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Atieno L, Owino W, Ateka EM, Ambuko J, others. "Effect of Surface Coatings on the Shelf life and Quality of Cassava." Journal of Food Research. 2018;7:46-60. Abstract
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Atieno R. "“Linkages, Access to Finance and the Performance of Small Scale Enterprises in Kenya”." United Nations University (UNU)/WIDER Research Paper. 2009;No. 2009/06.
Atieno R. "4. “Government Policy and Female Labour Force Participation in Kenya”.". In: International Association for Feminist Economics (IAFFE) annual conference. Boston, USA; 2009.
Atibu FS, Gichaga FJ. "Study of Red Clay Highway Embankments with Reference to Collapse and cracking." Kenya Journal of Sciences. . 1996;10 (2):41-83.
Ateto OP, Chepkonga DS. "Trade Union Officials' Perception of their Effectiveness in Industrial Dispute Resolution." International Journal of Research Publications. 2019;29(2):15.
Ateka EM, Kimenju JW. "Studies On The Interaction Between Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith) And Meloidogyne Spp. In Potato.". 2001. AbstractWebsite

A survey was undertaken to determine population density of Meloidogyne juveniles (J2) in 90 fields randomly selected from three potato-producing districts in Kenya namely Nyeri, Meru and Nyandarua. Mean nematode densities were highest (45) in samples collected from Nyeri and Nyandarua and lowest (31) in soil samples collected from Meru. The reaction of 15 potato cultivars to Meloidogyne incognita was determined under greenhouse conditions. Plants were inoculated with 6000 eggs and second-stage juveniles each. Highly significant (P=0.01) differences were observed between the cultivars. Galling index was highest (5.5) in cv. KP93739.26 and lowest (1.9) in cv. Nyayo. All cultivars supported nematode reproduction with the highest (5.0) egg mass index being recorded in cultivars KP93739.26, Kerr's Pink, Desiree CIP-800048, KP92633.26 and B53. No cultivar exhibited immunity. The relationship between infection by root-knot nematodes and severity of bacterial wilt in three potato cultivars with varying levels of resistance to bacterial wilt namely Asante CIP 381381.20 (susceptible), B53 (moderately susceptible), and Kenya Dhamana (resistant), was investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Bacterial wilt was more severe in plants infected with both pathogens as compared to plants infected with Ralstonia solanacearum alone.

Ateka EM, Mwang'ombe AW, Kimenju JW. "Reaction of potato c~lt!vars ,to ralston!~ solana cearumin Kenya.". 2001. Abstract

A survey of bactenal wilt (BW) incidence was carried out in three potato producing districts of Kenya, namely, Nyeri, Nyandarua, and Meru in 1997. The survey was carried out in 30 randomly selected farms in each district. Incidence of BW was highest (18.8%) in Nyeri district, intermediate (16.7%) in Meru and lowest (10.4%) in . Nyandarua. A significant and negative correlation (p=O.05; r = -0.34) between bacterial wilt incidence and altitude was observed. Fifteen potato cultivars, Nyayo, Desiree CIP-800048, Roslin Tana, Kerrs pinkLB-5, Golof (Dutch Robjin), B53, Tigoni CIP-381381.13, Rutuku CIP-720097, AsanteCIP-381381.20, Kenya DhamanaCIP- 800228, Mauritius Clone (89•016), .: KP93739.26, KP92633.26, and Cruza148 CIP-72011 were subsequently evaluated for their reaction to Ralstonia solanacearum in artificial and natural infections in the greenhouse and in the field. Although none of the cultivars appeared resistant, there were significant (p=0.05) differencesir bacterial wilt incidence and severity among the cultivars. Cultivars Kenya Dhamana, Mauritius and Cruza(Cllt- 720118) had low bacterial wilt severity and incidence and were rated tolerant, whereas the other cultivars were rated moderately susceptible or very susceptible.

Ateka EM;, Njeru RW, Kibaru AG;, Kimenju JW;, Barg E;, Gibson RW;, Veten HJ. "Farmers' knowledge and management of sweet potato virus disease in Kenya."; 2001.
ASWANI PROFMWANZIHELLENORONGA. ""The Role of Oral Literature in the Preservation of the Environment.". In: A KOLA publication. Elsevier; 2006.
ASWANI PROFMWANZIHELLENORONGA. "Integrated English: Pupil's Book I. Jomo Kenyatta Foundation.". In: University of Nairobi Press. Elsevier; 1985.
ASWANI PROFMWANZIHELLENORONGA. "Integrated English: Teachers Integrated English: Pupil's Book IV. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation.". In: University of Nairobi Press. Elsevier; 1988.
ASWANI PROFMWANZIHELLENORONGA. "Transition from the Standpoint of Oral Literature in East Africa in Transition. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press.". In: University of Nairobi Press. Elsevier; 2002.
ASWANI PROFMWANZIHELLENORONGA. "The Paradox of the Lowly. The Nairobi Journal of Literature Nairobi.". In: University of Nairobi Press. Elsevier; 2005.
ASWANI PROFMWANZIHELLENORONGA. "Socializing the Young in The Nairobi Journal of Literature. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press." Elsevier; 2006. Abstract
This chapter attempts to re-evaluate the history of the East African coast and the Comores between the seventh and eleventh centuries. This is being done with a view to correcting the false picture painted by historians and/or archaeologists of the colonial school of thought, who presented rather a history of foreign traders and colonizers credited with the civilization of the coast. The role of outsiders in the early history of the East African coast cannot be denied, but it is one thing to be part of a process of change and completely another to claim responsibility for the process. Recent research, however, is slowly but surely making it very clear that the history of the East African coast is the history of indigenous African populations and their interaction with the environment
ASWANI PROFMWANZIHELLENORONGA. "Integrated English: Teacher's Guide Book I. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation.". In: University of Nairobi Press. Elsevier; 1985.
ASWANI PROFMWANZIHELLENORONGA. "Integrated English: Syllabus for Forms I-IV. Nairobi: Kenya Institute of Education (KIE).". In: University of Nairobi Press. Elsevier; 1988.
ASWANI PROFMWANZIHELLENORONGA. "Let the Factory Close in Our Secret Lives. Nairobi: Phoenix Publishers.". In: University of Nairobi Press. Elsevier; 1996.
ASWANI PROFMWANZIHELLENORONGA. "Widowing and Remarriage. East Africa in Transition. Nairobi.". In: University of Nairobi Press. Elsevier; 2004.
ASWANI PROFMWANZIHELLENORONGA. "Integrated English: Pupil's Book II. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation.". In: University of Nairobi Press. Elsevier; 1987.
ASWANI PROFMWANZIHELLENORONGA. "Integrated English: Pupils Book III. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation.". In: University of Nairobi Press. Elsevier; 1987.
ASWANI PROFMWANZIHELLENORONGA. "Integrated English: Teachers Guide Book IV. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation.". In: University of Nairobi Press. Elsevier; 1989.
Astère Bararyenya, Bode A. Olukolu, Phinehas Tukamuhabwa, Wolfgang J. Grüneberg, Ekaya W, Jan Low, Mildred Ochwo-Ssemakula TOL. "Genome-wide association study identified candidate genes controlling continuous storage root formation and bulking in hexaploid sweetpotato." BMC Plant Biology . 2020;20(1):1-16.
Ast, G; Channa TPSTS;. "Urban housing & community development Course.". 1981.
Assey RJ, Balemba OB, Owiti GO, Wango EO. "Prenatal Ovarian Follicular Development In The Zebu (Bos Indicus).". 2003.
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Hazan L, Hernández Rodriguez OA, Bhorat A'adE, Miyazaki K, Tao B, Heyrman R, group(EM Wafula AESOPS. "A double-blind, dose-response study of the efficacy and safety of olmesartan medoxomil in children and adolescents with hypertension." Hypertension. 2010;55(6):1323-30. Abstract

The current study investigated the efficacy and safety of olmesartan medoxomil in children with hypertension, defined as systolic blood pressure measured at or above the 95th percentile (90th percentile for patients with diabetes, glomerular kidney disease, or family history of hypertension) for age, gender, and height while off any antihypertensive medication. The active treatment phase was conducted in 2 periods, with 2 cohorts in each period (cohort A, 62% white; cohort B, 100% Black). In period 1, patients stratified by weight received low-dose (2.5 or 5 mg) or high-dose (20 or 40 mg) olmesartan medoxomil daily for 3 weeks. In period 2, patients maintained their olmesartan medoxomil dose or initiated placebo washout for an additional 2 weeks. Period 1 efficacy results showed a dose-dependent, statistically significant reduction in seated trough systolic and diastolic blood pressure for both cohorts, with mean blood pressure reductions numerically smaller in cohort B than in cohort A. The olmesartan medoxomil dose response remained statistically significant when adjusted for body weight. In period 2, blood pressure control decreased in those patients switching to placebo, whereas patients continuing to receive olmesartan medoxomil therapy maintained consistent blood pressure reduction. Adverse events were generally mild and unrelated to study medication. Olmesartan medoxomil was safe and efficacious in children with hypertension, resulting in significant blood pressure reductions.

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Asingo PO. "Policy Salience and Voter Turnout: An Analysis of Contemporary US Presidential Elections." Baker Center Journal of Applied Public Policy . 2008;2(1(Fall)):52-67 .policy salience.pdf
Asingo PO. "Relative Deprivation, Protests and Voting in Kenya." Commonwealth and Comparative Politics . 2018;56(1):65-83.Relative Deprivation
Asingo, Patrick O, Mitullah, Winnie V. "Implementing Road Transport Safety Measures in Kenya: Policy Issues and Challenges." IDS Working Paper . 2007;No. 545.road safety policies.pdf
Asingo PO. "Balancing Political and Religious Allegiances: The Impact of Political Cross-pressures of Kenya's 2010 Constitutional Referendum." Hekima: Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences. 2014;VI(1):6-25.
Asingo, Patrick O. "The Institutional and Organizational Structure of Public Road Transport in Kenya." IPAR Discussion Paper. 2004;No. 050.
Asingo PO. "Privatization of Water Services in Kenyan Local Authorities: Governance and Policy Issues.". In: Decentralization and Devolution in Kenya: New Approaches. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2008.
Asingo PO. "Ethnicity and Political Inclusivity in Kenya: Retrospective Analysis and Prospective Solutions.". In: Ethnicity and Politicization in Kenya: The National Study. Nairobi: Kenya Human Rights Commission; 2018.Ethnicity and Politicization in Kenya
Asingo PO. "Party Strengths, Partisan Identities and Voter Mobilization in the Kenya Elections of 2013.". In: New Constitution, Same Old Challenges: Reflections on Kenya’s 2013 General Elections. Nairobi: SID; 2015.New Constititution, Same Old Challenges
Asingo PO. "The Political Economy of Transition in Kenya.". In: Politics of Transition in Kenya: From KANU to NARC. Nairobi: Heinrich Boll Foundation; 2003.Politics of Transition in Kenya
Asilla WJ. "The use of controlled electronic communication to enhance visibility and impact; a case of the University of Nairobi.". In: Association of Commonwealth Universities. Southern Sun, Elangeni, Durban South Africa; 2008.mr._asilla.pdf
Asiligwa BI, Omwenga EI. "A Roadmap for the Adoption of Government E-payments in Kenya." International Journal of computer Applications. 2016;144(1). AbstractFull Text Link

Analogous to the motorists’ roadmap that shows roads, directions and distances to a destination of a given region, A roadmap in this context is a detailed guideline that answers the “why-what-how" questions and lay out the required actions, the "to-do's." towards adoption of e-payments in the government of Kenya. For over a decade, the government of Kenya grappled with the idea of implementing a national payment gateway through which all payments for government services, levies, duties, and fines were to be electronically made. For a long period, industry players and policy makers in government had unsuccessfully developed varied strategies of achieving a cashless government payment system. These efforts failed to yield due to lack of a comprehensive roadmap that addressed pertinent issues that had to be dealt with for e-payments in government to be fully adopted. This research was done by conducting a survey study on the government of Kenya about the adoption of e-payments. A random sample of the research population was drawn from ICT and Finance employees of 262 state corporations, 19 Ministries, and 47 counties to which a questionnaire was administered to gain an understanding and information on why there had been low uptake of e-payments in the government of Kenya. The data collected was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively using descriptive statistical techniques. The results from these analyses have been used to propose a roadmap for the adoption of e-payments in the government of Kenya and any other similar setting.

