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Awiti LM, Odada JEO, Manundu CM, Ochoro WEO, Makanda DW, Kabando RM. Incentives for increased agricultural production. A case study of Kenya's sugar industry..; 1986.Website
Awiti UO, Ekström AM, Ilako F. "Reasoning and deciding PMTCT-adherence during pregnancy among women living with HIV in Kenya.". 2008. Abstract

This study explores type identities among rural and urban slum women on antiretroviral therapies who become pregnant. Narrative structuring was chosen to develop type narratives that illustrate how rural and urban women handle their HIV-infection and how they reason and decide about PMTCT-adherence during pregnancy and childbirth. Women in rural areas described their lives as 'secure and family controlled'. This gave the women security and predictability in life, but also meant that it was difficult to keep secrets about HIV infection. For women in the urban slum area the narratives were a tale of the uncertain and hard to predict reality in the slum, but also about self-reliance and decisiveness. They portrayed themselves as 'vulnerable and striving to survive' thus managing a tough situation without long-term solutions. We conclude that pregnancy poses different social challenges in rural and urban areas affecting how women choose to manage their adherence to PMTCT, which is also affected by HIV stigma and lack of disclosure

Awiti J. "A Multilevel Analysis of Prenatal Care and Birth Weight: The Case of Kenya and Tazania.". In: Biannual Research Workshop. Arusha Tanzania; 2012.
Awiti JO. "A Multilevel Analysis of Prenatal Care and Birth Weight in Kenya." Health Economics Review. 2014;4(1).
Awino ZB. "Strategic Planning and Competitive Advantage of ICT Small and Medium Enterprises in Kenya." Business and Management Horizons. 2013;1(1):191-204.
Awino ZB, GITURO WAINAINA. "An Empirical Investigation of Supply Chain Management Best Practices in Large Private Manufacturing Firms in Kenya." Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management (BAM). 2011;Volume 1(12):26-31.
Awino ZB, Wamalwa RW. "Challenges Facing the Implementation of Differentiation Strategy in the Operations of the Mumias Sugar company Limited.". In: AIBUMA 2010 Conference. Kenyatta International Conference Center, Nairobi-Kenya; 2010.
Awino ZB, M MJ. "Business Process Outsourcing Strategy And Performance Of Kenyan State Corporations." Journal of Emerging Trends in Economics and Management Sciences (JETEMS). 2014;5(7):37-43.
Awino ZB. "An Empirical Study Of Top Management Team Diversity, And Performance In The Service Industry.". In: International Conference on Ongoing Research on Management and IT VIII (INCON VIII). university of Pune, Chinchwad, Pune, 411019, Maharastra, India; 2013.
Awino ZB, Jemimah MM, Oeba LK. "Strategic Planning, Planning Outcomes and Organizational Performance – An Empirical Study of Commercial Banks in Kenya." Research Journal in Organizational Psychology and Educational Studies. 2013;1(5):266-271.
Awino ZB, Kariuki PM. "Firm strategy, Business Environment and the Relationship Between Firm Level Factors and Performance." DBA Africa Management Review. 2012;2(1):77-98.
Awino ZB, Lorika J, K'Obonyo P. "Effectiveness of the Value Chain Strategy in the Selected Producer-owned Dairy Groups in Kenya." Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management (BAM). 2011;1(3):93-100.
Awino ZB, Muchara M, Oeba LK. "To tal Quality and Competitive Advantage of Firms in the Horticultural Industry in Kenya." Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management.. 2011.
Awino ZB. "Top Management Team Diversity, Quality Decisions And Organizational Performance In The Service Industry .". In: International Conference on Ongoing Research on Management and IT VIII (INCON VIII). university of Pune, Chinchwad, Pune, 411019, Maharastra, India; 2013.
Awino ZB, Nkirote C. "Bottlenecks in the Execution of Kenya Vision 2030 Strategy: An Empirical Study ." Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management (BAM). 2012;2(3):505-512.
Awino ZB, Muchemi AW, Ogutu M. "Diversity in the Top Management Teams and Effects on Corporate Performance." Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management (BAM). 2011;1(3):82-92 .
Awino ZB. "Strategic Planning, Planning outcomes and Organizational Performance: An Empirical Study of Commercial Banks in Kenya .". In: International Conference and Carnival on Management System (InCaMs). Hotel Seri Malaysia, Kangar, Perlis, Malaysia; 2012.
Awino ZB, Maina M, Ogutu M, Oeba LK. "Total Quality and Competitive advantage of firms in the Horticultural Industry in Kenya ." Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management (BAM). 2012;2(4):521-532.
Awili HO, Gitao GC, Muchemi GM, Muchemi GM. "Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Adolescent Blood Donors within Selected Counties of Western Kenya." Hindawi BioMed Research International . 2020;2020:6.
Awili H, Gitao C, Muchemi G. "Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Adolescent Blood Donors within Selected Counties of Western Keny." Hindawi BioMed Research International. 2020;Volume 2020, Article ID 8578172,: 6 pages.
AWGikonyo N. "Preaching and drinking wine: A necessity for transformational leaders in effective schools." International Journal for Education and Research. 2015;2.
Awele BSJ&. Practising IP Law in Kenya and Africa. Lusaka, Zambia.; Forthcoming.
Awas E, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Ndakala A, Mwaniki J. "Antioxidant Activities of Flavonoid Aglycones from Kenyan Gardenia ternifolia Schum and Thonn." IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences (IOSR-JPBS). 2016;11(3):136-141. Abstract

Phytochemical investigation of surface exudates of the leaves of Gardenia ternifolia resulted to
characterization of four flavonoids; 3,5,3′-trihydroxy-7,4′-dimethoxyflavone (1), 5,7-trihydroxy-4′-
methoxyflavone (2), 5,7-dihydroxy-3,4′-dimethoxyflavone (3), 5,4′-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (4) and two
tritepenoids; β-sitosterol (6) and stigmasterol (7). Compound 1 exhibited the highest antioxidant activity with
IC50 = 40.3± 1.55 μΜ. The rest of the flavonoids showed minimal activities with IC50 values of 75.5±1.75,
89±0.22, 94±0.11 μΜ for 2-4, respectively. The antioxidant activities of 1 was substantially lower than the
standard, quercetin (IC50 = 20.1±1.34 M). Methoxylation of quercetin at 7 and 4′-position in 1 substantially
reduced antioxidant potential. Lack of oxygenation at 3′ position, as observed for kaempferol derivatives was
responsible for further reduction in the radical scavenging potential as observed for 2 and 3. Furthermore,
methylation of 3-OH position in kaempferol derivatives further reduced the antioxidant activities as exhibited by
3 with an oxygenation pattern similar to 2 except for the methylation at 3-position. The results of this study are
consistent with previous findings that revealed that flavonols, exhibited better anti-oxidant activities as
compared to 3-methoxyflavones. Acetylation of 3 at the 5 and 7 positions resulting to 3,4′dimethoxy-5,7-
diacetylflavone (5), substantially reduced the activity of this compound. The triterpenoids exhibited were
inactive as expected.
Keywords: Antioxidant activities, Gardenia ternifolia, surface exudates

Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Geodata and Geoinformatics.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Understanding the characteristics of and possibilities in using geodata is premised on proper comprehension of the underlying concepts of space, time and scale, contextualized within the Earth’s framework. Although these concepts are used in everyday parlance, often without much afterthought, they are not trivial at all. For instance, looking back throughout the entire history of mankind, the concepts of space and time have been the subject of animated philosophical, religious and scientific debates. In this section, we attempt to present a background of each of these dimensions of geodata, both independently and collectively, as well as highlight their relevance in influencing the character of geodata.

Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Data Models and Structure.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

By convention, data in the real world is deemed to exist in a continuous or analogue form usually in three dimensional space as discussed in Sect. 2.1. Such data needs to be digitized or made discrete before it can be input and processed by a digital computer. A GIS database can be viewed as an abstraction of reality. To convert object features observed or measured in the real world into the digital realm in a GIS database it is necessary to structure the data appropriately. Four (4) different generic types of primitive object features can be distinguished, namely: point features (0-D), line features (1-D), area features/polygons (2-D), and surface features (3-D). Incidentally, when surface features are captured in a discrete or non-continuous manner, this is then referred to as 2.5D. In general, an object feature is defined by three (3) properties in GIS, namely: position, attributes and relationship with other features referred to as topology.

Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Digital Photogrammetry.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

One of the most fundamental developments in the history of photogrammetry has been the transition from analytical to digital photogrammetry. This was realized in the early 1990s through softcopy-based systems or Digital Photogrammetric Workstations (DPWs). Today, on the one hand, initial applications of digital photogrammetry in performing routine and operational procedures, such as aerial triangulation and map revision, as well as in generating geospatial datasets, including digital elevation models (DEMs) and digital orthophotos, have been essentially standardized. On the other hand, system development in automated feature extraction for diverse geospatial features have been continually improved and refined.

Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Fundamentals of Photogrammetry.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Like in many other disciplines, there is no universally accepted definition of the term photogrammetry. The Manual of Photogrammetry (2003) defines photogrammetry as the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information about physical objects and the environment through processes of recording, measuring, and interpreting photographic images and patterns of electromagnetic (EM) radiant energy and other phenomena. Notably, the extracted information could be of a geometric, physical, semantic or even temporal nature, although in many photogrammetric applications the geometric information is more relevant. Other popular definitions of this non-contact discipline are given e.g., in Moffit and Mikhail (1980),Wolf (1980),Kraus (1994), Schenk (2005) etc. In a very broad sense, and from a network design point of view, (Fraser 2000) reckons that a photogrammetric system is one that meets the following basic requirements:

Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Image Interpretation and Analysis.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

The interpretation and analysis of remote sensing imagery involves the identification and/or measurement of various targets or objects in an image in order to extract useful information about them. More specifically, this seeks to extract qualitative (thematic) and quantitative (metric) information from remote sensing data. Qualitative information provides descriptive data about earth surface features like structure, characteristics, quality, condition, relationship of and between objects.

Awange, Joseph L; Kyalo Kiema JB. "Maps in Environmental Monitoring.". 2013.
Awange, Joseph L; Kyalo Kiema JB. "Water Resources.". 2013. Abstract

Fresh water is one of the basic necessities without which human beings cannot survive since water is key to the sustainability of all kinds of lifeforms. Water has multiple uses namely; nutritional, domestic, recreational, navigational, waste disposal and ecological as it is a habitat for living and non-living organisms (biodiversity) etc. And, because it is indispensable to different sectors including manufacturing, agriculture, fisheries, wildlife survival, tourism and hydroelectric power generation, it is a vital factor of economic production. For many countries, most freshwater endowments encompass surface waters, groundwater, wetlands and glaciers.

Awange DO, Wakoli KA, Onyango JF, Chindia ML, Dimba EO, Guthua SW. "Reactive localised inflammatory hyperplasia of the oral mucosa." East African medical journal. 2009;86. Abstract
n/a
Awange JL, Forootan E, Kusche J, Kiema JBK, Omondi PA, Heck B, Fleming K, Ohanya SO, Goncalves RM. "Understanding the decline of water storage across the Ramser-Lake Naivasha using satellite-based methods." Advances in Water Resources. 2013;60:7-23.
Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Input of GIS Data.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Precisely because of the expensive cost of GIS data capture and the fact that the procedures involved in this are also fairly time consuming, the sources for GIS data should always be carefully analyzed before selection in order to suit specific GIS application(s). There are many possible sources for GIS data available today. The criteria for assessing the most appropriate sources for GIS data include firstly, collecting only the necessary data and secondly, for cost effectiveness, accepting the minimum data quality that will get the specific GIS job to be successfully accomplished. Moreover, where geospatial data needs to be integrated, it is important that the various sources be critically examined for compatibility.

Awange DO. "White patches of the Oral Mucosa.". 1992.
Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Environmental Monitoring and Management.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

A natural way to begin this monogram is by posing several pertinent questions. Firstly, what exactly does the term “monitoring” mean. Furthermore, is monitoring synonymous to measuring or observing? And more specifically, what does it mean within an environmental perspective? Monitoring has been defined by James (2003) as observing, detecting, or recording the operation of a system; watching closely for purposes of control; surveillance; keeping track of; checking continually; detecting change.

Awange DO, Wakoli KA, Onyango JF, Chindia ML, Dimba EA, W GS. "Reactive localised inflammatory hyperplasia of the oral mucosa.". 2009. Abstract

To document the histopathological pattern and distribution of reactive localised inflammatory hyperplastic lesions of the oral mucosa diagnosed at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital over a 14 year period. DESIGN: A retrospective, cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Division of Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine, histopathology laboratory, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi. SUBJECTS: A total of 3135 oral biopsies were accessioned in the oral diagnostic histopathological Laboratory registry over a period of 14 years from March 1991 to December 2005. RESULTS: Three hundred and thirty three cases were histopathologically diagnosed as reactive inflammatory hyperplasias of the oral mucosa. This constituted 10.6% of the total oral biopsy specimens analysed during this period. Fibrous epulis was the most common histological sub-type with 129 cases (38.7%) followed by pyogenic granuloma with 94 (28.3%) cases. Six (1.8%) cases were peripheral giant cell granuloma and three cases (0.9%) were those of denture irritation hyperplasia. The age distribution ranged from 2 to 78 years (mean = 30.5 years) with a peak at 20-29 years. Gender distribution showed that 107 (32%) cases occurred in males and 226 (68%) cases females. Similar trends were observed in most of the histological sub-types. Fibrous epulis occurred in 41 male (31.8%) cases and in 88 (68.2%) females with an age range of 2 to 78 years (mean = 30.5 years). As for the pyogenic granuloma, 26 (27.7%) lesions occurred in males and 68 (72.3%) in females with an age range of 2 to 75 years (mean = 30.1 years). Among all the histopathological sub-types it was shown that 223 (67.0%) cases were fibrous, 104 (31.2%) vascular and six (1.8%) peripheral giant cell granuloma. Gingival lesions were the most common with 257 (77.2%) cases followed by 28 (8.4%) in the tongue, 16 (4.8%) lips, 15 (4.5%) cheek, six (1.8%) palate and the rest on the floor of the mouth and other mucosal sites. The duration of these lesions was recorded in 182 (54.7%) cases and ranged from 1 week to 16 years (mean = 1.8 years). Only 15 (4.5%) cases were reported to have recurred and all of them were gingival lesions. CONCLUSION: The present study has shown that the prevalence of reactive localised inflammatory hyperplasia (RLIHs) of the oral mucosa was 10.6% with fibrous epulis and pyogenic granuloma having been the most common histopathological sub-types predominantly affecting females. Although RLIHs are distinguished on clinical or histopatholocal grounds, it is important to appreciate that they are variations of the same basic process

Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "GIS Database.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Once digitized and edited GIS data are stored in a spatial database. Evidently, the quality of the decisions made from a GIS will depend on the quality of the data contained in the database. A spatial database is defined as a pool of integrated and structured geospatial data, which is a model of reality, and from which data may be retrieved to provide useful information to users. Hence, a spatial database is comprised of inter-related geospatial data that is maintained efficiently and which is shareable between different GIS applications.

Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Disaster Monitoring and Management.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Since time immemorial, natural disasters have continued to plague the history of mankind. They have varied in type, frequency, coverage and severity ranging from earthquakes, landslides, droughts, floods, tornadoes, hurricanes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions etc. Over the last century, the frequency, severity and impact of natural disasters has increased substantially.

Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Fundamentals of Remote Sensing.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Remote sensing is defined as the art, science and technology through which the characteristics of object features/targets either on, above or even below the earth’s surface are identified, measured and analyzed without direct contact existing between the sensors and the targets or events being observed, see e.g., (Jensen 2009; Lillesand et al. 2010; Richards 1994; Murai 1999) etc.

Awange, Joseph L; Kyalo Kiema JB. "Spatial Analysis .". 2013.
Awange, Joseph L; Kyalo Kiema JB. "Optical Remote Sensing.". 2013.
Awange, Joseph L; Kyalo Kiema JB. "Web GIS and Mapping.". 2013. Abstract

The Internet and web-based technology has dramatically influenced the access to and dissemination of information among communities, locally and globally. This is no less true in the domain of geographic information systems (GIS) which have traditionally been constrained in terms of information access and the communities that use them. Geospatial data has traditionally been captured and managed within individual and separate organizational databases with access by a limited number of expert users. Now, with the integrated use of the web, not just geospatial data, but also the functionality of GIS can be accessed globally by citizens and non-experts.

Awange DO, Wakoli KA, Onyango JF, Dimba E, Chindia ML. "Ameloblastoma of the jaws in Kenyan children–a review of seventy cases.". 2009. Abstract
n/a
Awange, Joseph L; Kyalo Kiema JB. "Satellite Environmental Sensing.". 2013.
Awange, Joseph L; Kyalo Kiema JB. "Protection and Conservation of Animals and Vegetation.". 2013.
Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Environmental Pollution.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

There exist various definitions to the word pollution depending on one’s jurisdiction and the laws of a particular country. Springer (1977, see references therein) looks at the meaningful concept of defining pollution in international law by posing the questions: “What are you talking about when you are talking about pollution? What is pollution? How would you define it if you are going to remove the concept of damage from it?” These questions are not easily answerable and as Springer (1977) acknowledges, the term pollution is a word whose precise meaning in law, particularly international law, is not easily discerned Springer (1977). It has been used in a wide variety of contexts, from international conventions to pessimistic speeches about the state of the environment, to describe different levels and kinds of man-induced changes in the natural world Springer (1977).

Awange DO, Wakoli KA, Onyango JF, Chindia ML, Dimba EA, W GS. "Reactive localised inflammatory hyperplasia of the oral mucosa.". 2009. Abstract

To document the histopathological pattern and distribution of reactive localised inflammatory hyperplastic lesions of the oral mucosa diagnosed at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital over a 14 year period. DESIGN: A retrospective, cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Division of Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine, histopathology laboratory, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi. SUBJECTS: A total of 3135 oral biopsies were accessioned in the oral diagnostic histopathological Laboratory registry over a period of 14 years from March 1991 to December 2005. RESULTS: Three hundred and thirty three cases were histopathologically diagnosed as reactive inflammatory hyperplasias of the oral mucosa. This constituted 10.6% of the total oral biopsy specimens analysed during this period. Fibrous epulis was the most common histological sub-type with 129 cases (38.7%) followed by pyogenic granuloma with 94 (28.3%) cases. Six (1.8%) cases were peripheral giant cell granuloma and three cases (0.9%) were those of denture irritation hyperplasia. The age distribution ranged from 2 to 78 years (mean = 30.5 years) with a peak at 20-29 years. Gender distribution showed that 107 (32%) cases occurred in males and 226 (68%) cases females. Similar trends were observed in most of the histological sub-types. Fibrous epulis occurred in 41 male (31.8%) cases and in 88 (68.2%) females with an age range of 2 to 78 years (mean = 30.5 years). As for the pyogenic granuloma, 26 (27.7%) lesions occurred in males and 68 (72.3%) in females with an age range of 2 to 75 years (mean = 30.1 years). Among all the histopathological sub-types it was shown that 223 (67.0%) cases were fibrous, 104 (31.2%) vascular and six (1.8%) peripheral giant cell granuloma. Gingival lesions were the most common with 257 (77.2%) cases followed by 28 (8.4%) in the tongue, 16 (4.8%) lips, 15 (4.5%) cheek, six (1.8%) palate and the rest on the floor of the mouth and other mucosal sites. The duration of these lesions was recorded in 182 (54.7%) cases and ranged from 1 week to 16 years (mean = 1.8 years). Only 15 (4.5%) cases were reported to have recurred and all of them were gingival lesions. CONCLUSION: The present study has shown that the prevalence of reactive localised inflammatory hyperplasia (RLIHs) of the oral mucosa was 10.6% with fibrous epulis and pyogenic granuloma having been the most common histopathological sub-types predominantly affecting females. Although RLIHs are distinguished on clinical or histopatholocal grounds, it is important to appreciate that they are variations of the same basic process

Awange D, A. WK, Onyango JF, Chindia ML, Dimba EAO, W. GS. "Reactive Localised Inflamatory Hyperplasia of the Oral Mucosa." East African Medical journal. 2009.
Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "The Global Positioning System.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

The Global Positioning System or GPS is the oldest and most widely used GNSS system, and as such will be extensively discussed in this and the next chapter. The development of GPS satellites dates from the 1960s.

Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Fundamentals of Surveying and Geodesy.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Although the environment has remained at the forefront of scientific interest for well over four decades (e.g., Lein (2012)), it is not until this decade that remote sensing of the environment using geodetic methods started gaining momentum. This has largely been fuelled by the launching and modernization of satellites that enable the environment to be measured, mapped, and modelled.

Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Land Management.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Land provides the base upon which social, cultural and economic activities are undertaken and as such is of significant importance in environmental monitoring. Social, cultural and economic activities have to be planned and managed in such a way that the sustainable use of land resources is enhanced. Sustainable land use ensures that economic and socio-cultural activities do not benefit at the expense of the environment (see Sect.28.5). Monitoring of changes in land through indicators could help in policy formulation and management issues for the betterment of the environment. Some of the vital indicators for land management include vegetation, soil quality and health, biosolids and waste disposed on land, land evaluation, land use planning, contaminated land, integrity of the food supply chain, mine closure completion criteria, and catchment management, in particular water balance, salinity, eutrophication, and riparian/wetland vegetation. This Chapter presents the possibility of using geoinformatics to enhance the monitoring of some of these indicators.

