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Kimani S, Moterroso V, Morales P, Wagner J, Sinei K, Bukachi F, Maitai CK, Tshala-Katumbay D. "Cross-species and tissue variations in cyanide detoxification rates in rodents and non-human primates on protein-restricted diet." Food Chem Toxicol.. 2014;66:203-209.
Kimani S, Sinei K, Bukachi F, Tshala-Katumbay D, Maitai CK. "Memory deficits associated with sublethal cyanide poisoning relative to cyanate toxicity in rodents." Metabolic Brain Disease. 2014;29:105-112.
Kimani S, Moterroso V, Lasarev M, Sinei K, Bukachi F, Maitai CK, David L, Tshala-Katumbay D. "Carbamoylation correlates of cyanate neuropathy and cyanide poisoning: relevance to the biomarkers of cassava cyanogenesis and motor system toxicity." SpringerPlus. 2013;2:647.
C.K. M. "Poisoning Pattern." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2012;15(2):27-28.
Maitai CK. "Propolis a natural cure." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2012;15(3):55-56.
D.G. N, C.K. M, L.W. M, E.M. M. "Trends of Acute Poisoning cases occurring at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm.Sci.. 2012;15(2):29-34.
Maitai CK. "Aetiology of cancer." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2011;14(2):32-33.
C.K. M. "Management of infectious diseases in closed and semi closed communities." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2011;14(1):1-2.
C.K. M, R.W M. "New use of Indomethacin." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2011;14(1):13-15.
Kibwage IO, Okalebo FA, Guantai AN, Karume DW, K. M, Maitai CK. "Pharmacological screening of extracts of Clematis brachiata THUNBERG (RANUNCULACEAE).". 2011.
C.K 59. M, D.M K. "A brief Review of probiotic use." East and Cent. Afr J. Pharm. Sci. . 2008;11:82-84.
Maitai CK, Mungai NN. "Human poisoning with plants in Kenya." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2005;8(1):10-13.
Okalebo FA, Rabah HA, A.N.Guantai, Maitai CK, Kibwage IO, Mwangi JW, Masengo W. "The Antimalarial and Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Toxicity of Clematis Brachiata Extracts." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2002;5(1):18.
Maitai CK, Njoroge DK, Abuga KO, Mwaura AM, Munenge RW. "Investigation of Possible Antidotal Effects of Activated Charcoal, Sodium Bicarbonate,Hydrogen peroxide and Potassium Permanganate in Zinc Phosphide Poisoning." East and Cent. Afr J. Pharm. Sci.. 2002;5(2):38-41.
Maitai CK, Njoroge DK, Munenge RW. "Interaction between nifedipine and digoxin in rats." East Afr Med J. 1995;72(1):75-6. Abstract

Possible nifedipine-digoxin interaction was investigated in rats by comparing lethal doses of intravenously infused digoxin in control and experimental rats. In the experimental rats, nifedipine was administered intraperitoneally, 30 minutes prior to infusing digoxin at a constant rate of 40mcg per minute. Results indicate that nifedipine administered within the dosage range 0.5-2.0mg per kg rat body weight, lowered the lethal dose of intravenously infused digoxin by 26-38% compared with control rats, thus indicating a synergistic effect between the two drugs. There was very little dose dependence of this effect. It is concluded that concomitant administration of nifedipine and digoxin in humans may lead to drug interactions.

Muritu JW, Kibwage IO, Maitai CK, Hoogmartens J. "Evaluation of tetracycline raw materials and finished products found on the Kenyan market." J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1994;12(12):1483-8. Abstract

Contents of tetracycline, its degradation products (epitetracycline, epianhydrotetracycline, anhydrotetracycline) and a fermentation impurity (2-acetyl-2-decarboxamidotetracycline) were determined in four raw materials, 12 batches of six ointment products, four eye ointment products and nine batches of five capsule products, all sampled from the Kenyan market. The analytical method was liquid chromatography on a column packed with a poly(styrenedivinyl-benzene) material (8-microns PLRP-S 100 A). All raw materials and finished products had tetracycline contents and impurity levels within the prescribed compendial limits.