Asiligwa BI, Omwenga EI. "A Roadmap for the Adoption of Government E-payments in Kenya." International Journal of Computer Applications. 2016;144(1):8-18. Abstractasiligwa-2016-ijca-910062.pdfJournal Website

Analogous to the Motorists roadmap that shows the roads, directions and distances to a destination of a given region [1]. A roadmap in this context is a detailed guideline that answers the “why-what-how" questions and lay out the required actions, the "to-do's." towards adoption of e-payments in the government of Kenya. For Over a decade, the government of Kenya grappled with the idea of implementing a national payment gateway through which all payments for government services, levies, duties, and fines were to be electronically made. For a long period industry players and policy makers in government had unsuccessfully developed varied strategies of achieving a cashless government payment system. These efforts have failed to yield due to lack of a comprehensive roadmap that addressed pertinent issues that had to be dealt with for e-payments in government to be fully adopted.
This research was done by conducting a survey study on the government of Kenya on the adoption of e-payments.
A random sample of the research population was drawn from ICT and Finance employees of 262 state corporations, 19 Ministries, and 47 counties to which a questionnaire was administered to gain an understanding and information on why there had been low uptake of e-payments in the government of Kenya. The data collected was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively using descriptive statistical techniques. The results from this analysis have been used to propose a roadmap for the adoption of e-payments in the government of Kenya and any other similar setting.

Asiema JK. "Gender Equity, Gender Equality and the Legal Process: The Kenyan Experience”." Journal of the University of Iowa College of Law, Volume 10, Number 2, Fall 2000. 2000.
ASIAGO DORCAH, GATHII ALICE, Ngesu LM, Gunga SO, Gakuru A, Kahigi C, Nyaga VK, Oundo MB, Kamoyo JM, ADEGBORO JS, others. "TEACHERS’PERCEPTIONS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL PRACTICES IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN LIMURU DISTRICT.". Submitted. Abstract
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Ashton N. "Neurological and humoral control of blood pressure." Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine. 2007;8:221-226. AbstractWebsite

Blood must be maintained under pressure to overcome the resistance offered by blood vessels, and thus ensure an adequate rate of flow to metabolizing tissues. If pressure is too low, the flow of blood cannot deliver sufficient oxygen; if it is too high, damage occurs to the blood vessels and organs. Hence, blood pressure is regulated around a ‘set point’. Pressure in the arterial system is regulated on a minute-to-minute basis by the autonomic nervous system and in the long term by a number of hormones that act on the kidney. High-pressure sensors (baroreceptors) are located in the carotid sinus and aortic arch, which monitor pressure generated by the beating heart. Afferent fibres of the ninth and tenth cranial nerves (glossopharyngeal and vagus, respectively) project into the cardiovascular control centre in the medulla oblongata. Parasympathetic vagal tone acts to slow heart rate and thus cardiac output, whereas sympathetic tone increases both force and rate of contraction, as well as stimulating vasoconstriction of blood vessels to increase resistance. Long-term regulation of blood pressure depends on the maintenance of blood volume. This is achieved by the combined actions of the renin–angiotensin system, aldosterone and vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone), which act on the kidney to promote retention of sodium and water. Blood volume is reduced by atrial natriuretic peptide, which causes diuresis and natriuresis. Together, the nervous and endocrine systems act to correct fluctuations in blood pressure and ensure that it is maintained at an appropriate level.

Asfaw A;, Dauro D;, Kimani PM. "Decentralized participatory bean breeding in southern Ethiopia."; 2006. Abstract

In order to utilize farmers' knowledge on the crop and the environment, and to fit the crop to the specific needs and uses of farmers' communities, a four cycle decentralized participatory bean breeding was conducted in two locations in Sidama zone of the southern Nations, Nationalities and People Region. Forty four farmers selectors representing the community evaluated and then selected bean lines on-stations, the initial diverse germplasm pool of 147 lines at first selection cycle. In the following three cropping seasons, the farmers evaluated their selected lines on their farms and retained promising lines at the end of each selection cycle according to their own selection criteria. Their selections were evaluated by neighboring non-selector farmers (farmer-evaluators) using selection criteria set by farmer selectors. Group selection by selector farmers was attempted at cycle-4 on all individually selected lines grown on communal plots. The farmers effectively evaluated and selected bean lines that gave increased yield on their farm and met their specific preferences among large number of advanced lines. The farmers retained more large seeded beans as compared to small and medium seeded beans indicating that there is a shift in preference to large seeded beans in the region from their previously well-acquainted small red seed type. Bean lines selected by farmer following decentralized individual selection were farmer-specific except certain lines selected in common by some farmers. This lack of common selection to all farmers implies farmers' diverse preference for bean germplasm. In the selection process the farmers used growth habit, plant height, pod load, pod length, pod clearance from the base, early maturity, seed color, seed size and seed yield as selection criteria to retain or reject the bean lines. Seed color and seed yield were their decision making criteria whereas the rest were descriptor criteria to select good cultivars. The selection process indicated that farmers were capable of making significant contribution in identification of cultivars acceptable to them within a relatively short period. Moreover, the result suggests that conducting decentralized participatory individual selection and then participatory group selection with all farmer-selectors on all individually selection lines grown on communal plot and evaluating the final selection with evaluator farmers (non-selectors) against their communal plot and evaluating the final selection with evaluator farmers (non-selectors) against their selection criteria can improve variety development and increase the chance of adoption of new varieties by other farmers in a community.

Asfaw A;, Kimani PM. "Estimation of genetic parameters for some quantitative traits in large seeded bean (Phaseolus vulgarisL.) lines by factorial analysis of generation means."; 2005. Abstract

Understanding the nature of gene action in the breeding materials is helpful for breeders in formulating breeding strategy. In order to understand the type of gene actions operating in the breeding materials, six generation means (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2) from two crosses among large seeded bean lines grown at Awassa 2002 were used to estimate the genetic effects of some quantitative traits. The result revealed that for seed yield (gm/plant), pods/plant and pod length additive genetic model was not sufficient to explain most of the genetic variation for the expression of these traits. Epistatic effects contributed to the inheritance of these traits in the two crosses used. For seeds/pod and plant height epistatic gene effect was present in one of the two crosses. The nature of epistasis operating in the inheritance of seed yield (gm/plant), pods/plant, pod length, and plant height is duplicate type whereas it is complimentary type for seeds/ pod. This indicates that particular allelic combinations at several loci determine the performance of these traits. Thus, population improvement and gamete selection breeding methods may help to improve these traits. Realized heterosis (over mid-parent) was observed for seed yield(gm/plant), pods/plant and plant height in one of the two crosses with no inbreeding effect in F2 indicating that the heterosis is largely caused by non-allelic interaction even though over dominance was also observed. Pods/plant could be an important trait for plant selection in segregating generations as it revealed a significant positive correlation and high direct effect with seed yield.

Aseto SA, Moronge JM. "‘Waste Management Practices in Higher Education Institutions: A Case Study of University of Nairobi, Kenya'." The International Journal of Development Dialogue. 2017;Volume 2(Issue No. 1):pp 54-67.
Aseta FB, Mwachaka PM, Odula PO, Malek A. "Histomorphological changes in the cornea of the rat following monocular eyelid closure." Anatomy, an international journal of experimental and clinical anatomy . 2016;10(2):87-93.cornea.pdf
Aseey AA, Mwabora JM. Poverty as a factor in determining Education achievement in Kenya: A case Study of Nyanza and Coast Provinces in Kenya. Lake Naivasha County Club, 28-30 September, 2011; 2012.
Aseey AA, Mwabora JM. "Poverty as a factor in determining Education achievement in Kenya." the Journal of the Institute of International Education, New York. 2013.
Ascroft J, Ruigu G. "Does Extension Create Poverty in Kenya." East African Journal . 1972;9(3).
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Ásbjörnsdóttir KH, Slyker JA, Maleche-Obimbo E, Dalton Wamalwa, Phelgona Otieno, Grace C. John-Stewart, Gichuhi CM, John-Stewart G. "Breastfeeding Is Associated with Decreased Risk of Hospitalization among HIV-Exposed, Uninfected Kenyan Infants." J Hum Lact. 2015. Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants are a growing population in sub-Saharan Africa, with higher morbidity and mortality than HIV-unexposed infants. HEU infants may experience increased morbidity due to breastfeeding avoidance.

Ásbjörnsdóttir KH, Slyker JA, Weiss NS, Mbori-Ngacha D, Maleche-Obimbo E, Dalton Wamalwa, John-Stewart G. "Breastfeeding is associated with decreased pneumonia incidence among HIV-exposed, uninfected Kenyan infants." AIDS. 2013;27(17):2809-15. Abstract

HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants have higher infectious disease morbidity and mortality than unexposed infants. We determined the incidence and risk factors for pneumonia, a leading cause of infant mortality worldwide, in a cohort of HEU infants. Identifying predictors of pneumonia among HEU infants may enable early identification of those at highest risk.

Ásbjörnsdóttir KH, Slyker JA, Maleche-Obimbo E, Dalton Wamalwa, Phelgona Otieno, Grace C. John-Stewart, Gichuhi CM, John-Stewart G. "Breastfeeding Is Associated with Decreased Risk of Hospitalization among HIV-Exposed, Uninfected Kenyan Infants." J Hum Lact. 2015. Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants are a growing population in sub-Saharan Africa, with higher morbidity and mortality than HIV-unexposed infants. HEU infants may experience increased morbidity due to breastfeeding avoidance.