Awange DO, Wakoli KA, Onyango JF, Dimba E, Chindia ML. "Ameloblastoma of the jaws in Kenyan children – a review of seventy cases.". 2009.Website
Awange DO. "Angioneurotic Oedema.". 1991.Website
Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Fundamentals of GIS.". 2013.Website
Awange, Joseph L; Kyalo Kiema JB. "Marine and Coastal Resources.". 2013.
Awange, Joseph L; Kyalo Kiema JB. "Weather, Climate and Global Warming.". 2013. Abstract

In order to fully appreciate the contribution of geoinformatics in monitoring climate change caused by increase in temperature, a distinction between weather and climate, on one hand, and climate variability and climate change, on the other hand, is essential. Burroughs (2007) points out that weather is what is happening to the atmosphere at any given time (i.e., what one gets), whereas climate is what would be expected to occur at any given time of the year based on statistics built up over many years (i.e., what one expects).

Awange, Joseph L; Kyalo Kiema JB. "Microwave Remote Sensing.". 2013.
Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. Environmental Geoinformatics : Monitoring and Management.; 2013. AbstractWebsite

There is no doubt that today, perhaps more than ever before, humanity faces a myriad of complex and demanding challenges. These include natural resource depletion and environmental degradation, food and water insecurity, energy shortages, diminishing biodiversity, increasing losses from natural disasters, and climate change with its associated potentially devastating consequences, such as rising sea levels. These human-induced and natural impacts on the environment need to be well understood in order to develop informed policies, decisions, and remedial measures to mitigate current and future negative impacts. To achieve this, continuous monitoring and management of the environment to acquire data that can be soundly and rigorously analyzed to provide information about its current state and changing patterns, and thereby allow predictions of possible future impacts, are essential. Developing pragmatic and sustainable solutions to address these and many other similar challenges requires the use of geodata and the application of geoinformatics. This book presents the concepts and applications of geoinformatics, a multidisciplinary field that has at its core different technologies that support the acquisition, analysis and visualization of geodata for environmental monitoring and management. We depart from the 4D to the 5D data paradigm, which defines geodata accurately, consistently, rapidly and completely, in order to be useful without any restrictions in space, time or scale to represent a truly global dimension of the digital Earth. The book also features the state-of-the-art discussion of Web-GIS. The concepts and applications of geoinformatics presented in this book will be of benefit to decision-makers across a wide range of fields, including those at environmental agencies, in the emergency services, public health and epidemiology, crime mapping, environmental management agencies, tourist industry, market analysis and e-commerce, or mineral exploration, among many others. The title and subtitle of this textbook convey a distinct message. Monitoring -the passive part in the subtitle - refers to observation and data acquisition, whereas management - the active component - stands for operation and performance. The topic is our environment, which is intimately related to geoinformatics. The overall message is: all the mentioned elements do interact and must not be separated. Hans-Peter B ahr, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dr.h.c., Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany.

Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Environmental Surveying and Surveillance.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

In this section, we discuss the quantitative and qualitative data that could be collected using GNSS satellites, and in so doing, attempt to answer the question “what can GNSS satellites deliver that is of use to environmental monitoring?” The observed parameters necessary for environmental monitoring vary, depending upon the indicators being assessed.

Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Environmental Impact Assessment.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is defined by Munn (1979) as the need to identify and predict the impact on the environment and on man’s health and well-being of legislative proposals, policies, programs, projects, and operational procedures, and to interpret and communicate information about the impact.

Awange, Joseph L; Kyalo Kiema JB. "Modernization of GNSS.". 2013.
Awan, HR; Adala HS. "Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus in a child with acquired immune deficiency syndrome.". 1990. Abstract

A case is described of an 8 year old child who presented with Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus involving the left eye. He had a positive history of pulmonary tuberculosis, repeated hospital admissions and blood transfusion. He was confirmed to have Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. During the course of his followup, he developed cotton-wool spots and perivasculitis in the right eye. The mother was found to be seropositive while the father was seronegative

Awad O, Ochieng SJ, Malek A, Ogeng’o J. "Chronic anaemia causes degenerative changes in trophoblast cells of the rat placenta." Anatomy . 2017;11(2). Abstractchronic_anaemia_causes_degenerative_changes.pdfWebsite

Objectives: Iron deficiency anaemia causes adverse pregnancy outcome. There are few studies on effects of anaemia on the
structure of trophoblastic cells which are important in placental function. These data are important for understanding the
function and disorders of the placenta. The aim of this study was to investigate the ultrastructural cellular changes associated
with iron deficiency anaemia in rat placenta.
Methods: Forty-nine female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly separated into experimental and control groups. The
experimental group was rendered anaemic by removing 1.5 ml of blood per bleed on five alternate days, and the placentas
were collected on gestational days 17, 19 and 21. For light microscopy, five cubic millimeter segments were fixed in 10%
buffered formaldehyde solution; dehydrated in ethanol and embedded in paraffin wax. Five micron thick sections were cut,
deparaffinized and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. For transmission electron microscopy, 1 mm3 sections were fixed in
2.5% phosphate buffered glutaraldehyde, post fixed in 2% osmium tetroxide, dehydrated in ethanol, cleared in propylene
and embedded in epon resin. Ultrathin sections stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate were examined with JEOL electron
microscope.
Results: Cytotrophoblast, syncytiotrophoblast and giant trophoblastic cells of placentas of anaemic rats showed cytoplasmic
and nuclear vacuolation with loss of cell margins. In addition, there was atrophy of microvilli on the cell surface, as well
nuclear chromatolysis, nucleolar degeneration and appearance of dark bodies.
Conclusion: Chronic anaemia causes trophoblastic cell degeneration. This may undermine the functional integrity of the
cells and constitute part of the mechanism for poor fetal outcome.

Awad O, Malek A, Ogeng’o J. "DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF CHRONIC IRON DEFICIENCY ANAEMIA ON JUNCTIONAL AND LABYRINTHINE ZONES OF PLACENTA IN SPRAGUE DAWELY RAT." Anatomy Journal of Africa. . 2017;6(1):840-846. Abstractdifferential_effects_of_chronic_iron_deficiency.pdfWebsite

Iron deficiency anaemia causes adverse pregnancy outcome. Studies reveal its generalized effects on
histomorphometry of the placenta, without details on specific zones nor effect of gestational age. These data are
important for planning intervention. This study was, therefore, designed to describe the histomorphometric changes
associated with iron deficiency anaemia on placenta of albino rat. Fourty nine (49) Sprague – Dawely albino rats
were randomly separated into experimental and control groups. The experimental group was rendered anaemic by
removing 1.5 ml of blood per bleed on five alternate days. Placentas were collected on gestational days 17, 19 and
21. Five cubic milimetre segments were fixed in 10 % buffered formaldehyde solution; dehydrated in ethanol and
embedded in paraffin wax. Five micron thick sections were cut, deparaffinized and stained with Hematoxylin and
Eosin. Micrographs were taken using Leica ICC 50 digital photomicrographic camera attached to a computer at
magnification x40 and the thickness of the labyrinth and junctional zones measured. Student t- test was used to
compare values for the experimental and control groups. The labyrinth in the chronic anaemia group was thinner
than in the control group at gestational days 17, 19 and 21. The junctional zone, on the other hand, was consistently
thicker in anaemic than in the control animals. The difference in thickness of junctional zone varied with gestational
age. At gestational day 17, the zone was significantly thicker in the anaemic group (628.9 μ) than in the control
(381 μ). On day 19 and 21, however, the difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, the effects of
chronic iron deficiency anaemia on the labyrinth differ from those on the junctional zone of the placenta. This
differential effect appears to depend on the function and gestational age. The decrease in thickness of the labyrinth
may be designed to maintain placental diffusion capacity while increased thickness of the junctional zone constitutes
a compensatory physical and nutritional adaptation to hypoxia.