Kibwage IO, Ogeto JO, Maitai CK, Rutere G, Thuranira J, Ochieng' A. "Drug quality control work in Daru: observations during 1983-1986." East Afr Med J. 1992;69(10):577-80. Abstract

During a 4 year period (January 1983 to December 1986), 418 requests for drug analysis were received in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi. Of these requests, 212 were from Medical Supplies Coordination Unit, 190 from Government hospitals and health research institutions, 11 from the Ministry of Health Headquarters (Director of Medical Services and Chief Pharmacist) and 5 came from local pharmaceutical manufacturers. Of the samples analysed, 70.8% were from local manufacturers, 26.1% were imported and 3.1% were from undeclared sources. Failure to comply with test for quality, as set out in official compendia (B.P. Eur. ph. Ip, etc.) were observed at 45.8% for locally manufactured drugs and 31.4% for imported drug products.

Kanja LW, Skaare JU, Ojwang SB, Maitai CK. "A comparison of organochlorine pesticide residues in maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood, cord blood, and human milk from mother/infant pairs." Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.. 1992;22(1):21-4. Abstract

A total of 41 samples of maternal blood, milk, subcutaneous fat and umbilical cord blood were collected from mothers giving birth by Caesarean operation at Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi in 1986. The samples were analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. The main contaminants found in all the samples were p,p'-DDT (100%), p,p'-DDE (100%), o,p'-DDT (59%), dieldrin (27%), transnonachlor (15%), beta-HCH (12%) and lindane (2%) of all the samples analyzed. Polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) residues were not detected in any of the samples. The mean levels (mg/kg fat) of sum of DDT were 5.9 in subcutaneous fat, 4.8 in mothers milk, 2.7 in maternal serum and 1.9 in umbilical cord serum. There was a significant correlation between the levels of sum DDT in subcutaneous fat and milk fat (r = 0.963), subcutaneous fat and maternal serum fat (r = 0.843), and maternal serum fat and maternal milk fat (r = 0.868), indicating the coherence of DDT in the body. Hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH) was found in subcutaneous fat and milk fat with the mean levels of 0.03 and 0.26 mg/kg fat, respectively. Dieldrin detected in mothers milk and subcutaneous fat could not be quantified.

Maitai CK. "A review of dietary supplementation with trace minerals." East Afr Med J. 1988;65(1):48-50.
Maitai CK, Dhadphale M. "Khat-induced paranoid psychosis." Br J Psychiatry. 1988;152:294.
Maitai CK. The Health and socioeconomic aspects of khat use. International Council of Alcohol and Addiction; 1988.
Kahunyo JM, Maitai CK, Frøslie A. "Organochlorine pesticide residues in chicken fat: a survey." Poult. Sci.. 1986;65(6):1084-9. Abstract

One hundred and five chicken fat samples were collected between April, 1980 and February, 1982 from seven geographical locations in Kenya (15 samples/area). The samples were subjected to standard extraction and clean up procedures to recover organochlorine pesticides and were subsequently analysed using gas-liquid-chromatography. alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane/benzene hexachloride (HCH/BHC; Lindane), aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, [1,1-dichloro-2, 2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene] (p,p'-DDE), [2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-1, 1-dichloroethane] (o,p'-DDD/TDE), p,p'-DDD, [2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1, 1-trichloroethane] (o,p'-DDT), and p,p'-DDT were detected in the samples in varying concentrations. A few samples had lindane, dieldrin, and total DDT residue levels above the respective practical residue limit (PRL) values, but for all pesticides, the mean residue values were below the PRL.