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Asande LK, Indieka AS, Adero MO, Kiboi S, Amugune NO. "In vitro Regeneration of pigeon pea using leaf explants." African Crop Science Journal. 2016;24(2):191-201.
Asaava LL, Kitala PM, Gathura PB, Nanyingi MO, Muchemi G, Schelling E. "A survey of bovine cysticercosis/human taeniosis In Northern Turkana District, Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonosis that is mainly of socioeconomic ,H1(1 public health impor, ranee. A survey of this disease was.carried ou t in Northern Turkana District, Kenya to estimate the prevalence through both serology and meat inspection. to determine the prevalence or the adult tapeworm in the human definitive 11Ost, and to determine risk factors for cattle seropositivity. This information is of public health importance and will be of use inassessing economic losses due to downgrading, refrigeration or condemnation of infested carcasses. The study area was stratified into the three livestock grazing regions of Oropoi to the south, Lokichoggio--Mogilla centrally and Kibish in the north for the purposes of rhe serological and questionnaire (n = 53 herd owners) data. Five ada/wars (grazing units) were selected and 34, 63. 49, 75 and 571 cattle serum samples obtained from these. The slaughter slabs of Lokichoggio and Kakurna were visited and 188 serum samples were obtained from slaughter cattle and compared to results of meat inspection. Human stool samples were collected in each of the three grazing areas and 66, 97 and 78 samples were obtained. The seroprevalence of cysticercosis in cattle was estimated at 16.7% (95% CI 13-20,9%) using a secretory-excretory antigen detection ELISA. There was poor agreement between meat inspection and serology (I< = 0.025; P = 0.2797). The prevalence of taeniasis was estimated as 2.5% (95% CI 0.8-5.6%) by microscopy. A backwards elimination logistic regression analysis indicated that the grazing unit (Ada/war), the deworrning history of household members and the distance (>2km) of gl-azing fields from the homestead were significant expla-natory variables for cattle being found to be positive on serology. An intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0,07 (0.02-0.12); P < 0.0001 was calculated for bovine cysticercosis in this area

Asaava LL, Kitala PM, Nanyingi MO, Muchemi G, Schelling E. "A survey of bovine cysticercosis/human taeniosis In Northern Turkana District, Kenya.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonosis that is mainly of socioeconomic ,H1(1 public health impor, ranee. A survey of this disease was.carried ou t in Northern Turkana District, Kenya to estimate the prevalence through both serology and meat inspection. to determine the prevalence or the adult tapeworm in the human definitive 11Ost, and to determine risk factors for cattle seropositivity. This information is of public health importance and will be of use inassessing economic losses due to downgrading, refrigeration or condemnation of infested carcasses. The study area was stratified into the three livestock grazing regions of Oropoi to the south, Lokichoggio--Mogilla centrally and Kibish in the north for the purposes of rhe serological and questionnaire (n = 53 herd owners) data. Five ada/wars (grazing units) were selected and 34, 63. 49, 75 and 571 cattle serum samples obtained from these. The slaughter slabs of Lokichoggio and Kakurna were visited and 188 serum samples were obtained from slaughter cattle and compared to results of meat inspection. Human stool samples were collected in each of the three grazing areas and 66, 97 and 78 samples were obtained. The seroprevalence of cysticercosis in cattle was estimated at 16.7% (95% CI 13-20,9%) using a secretory-excretory antigen detection ELISA. There was poor agreement between meat inspection and serology (I< = 0.025; P = 0.2797). The prevalence of taeniasis was estimated as 2.5% (95% CI 0.8-5.6%) by microscopy. A backwards elimination logistic regression analysis indicated that the grazing unit (Ada/war), the deworrning history of household members and the distance (>2km) of gl-azing fields from the homestead were significant expla-natory variables for cattle being found to be positive on serology. An intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0,07 (0.02-0.12); P < 0.0001 was calculated for bovine cysticercosis in this area

Asaava LL, Kitala PM, Gathura PB, Nanyingi MO, Schelling E. "A survey of bovine cysticercosis/human taeniosis In Northern Turkana District, Kenya.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonosis that is mainly of socioeconomic ,H1(1 public health impor, ranee. A survey of this disease was.carried ou t in Northern Turkana District, Kenya to estimate the prevalence through both serology and meat inspection. to determine the prevalence or the adult tapeworm in the human definitive 11Ost, and to determine risk factors for cattle seropositivity. This information is of public health importance and will be of use inassessing economic losses due to downgrading, refrigeration or condemnation of infested carcasses. The study area was stratified into the three livestock grazing regions of Oropoi to the south, Lokichoggio--Mogilla centrally and Kibish in the north for the purposes of rhe serological and questionnaire (n = 53 herd owners) data. Five ada/wars (grazing units) were selected and 34, 63. 49, 75 and 571 cattle serum samples obtained from these. The slaughter slabs of Lokichoggio and Kakurna were visited and 188 serum samples were obtained from slaughter cattle and compared to results of meat inspection. Human stool samples were collected in each of the three grazing areas and 66, 97 and 78 samples were obtained. The seroprevalence of cysticercosis in cattle was estimated at 16.7% (95% CI 13-20,9%) using a secretory-excretory antigen detection ELISA. There was poor agreement between meat inspection and serology (I< = 0.025; P = 0.2797). The prevalence of taeniasis was estimated as 2.5% (95% CI 0.8-5.6%) by microscopy. A backwards elimination logistic regression analysis indicated that the grazing unit (Ada/war), the deworrning history of household members and the distance (>2km) of gl-azing fields from the homestead were significant expla-natory variables for cattle being found to be positive on serology. An intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0,07 (0.02-0.12); P < 0.0001 was calculated for bovine cysticercosis in this area

Asaala EO. "Genetically Modified Foods; a panacea or a health hazard to the food crisis in Africa." University of Nairobi Law Journal . 2005;2.
Arunga S, Wiafe G, Habtamu E, Onyango J, Gichuhi S, Leck A, Macleod D, Hu V, Burton M. "The impact of microbial keratitis on quality of life in Uganda." BMJ Open Ophthalmol. 2019;4(1):e000351. AbstractWebsite

Background: Microbial keratitis (MK) is a frequent cause of sight loss in sub-Saharan Africa. However, no studies have formally measured its impact on quality of life (QoL) in this context.
Methods: As part of a nested case-control design for risk factors of MK, we recruited patients presenting with MK at two eye units in Southern Uganda between December 2016 and March 2018 and unaffected individuals, individually matched for sex, age and location. QoL was measured using WHO Health-Related and Vision-Related QoL tools (at presentation and 3 months after start of treatment in cases). Mean QoL scores for both groups were compared. Factors associated with QoL among the cases were analysed in a linear regression model.
Results: 215 case-controls pairs were enrolled. The presentation QoL scores for the cases ranged from 20 to 65 points. The lowest QoL was visual symptom domain; mean 20.7 (95% CI 18.8 to 22.7) and the highest was psychosocial domain; mean 65.6 (95% CI 62.5 to 68.8). At 3 months, QoL scores for the patients ranged from 80 to 90 points while scores for the controls ranged from 90 to 100. The mean QoL scores of the cases were lower than controls across all domains. Determinants of QoL among the cases at 3 months included visual acuity at 3 months and history of eye loss.
Conclusion: MK severely reduces QoL in the acute phase. With treatment and healing, QoL subsequently improves. Despite this improvement, QoL of someone affected by MK (even with normal vision) remains lower than unaffected controls.

Arunga S, Kintoki GM, Gichuhi S, Onyango J, Ayebazibwe B, Newton R, Leck A, Macleod D, Hu VH, Burton MJ. "Risk Factors of Microbial Keratitis in Uganda: A Case Control Study." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2019:1-7. AbstractWebsite

Purpose: Microbial keratitis (MK), is a frequent cause of sight loss worldwide, particularly in low and middle-income countries. This study aimed to investigate the risk factors of MK in Uganda.
Methods: Using a nested case control, we recruited healthy community controls for patients presenting with MK at the two main eye units in Southern Uganda between December 2016 and March 2018. Controls were individually matched for age, gender and village of the cases on a 1:1 ratio. We collected information on demographics, occupation, HIV and Diabetes Mellitus status. In STATA version 14.1, multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to generate odds ratios for risk factors of MK and a likelihood ratio test used to assess statistical significance of associations.
Results: Two hundred and fifteen case-control pairs were enrolled. The HIV positive patients among the cases was 9% versus 1% among the controls, = .0003. Diabetes 7% among the cases versus 1.4% among the controls, = .012. Eye trauma was 29% versus 0% among the cases and controls. In the multivariable model adjusted for age, sex and village, HIV (OR 83.5, 95%CI 2.01-3456, = .020), Diabetes (OR 9.38, 95% CI 1.48-59.3, = .017) and a farming occupation (OR 2.60, 95%CI 1.21-5.57, = .014) were associated with MK. Compared to a low socio-economic status, a middle status was less likely to be associated with MK (OR 0.29, 95%CI 0.09-0.89, < .0001).
Conclusion: MK was associated with HIV, Diabetes, being poor and farming as the main occupation. More studies are needed to explore how these factors predispose to MK.

Arunga S, Kintoki GM, Mwesigye J, Ayebazibwe B, Onyango J, Bazira J, Newton R, Gichuhi S, Leck A, Macleod D, Hu VH, Burton MJ. "Epidemiology of Microbial Keratitis in Uganda: A Cohort Study." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2020;27(2):121-131. AbstractWebsite

: To describe the epidemiology of Microbial Keratitis (MK) in Uganda.: We prospectively recruited patients presenting with MK at two main eye units in Southern Uganda between December 2016 and March 2018. We collected information on clinical history and presentation, microbiology and 3-month outcomes. Poor vision was defined as vision < 6/60).: 313 individuals were enrolled. Median age was 47 years (range 18-96) and 174 (56%) were male. Median presentation time was 17 days from onset (IQR 8-32). Trauma was reported by 29% and use of Traditional Eye Medicine by 60%. Majority presented with severe infections (median infiltrate size 5.2 mm); 47% were blind in the affected eye (vision < 3/60). Microbiology was available from 270 cases: 62% were fungal, 7% mixed (bacterial and fungal), 7% bacterial and 24% no organism detected. At 3 months, 30% of the participants were blind in the affected eye, while 9% had lost their eye from the infection. Delayed presentation (overall = .007) and prior use of Traditional Eye Medicine (aOR 1.58 [95% CI 1.04-2.42], = .033) were responsible for poor presentation. Predictors of poor vision at 3 months were: baseline vision (aOR 2.98 [95%CI 2.12-4.19], < .0001), infiltrate size (aOR 1.19 [95%CI 1.03-1.36], < .020) and perforation at presentation (aOR 9.93 [95% CI 3.70-26.6], < .0001).: The most important outcome predictor was the state of the eye at presentation, facilitated by prior use of Traditional Eye Medicine and delayed presentation. In order to improve outcomes, we need effective early interventions.

Arunga, Nyenze. "Strengthening eye health research output in the region." JOECSA. 2020;24(1):1-3.
Arunga S, Kintoki GM, Gichuhi S, Onyango J, Newton R, Leck A, Macleod D, Hu VH, Burton MJ. "Delay Along the Care Seeking Journey of Patients with Microbial Keratitis in Uganda." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2019:1-10. AbstractWebsite

PURPOSE:To describe the care seeking journey and causes of delay among patients with Microbial Keratitis in Uganda.
METHODS:A prospective cohort of patients presenting with microbial keratitis at the two main eye units in Southern Uganda (2016-2018). We collected information on demographics, home address, clinical history, and presentation pathway including, order of facilities where patients went to seek care, treatment advice, cost of care, and use of Traditional Eye Medicine. Presentation time was noted. We compared "direct" presenters versus "indirect" presenters and analysed predictors of delay.
RESULTS: About 313 patients were enrolled. All were self-referred. Only 19% of the patients presented directly to the eye hospital. Majority (52%) visited one facility before presenting, 19% visited two facilities, 9% visited three facilities, and 2% visited four facilities. The cost of care increased with increase in the number of facilities visited. People in a large household, further distance from the eye hospital and those who used Traditional Eye Medicine were less likely to come directly to the eye hospital. Visiting another facility prior to the eye hospital and use of Traditional Eye Medicine aOR 1.58 (95%CI 1.03-2.43), p = .038 were associated with delayed presentation to the eye hospital.
CONCLUSION: This study provided information on patient journeys to seek care. Delay was largely attributable to having visited another health facility: a referral mechanism for microbial keratitis was non-existent. There is need to explore how these health system gaps can be strengthened.