Avery" "L, Crockett" "M, Kihara" "A, Murila" "F, Njoroge" "P. Enhancing maternal health, Global Engagement in action - Highlights from the Canada-Africa Research Exchange Grants (CAREG): . Canada: Canada-Africa Research Exchange Grants (CAREG): ; 2012.
Avery K, Barham C, Berrisford R, Blazeby J, Blencowe N, Donovan J, Elliott J, Falk S, Goldin R, Hanna G, Hollowood A, Metcalfe C, Noble S, Sanders G, Streets C, Titcomb D, Wheatley T. "Understanding surgical interventions in {RCTs}: the need for better methodology." The Lancet. 2013;381:27-28. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Avci E, Fossett D, Aslan M, Attar A, Egemen N. "Surgical anatomy of the superior cerebellar artery." Turkish Neurosurgery. 2001;11:95-100. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Autrup H, Seremet T, Wakhisi J, Wasunna A. "Aflatoxin exposure measured by urinary excretion of aflatoxin B1-guanine adduct and hepatitis B virus infection in areas with different liver cancer incidence in Kenya." Cancer Res.. 1987;47(13):3430-3. Abstract

Two major etiological agents, hepatitis B virus and aflatoxin B1, are considered to be involved in the induction of liver cancer in Africa. In order to elucidate any synergistic effect of these two agents we conducted a study in various parts of Kenya with different liver cancer incidence in order to establish the rate of exposure to aflatoxin and the prevalence of hepatitis infections. Of all tested individuals 12.6% were positive for aflatoxin exposure as indicated by the urinary excretion of aflatoxin B1-guanine. Assuming no annual and seasonal variation, a regional variation in the exposure was observed. The highest rate of aflatoxin exposure was found in the Western Highlands and Central Province. The incidence of hepatitis infection nationwide as measured by the presence of the surface antigens was 10.6%, but a wide regional variation was observed. A multiplicative and additive regression analysis to investigate if hepatitis and aflatoxin exposure had a synergetic effect in the induction of liver cancer was negative. However, a moderate degree of correlation between the exposure to aflatoxin and liver cancer was observed when the study was limited to certain ethnic groups. The study gives additional support to the hypothesis that aflatoxin is a human liver carcinogen.

Autrup H, Wakhisi J, Vahakangas K, Wasunna A, Harris CC. "Detection of 8,9-dihydro-(7'-guanyl)-9-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 in human urine." Environ. Health Perspect.. 1985;62:105-8. Abstract

A possible role of aflatoxin B1 (AFB) in the etiology of human liver cancer has been suggested from several epidemiological studies. This has been based upon the association between consumption of AFB-contaminated food and the liver cancer incidence in different parts of the world. To further establish the role of AFB as a major factor, we initiated a pilot study in three different districts of Kenya to determine the number of individuals exposed to significant amounts of AFB as measured by the urinary excretion of 8,9-dihydro-8-(7-guanyl)-9-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 (AFB-Gua), an adduct formed between the ultimate carcinogenic form of AFB and nucleic acids. This product has previously been detected in urine from rats treated with AFB. Urine collected at the outpatient clinics at the district hospitals were concentrated on C18 Sep-Pak columns and analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography under two different chromatographic conditions. The chemical identity of the samples showing a positive response in both chromatographic systems was verified by synchronous scanning fluorescence spectrophotometry. The highest number of individuals with detectable urinary AFB-Gua lived in either Murang'a district or the neighboring Meru and Embu districts. In Murang'a district a rate of 12% was observed in the January-March period, while only 1 of 32 patients (3%) had a detectable exposure in July-August.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Aura C, Okronipa H, Olela P, Mojica L, Forella K, Otuo P, Bageant E, Obuya J, Onyango H, Ochieng J. "Small-scale fishing households facing COVID-19: The case of Lake Victoria, Kenya.". 2021.
Augustus ON, Mberia H, Ndeti N. "An Analysis of the Use of Mass Media during Commuication Campaigns for Mental Health in Nairobi County." The International Journal of Humanities and Social Studies. 2015;Vol. 3(Issue 2).
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "Neighbourhood Associations and Governance in the City of Nairobi, Kenya: A Case Study of their Performance and prospects for the Future, IPAR Discussion Paper No.49.". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2004.
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "The Provincial Administration in Kenya: A study of its characteristics and potential for sustainment under devolved system of government. IPAR DP 074.". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2005.
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "The women.". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1988.
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "Working with Rural Communities, University of Nairobi Press (Chitere, P.O. and Mutiso, R. eds.).". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1991.
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "Community Development: Its Theoretical Conceptions and Historical Background and Practice with Empasis on Africa. Gideon S. Were Press, Nairobi (Chitere, P.O., ed.).". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1994.
Augustine DJ, Wigley BJ, Ratnam J, Kibet S, Nyangito M, Sankaran M. "Large herbivores maintain a two‐phase herbaceous vegetation mosaic in a semi‐arid savanna." Ecology and Evolution. 2019;9(22):12779-12788.
Augustine DJ, Wigley BJ, Ratnam J, Kibet S, Nyangito M, Sankaran M. "Large herbivores maintain a two-phase herbaceous vegetation mosaic in a semi-arid savanna." Ecology and Evolution . 2019.
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "Matatu industry in Kenya: A study of the performance of its owners, workers and their associations and potential for improvement, IPAR DP No.55.". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2004.
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "The Mumias Sugar Scheme in Kenya: A study of farmers.". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2005.
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "Extension education and farmers.". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1985.
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "Decentralization for rural development. In: African Administrative Studies, No.32 (Chitere, P.O. and Monya, J.).". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1989.
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "Farmers.". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1993.
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "Farmer participation in sugarcane production in the Mumias Sugar scheme, western Kenya. African Crop Science Journal.". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2002.
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "District Focus for Rural Development in Kenya: Its Limitations as a Decentralization and participatory Planning Strategy and Prospects for the Future, IPAR Discussion Paper No.46.". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2004.
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "Bura Irrigation Settlement Project: A Socio-economic survey, IDS Consultancy Report (Ruigu, G. Alila, P. and Chitere, P.).". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1984.
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "Kenya.". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2006.
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "Choice of methods of farmer contact. In: Agricultural Administration, Vol. 11 (3).". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1989.
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "Sampling of small-scale farmers for involvement in farm adoption studies. In: Eastern African Journal of Research and Development, Vol. 23.". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1993.
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "Farmers.". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1996.
Aucha JK, Wandiga SO, bong’o DA, Madadi VO, Osoro EM. "Organochlorine pesticides in air and soil from nairobi and mount kenya region, kenya." IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry (IOSR-JAC). 2017;10((7)2):5-11.
Aucha JK, Wandiga SO, Abong’o DA, Madadi VO, Osoro EM. "OrganochlorinePesticides Residue Levels in Airand Soilfrom Nairobiand Mount Kenyaregions, Kenya." Researchgate. 2004. AbstractFull text link