Kanja L, Skåre JU, Nafstad I, Maitai CK, Løkken P. "Organochlorine pesticides in human milk from different areas of Kenya 1983-1985." J Toxicol Environ Health. 1986;19(4):449-64. Abstract

Residue levels of the chlorinated hydrocarbons p,p'-DDT (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane), p,p'-DDE (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), aldrin, dieldrin, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in human milk of Kenyan mothers living in different areas of Kenya. The main organochlorine contaminants found in all the milk samples analyzed were p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE. Great regional differences were found, and mean levels of sum DDT and DDT/DDE ratio ranged from 1.1 to 18.7 mg/kg milk fat and from 0.7 to 5.7, respectively. In general, relatively low residue levels of HCB, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, aldrin, and dieldrin were detected in 59, 37, 27, 37, and 19%, respectively, of all the milk samples analyzed. Quantifiable residue levels of PCBs and alpha-HCH were not found. The results were examined in relation to differences in living conditions with regard to agricultural activities, dietary habits, and reported use of pesticides in the various sampling areas.

Maitai CK, Njoroge DK, Munenge RW. "A comparative study of two antispasmodic products: Buscopan and NO-Spa." East Afr Med J. 1985;62(7):480-5.
C.K M, J.O O, R.W M, S O, F.D J. "A comparative study of the efficacy of seven brands of frusemide tablets." East Afr Med J. . 1984;61(1):6-10.
C.K. M. "The craze for additional vitamin intake." .East Afr Med J. . 1984;61(9):661-2.
C.K. M. "Catha edulis. Epiemiologial studies on chewing patterns and habits." International Council in Alcohol and Addition. 1983;1(1):178-180.
A.N G, C.K. M. "Metabolism of cathinone to d- norpseudoephedrine in humas." J. Pharm Sci. 1983;72(10):1217-8.
C.K. M. "The need for a poison information centre in Kenya." East Afr Med J. . 1983;60(9):597-8.
Maitai CK. "Plant poisoning in childhood ." Medicus. 1983;1:10-11.
Ogeto J, Maitai CK, Wangia C, Mkoji ML, Wakori E, Rutere GK, Mithamo RW, Ochieng' A, Githiga IM. "Practical therapeutical drug quality control in kenya - further observations.". 1983. Abstract

Over a period of 18 months starting from 20th July 1981, 191 requests for drug analysis were received and processed In the Drug Analysis and Research nil (DARU) at the department of pharmacy in the University of Nairobi. Of these requests, about 65% came from the government central medical stores, 13% from government hospitals, 11.3% from the Ministry of Health headquaters (Director of Medical Services and Chief Pharmacist), 5% from private local pharmaceutical firms, 4.8% from the Tuberculosis Investigation Centre and the rest from miscelaneous sources. About 65% of the samples received were manufactured locally and 35% imported. In general complaints received from medical practitioners were found 10 be justified. Results of analysis together with some relevant observations are presented.

Ogeto JO, Maitai CK. "The scientific basis for the use of strychnos henningsii(gilg) Plant material to stimulate appetite.". 1983. Abstract

The mediciinal value of Strychnos henningsii plant. Particularly as an appetite stimulant has long been recognised by the indigenous people of Kenya even before this is properly documented in scientific literature The present work involves isolation and purification of the bitter alkaloidal principles present in powdered plant material. Quantitative estimation of the alkaloidal content, in each morphological part of the plant was done and the result compared with that of closely related species. Strychnos nux vomica, an officiall drug in several pharmacopoeia. Examination of the isolated alkaloidal was done using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and gas, liquid chromatography (GLC) to deter¬mine the number of alkaloids present in the plant. The median lethal du-e (I.D) in rats and the bitterness threshold in humans for the isolated alkaloidal rnixture were determined and compared with those reported for S, nux vomica. Result-, of this work indicate that S. henningsii can be substitute for S. nux vomica as an apettite stimulant