Artinian NT, Fletcher GF, Mozaffarian D, Kris-Etherton P, Van Horn L, Lichtenstein AH, Kumanyika S, Kraus WE, Fleg JL, Redeker NS, others. "Interventions to promote physical activity and dietary lifestyle changes for cardiovascular risk factor reduction in adults: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association." Circulation. 2010;122:406-441. Abstract
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Arráez-Aybar L-A, Sánchez-Montesinos I, Mirapeix R-Mª, Mompeo-Corredera B, Sañudo-Tejero J-R. "Relevance of human anatomy in daily clinical practice." Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger. 2010;192:341-348. AbstractWebsite

Aim The aim of this study has been to evaluate the relevance of gross human anatomy in daily clinical practice and to compare it to that of other basic sciences (biochemistry, bioethics, cytohistology, microbiology, pharmacology, physiology, psychology). Materials and methods A total of 1250 questionnaires were distributed among 38 different medical speciality professionals. Answers were analyzed taking into account speciality (medical, surgery and others), professional status (training physician or staff member) and professional experience. Results The response rate was 42.9% (n = 536). Gross human anatomy was considered the most relevant basic discipline for surgical specialists, while pharmacology and physiology were most relevant for medical specialists. Knowledge of anatomy was also considered fundamental for understanding neurological or musculoskeletal disorders. In undergraduate programmes, the most important focuses in teaching anatomy were radiological, topographical and functional anatomy followed by systematic anatomy. In daily medical practice anatomy was considered basic for physical examination, symptom interpretation and interpretation of radiological images. When professional status or professional experience was considered, small variations were shown and there were no significant differences related to gender or community. Conclusion Our results underline the relevance of basic sciences (gross anatomy, physiology, and pharmacology) in daily professional activity. Evidence-based studies such as ours, lend greater credibility and objectivity to the role of gross anatomy in the undergraduate training of health professionals and should help to establish a more appropriate curriculum for future professionals.

Arora, A; Sharma MP; AKS, Seth S;, Sharma MP;, Sharma MP;, Acharya KS. "Hepatic coma as a presenting feature of constrictive pericarditis.". 1993.
Arne B, Kimuyu P, Lundvall K. "What to do with Informal Sector." Development Policy Review. 2004;22(6):701-715.
Armah FA, Henneh IT, Amponsah IK, Biney RP, F M, J A, W A, Ahmed MA, Adokoh CK, Adukpo G, O AD, Gathumbi PK. "Antidepressant and Anxiolytic Effects and Subchronic Toxicity of the Aerial Parts of Psychotria ankasensis J.B.Hall (Rubiaceae) in Murine Models." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International. 2021;Volume 2021, Article ID 5543320, 18 pages.armah_et_al_2021.pdf
Ari̇foğlu Y, Gezen F, Gönül C, Sevi̇nç Ö, İş M. "The {Case} of {Unilateral} {Double} {Superior} {Cerebellar} {Artery}." Duzce Tip Facultesi Dergisi. 2002;4:26-27. Abstract

The superior cerebellar artery is the most constant artery arising from the vertebrobasilar system. Its variation is reported very rarely. In this cadaver study, a fifty-five years old man having duplication of superior cerebellar artery is presented. This report describes its duplication, as one of its anomalies. Additionally, the anatomy and relationship of superior cerebellar artery with various structures are given.

Arimura H. "Correlation between molecular size and interferon- inducing activity of poly I:C." Acta Virol.. 1975;19(6):457-66. Abstract

Electron microscopy showed that commerical poly I: C consisted of molecules varying in length from less than 0.05 nm to more than 5 nm and also in morphology . To clarify the relationship between its molecular size and interferon-inducing activity, poly I: C was sonicated or fractionated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and the molecular length distribution and interferon-inducing activity of each preparation was determined in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that (1) poly I : C molecules 0.1-0.3 nm long were the most effective for interferon induction; (2) sonication of poly I : C reduced its molecular length and also the interferon-inducing activity, the degree of reduction varying in different fractions; and (3) the interferon-inducing activity of poly I: C of 0.1-0.3 nm obtained by sucrose density gradient centrifugation was higher than that poly I: C of corresponding length prepared by sonication.

Arimi SM, Koroti E, Kangethe EK;, Omore AO;, McDermott JJ. "Risk of infection with Brucella abortus and Escherichia coli 0157:H7 associated with marketing of unpasteurized milk in Kenya.". 2005. Abstract

As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in central Kenya and screened for antibodies to Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli) OI57:H7. The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterisation, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTl) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (Pf.R) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins. The prevalence of antibodies to B. abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTl. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus greatly reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.

Arimi SM;, Koroti E;, Kang'ethe EK;, Omore AO;, McDermott JJ;, Macharia JK;, Nduhiu JG;, Githua AM. "Risk of infection from E. coli O157: H7 through informally marketed raw milk in Kenya."; 2000. Abstract

E. coli 0157:H7 is a newly recognised bacterial zoonosis that originates from the gut of infected cattle. It causes potentially fatal haemorrhagic enteritis, haemolytic uraemic syndrome and kidney damage in humans. Epidemiological data on E. coli 0157:H7 infection and transmission in developing countries remain scarce but it is suspected that consumption of unpasteurised milk is an important vehicle for its transmission to humans, as milk can easily be contaminated with cattle faeces during milking. Given the high proportion of informal sales of unpasteurized milk in many tropical countries, E. coli 0157:H7 has been one of several zoonoses of concern. Between January 1999 and January 2000, survey data and raw milk samples were collected seasonally from households consuming unpasteurised milk in rural and urban locations in central Kenya. Respondents were randomly selected within production system (extensive and intensive) and human population density (urban, peri-urban and rural) strata. Laboratory samples were assessed for bacteriological quality by total and coliform counts. Selective media were used sequentially to screen for faecal coliforms and E. coli 0157:H7. Suspect E. coli 0157:H7 colonies were also serotyped and tested for production of verocytotoxins. E. coli was recovered from 91 out of 264 samples (34%) and E. coli 0157:H7 serotype identified in two samples (<1%). One of the two isolates produced verocytotoxins. As in many studies, the recovery rate of this serotype was low, but the finding is significant from a public health perspective. Our consumer studies have shown that over 95% of consumers of unpasteurised milk boil the milk before consumption and potential health risks from this zoonosis are therefore quite low. As informal milk markets without pasteurisation technology are likely to remain dominant for the foreseeable future, there is the need to further emphasise the importance of boiling raw milk before consumption, especially among pastoral communities where this practice is not common.

ARIMI PROFMUTWIRIS, KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "Isolation and characterization of group B streptococci from human and bovine sources within and around Nairobi.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1997. Abstract
Group B streptococci (GBS) were isolated from bovine bulk milk and from vaginas and throats of antenatal and postnatal women using TKT and rapid GBS media. Sixty three of 529 (12%) bovine milk samples, 9 of 48 (19%) vaginal and 3 of 48 (6%) throrat samples were positive. Both bovine and human beta hemolytic isolates were characterized biochemically and serologically. Pigment production was characteristic of both human and bovine beta haemolytic isolates. The majority (88%) of human isolates fermented salicin and not lactose and most bovine isolates were either lactose positive/salicin positive (41%) or lactose positive/salicin negative (38%). Human and bovine isolates were 100% and 85% typable respectively. Serotype distribution was similar in the bovine and human populations with serotype Ia, Ic and III being most common in both. Fermentation of sugars showed major differences between bovine and human isolates but similarity in serotype distribution suggests some genetic relationship.
Arimi SM;, Koroti E;, Kang'ethe EK;, Omore AO;, McDermott JJ;, Macharia JK;, Nduhiu JG;, Githua AM. " Arimi, S.M; Koroti, E; Kang'ethe, E.K; Omore, A.O; McDermott, J.J; Macharia, J.K; Nduhiu, J.G; Githua, A.M ."; 2000. Abstract

E. coli 0157:H7 is a newly recognised bacterial zoonosis that originates from the gut of infected cattle. It causes potentially fatal haemorrhagic enteritis, haemolytic uraemic syndrome and kidney damage in humans. Epidemiological data on E. coli 0157:H7 infection and transmission in developing countries remain scarce but it is suspected that consumption of unpasteurised milk is an important vehicle for its transmission to humans, as milk can easily be contaminated with cattle faeces during milking. Given the high proportion of informal sales of unpasteurized milk in many tropical countries, E. coli 0157:H7 has been one of several zoonoses of concern. Between January 1999 and January 2000, survey data and raw milk samples were collected seasonally from households consuming unpasteurised milk in rural and urban locations in central Kenya. Respondents were randomly selected within production system (extensive and intensive) and human population density (urban, peri-urban and rural) strata. Laboratory samples were assessed for bacteriological quality by total and coliform counts. Selective media were used sequentially to screen for faecal coliforms and E. coli 0157:H7. Suspect E. coli 0157:H7 colonies were also serotyped and tested for production of verocytotoxins. E. coli was recovered from 91 out of 264 samples (34%) and E. coli 0157:H7 serotype identified in two samples (<1%). One of the two isolates produced verocytotoxins. As in many studies, the recovery rate of this serotype was low, but the finding is significant from a public health perspective. Our consumer studies have shown that over 95% of consumers of unpasteurised milk boil the milk before consumption and potential health risks from this zoonosis are therefore quite low. As informal milk markets without pasteurisation technology are likely to remain dominant for the foreseeable future, there is the need to further emphasise the importance of boiling raw milk before consumption, especially among pastoral communities where this practice is not common

ARIMI PROFMUTWIRIS, BAARO DRGATHURAPETER. "Study of brucellosis in pastoral community and evaluation of the usefulness of clinical signs and symptoms in differentiating it from other flu-like diseases.". In: journal. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2000. Abstract
A study of differentials causing flu-like symptoms (malaria, typhoid, streptococcal infections and rheumatoid arthritis) in 488 patients from a pastoralist area is presented. The potential usefulness of clinical signs, symptoms and diagnostic tests in ruling-in or ruling-out these diseases was investigated in the District hospital and three outlying health dispensaries. For each patient a detailed clinical history plus diagnostic tests for brucellosis, typhoid, streptococcal infections and rheumatoid arthritis, and for some patients, malaria were conducted. Incidence levels of these diseases were estimated using laboratory test results; brucellosis, 13%: typhoid, 40%: streptococcal infections, 6%: malaria, 9%: and rheumatoid arthritis, 10%. Brucellosis could not be differentiated clinically from the other flu-like diseases but rheumatoid arthritis could.
ARIMI PROFMUTWIRIS, NYARONGI PROFOMBUIJ. "Raw milk as a source of Staphylococcal enterotoxins in consumer milk.". In: journal. University of Nairobi Press; 1992. Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from 183 of 300 raw milk samples collected at the Kenya Cooperative Creamery (Dandora). Ninety seven percent of the 183 strains isolated  were assayed for the production of enterotoxin A, B, C and D. Seventy two (74.2 %) of these were found to produce either a single or a combination of enterotoxins. Raw milk is a potential source of enterotoxigenic S. aureus in milk and milk products especially if there is defective pasteurization.
ARIMI PROFMUTWIRIS, A MRKABURIAHF. "A longitudinal study of milk somatic cell counts and bacterial culture from cows on smallholder dairy farms in Kiambu District, Kenya.". In: journal. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1996. Abstract
As part of an integrated study on health and production of dairy cattle on smallholder farms in central Average milk yield was low (5.8 kg/day; median = 5kg/day) and lactation length was long (20 months). Clinical mastitis risk was low (1% per month). Somatic cell counts (SCC) were high (median = 620 x 103); the previously suggested threshold of 300 000 cells/ml would classify 71% of quarters as positive for subclinical mastitis. Bacteria were commonly isolated, with S. aureus as the most common pathogen isolated (22.1% of all samples). Infections with mastitis pathogens, cow-age and milk yield were associated with increases in SCC. However, S. aureus was the only mastitis pathogen associated with decreased milk yield. Few specific mastitis control measures were applied. The only farm-level variable associated with high SCC was the method of drying off. Gradual drying off decreased SCC.
Arimi SM;, Koroti E;, Kang'ethe EK;, Omore AO;, McDermott JJ;, Macharia JK;, Nduhiu JG;, Githua AM. "Risk of infection from E. coli O157: H7 through informally marketed raw milk in Kenya."; 2000. Abstract

E. coli 0157:H7 is a newly recognised bacterial zoonosis that originates from the gut of infected cattle. It causes potentially fatal haemorrhagic enteritis, haemolytic uraemic syndrome and kidney damage in humans. Epidemiological data on E. coli 0157:H7 infection and transmission in developing countries remain scarce but it is suspected that consumption of unpasteurised milk is an important vehicle for its transmission to humans, as milk can easily be contaminated with cattle faeces during milking. Given the high proportion of informal sales of unpasteurized milk in many tropical countries, E. coli 0157:H7 has been one of several zoonoses of concern. Between January 1999 and January 2000, survey data and raw milk samples were collected seasonally from households consuming unpasteurised milk in rural and urban locations in central Kenya. Respondents were randomly selected within production system (extensive and intensive) and human population density (urban, peri-urban and rural) strata. Laboratory samples were assessed for bacteriological quality by total and coliform counts. Selective media were used sequentially to screen for faecal coliforms and E. coli 0157:H7. Suspect E. coli 0157:H7 colonies were also serotyped and tested for production of verocytotoxins. E. coli was recovered from 91 out of 264 samples (34%) and E. coli 0157:H7 serotype identified in two samples (<1%). One of the two isolates produced verocytotoxins. As in many studies, the recovery rate of this serotype was low, but the finding is significant from a public health perspective. Our consumer studies have shown that over 95% of consumers of unpasteurised milk boil the milk before consumption and potential health risks from this zoonosis are therefore quite low. As informal milk markets without pasteurisation technology are likely to remain dominant for the foreseeable future, there is the need to further emphasise the importance of boiling raw milk before consumption, especially among pastoral communities where this practice is not common.

