Tsolova V. "Grape seed nutraceuticals for disease prevention: current status and future prospects." Phenolic Compounds–Biological Activity. 2017:119-137.
Ananga AA, E CE, Ochieng JW, Kumar S, Kambiranda D, Vasanthaiah H, Tsolova V, Senwo Z, F KF, Anike FN. "Prospects for Transgenic and Molecular Breeding for Cold Tolerance in Canola (Brassica napus).". In: Oilseeds. INTECH; 2012.2012_oilseeds_by_intech_june_2012.pdf
Ananga A, Obuya J, Ochieng J, Tsolova V. "Grape seed nutraceuticals for disease prevention: current status and future prospects." Phenolic Compounds–Biological Activity. 2017:119-137.
An-Na'im A. "‘Are Local Norms and Practices Fences or Pathways? The Example of Women’s Property Rights’.". In: Cultural Transformation and Human Rights in Africa. London: Zed Books; 2002.
AN K, Mutembei HM, Tsuma VT, Oduma JA. "Effects of exposure to effluent contaminated river water on boar reproduction." Inter J Vet Sci. 2017;6(1):49-52.
AN P, PA M, KW O, J K, Omondi O. "Unilateral spontaneous tubal twin ectopic pregnancy: a rare occurrence." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2017;6:819-823.
AN K, Mutembei HM, Tsuma VT, Oduma JA. "Levels Of 17β Steroid and Alkylphenol Estrogenic Endocrine Disrupting compounds in Nairobi River." Journal of Physical Science and Environmental Studies. 2016;2(3):46-49.
AN S, A K, Benki-Nugent S, Chebet D GL, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, G J-S, Slyker JA, John-Stewart GC. "Caregivers’ report of HIV-associated oral manifestations among HIV-unexposed, exposed, and infected Kenyan children." Int J Paediatr Dent. 2020;2021;00:1-8.(2021;00:1-8.):2021;00:1-8.
AN K, Mutembei HM, Tsuma VT, Oduma JA. "Effects of Effluent Contaminated River Water on Testicular Histology of Mice." . Sch J Agric Vet Sci. 2016;3(6):411-415.
AN P, KW O, MI I, JA O'o. "SURGICAL ANATOMY OF THE PROFUNDA BRACHII ARTERY." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2012;1(1):20-23. Abstract

SURGICAL ANATOMY OF THE PROFUNDA BRACHII ARTERY Anne Pulei, Kevin Ongeti, Martin Inyimili, Julius Ogeng’o
Correspondence: Dr. Anne Naipanoi Pulei, Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. P.O. Box 30197 00100 Nairobi, Kenya. Email: anmunkush@yahoo.com
SUMMARY
Variations in the origin and termination of the profunda brachii artery (PBA) are rarely described in literature. Knowledge of this unusual anatomy is important during brachial artery catheterization and harvesting of lateral arm flaps. One hundred and forty four arms from 72 cadavers of black Kenyans were dissected and examined for the origin and termination of PBA at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The patterns of origin and termination of the PBA were observed and recorded. The PBA was present in all the cases. It arose from the brachial, axillary and a common stem with the superior ulnar collateral arteries in 96.9%, 1.4% and 1.7% of the cases respectively. It displayed duplication and early branching in 11.1% and 16.7% of the cases respectively. The high incidence of duplication and early branching makes it vulnerable to inadvertent injury during fractures of the humerus, brachial artery catheterization and may complicate lateral arm flaps. Preoperative angiographic evaluation is therefore recommended.
Key words: Profunda brachii arteries, variations.

Amzati GS, Djikeng A, Odongo DO, Nimpaye H, Sibeko KP, Muhigwa J-BB, Madder M, Kirschvink N, Marcotty T. "Genetic and antigenic variation of the bovine tick-borne pathogen Theileria parva in the Great Lakes region of Central Africa." Parasit Vectors. 2019;12(1):588. Abstract

Theileria parva causes East Coast fever (ECF), one of the most economically important tick-borne diseases of cattle in sub-Saharan Africa. A live immunisation approach using the infection and treatment method (ITM) provides a strong long-term strain-restricted immunity. However, it typically induces a tick-transmissible carrier state in cattle and may lead to spread of antigenically distinct parasites. Thus, understanding the genetic composition of T. parva is needed prior to the use of the ITM vaccine in new areas. This study examined the sequence diversity and the evolutionary and biogeographical dynamics of T. parva within the African Great Lakes region to better understand the epidemiology of ECF and to assure vaccine safety. Genetic analyses were performed using sequences of two antigen-coding genes, Tp1 and Tp2, generated among 119 T. parva samples collected from cattle in four agro-ecological zones of DRC and Burundi.