A. M, C.K. M. "Ferula communis – a potential rodenticide.". In: Current Medical Research in East Africa Proc. 3rd Ann. Sci. conference. Nairobi; 1982.
C.K. M, S. T. Aromatic Plants of East Africa.. Nairobi: Kenya National Sci & Tech. Council.; 1982.
C.K. M, W.M T, Wakori E., Wakori E., Wakori E. "Drug quality control in Kenya –preliminary observations." East Afr Med J.. 1982;59(6):399-403.
J.W. M, S T, C.K. M. "Essential Oil from Eucalyptus citriodora." Kenya j. Sci and Tech . 1982;3(A):55-56.
C.K. M. "Utilization of Drugs in Kenya in the 1980s." Kenya J. Pharm. P21-22. 1982;1(1):21-22.
Maitai CK, Talalaj S, Talalaj D, Njoroge D. "Smooth muscle stimulating substances in the stinging nettle tree Obetia pinnatifida." Toxicon. 1981;19(1):186-8.
S. T, C.K. M. "Ocimum kilimandscharicum - A potential source of camphor in Kenya. ." Kenya Sci. and Tech. 1981;2(a):137-138.
Maitai CK, Guantai A, Mwangi JM. "Self medication in management of minor health problems in Kenya.". 1981. Abstract

A survey of proprietary pharmaceutical products used in self-medication, in Kenya, has been undertaken. Out of 472 products covered in the survey, 32% were those used for gastrointestinal disorders and 18% for respiratory disorders. The significance and limitations of self•medication as they relate to management of minor health problems are discussed.

C.K. M, S. T. "Thymus vulgaris cultivated in Kenya." Kenya J. Sci and Tech . 1981;2(1):35-37.
Maitai CK, Watkins WM. "A survey of outpatient prescriptions dispensed in Kenyatta National Hospital." East Afr Med J. 1980;57(9):641-5.
Peterson DW, Maitai CK, Sparber SB. "Relative potencies of two phenylalkylamines found in the abused plant Catha edulis, khat." Life Sci.. 1980;27(22):2143-7.
Maitai CK, Talalaj S, Njoroge D, Wamugunda R. "Effect of extract of hairs from the herb Urtica massaica, on smooth muscle." Toxicon. 1980;18(2):225-9.
C.K. M, S. T. Local plants with known medicinal value. Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) ; 1980.
"Purgative Drugs in Primary Health Care." Kenya J. Pharm. P7-8, 1980. 1980:7-8.
C.K. M. "Pharmacy – A profession with a crisis of identity." Kenya. Pharm J.. 1978;1(1):24.
C.K. 45. M. "Training of Pharmacists." Kenya J. Pharm.. 1978;1(1):19.
Maitai CK. "The toxicity of the plant Catha edulis in rats." Toxicon. 1977;15(4):363-6.
Maitai CK, Kamau JA, Gacuhi DM, Njoroge S. "An outbreak of arsenic and toxaphene poisoning in Kenyan cattle." Vet. Rec.. 1975;96(7):151-2. Abstract

In a case of poisoning involving 70 cattle analysis of specimens obtained during post mortem examination showed that the toxic substances were arsenic and toxaphene. This was consistent with both the clinical and post mortem findings. Arsenic was detected in water from an abandoned cattle dip in the farm. Soil samples collected in the vicinity of the dip contained both arsenic and toxaphene.

Maitai CK, Mugera GM. "Excretion of the active principle of of Catha edulis (Miraa) in human urine." J Pharm Sci. 1975;64(4):702-3. Abstract

d-Norpseudoephedrine, a central stimulant present in Catha edulis, is excreted unchanged in human urine. The alkaloid was detected in urine 30-50 min after ingestion of synthetic d-norpseudoephedrine, and trace amounts of the drug could still be detected 24 hr later. Approximately 40% of ingested d-norpseudoephedrine was recovered in urine in the first 6 hr.

Maitai CK, Gondwe AT, Kamau JA. "Toxicity of Adenia volkensii (Kiliambiti)." Bull Epizoot Dis Afr. 1974;22(2):157-60.
C.K M, et GAT, Kamau JA. "Toxicite D’ Adenia Vollensii (Kiliambiti). Identification et evaluation du principe toxique." Bulletin Des Epizooties in Afrique. 1974;XX(2):165-168.
Maitai CK, Muraguri N, Patel HA. "A survey on the use of poisoned arrows in Kenya during the period 1964-1971." East Afr Med J. 1973;50(2):100-4.
C.K. M. The arrow poisons. Nairobi: E.A. Literature Bureau ; 1973.

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