Arimi SM, Fricker CR, Park RWA. "Study of haemolytic activity of some Campylobacter spp. on blood agar plates.". 1990. Abstract

A total of 152 strains of Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, C. laridis and C. fetus subsp. fetus were tested for haemolysis on blood agar plates. Distinct haemolysis was detected in 92.% (96/104) of strains of C. jejuni and 21.7% (5/23) of strains of C. coli on sheep blood heart infusion agar after incubation for 4 d microacrobically at 42°C. Haemolysis was also detected on horse blood heart infusion agar. Haemolysis was not detected at 37°C except with one of 50 strains of C. jejuni tested at this temperature, which was weakly positive. Campylobacter laridis was not haemolytic; C. fetus subsp. fetus, which does not grow at 42°C, showed no haemolysis at 37°C. Blood agar (Oxoid, BA Base No. 2) was not suitable for testing for haemolysis by these organisms. A microaerobic gas mixture containing hydrogen is better than that containing nitrogen because the medium has a brighter colour, making haemolysis casier to detect. There was no synergistic haemolysis with Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus agalactiae. The plate haemolysis test as described here may aid differentiation within the thermophilic campylobacters

ARIMI PROFMUTWIRIS, BAARO DRGATHURAPETER. "Assessment of the Rose-Bengal plate test for the diagnosis of human brucellosis in health facilities in Narok District, Kenya.". In: journal. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1998. Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.
Arimi SM;, Koroti E;, Kang'ethe EK;, Omore AO;, McDermott JJ;, Macharia JK;, Nduhiu JG;, Githua AM. "Risk of infection from E. coli O157: H7 through informally marketed raw milk in Kenya."; 2000. Abstract

E. coli 0157:H7 is a newly recognised bacterial zoonosis that originates from the gut of infected cattle. It causes potentially fatal haemorrhagic enteritis, haemolytic uraemic syndrome and kidney damage in humans. Epidemiological data on E. coli 0157:H7 infection and transmission in developing countries remain scarce but it is suspected that consumption of unpasteurised milk is an important vehicle for its transmission to humans, as milk can easily be contaminated with cattle faeces during milking. Given the high proportion of informal sales of unpasteurized milk in many tropical countries, E. coli 0157:H7 has been one of several zoonoses of concern. Between January 1999 and January 2000, survey data and raw milk samples were collected seasonally from households consuming unpasteurised milk in rural and urban locations in central Kenya. Respondents were randomly selected within production system (extensive and intensive) and human population density (urban, peri-urban and rural) strata. Laboratory samples were assessed for bacteriological quality by total and coliform counts. Selective media were used sequentially to screen for faecal coliforms and E. coli 0157:H7. Suspect E. coli 0157:H7 colonies were also serotyped and tested for production of verocytotoxins. E. coli was recovered from 91 out of 264 samples (34%) and E. coli 0157:H7 serotype identified in two samples (<1%). One of the two isolates produced verocytotoxins. As in many studies, the recovery rate of this serotype was low, but the finding is significant from a public health perspective. Our consumer studies have shown that over 95% of consumers of unpasteurised milk boil the milk before consumption and potential health risks from this zoonosis are therefore quite low. As informal milk markets without pasteurisation technology are likely to remain dominant for the foreseeable future, there is the need to further emphasise the importance of boiling raw milk before consumption, especially among pastoral communities where this practice is not common.

Ariga ES, Narla R, Amuyunzu P. "Efficacy of herbicide (nicosulfuron) in the control of weeds in maize (Zea mays L).)." E. Afr. agric. For. J.. 2014; 80(3):127-133.
Ariga ES;, Ransom JK;, Odhiambo GD;, Abayo G;, Ndungu DK. "Potential of using cotton and other trap crops for Striga hermonthica management in cereals in Kenya."; 1997.
Ariga E. "Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of some weeds on germination, root and shoot growth of selected crops.". In: 16th Biennial Weed Science Society Conference for Eastern Africa. Kampala, Uganda; 1997.
Ariga ES, Okeyo AM, Waithaka MM, Kyalo AM. "Agricultural technology, economic viability and poverty alleviation in Kenya.". 1999. AbstractWebsite

The major challenges facing Kenya today are poverty and unemployment. About 50% of the rural population and 30% of the urban population live below the poverty line. With 80% of the population being rural the poverty problem is overwhelming. The country has been unable to generate adequate employment and wage employment has been declining over the recent past. While in the 1970s the growth rate of employment was about 4% per annum, in the current decade, the growth rate has been about 1.9% per annum, which is below the population growth rate estimated at about 3%. The country has also witnessed declining growth in income per capita. While in the 1960s per capita income grew at 2.6% p.a. this declined to 0.4% in 1980s. Between 1990 and 95 the decline was even more dramatic at negative 0.3% (Kenya, 1997). The poverty line is defined here as the value of consumption of food and non-food items below which individuals cannot afford the recommended energy intake plus a minimum allowance for non-food consumption. The poverty line has been estimated at about US$ 200 and 300 for rural and urban areas respectively (GoK, 1998). This translates to less than one US$ per day. Of Kenya’s total land area of 57.6 million hectares, 9.4 million or about 16% is classified as high and medium potential land for agriculture. The remaining area estimated at 84% makes up the arid and semi arid lands (ASALs). Out of the ASALs 48 million hectares, about 9 million hectares can support crop production, 15 million hectares is adequate for livestock production while the rest is dry and only useful for nomadic pastoralism. The ASAL supports about 20% of the population, 50% of livestock and 3% of current agricultural output and 7% of commercial output. ASALs have low natural fertility which are prone to compaction and vulnerable to erosion. The agriculture sector dominates the economy and contributes virtually to all the stated national goals including achievement of national and household food security, industrialization by year 2020 as well as provision of employment opportunities. Currently, agriculture accounts for about one-third of the gross domestic product, employs more than two-thirds of the labour force, accounts for almost 70% of the export earnings (excluding refined petroleum), generates the bulk of the country's food requirements and provides significant proportion of raw materials for the agricultural based industrial sector. Overall, the smallholder sub-sector contributes about 75% of the total value of agricultural output, 55% of the marketed agricultural output and provides just over 85% of the total employment in agriculture. The sector’s ability to contribute effectively to the national goals hinges on identifying and implementing measures which promote high and sustainable growth rate. Mellor (1990) asserted that agricultural productivity growth is normally the major source of sustained improvements in rural welfare. Three sources of agricultural growth can be identified in Kenya. One is the expansion of cultivated area. The second is substitution or switching towards higher valued commodities. The third is intensification. The first source of agricultural growth is currently extremely limited. The cultivable land available to open up has diminished over the years with rapidly rising population estimated at about 3% per annum to the extent that the land holdings are becoming sub-optimal economic units and there is ever increasing temptation to migrate to the marginal and fragile zone. Moreover, irrigation development which could help in increasing cultivable land has been very slow due to the seemingly high cost associated with it. Commodity substitution will contribute significantly to growth only if the input and output markets function in a way to allow the producers and the private sectors respond appropriately to the market signals. This is expected to occur if the on-going structural adjustment programmes succeed in limiting government intervention to its core functions (of public good nature) and allowing the private sector to take up the production, marketing and distribution role. Most agricultural growth will therefore come from the third source: increased output per unit land area. The realization of this growth potential will hinge on shifting rapidly from resource based to science and knowledge-based agriculture. The objective of this paper is to The sector’s ability to contribute effectively to the national goals hinges on identifying and implementing measures which promote high and sustainable growth rate. Mellor (1990) asserted that agricultural productivity growth is normally the major source of sustained improvements in rural welfare. Three sources of agricultural growth can be identified in Kenya. One is the expansion of cultivated area. The second is substitution or switching towards higher valued commodities. The third is intensification. The first source of agricultural growth is currently extremely limited. The cultivable land available to open up has diminished over the years with rapidly rising population estimated at about 3% per annum to the extent that the land holdings are becoming sub-optimal economic units and there is ever increasing temptation to migrate to the marginal and fragile zone. Moreover, irrigation development which could help in increasing cultivable land has been very slow due to the seemingly high cost associated with it. Commodity substitution will contribute significantly to growth only if the input and output markets function in a way to allow the producers and the private sectors respond appropriately to the market signals. This is expected to occur if the on-going structural adjustment programmes succeed in limiting government intervention to its core functions (of public good nature) and allowing the private sector to take up the production, marketing and distribution role. Most agricultural growth will therefore come from the third source: increased output per unit land area. The realization of this growth potential will hinge on shifting rapidly from resource based to science and knowledge-based agriculture. The objective of this paper is to

Arias M, Kitala P, Baboon K, Lekolol I, Okoth E, Bulimo DW, Gallardo C, Pelayo V, Macharia JM, Omore A, et al. "Comparison of African swine fever virus prevalence and risk in two contrasting pig-farming systems in South-west and Central Kenya." Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2013;110:198-205. AbstractWebsite
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warming and the emergence of ancient pathogens in arctic GC’s. "Oyugi JO, Hongyu Qiu and David Safronetz." Medical Hypotheses . 2007.
the of Architecture PAS. "Positioning the African School of Architecture.". In: African Architecture Conference . Kumasi, Ghana; 2010.
Archary D, Seaton KE, Passmore JAS, L Werner, A Deal, Dunphy LJ, Arnold KB, NL Yates, Lauffenburger DA, P Bergin, Liebenberg LJ, Samsunder N, Mureithi MW, M Altfeld, Garrett N, Karim AQ, S Abdool Karim, L Morris, Tomaras GD. "Distinct genital tract HIV-specific antibody profiles associated with tenofovir gel." Mucosal immunology. 2016.
Arasio RL, Kaufman B, Otieno DJ, Wasonga OV. "Understanding the emergence and evolution of pastoral community groups from the perspective of community members and external development actors in northern Kenya. ." Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics (JARTS). 2018;119(2)(ISSN 2363-6033):53-66.
Arasio RL, Kaufmann B, Otieno DJ, Wasonga OV. "Understanding the emergence and evolution of pastoral community groups from the perspective of community members and external development actors in northern Kenya." Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics. 2018;Vol. 119(No. 2).
Arasa R. M., Aosa E, V.N. M. "Participatory Orientation to Strategic Planning Process: Does It Pay?". Business Administration and Management Journal, Vol. 1(10), pp. 319-327; 2011. Abstract
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Arasa, J.N., Mulinge MM, Odiemo LO. "African Refugee Students’ Conceptions of Democracy: Implications for Conflict mitigation. ." African Renaissance. 2012;9(3-4):15-34.
ARAP MRKENDUIWOJOHNK. "An Application of The Transportation Model: The case of Inter-factory Transfer of Bulk Whole Milk at The Kenya co-operative Creameries (KCC) Limited (MBA Research project paper of the University of Nairobi).". In: E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27. Folio Morphol; Submitted. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
ARAP MRKENDUIWOJOHNK. "" Computerization and the efficiency of the Nairobi stock exchange", a conference paper in Social Implications of Computers in Developing Countries (1993), published by Vedams Books International.". In: E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27. Folio Morphol; 1993. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
ARAP MRKENDUIWOJOHNK. "The Physical Ditribution Problems: The Need and th Application of Linear Programming Techniques (An M.B.A. Independent Paper of the University of Nairobi,.". In: E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27. Folio Morphol; Submitted. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
ARAP MRKENDUIWOJOHNK. ""Manufacturing strategy for enhanced competitiveness", a conference paper presented at the 8th Annual Management Conference (2001), organized by the Makerere University Business School.". In: E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27. Folio Morphol; 1998. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
ARAP MRKENDUIWOJOHNK. "International Conference on Social Implications of Computers in Developing Countries, Nairobi, Kenya, Presented a paper.". In: E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27. Folio Morphol; Submitted. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
ARAP MRKENDUIWOJOHNK. "Realizing competitiveness through Operations Management (currently under preparation).". In: E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27. Folio Morphol; 1998. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
Aranga M. Factors affecting the performance of marketing communication tools: a case of selected dairy firms in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi ; 2004. Abstract