Thestudy investigates the organochlorine pesticides residue level in air and soilat
sites in Nairobi and Mount Kenya regions, Kenya. Air and soil samples from four sites were
collected and analysed for selected organochlorine pesticides (OCP) using gas
chromatography equipped with electron capture detector and confirmed using GC/MS. The
targeted pesticides were α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH (lindane), α-endosulfan, βendosulfan and
Endosulfansulfate.

Atwoli L, Kathuku DM, Ndetei DM. "Post traumatic stress disorder among Mau Mau concentration camp survivors in Kenya.". 2006. Abstract

A decade before Kenya's independence in 1963 thousands of 'Mau Mau' fighters were arrested and incarcerated in concentration camps where many underwent torture and inhuman treatment. No studies have been done to establish the presence of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other psychiatric morbidity among the survivors of those concentration camps. OBJECTIVES: To establish the prevalence of PTSD and other psychiatric morbidity and associated factors among the Mau Mau Concentration Camp survivors. DESIGN: A cross-sectional, descriptive study of all consecutive concentration camp survivors included in the study. SETTING: Mau Mau War Veterans' Association (MMWVA) headquarters at Mwea House, Nairobi, Kenya Human Rights Commission headquarters in Nairobi, Tumaini House (Venue of MMWVA elections, 2005) and the MMWVA branch office in Kajiado District, Rift Valley Province, Kenya. SUBJECTS: One hundred and eighty one Mau Mau Concentration Camp Survivors who gave consent to participate in the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Lifetime and Current PTSD, IES-R score and other Psychiatric Morbidity as measured using the SCID and the IES-R. RESULTS: A DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of current PTSD was made in 65.7% of the survivors. Current PTSD was associated with higher IES-R scores and older age, lower income, non-Catholic religion, larger household size, older age at incarceration, greater length of incarceration, incarceration in two or more camps, experiencing other traumatic events, family history of mental illness and having other psychiatric illness. CONCLUSIONS: Similar to other former Prisoners of War (POWs) elsewhere, these survivors suffer high PTSD prevalence rates and a special veterans' service is recommended to address this problem and its associated factors among these and other veterans in Kenya.

Atwell RB, Buoro IB, Boreham PF. "Variation in protein concentrations in acute and chronic ascites in Dirofilaria immitis-infected dogs.". 1996. Abstract

Microfilaremic dogs, developing ascites acutely following a reaction to diethylcarbamazine therapy, had similar protein concentrations in their ascitic fluid and plasma. In contrast, in dogs chronically infected with Dirofilaria immitis, the protein concentrations of ascitic fluid were found to be significantly lower than plasma protein concentrations. The acute development of ascites in such dogs is associated with high ascitic protein levels.

Attardo GM, Abd-Alla AMM, Acosta-Serrano A, Allen JE, Bateta R, Benoit JB, Bourtzis K, Caers J, Caljon G, Christensen MB, Farrow DW, Friedrich M, Hua-Van A, Jennings EC, Larkin DM, Lawson D, Lehane MJ, Lenis VP, Lowy-Gallego E, Macharia RW, Malacrida AR, Marco HG, Masiga D, Maslen GL, Matetovici I, Meisel RP, Meki I, Michalkova V, Miller WJ, Minx P, Mireji PO, Ometto L, Parker AG, Rio R, Rose C, Rosendale AJ, Rota-Stabelli O, Savini G, Schoofs L, Scolari F, Swain MT, Takáč P, Tomlinson C, Tsiamis G, Van Den Abbeele J, Vigneron A, Wang J, Warren WC, Waterhouse RM, Weirauch MT, Weiss BL, Wilson RK, Zhao X, Aksoy S. "Comparative genomic analysis of six Glossina genomes, vectors of African trypanosomes." Genome Biol. 2019;20(1):187. Abstract

Tsetse flies (Glossina sp.) are the vectors of human and animal trypanosomiasis throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Tsetse flies are distinguished from other Diptera by unique adaptations, including lactation and the birthing of live young (obligate viviparity), a vertebrate blood-specific diet by both sexes, and obligate bacterial symbiosis. This work describes the comparative analysis of six Glossina genomes representing three sub-genera: Morsitans (G. morsitans morsitans, G. pallidipes, G. austeni), Palpalis (G. palpalis, G. fuscipes), and Fusca (G. brevipalpis) which represent different habitats, host preferences, and vectorial capacity.

Atsango EW, Muiru WM, Mwang’ombe A, Gaoqiong L. "Use Of Amino Oligosacharins And Alternaria Fine Protein In The Management Of Crown Gall Disease On Roses." Researchjournali’s Journal of Agriculture. 2020;Vol. 7,( No. 1 January).use_of_amino_oligosacharins_and_alternaria_fine_protein.pdf
Atonya SC. Mapping Geological Structures in Western Mutomo, Kitui County: A Remote Sensing approach. Karanja FN, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2014.
Atoh. F. Analysis of Dholuo Nouns: The Semantic Field Approach. Germany: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller; 2011.
Atoh FO. "Exploring the New Ohangla Music in the Context of Urbanization: The Search for Relevance for Sustainability. .". In: International Conference on Refocusing Music and Performing Arts for Sustainable Development . Kabarak University ; Submitted.
Atoh F, L. K. Introduction to Morphology. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2008.
Atoh F. "Arthur Mudogo Kemoli (1945-): The Path of a Musical Giant.". In: A Biography of Kenyan Musicians Vol. I. Nairobi: Government Press; 2010.
Atoh FO, Otieno S. "Bonface Mganga.". In: Bonface Mganga. Nairobi: Permanent Presidential Music Commission; 2019.
Atoh F. "Reading Dholuo: Spelling Patterns, Orthography and Word Patterns.". In: National Conference on Early Grade Learning. Nakuru; 2009.
Atoh F. "Moi and Music Performance in Public and Private Universities: the case of University of Nairobi.". In: Music in Kenya: Development, Management, Composition and Performance: A Tribute to Daniel T. Arap Moi. Nakuru: Kabarak University; 2010.
Atoh F. "Boniface Mganga.". In: Kenyan Musicians - A Biography Volume 2. Nairobi: Permanent Presidential Music Commission; In Press.
Atoh F. "Poetic Aspects of the Kenyan Patriotic Music During the Moi Era .". In: Music in Kenya: Development, Management, Composition and Performance: A Tribute to Daniel T. Arap Moi. Nakuru: Kabarak University; 2010.
Ating’a JEO, KO A. "Lower limb amputations at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2007 Mar;84(3):121-6.". In: Occasional Publication Number 3 2003. pp 21-32. E Afr Med J; 2007. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the causes and pattern of lower limb amputations at the Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Descriptive prospective study. SETTING: The Kenyatta National Hospital between July 2003 and June 2004. RESULTS: A total of 77 lower limb amputations (LLA) were performed on 74 patients. The age ranged from seven months to 96 years (mean 44.8 +/- 22.5). Forty six patients (62.1%) were male. Majority of the patients (89.1%) had primary or no formal education, forty one (55.4%) were unemployed, with 39% self employed in the informal sector. Peripheral vascular diseases were the main indication for LLA (55.3%), 13 patients (17.5%) due to diabetes-related gangrene. Eighteen patients (24.3%) had tumours, mainly osteogenic sarcoma (16.2%), while trauma accounted for 18.9%. Forty two (55%) of the amputations were above-the-knee, 24 (31%) below-the-knee, four (5%) hip disarticulations and seven (9%) were foot amputations. CONCLUSION: This study found peripheral vascular diseases unrelated to diabetes to be the main indication for lower limb amputations at Kenyatta National Hospital contrary to previous institutional and loco-regional studies which report trauma as the leading cause. Further investigation into vascular causes is therefore recommended.