Amwoka EM, Ambuko JL, Jesang HM, Owino WO. "Effectiveness of Selected Cold Chain Management Practices to Extend Shelf Life of Mango Fruit." Advances in Agriculture. 2021;2021. Abstract
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Amuyunzu-Nyamongo, MK & Nyamongo IK. "Health seeking behaviour of mothers of under-five-year old children in the slum communities of Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Anthropology and Medicine Vol. 13(1): 25-40. Wiley Interscience; 2006. Abstract

Prompt and appropriate health seeking is critical in the management of childhood illnesses. This paper examines the health seeking behaviour in under-five child morbidity. It explores in detail actions taken by 28 mothers when their children become sick. Sixty-two in-depth interviews with mothers were conducted from four study communities. The mothers were identified from a demographic surveillance system. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. The study shows that mothers classify childhood illnesses into four main categories: (1) not serious—coughs, colds, diarrhoea; (2) serious but not life-threatening—malaria; (3) sudden and serious—pneumonia; and (4) chronic and therefore not requiring immediate action—malnutrition, tuberculosis, chronic coughs. This classification is reflected in the actions taken and time it takes to act. Shops are used as the first source of healthcare, and when the care moves out of the home, private health facilities are used more compared to public health facilities, while even fewer mothers consult traditional healers. Consequently we conclude that there is a need to train mothers to recognize potentially life-threatening conditions and to seek appropriate treatment promptly. Drug vendors should be involved in intervention programs because they reach many mothers at the critical time of health seeking.

Amuti TM, Butt F, Otieno BO, Ogeng'o JA. "The relation of the extracranial spinal accessory nerve to the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the internal jugular vein. Cranial Maxillofac Trauma Reconstruction." Craniomaxillofacial Trauma & Reconstruction. 2018;12(2):108-111. Abstract

The spinal accessory nerve (SAN) exhibits variant anatomy in its relation to the internal jugular vein (IJV) as well as the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM). These variations are important in locating the nerve during surgical neck procedures to avoid its inadvertent injury. These variations, however, are not conserved among different populations and data from the Kenyan setting are partly elucidated. This study, therefore, aims to determine the variant anatomical relationship of the SAN to the SCM and IJV in a select Kenyan population. Forty cadaveric necks were studied bilaterally during routine dissection and the data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Means and modes were calculated for the point of entry of the SAN into the posterior triangle of the neck as well as for its relation to the SCM. Side variations for both of these were analyzed using Student's t -test. Data relating the SAN to the IJV were represented in percentages and side variations were analyzed using the chi-square test. The SAN point of entry into the posterior triangle of the neck was 5.38 cm (3.501-8.008 cm) on the left side and 5.637 cm (3.504-9.173 cm) on the right side ( p  = 0.785) from the mastoid process. The nerve perforated the SCM in four cases (10%) on the left side and in eight cases (20%) on the right ( p  = 0.253). The SAN lay predominantly medial to the IJV on both sides of the neck, 87.5% on the left side of the neck versus 82.5% on the right ( p  = 0.831). In conclusion, the variant relation of the SAN to the IJV and SCM as observed in this setting is an important consideration during radical neck procedures and node biopsies.

Amugune BK, Thoiti GN, Mwangi JW, Omosa LK, Kibwage IO. "Antimicrobial Activity and Bioactive Constituents of Alectra sessiliflora (Vahl) Kuntze Methanol Extract." 3. 2013;16(1026-552X):61-68.alectra_sessiliflora.pdf
Amugune BK, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO. "Liquid chromatographic analysis of phenobarbitone, ethosuximide, phenytoin and carbamazepine on a polystyrene-divinyl benzene column." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. 2006;9(1):19-25.
Amugune BK, Verster GC. "Knowledge and attitude of postgraduate students in Kenya on ethics in mental health research. ." S Afr J Bioethics Law . 2016;9(2):65-68.
Amugune NO, B Anyango B, Mukiama TK. Arobacterium-mediated transformation of common bean.; 2011.
Amugune BK, Kibwage IO, Thoithi GN, Abuga KO, Ndwigah SN. Measuring drug prices in low and middle income countries. The Kenya Report:. Bellagio, Italy; 2001.
Amugune BK, Otieno-Omutoko L. "An African Perspective of Benefits in Social Science Research.". In: Social Science Research Ethics in Africa.Research Ethics Forum, vol 7. Nortjé N., Visagie R., Wessels J. (eds). Cham : Springer; 2019.
Amugune BK, Karimi PN, Bururia JM, Odhiambo PA, Museve GO. "Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Enterobacteriaceae collected from patients with wounds at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2009;12(2):42-45.
Amugune, N.O., Anyango B, Mukiama TK. "Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of common bean. ." African Crop Science Journal. 2011;19( 3):137-147.

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