This study focuses on the marketing communication tools pursued by selected milk processing firms in Kenya. The theory articulated in this article suggests that marketing communication tools and factors affecting their performance are two important considerations. Taking this as a standpoint, the author predicted the use of similar marketing communication tools whose performances are influenced by the same factors. An empirical test of this theory using data collected from the milk processors operating in Nairobi yields data consistent with the view that the milk processors use similar marketing communication elements and their performance are influenced by similar factors.

Araka E, Oboko R, Maina E, Gitonga RK. " A Conceptual Educational Data Mining Model for Supporting Self-Regulated Learning in Online Learning Environments." https://www.igi-global.com/. 2021:15. Abstract

Self-regulated learning is attracting tremendous researches from various communities such as information communication technology. Recent studies have greatly contributed to the domain knowledge that the use self-regulatory skills enhance academic performance. Despite these developments in SRL, our understanding on the tools and instruments to measure SRL in online learning environments is limited as the use of traditional tools developed for face-to-face classroom settings are still used to measure SRL on e-learning systems. Modern learning management systems (LMS) allow storage of datasets on student activities. Subsequently, it is now possible to use Educational Data Mining to extract learner patterns which can be used to support SRL. This chapter discusses the current tools for measuring and promoting SRL on e-learning platforms and a conceptual model grounded on educational data mining for implementation as a solution to promoting SRL strategies.

Appleton S, Bigsten A, Manda DK. "Educational E xpansion and Economic Decline: Returns to Education in Kenya, 1978 - 95.". In: Centre for the Study of African Economies, Working Paper Series, No. 99/. Oxford University, Britain.; 1999.
Appiah-Opong R., NyarkoA.K., Yeboah-Manu D, Addo GA, Otchere ID, Kissi-Twum A. "In vitro antimycobacterial activity and toxicity of eight medicinal plants against pathogenic and non-pathogenic mycobacterial strains." . International Journal of Mycobacteriology,. 2016;5(5 (2016) ):S106-S107.
APOLOT DROKALEBOFAITH. "Grace N. Thoithi and Faith A. Okalebo. Country case study: Kenya. In: 2009 FIP Global Pharmacy Workforce Report. No. 5.4. International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP), Hage, Netherlands.". In: FIP Global Pharmacy Workforce Report. No. 5.4. International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP), Hague, Netherlands; 2009. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} This study compared the efficacy and tolerability of stavudine at the two dose levels in patients attending HIV Comprehensive Care Centre, in the largest public hospital in Kenya. Data on CD4 cell counts, drug adverse events and opportunistic infections were collected retrospectively from the records of 810 adult patients distributed in three study groups: patients weighing ≥ 60 kg receiving 40 mg BD stavudine; patients weighing ≥ 60 kg receiving 30 mg BD stavudine; and patients weighing < 60 kg receiving 30 mg BD stavudine. Fewer stavudine related adverse effects were seen in patients weighing ≥ 60 kg treated with 30 mg stavudine compared to those who received 40 mg stavudine in the same weight category (4.2 % vs 16.7 %, p < 0.001). Patients weighing < 60 kg were more likely to experience drug toxicity than those ≥ 60 kg when given 30 mg stavudine (12.8% vs 4.2 %, p<0.001). Occurrence of any adverse drug reactions was also significantly associated with age greater than 45 years (HR = 2.16, CI:1.41-3.31, p<0.001), co-morbidities (HR = 2.16, CI:1.06-4.38, p < 0.001), treatment with isoniazid (HR = 2.07, CI:1.09-3.96, p<0.001) and severe (WHO stage IV) immunosuppression (HR=1.45,CI:0.86-2.45, p<0.001). The onset of drug related toxicities, for all study arms, was principally in the first year of commencing therapy, for example 76 % of all cases of peripheral neuropathy were diagnosed within 12 months of treatment. The study demonstrated similar immunologic outcomes in the treatment groups given either 30 or 40 mg stavudine, with median CD4 cell counts after 12 months of treatment more than doubling for patients in all the study cohorts. The findings support the use of combination antiretroviral therapy regimens containing low dose stavudine in Kenya. Key words Low-dose stavudine, combination antiretroviral therapy, HIV, stavudine tolerability
APOLOT DROKALEBOFAITH. "Wanyama P. Juma, Hoseah M. Akala, Fredrick L. Eyase, Lois L. Muiva, Matthias Heydenreich, Faith A. Okalebo, Martin Peter, Douglas Walsh, Mabel Imbuga, Abiy Yenesew. Terpurinflavone: an antiplasmodial flavone from the stem of Tephrosia purpurea. Phytochemi.". In: Manuscript number PHYTOL-D-00140R1. Phytochemistry Letters; 2011. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} 1. Introduction Tephrosia Pers (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) is a large tropical and sub-tropical genus estimated to contain about three hundred species (Waterman and Khalid, 1980; Abou-Douh et al., 2005) out of which thirty species are found in Kenya (Tarus et al., 2002). The extracts of some Tephrosia species have shown various biological activities including antiplasmodial (Muiva et al., 2009), antibacterial (Abou-Douh et al., 2005) anticancer (Santram et al., 2006) and insecticidal activities (Delfel et al., 1970). The taxon T. purpurea is among the most widely used Tephrosia species in traditional medicine (Damre et al., 2003). Various biological activities including antibacterial (Hegazy et al., 2009; Chinniah et al., 2009), antidiabetic and antioxidant (Pavana et al., 2009), immunomodulatory (Damre et al., 2003), anti-inflammatory (Damre et al., 2003) and cancer chemopreventive activities (Chang et al., 2000) have been reported for extracts and pure compounds from this plant. T. purpurea. is rich in prenylated flavonoids including flavones (Hegazy et al., 2009; Pelter et al., 1981), flavanones (Pelter et al., 1981; Gupta et al., 1980), chalcones (Chang et al., 2000; Pelter et al., 1981) and rotenoids (Ahmad et al., 1999). In the search for compounds with antiplasmodial activity from Kenyan plants, the stem of T. purpurea has been investigated. This report is on the isolation and characterization of a new prenylated flavone, named terpurinflavone (1), with antiplasmodial activity along with three known flavonoids. Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} The stem extract of Tephrosia purpurea showed antiplasmodial activity against the D6 (chloroquinesensitive) and W2 (chloroquine-resistant) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 10.47  2.22 mg/ml and 12.06 2.54 mg/ml, respectively. A new prenylated flavone, named terpurinflavone, along with the known compounds lanceolatin A, -semiglabrin and lanceolatin B have been isolated from this extract. The new compound, terpurinflavone, showed the highest antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values of 3.12  0.28 mM (D6) and 6.26  2.66 mM (W2). The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.
APOLOT DROKALEBOFAITH. "F. A. Okalebo, A. N. Guantai, C. K. Maitai, I. O. Kibwage. Pharmacological screening of extracts of Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae). East African Journal of Botany. 2 (1): 279 .". In: East African Journal of Botany. 2 (1): 279 . East Afri. J. Botany; 2010. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} The leaves and old stems of Cletmatis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) are chewed in Kenya for the management of toothache and sore throat. An infusion of the leaf is drunk for the management of headaches and abdominal disorders.  The study was done to determine the scientific rationale for the use of the plant as an analgesic and for the management of abdominal disorders.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to the hot plate and tail pressure tests for antinociceptive activity and guinea pig wheal test for local anesthetic activity.  The effects of the extracts on the isolated rabbit jejunum were also studied.  The extracts of the leaf and stem were found to have significant local anesthetic and antinociceptive activity. The extracts had spasmolytic effects on the isolated rabbit jejunum.  These findings support the traditional uses of the plant which could be subjected to bioactivity guided isolation for analgesic, local anaesthetic and spasmolytic compounds.  Key words: Clematis; Ranunculaceae; plant extracts; antinociceptive; local anesthesia; spasmolytic
APOLOT DROKALEBOFAITH. "F. A. Okalebo, H. A. Rabah, A. N. Guantai, C. K. Maitai, I. O. Kibwage, J. W. Mwangi and W. Masengo. The antimalarial and antimicrobial activity and Brine Shrimp Toxicity of Clematis brachiata extracts. The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutic.". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
APOLOT DROKALEBOFAITH. "test.". In: Vol 2 (2) pages 024-031. eamj; 2010. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} This study compared the efficacy and tolerability of stavudine at the two dose levels in patients attending HIV Comprehensive Care Centre, in the largest public hospital in Kenya. Data on CD4 cell counts, drug adverse events and opportunistic infections were collected retrospectively from the records of 810 adult patients distributed in three study groups: patients weighing ≥ 60 kg receiving 40 mg BD stavudine; patients weighing ≥ 60 kg receiving 30 mg BD stavudine; and patients weighing < 60 kg receiving 30 mg BD stavudine. Fewer stavudine related adverse effects were seen in patients weighing ≥ 60 kg treated with 30 mg stavudine compared to those who received 40 mg stavudine in the same weight category (4.2 % vs 16.7 %, p < 0.001). Patients weighing < 60 kg were more likely to experience drug toxicity than those ≥ 60 kg when given 30 mg stavudine (12.8% vs 4.2 %, p<0.001). Occurrence of any adverse drug reactions was also significantly associated with age greater than 45 years (HR = 2.16, CI:1.41-3.31, p<0.001), co-morbidities (HR = 2.16, CI:1.06-4.38, p < 0.001), treatment with isoniazid (HR = 2.07, CI:1.09-3.96, p<0.001) and severe (WHO stage IV) immunosuppression (HR=1.45,CI:0.86-2.45, p<0.001). The onset of drug related toxicities, for all study arms, was principally in the first year of commencing therapy, for example 76 % of all cases of peripheral neuropathy were diagnosed within 12 months of treatment. The study demonstrated similar immunologic outcomes in the treatment groups given either 30 or 40 mg stavudine, with median CD4 cell counts after 12 months of treatment more than doubling for patients in all the study cohorts. The findings support the use of combination antiretroviral therapy regimens containing low dose stavudine in Kenya. Key words Low-dose stavudine, combination antiretroviral therapy, HIV, stavudine tolerability
APOLOT DROKALEBOFAITH. "Oscar Mayunzu, D. Shitanda, F. Okalebo and L. Simiyu. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial and Antioxidant properties of Extracts of Mondia whytei roots. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 9 (X): XX-XX, 2010. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 9 (x): xx-xx, 2010 ISBN 16.". In: Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 9 (x): xx-xx, 2010. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition; 2011. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Abstract: Aqueous, ethanol and methanol extracts of Mondia whytei (M. whytei) root barks were screened for their inhibitory effects on some fungal and bacterial strains. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (ATCC25923), Escherichia coli (E. coli) 0157:H7 (PSSCMI 0032), Bacillus subtillus, Candida albicans and Asparagus niger were used as test organisms. The water extract lacked significant activity against all organisms except Staphylococcus. aureus where the water extract exhibited the highest activity. However, the ethanol extract had significant activity against Candida albicans and Asperigillus niger with minimuminhibitory values of 58.59 and 14.65 μg/ml respectively. Methanol had high Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values of less than 14.65 and 14.7 μg/ml for Asperigillus niger and E. coli respectively. From the results it was concluded that activity varied with the solvent used. Contrary to previous reports, the plant seems to lack significant antibacterial activity except against E. coli. The popularity of a herbal recipe is not always a measure for its potency. However, M. whytei had antifungal activity since the ethanol and methanol extracts showed significant activity against the tested strains of fungi. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was also evaluated using the DPPH free radical scavenging assay. M. whytei exhibited substantial inhibition of the DPPH activity with EC50 of 413 mg/l for the crude extracts. The results suggest that M. whytei has significant antioxidant activity as demonstrated by the DPPH assay. This antioxidant activity of the crude extracts can be attributed to the presence of 2-Hydroxy-4-Methoxybenzaldehyde that is a known antioxidant in the root extracts.  Key words: Aqueous, ethanol extract, methanol extract
Apata(6) AO, Muobeleni TN, A A Fabuyide, Ogunmuyiwa EN, G.O.Rading, Jain PK, Witcomb WJ, Cornish LA. "Development of VC-Ni Eutectic Alloys for Wear Resistance." Advanced Materials Research, 1019. 2014:347-354.
AOSA E. "'The Influence of the Linkage Between Strategy and Budgeting on Implementing Strategic Decisions.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management Vol. 3. January/April. Kisipan, M.L.; 1997. Abstract