Atinga JEO, Otsyeno FMT. "Unusual Bones Articulating With the Pelvic Girdle." The Annals of African Surgery, . 2010;6. Abstract

We report a case of a 44 year old man who presented with right gluteal pain following trivial trauma, associated with unusual bones, with all the characteristics of clavicles articulating with the pelvic girdle. The pain on that side was completely relieved by excision of the bone.

Atinga JE, Kireti VM. "Osgood Schlatter disease: An Audit Profile of 35 Adolescents." The Annals of African Surgery, . 2010;6. Abstract

Background
Osgood-Schlatter disease is a common cause of anterior knee pain in the adolescent. Treatment is usually conservative with surgery reserved for those who do not respond to this treatment. There is little published work regarding the experience with the disease in our local set up. This series documents the experience with 35 adolescents treated for the disease.

Design
Case series

Subjects
Thirty five adolescents with clinical and radiological diagnoses of Osgood-Schlatter disease at Nairobi and Kenyatta National Hospitals, between 2001and 2007.

Method
Patients were evaluated for demographics, knee involvement, activities associated with pain and treatment outcome

Results
There were 28 males and 7 females, aged 10 to 16 years (mean 12.8 years). Thirteen had bilateral knee involvement. Twenty two were involved in active sports while the rest had constant pain and unable to sit or kneel. A family history of the disease was documented in one case. Thirty adolescents responded well to the conservative treatment. In the five adolescents who underwent surgery, the patella tendon was edematous with thickening of the tendon sheath and neovascularisation. All the operated adolescents returned to active sports with 6 weeks after the surgery.

Conclusion
Osgood-Schlatter disease is a self-limiting condition in majority of adolescents. Surgery when indicated has an excellent outcome.

Atilaw Y, Muiva-Mutisya L, Bogaerts J, Duffy S, Valkonen A, Heydenreich M, Avery VM, Rissanen K, Erdélyi M, Yenesew A. "Prenylated Flavonoids from the Roots of Tephrosia rhodesica." Journal of natural products. 2020;83(8):2390-2398. AbstractJournal of Natural Products

Description
Five new compounds—rhodimer (1), rhodiflavan A (2), rhodiflavan B (3), rhodiflavan C (4), and rhodacarpin (5)—along with 16 known secondary metabolites, were isolated from the CH2Cl2–CH3OH (1:1) extract of the roots of Tephrosia rhodesica. They were identified by NMR spectroscopic, mass spectrometric, X-ray crystallographic, and ECD spectroscopic analyses. The crude extract and the isolated compounds 2–5, 9, 15, and 21 showed activity (100% at 10 μg and IC50 = 5–15 μM) against the chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) strain of Plasmodium falciparum.

Atilaw Y, Heydenreich M, Ndakala A, Akala HM, Kamau E, Yenesew A. "3-Oxo-14α,15α-epoxyschizozygine: A new schizozygane indoline alkaloid from Schizozygia coffaeoides." Phytochemistry Letters. 2014;10:28-31.
Atilaw Y, Muiva-Mutisya L, Ndakala A, Akala HM, Yeda R, Wu YJ, Coghi P, Wong VKW, Erdélyi Máté, Yenesew A. "Four Prenylflavone Derivatives with Antiplasmodial Activities from the Stem of Tephrosia purpurea subsp. leptostachya." Molecules. 2017;22(9):1514. AbstractMolecules

Description
Four new flavones with modified prenyl groups, namely (E)-5-hydroxytephrostachin (1), purleptone (2),(E)-5-hydroxyanhydrotephrostachin (3), and terpurlepflavone (4), along with seven known compounds (5–11), were isolated from the CH 2 Cl 2/MeOH (1: 1) extract of the stem of Tephrosia purpurea subsp. leptostachya, a widely used medicinal plant. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric evidence. Some of the isolated compounds showed antiplasmodial activity against the chloroquine-sensitive D6 strains of Plasmodium falciparum, with (E)-5-hydroxytephrostachin (1) being the most active, IC 50 1.7±0.1 μM, with relatively low cytotoxicity, IC 50> 21 μM, against four cell-lines. View Full-Text