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AOSA E, Bagire V, Awino Z. "The interaction of Personal factors, Structure and Performance in NGOs." DBA Africa Management Review. 2012;Vol 2 No 3, :pp 25-41. Abstract

There are various elements that interact to render performance outcomes in
Nongovernmental organizations. These could be organizational, personal and
environmental factors. This study set out to examine the interaction of personal factors,
structure and the likely performance outcomes so as to inform strategy theory and practice
in nongovernmental organizations. We tested for the interaction of personal factors namely
tenure, education, profession and age, structures of NGOs classified as national,
international and network and performance outcomes. The data was drawn from 113
NGOs operating in Uganda. The results showed that under the different structure settings
personal factors differed in their strength of predicting performance. Save for education
under network structure, the rest of the factors had very low and insignificant coefficients.
The study raised questions for further investigation into the behavior of Nongovernmental
organizations and the influence of personal factors. The outcomes provide rich insights for both scholars and practitioners towards a better understanding of this growing sector in African countries. We recommend further empirical examinations of strategy elements in NGOs.
Key words: Personal factors, Structure, Performance, Strategy, Non-governmental organizations

AOSA E. "'Strategy: Customer or Competitor Supremacy?". In: Marketing Review. Kisipan, M.L.; 2010. Abstract

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Aosa EA, Arasa RM, Machuki VN. "Participatory orientation to strategic planning process: Does it pay?" Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management (BAM). 2011;Vol. 1(7),:198-204. Abstract

It is postulated that a participatory orientation to the strategic planning process could influence the realization of the expected strategic planning outcomes. Past studies investigating the relationship between strategic planning and performance mainly focuses on the direct relationship between these two variables. This study examines the influence of employee participation on the expected relationship between strategic planning and strategic planning outcomes. The study was carried out in Kenya, within the insurance sector. A structured questionnaire was used to gather the required data from 31 firms. Study findings reveal that
employee participation does influence the strength of the relationship between strategic planning and strategic planning outcomes and this influence is statistically significant.
Key words: Strategic planning process, participation, insurance, Kenya

AOSA E. "'Management Involvement, Training and Company Effectiveness in an African Context'',.". In: Journal of African Finance and Economic Development 1(2). Fall. Kisipan, M.L.; 1992. Abstract

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AOSA E. "'Information Technology and Business Strategy'.". In: Management Science Review. Kisipan, M.L.; 1996. Abstract

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AOSA E. "'The Role of Government in Business''. In Kibera F. (Ed.) Introduction to Businees: A Kenyan Perspective. Kenya Literature Bureau.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management Vol. 3. January/April. Kisipan, M.L.; 1996. Abstract

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AOSA E, V.Bagire, Awino ZB. "The strategy – resource configurations and performance implications in Nongovernmental Organizations." Crown Research in Education. 2012; 2(3): 105-112. Abstractthe_strategy_-_resource_configurations_and_performance_implications_in_non_governmental_organization.pdf

Configurations are composed of organizational elements that render certain outcomes collectively rather than individually. This study set out to establish the implications of strategy and resource configurations on performance of Nongovernmental organizations. We tested for strategy with the sub variables of resources as predictors of performance in the tangible and intangible sub domains. Using interaction terms, results revealed that different configuration settings rendered into various performance outcomes. Strategy –tangible resource models had high coefficients but were not significant in predicting tangible, intangible and main performance. On the contrary strategy – intangible resources were significant with other domains save with intangible performance. The three way interaction term was not significant although with high prediction power across the performance variables. We conclude that configuration approach offers promise in better understanding of the performance of NGOs. The study outcomes have rich insights for both scholars and practitioners. We recommend further empirical examinations of strategy elements in the NGO sector.
Key words: Strategy, Resources, Configurations, Performance, Nongovernmental organizations, Intangible
resources, Tangible resources

AOSA E. "'Marketing and Strategy'.". In: Marketing Review. Nairobi: Kisipan, M.L.; 2010. Abstract

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Aosa EA. "Strategic Management within Kenya Firms."; 2011. Abstractstrategic_management_within_kenya_firms.pdf

This study investigated strategic management practices within large, private manufacturing companies in Kenya. A total of 73 companies (both local and foreign) were surveyed. Personal interviews were conducted with top managers in all these companies. The findings revealed that large manufacturing companies had adopted strategic management. However, there were variations in the practices. Foreign companies were more involved and committed to strategic management than the local ones. The local companies (especially family ones) exhibited heavy financial orientation in their plans (cash flow projections and extended budgeting). Differences in organizational factors were cited as explanations for the observed
variations in strategic management practices.
Key words: Strategic Management, Firms, Development, Planning, Kenya

Aosa EA, Machuki V, Letting N. "Board Diversity and Performance of Companies Listed in Nairobi Stock Exchange." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2012;Vol. 2 No. 11(June). Abstract

This study examined the relationship between Board diversity and financial performance of firms listed in the Nairobi Stock Exchange. Data on Boards’ age, gender, educational qualifications, study specialization, and board specialization as well as the companies’ financial performance were obtained from 40 companies using a structured questionnaire. Using the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression, the results show that there is a weak positive association between board diversity and financial performance. Overall, the results indicate a statistically not significant effect of board diversity on financial performance except for the independent effect of board study specialization on dividend yield. The results partially concur with agency and resource dependency theories of corporate governance as well as similar empirical studies. Ensuing implications for theory, policy and practice as well as methodology are also discussed.
Key Words: Board of Directors’ Diversity, Financial Performance, Listed Firms, Kenya

AOSA E. ""Rationale and Business Implications of the Renewed East African Co-operation'.". In: Marketing Review. Kisipan, M.L.; 1995. Abstract

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AOSA E. "'Management in Africa: Contextual Factors and their Influence''.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Management, Volume 1. Kisipan, M.L.; 1996. Abstract

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AOSA E. "Contextual Influence on Strategic Planning: Porter's Industry Analysis Model in the Kenyan Setting.". In: Moi University Business Journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1997. Abstract

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Aosa EA, Machuki VN. "The influence of the external environment on the performance of publicly quoted companies in Kenya." Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management (BAM). 2011;Vol. 1(7), :pp. 205-218. Abstractthe_influence_of_the_external_environment_on_the.pdf

This study investigated the effect of the external environment on corporate performance. Based on a survey of 23 companies listed on the Nairobi Stock Exchange, three environmental dimensions of complexity, dynamism and munificence were used to describe Kenya’s business environment. Performance implications of these environmental dimensions were then examined. The study reports that for the surveyed companies, varying degrees of external environmental complexity, dynamism, and munificence exist which tend to be mostly manifested in economic factors, competitive rivalry, market factors, technological factors, regulatory factors as well as threat of new entrants. Consequently, these
factors appeared to have great influence in the companies’ strategic decision making. However, the
overall results for the effect of external environment on corporate performance were statistically not
significant. Based on the findings, implications of the study and suggestions for further study are
presented.
Key Words: External environment, corporate performance, publicly quoted companies, Kenya

Aosa EA, Machuki VN, Letting NK. "Firm-Level Institutions and Performance of Publicly Quoted Companies in Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2012;Vol. 2 ( No. 21). Abstractfirm-level_institutions_and_performance_of_publicly_quoted_companies_in_kenya.pdf

Firm-level institutions constitute the internal organizational environment which define the context in which
strategic decisions are made and implemented. Effective and successful strategy implementation requires apt institutionalization of the strategy. Logically, firm-level institutions have an indirect effect on corporate
performance through their direct effect on strategy implementation. In this study, a direct effect of the firm-level
institutions on corporate performance was investigated. Based on a survey of 23 companies listed on the Nairobi Stock Exchange, ten firm-level institutions were captured under two broad dimensions of administrative systems and resource competencies. Performance implications of these firm-level institutions were then examined. The study reports that for the surveyed companies, most of the firm-level institutions were manifest to a large extent.
The results also indicate that a very strong positive relationship exists between firm-level institutions and various indicators of corporate performance. However, the overall results for the effect of firm-level institutions on corporate performance were statistically not significant. The results partially concur with pertinent theories as well as similar empirical studies. Based on the findings, implications for theory, methodology, and managerial practice as well as areas for further study are identified.
Key words: Firm-Level Institutions, Corporate Performance, Publicly Quoted Companies, Kenya

AOSA E. "'Banking in Kenya: An Industry at Crossroads?".". In: Banking Times. Volume 2. Kisipan, M.L.; 1995. Abstract

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AOSA E. "'Kenyan Banks Choose Their Way'.". In: Banking Times Volume 3,. Nairobi: Kisipan, M.L.; 1996. Abstract

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Aong' GO, Okoth MW, Imungi JK, J.N K. "Nutrient contents of raw and processed products from Kenyan potato cultivars ." Journal of Applied Biosciences. 2009;16:877-886.potato_nutrients.pdf
AO Mulimba, Othieno-Abinya NA, Nyong’o AO. "A 15 – YEAR RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF OSTEOGENIC SARCOMA IN KENYA." Africa Journal Medical Practice. 1994;1(3). Abstract

Cases of osteogenic sarcoma were studied as reported in the Kenya Cancer Registry covering a period of 15 years between January 1976 and December 1990. There were 271 cases with 113 (41.5%) coming from the Kikuyu community. The male to female ratio was 1.3 to 1 and the median age was 17 years. The tribal bias suggests either a genetic aetiology or a common environmental factor.

Afri J Med Prac, 1994; 1 (3): 73-7

Introduction

Osteosarcoma is the most common sarcoma of bone worldwide. It occurs mainly during childhood and adolescence. during childhood and adolescence. 1-3 A biphasic pattern is observed with this tumour. The childhood and adolescent tumour is commonly observed arising in the epiphyses of long bone during the growth spurt . A small peak occurs in the elderly which is commonly associated with paget ‘s diseases or arises in prior radiation therapy ports or associated with exposure to thorotrast.4

Apart from the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) based study by Gakuu in 1980, 5 no information is available on the clinic-epidemiological picture of asteosarcoma in East Africa. A study was therefore, designed to look into some preliminary information about osteosarcoma in Kenya.

Materials and Methods

The source if this information was the Kenya Cancer registry (January 1975 to December 1990). Details were scrutinized about histology, sex, hospital of reporting, tribe, age and involved site(s).

Results
There were a total of 271 cases of osteogenic sarcoma consisting of 151 males and 177 females (Male : Female = 1.3:1). Three cases had no gender identified. The Kikuyu predominate (42%) followed by Kamba (12%) as province, as shown in table 1. Most cases were reported from Nairobi province, as shown in table 2.

Cases were registered in all age groups (range 3 – 87 years) though the second decade accounted for 140 out of 244 (57%) of those whose ages were known (table 3). The median age was 17 years and mean age 19.5 years. Age distribution by tribes was fairly similar (table 4). The femur and tibia were most commonly involved, followed by the jaws (figure1).

Head and face involvement was then analyzed in greater details. The median age this time was 22 and mean age 27.3, only 26.5%of cases being recorded in second decade and 38.2% in third decade (Table 5). The Kikuyu were stillleading in head and facial involvement. It is however noteworthy that 40% of Luos now presented this way (table 6).

AO O, SK S, SO ML, Gitonga E, Shah MV, Gitau W. "Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in an African.". 1984.Website
AO O, M N, Kipruto E, IO O, FA A, C O, O. D, DO O, K I, IK N, BA E. "Ecological niche modelling of Rift Valley fever virus vectors in Baringo, Kenya." Infect Ecol Epidemiol. 2016;6:32323.
AO O, SK S, SO ML, Gitonga E, Shah MV GW. "Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in an African.". In: East African Medical Journal 61(9): 724-726, 1984. b) 1985 2. University of Nairobi.; 1984.
AO 59. O, P W, LW G. "Oral Health status and oral health related quality of life of adults patients at Mathari Hospital Dental Unit." Academic Research journal ofmulti-displinary. 2018;5(4):117-130.
Anzeze DA, Onyari JM SPMGJW. "Equilibrium and Kinetics studies for the biosorption of aqueous Cd (II) ions onto Eichhornia crasippes biomass,." IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry. 2014;Volume 7(Issue 1 Ver. II. (Feb. 2014)):29-37.
Anzeze DA, Onyari JM SPMGJW. "Biosorption of Zn (II) ions from aqueous solutions by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crasippes): Equilibrium and Kinetic studies,." International Journal of Innovation and Scientific Research,. 2014;Vol. 8(No. 2 Sep. 2014,):224-233.
Anzeze DA, Onyari JM SPMGPW. "Adsorption of Pb (II) ions from aqueous solutions by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes): Equilibrium and Kinetic studies,." International Journal of Environmental Pollution and Remediation. 2014;Volume 2,(DOI: 10.11159/ijepr.2014):9p.
Anzala O, Bashir MF OOBJJJWGMGOMF. "CD4 and CD8 T - Lymphocyte distribution among healthy Kenyans enrolling in an HIV vaccine trial.". In: International Conference AIDS. Bangkok, Thailand; 2004.
Anzala O, Sanders EJ, Kamali A, Katende M, Mutua GN, Ruzagira E, Stevens G, Simek M, Price M. "Sensitivity and specificity of HIV rapid tests used for research and voluntary counselling and testing.". 2010. Abstract

HIV rapid tests (RT) are a quick and non-technically demanding means to perform HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) but understanding their limitations is vital to delivering quality VCT. Objective: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of HIV rapid tests used for research and voluntary counselling and testing at four sites in East Africa. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Masaka District, Uganda; a sugar plantation in Kakira, Uganda; Coastal Villages in the Kilifi District of Kenya; and the Urban slum of Kangemi located West of Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Six thousands two hundred and fifty five consenting volunteers were enrolled into the study, and 675 prevalent HIV infections were identified. Results: The RT sensitivity tended to be high for all assays at all sites (97.63-100%) with the exception of the Uni-Gold assay (90.24% in Kangemi, 96.58% in Kilifi). Twenty four RT results were recorded as ‘weak positives’, 22 (92%) of which were negative by ELISA. There was a high rate of RT false positives in Uganda (positive predictive values ranging from 45.70% to 86.62%). Conclusions: The sensitivity and specificity of the RT varied significantly across sites. The rate of RT misclassification in Uganda suggests that a multiple test algorithm may be preferable to a single test as screener for HIV VCT.

and ANZALA ODERAASO. "A survey of legionella pneumophila among pneumonia patients at Kenyatta National Hospital." East African Medical Journal. 2009;86(12):565-571. Abstract

To determine the occurrence of L. pneumophila among pneumonia patients at Kenyatta National Hospital and any association with possible risk factors. Design: A cross- sectional descriptive study. Setting: The study was conducted from March to June 2007, at the medical ward of Kenyatta National Hospital. Analysis of samples was done at the University of Nairobi Institute of Tropical and Infectious Diseases (UNITID) serology laboratories. Subjects: All adult patients who were admitted to the medical ward of the hospital with a provisional diagnosis of pneumonia. Results: The study indicated that up to 9.2% (11 out of 120) of the pneumonia patients admitted at the hospital were infected with L.pneumophila. At a confidence limit of 0.05, there was statistical significance in the number of pneumonia patients infected with L. pneumophila and exposure to air conditioners (p= 0.003). Twenty two point five eight per cent of patients who were exposed to air conditioners were positive for L. pneumophila urinary antigen. There was a statistical significance between exposure to air conditioners and location of work area (p= 0.001)). Thirty eight point four six per cent of those who worked indoors were exposed to air conditioners at their places of work. There was also statistical significance in the number of pneumonia patients infected with L. pneumophila and a history of a past or concurrent respiratory illness (p= 0.021). Conclusion: Exposure to air conditioners and a history of past or concurrent respiratory illness were found to predispose one to infection. This should raise the index of suspicion among clinicians as they obtain a patient’s medical history. Most of those exposed to air conditioners are exposed at their places of work in urban centres, hence the need for health education and public awareness on routine inspection and maintenance of such facilities. There is need for a larger multi-centre study on the prevalence of infection by L. pneumophila in pneumonia patients (both community acquired and nosocomial), existence of co- infection and the antibiotic susceptibility of isolated organisms

Anzala O, Mutua GN, Oyugi FJO, Mohamed BF, Achia T, Stover J. "What impact would an HIV/AIDS vaccine have on the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Kenya?". 2012. Abstract

To estimate the potential impact of an HIV/AIDS Vaccine in Kenya. Design: The Kenyan HIV/AIDS epidemic was modeled using the most current data from national sources including epidemiology and behavioral surveillance. The model’s baseline projection was validated against adult HIV prevalence at antenatal clinics and ge- neral population surveys. The model was used to analyze the effects of scaling up current pre- vention programs and adding potential HIV vac- cines with varying levels of effectiveness and coverage. Results: Even with full scale-up of currently available prevention, care and treat- ment programs, new infections will continue to burden Kenya. The introduction of a partially ef- fective AIDS vaccine could significantly alter the trajectory of the epidemic. Conclusion: The game changing impact that an AIDS vaccine could have on the AIDS epidemic in Kenya under- scores the importance of sustaining political support and financial investment to accelerate HIV/AIDS vaccine research and development.

Anzala O, Sanders EJ, Kamali A, Katende M, Mutua GN, Ruzagira E, Stevens G, Simek M, Price M. "Sensitivity and specificity of HIV rapid tests used for research and voluntary counselling and testing.". 2010. Abstract

HIV rapid tests (RT) are a quick and non-technically demanding means to perform HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) but understanding their limitations is vital to delivering quality VCT. Objective: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of HIV rapid tests used for research and voluntary counselling and testing at four sites in East Africa. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Masaka District, Uganda; a sugar plantation in Kakira, Uganda; Coastal Villages in the Kilifi District of Kenya; and the Urban slum of Kangemi located West of Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Six thousands two hundred and fifty five consenting volunteers were enrolled into the study, and 675 prevalent HIV infections were identified. Results: The RT sensitivity tended to be high for all assays at all sites (97.63-100%) with the exception of the Uni-Gold assay (90.24% in Kangemi, 96.58% in Kilifi). Twenty four RT results were recorded as ‘weak positives’, 22 (92%) of which were negative by ELISA. There was a high rate of RT false positives in Uganda (positive predictive values ranging from 45.70% to 86.62%). Conclusions: The sensitivity and specificity of the RT varied significantly across sites. The rate of RT misclassification in Uganda suggests that a multiple test algorithm may be preferable to a single test as screener for HIV VCT.

Anzala AO, Ball TB, Rostron T, O’Brien SJ, Plummer FA, study group NHIV, Rowland-Jones SL. "The 64I allele of the CCR2 chemokine receptor is strongly associated with delayed disease progression in a cohort of African prostitutes.". 1998.Website
Anzala AO, Simonsen JN, Kimani J, Ball TB, Ngugi EN, Bwayo JJ, Nagelkerke N, Kakai NJD, Plummer FA. "Role of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Accelerated HIV-1 Disease Progression.". 2000.
Anyenda EO, Higashi T, Kambayashi Y, Nguyen TTT, et al. "Exposure to daily ambient particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and cough occurrence in adult chronic cough patients: A longitudinal study." Atmospheric Environment. 2016;140:pp 34-41.
Anyenda EO, Higashi T, Kambayashi Y, Nguyen TTT, et al. "Associations of Cough Prevalence with Ambient Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Nitrogen and Sulphur Dioxide." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2016;13:800.
Anyango SO, Orindi V. "Impact of climate change on food security, A regional perspective for Africa .". In: the International Climate Change Experts Workshop. Seigburg, Bone, Germany; 2008.
Anyango B;, Keya SO;, Widdowson D;, Wangaruro S;, Mugane C;, Karani FN. "Current Status of Legume Inoculant Production in Kenya.".; 1985.
Anyango B;, Keya SO;, Owino F. "Nodulation Survey of Nitrogen Fixing Tre es in Kenya."; 1986.
Anyango SO, Muthui R, Nyunkuri E. "Sustainability of charcoal production in the Arid and semiarid lands of Kenya: A policy Dilemma." Advances in Social Sciences Research Journa. 2019;6(4).
Anyango SO, Orindi V. "Biofuels Production as a Mitigation Strategy: The Potential Impacts on Food Security and Environmental Sustainability in Kenya .". In: National conference on the Environment . Nairobi, Kenya; 2008.
Anyango OS, Aloo T, C B, Chin, C. K. "Niche differentiation for improved crop growth and yield in arid and semi arid lands of Kenya. ." African Journal for Environmental studies and development . 2008;Vol 1(no. 1 ISSN: 1995-1329.):24-26.
Anyango SO, Kiplagat J. "Natural Resources Governance in Kenya: The Assessment of the Fisheries Resources Subsector ." International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences . 2019;24(3):25-30.
Anyango SO. " Water pollution and management status of rivers in the greater Nairobi area .". In: Regional workshop on remote sensing and GIS technologies . Nairobi, Kenya; 1998.
Anyamba TJC, VDM V, Saarbrucken M. "Diverse Informalities."; 2008.
Anyamba TTC. "Trends in Low Cost Housing in Africa."; 1993.

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