Atieno R, Shem AO. "“The Role of Social Policy in Development: Health, Water and Sanitation in East Africa”.". In: Social Policy in Sub-saharan African Context: In search of an Inclusive Development. UNRISD and Palgrave; 2007.
Atieno R. "“Occupational Distribution of Women in the Labour Market in Kenya”.". In: Annual IAFFE Conference. Barcelona, Spain; 2012.
Atieno R. "“Linkages and Business Competition in Kenya’s Metal Products Sub sector”.". In: Business in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. University of Nairobi Press ; 2007.
Atieno R, Benjamin Okech, Mitullah WV. "“Understanding the Business Systems in Kenya: Firm Response to Changing Market Environment in the Metal Products Sector”.". In: Regional workshop on Business Systems in Africa . Nairobi, Kenya; 2002.
Atieno R. "“Financial Services and the Performance of Micro and Small Scale Clothing Enterprises in Kenya”.". In: Industrialising Africa in the Era of Globalisation: Challenges to Clothing and Footwear. University of Nairobi Press; 2009.
ATIENO DRODINGOALICE. "Secondary Crop Choices among small-scale Tea growers in the Belgut Division of Kericho District of Western Kenya. Paper submitted to University of Nairobi for Publication in the Journal Hekima.". In: Paper submitted to University of Nairobi for Publication in the Journal Hekima. Departmental seminar; 1998. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Atieno R. "The Limits of Policy Success: The Case of the Dairy Sector in Kenya.". In: workshop for the World Development Report, by the Future Agricultures Consortium at the IDS, Sussex, UK. IDS, Sussex, UK; 2007.
Atieno R, Barako D, Bokea C. "“Innovation and Financial Access: The Role of M-pesa”. .". In: Kenya: Policies for Prosperity. Oxford University Press,; 2010.
ATIENO DRODINGOALICE. "Vulnerability to Food Insecurity and Poverty in the Nyando district of Kenya, in preparation.". In: Paper presented in ICRD, 2008 Conference, Berne, Switzerland. Departmental seminar; 2008. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Atieno R, Onjala J, Jama M. "Do think tanks benefit from APRM work? Kenya’s Experience.". In: in Gruzd Steven (ed) Grappling with Governance: Perspectives on the African Peer Review Mechanism. Johannesburg: Jacana Media (Pty) and South African Institute of International Studies; 2010.
Atieno R. "Financial Access and Microfinance Development in Kenya”.". In: International Association For Feminist Economics (IAFFE) annual conference. Buenos Aires, Argentina; 2011.
Atieno R. "“Kenya”.". In: Agribusiness for Africa’s Prosperity, Country Case Studies. United Nations Industrial Development Strategy; 2011.
ATIENO DRODINGOALICE. "Environmental Considerations and the Changing Patterns of Diseases in Kenya. Paper submitted for publication in the Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography.". In: Paper submitted for publication in the Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography. Departmental seminar; 2008. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Atieno R. "“Financial Access and Microfinance Development in Kenya”.". In: conference on Economic Development in Africa at the Centre for the Study of African Economies University of Oxford, UK. University of Oxford, UK; 2009.
Atieno R. "“Gender, Institutions, Access to Finance and the Development of Small Scale Enterprises in Kenya: Lessons for the Global Economic Crisis”.". In: International Association For Feminist Economics (IAFFE) annual conference. Hangzhou, China; 2011.
Atieno R. "“The Financial System”.". In: Business in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. University of Nairobi Press ; 2007.
Atieno R. ""The Role of Rural Access Roads on the Development of Private Trade: Some Evidence From Maize Marketing in Kenya".". In: 9th World Congress on Transport Research. Seoul, Korea; 2001.
Atieno R. "“Institutional Arrangements and the Performance of Small-Scale Clothing Enterprises in Kenya: Enhancing their role in Growth, Employment and Poverty Reduction”.". In: New Growth and Poverty Alleviation Strategies for Africa-Institutional and Local Perspectives. African Development Perspectives Yearbook Volume 13 ; 2009.
Atieno R. "Globalisation, Government Policy and Access to Labour Markets in Kenya: Implications for Poverty Reduction.". In: UNU-WIDER Conference on “The Impact of Globalisation on the Poor in Africa”. Johannesburg, South Africa; 2005.
Atieno R, Jama M, Onjala J. ""Do Think Tanks Benefit from APRM Work? Kenya’s Experience”.". In: Grappling with Governance: Perspectives on the African Peer Review Mechanism,. SAIIA Occasional Paper No. 16; 2008.
ATIENO DRODINGOALICE. "A Systems Approach in the Study of Environmental Factors.". In: Paper presented in ICRD, 2008 Conference, Berne, Switzerland. Departmental seminar; 1998. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Atieno L, Owino W, Ateka EM, Ambuko J. "Influence of coating application methods on the postharvest quality of cassava." International journal of food science. 2019;2019. Abstract
n/a
Atieno A’o D, Oyoo WS, Ogangu JI, den Paul VB, Bbosa NB, Odongo MV, Angoe WG, Henrik K, Peter N-K. "Organochlorine pesticide residue levels in soil from the Nyando River Catchment, Kenya." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences. 2015;2.(1):18-32.
Atieno R. "“Women and Girls”.". In: State of Kenya Population 2011. National Coordinating Agency for Population and Development; 2011.
ATIENO DRODINGOALICE. "Determinants of Poverty: Lessons from Kenya. Paper submitted for publication in GeoJournal.". In: Paper submitted for publication in GeoJournal. Departmental seminar; 2008. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Atieno R. "“Linkages, Access to Finance and the Performance of Small Scale Enterprises in Kenya”.". In: UNU-WIDER project workshop on Entrepreneurship and Economic Development: Concepts, Measurements and Impacts. Helsinki, Finland; 2008.
Atieno R. "Formal and Informal Institutions." AERC Research Paper, number 111; 2001. Abstract

Atieno L, Owino W, Ateka EM, Ambuko J. "Influence of Coating Application Methods on the Postharvest Quality of Cassava." International Journal of Food Science. 2019;2019:1-16.abstract.pdf
Atieno R, Mitullah WV. "“Migration Labour Markets and Development: Inward Migration to North and West Africa”." Working Paper, International Labour Organisation, . 2010;Geneva, 2010.
Atieno R. "“Explaining Female Labour Force Participation: The Case of Kenya’s Informal Sector and the Effect of the Economic Crisis”.". In: International Association For Feminist Economics (IAFFE) annual conference. Buenos Aires, Argentina; 2010.
Atieno L, Ateka EM, Ambuko J, Owino W, others. "Effect of edible coatings on shelf life and quality of cassava roots.". In: The 1st All Africa Post Harvest Congress & Exhibition, Reducing food losses and waste: sustainable solutions for Africa, 28th-31st March 2017, Nairobi, Kenya. Conference Proceedings. University of Nairobi; 2017:. Abstract
n/a
Atieno R, Kanyinga K. "“The Revitalisation of Kenya Cooperative Creameries (KCC): The Politics of Policy Reforms in the Dairy Sector in Kenya”." Future Agricultures Working Paper. IDS, Sussex, Future Agricultures Consortium. 2007.
Atieno LV, Moturi CA, Wagacha PW, Orwa DO, Ogutu JO, Wausi A. "Successful Implementation of Digital Village Projects: A Factor to Economic Empowerment at the Community Level.". In: 3rd African International Business and Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya. KICC, Nairobi, Kenya: AIBUMA; 2012. Abstract

This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.

Atieno R, Teal F. "“Gender, Education and Occupational Outcomes: Kenya’s Informal Sector in the 1990s”.". In: Informal Sector in a Globalised Era. Icfai University Press; 2007.
Atieno R. "“Agricultural Market Liberalisation, Private Trade and Incomes: Implications for Poverty Reduction in Rural Kenya”.". In: Understanding Poverty and Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa, at the Centre for the Study of African Economies, Oxford University. University of Oxford, UK; 2002.
Atieno LV, Moturi CA. "Implementation of Digital Village Projects in Developing Countries - Case of Kenya." British Journal of Applied Science & Technology. 2014;4(5):793-807.
Atieno R, Jama M, Onjala J. "“Do Think Tanks Benefit from APRM Work? Kenya’s Experience”.". In: Grappling with Governance: Perspectives on the African Peer Review Mechanism. Fanele and SAIIA; 2010.
ATIENO DRODINGOALICE. "Secondary Crop Choices among Small-Scale Farmers.". In: Paper presented in ICRD, 2008 Conference, Berne, Switzerland. Departmental seminar; 1998. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Atieno R. "“Financial Access and the Performance of Small Scale Enterprises in Kenya”.". In: Centre for the Study of African Economies conference on Economic Development in Africa. University of Oxford, UK; 2007.
ATIENO DRODINGOALICE. "Poverty and Food Security Problems in Kenya. Paper presented in ICRD, 2008 Conference, Berne, Switzerland.". In: Paper presented in ICRD, 2008 Conference, Berne, Switzerland. Departmental seminar; 2008. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.

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